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Sample records for voltage adder iva

  1. Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway.

  2. How the Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) output impedance affects impedance dynamics of a Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Webb, Timothy; Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The SMP diode, fielded on the RITS-6 (3.5-8.5 MV) IVA accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, produces a focused electron beam (IVA flow impedance has on ZDIODE. A preliminary conclusion is that ZDIODE should be at least 1.5 times the flow impedance before ZDIODE is a parameter independent of flow impedance. This has implications for SMP as a load for a IVA, since ZDIODE >100 ohms has not been consistently demonstrated. Data analysis is ongoing, and latest results will be reported. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS, the Atomic Weapons Establishment’s planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratory’s Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  4. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  5. Proposed inductive voltage adder based accelerator concepts for the second axis of DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Johnson, D.L.; Boyes, J.D. [and others

    1997-06-01

    As participants in the Technology Options Study for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratories, the authors have considered several accelerator concepts based on the Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) technology that is being used successfully at Sandia on the SABRE and HERMES-III facilities. The challenging accelerator design requirements for the IVA approach include: {ge}12-MeV beam energy; {approximately}60-ns electrical pulse width; {le}40-kA electron beam current; {approximately}1-mm diameter e-beam; four pulses on the same axis or as close as possible to that axis; and an architecture that fits within the existing building envelope. To satisfy these requirements the IVA concepts take a modular approach. The basic idea is built upon a conservative design for eight ferromagnetically isolated 2-MV cavities that are driven by two 3 to 4-{Omega} water dielectric pulse forming lines (PFLs) synchronized with laser triggered gas switches. The 100-{Omega} vacuum magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) would taper to a needle cathode that produces the electron beam(s). After considering many concepts the authors narrowed their study to the following options: (A) Four independent single pulse drivers powering four single pulse diodes; (B) Four series adders with interleaved cavities feeding a common MITL and diode; (C) Four stages of series PFLs, isolated from each other by triggered spark gap switches, with single-point feeds to a common adder, MITL, and diode; and (D) Isolated PFLs with multiple-feeds to a common adder using spark gap switches in combination with saturable magnetic cores to isolate the non-energized lines. The authors will discuss these options in greater detail identifying the challenges and risks associated with each.

  6. Inductive voltage adder advanced hydrodynamic radiographic technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen; Rovang, D.C. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the design, results, and analysis of a high-brightness electron beam technology demonstration experiment completed at Sandia National Laboratories, performed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The anticipated electron beam parameters were: 12 MeV, 35-40 kA, 0.5-mm rms radius, and 40-ns full width half maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. This beam, on an optimum thickness tantalum converter, should produce a very intense x-ray source of {approximately} 1.5-mm spot size and 1 kR dose @ 1 m. The accelerator utilized was SABRE, a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source was a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. For these experiments, SABRE was modified to high-impedance negative-polarity operation. A new 100-ohm magnetically insulated transmission line cathode electrode was designed and constructed; the cavities were rotated 180{degrees} poloidally to invert the central electrode polarity to negative; and only one of the two pulse forming lines per cavity was energized. A twenty- to thirty-Tesla solenoidal magnet insulated the diode and contained the beam at its extremely small size. These experiments were designed to demonstrate high electron currents in submillimeter radius beams resulting in a high-brightness high-intensity flash x-ray source for high-resolution thick-object hydrodynamic radiography. The SABRE facility high-impedance performance was less than what was hoped. The modifications resulted in a lower amplitude (9 MV), narrower-than-anticipated triangular voltage pulse, which limited the dose to {approximately} 20% of the expected value. In addition, halo and ion-hose instabilities increased the electron beam spot size to > 1.5 mm. Subsequent, more detailed calculations explain these reduced output parameters. An accelerator designed (versus retrofit) for this purpose would provide the desired voltage and pulse shape.

  7. Inductive Voltage Adder Network Analysis and Model Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING ... Kicker Pulser for DARHT-II”, Proceedings of the 20th International LINAC Conference, pp. 509-511, 2000. [4] Wang, G. J. Caporaso, E. G. Cook...Modeling of an Inductive Adder Kicker Pulser for a Proton Radiography System”, Digest of Technical Papers, Pulsed Power Plasma Science, 2001. PPPS-2001

  8. Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kaizhi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique is introduced. Twelve ferrite loaded induction cells are connected in a series through central conducting stalks to achieve a pulsed voltage higher than 3.5 MV across the diode. Electrons are extracted from the velvet emitter and guided through the anode pipe by the magnets placed inside the cathode and anode shrouds. Measurements at the exit of injector show that, with an electric field of 200  kV/cm near the velvet surface and suitable magnetic field distribution, an electron beam up to 2.8 kA can be obtained with a normalized emittance of 1040π   mm mrad, and energy spread of 2.1% (3σ around the central energy of 3.5 MeV.

  9. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  10. Comparative Performance Analysis of XOR-XNOR Function Based High-Speed CMOS Full Adder Circuits For Low Voltage VLSI Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Tiwari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative study of high-speed, low-power and low voltage full adder circuits. Our approach is based on XOR-XNOR design full adder circuits in a single unit. A low power and high performance 9T full adder cell using a design style called “XOR (3T” is discussed. The designed circuit commands a high degree of regularity and symmetric higher density than the conventional CMOS design style as well as it lowers power consumption by using XOR (3T logic circuits. Gate Diffusion Input (GDI technique of low-power digital combinatorial circuit design is also described. This technique helps inreducing the power consumption and the area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. This paper analyses, evaluates and compares the performance of various adder circuits. Severalsimulations conducted using different voltage supplies, load capacitors and temperature variation demonstrate the superiority of the XOR (3T based full adder designs in term of delay, power and powerdelay product (PDP compared to the other full adder circuits. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the designed adder circuits against the conventional CMOS, TG and Hybrid full adder circuits in terms of power, delay and power delay product (PDP.

  11. A pulsed-power generator merging inductive voltage and current adders and its switch trigger application example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Yafeng, Ge; Heqin, Zhong; Bin, Yu; Longjun, Xie

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed-power generator using inductive adder technology is proposed for the case of a discharge gap. The merit of this generator is to merge the pulsed-voltage and pulsed-current adders via the dual secondary windings with special circuit. For the nonlinear impedance in any discharge gap, the standalone voltage-pulse and current-pulse can be outputted successively by this generator. The proposed generator is especially useful for the common resolution of implementing pulse discharge at less cost. As an application example, a compact trigger prototype was developed to compatibly use in the gas-insulated and vacuum switches. Experiments achieved good results that the triggered switches showed stable performance and long life. If the basic circuit of this proposed generator is regarded as a pulsed-generating unit, a certain number of such units connected in parallel can be expected to form a general device with generating greater breakdown-voltage and sustained-current pulses for discharge gaps.

  12. Design and analysis of 32 bit CMOS adder using sub-threshold voltage at deep submicron technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FA is basic cell for arithmetic operation and lots of efforts have put to minimize power consumption and delay. This paper evaluates conventional CMOS adder, bridge style adders in sub-threshold region. Circuits are designed at 20 MHz and 50 MHz frequencies with VDD= 200 mv. All adder designs are simulated at 32 nm technology. In 1 bit and 32 bit conventional CMOS adder design, an efficient trade-off between delay and power is achieved. Experimental results show that 32 bit adder designs have significant improvements in delay and power delay product.

  13. Control of a large vacuum wave precursor on the SABRE voltage adder MITL and extraction ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson, D. L.; Poukey, J. W.; Menge, P. R.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, J. R.; Bernard, M. A.

    SABRE is a ten-cavity magnetically insulated voltage adder (6MV, 300 kA) used to study ion beam production in high voltage extraction applied-B ion diodes. Observations indicate that the machine power initially propagates in a large-amplitude vacuum wave prior to electron emission. This vacuum wave 'precursor' has an important impact on the turn-on and impedance history of ion diodes. Some typical precursor characteristics are shown using transmission line, diode, and beam current and voltage data and are compared to TWOQUICK simulations. Two techniques are under investigation to control the precursor and its effects on diode performance. A plasma opening switch (POS) has been used to erode the precursor. Field enhancing inserts are also planned to decrease the macroscopic field required for electron emission from the cathode. This will limit the distance over which vacuum and insulated waves separate by propagation at different velocities. Experimental data from the POS technique and TWOQUICK simulations of the insert technique are presented and discussed.

  14. Experiments investigating the generation and transport of 10--12 MeV, 30-kA, mm-size electron beams with linear inductive voltage adders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The authors present the design, analysis, and results of the high-brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia National Laboratories. The anticipated beam parameters are the following: 8--12 MeV, 35--50 kA, 30--60 ns FWHM, and 0.5-mm rms beam radius. The accelerators utilized are SABRE and HERMES III. Both are linear inductive voltage adders modified to higher impedance and fitted with magnetically immersed foil less electron diodes. In the strong 20--50 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field of the diode, mm-size electron beams are generated and propagated to a beam stop. The electron beam is field emitted from mm-diameter needle-shaped cathode electrode and is contained in a similar size envelop by the strong magnetic field. These extremely space charge dominated beams provide the opportunity to study beam dynamics and possible instabilities in a unique parameter space. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 1.5-mm FWHM electron beams, while the HERMES-III experiments are on-going.

  15. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak; Bal Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS) adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  16. Efficient adders for assistive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Body sensor network [IEEE 802.15] is a wireless communication network consisting of assistive devices which are of prime importance in medical applications. The delay critical and power hungry blocks in these assistive devices are designed so that they consume less power, have low latency and require a lesser area on chip. In this paper, we present a qualitative as well as a quantitative analysis of an asynchronous pipelined adder design with two latest computation completion sensing approaches based on Pseudo NMOS logic and other based on C-element. The Pseudo NMOS based completion sensing approach provides a maximum improvement of 76.92% in critical path delay at supply voltage of 1.2 V and the maximum drop in power dissipation has been observed at a supply voltage of 1.1 V which is 85.60% as compared to C-element based completion sensing approach. Even at low voltages such as 0.8 V, there is a significant improvement in speed and power which is 75.64% and 74.79% respectively. Since the adder is the most widely used component in all present day assistive devices, this analysis acts as a pointer for the application of asynchronous pipelined circuits with efficient Pseudo NMOS based completion sensing approach in low voltage/low power rehabilitative devices.

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  18. GDI based full adders for energy efficient arithmetic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Shoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition is a vital arithmetic operation and acts as a building block for synthesizing all other operations. A high-performance adder is one of the key components in the design of application specific integrated circuits. In this paper, three low power full adders are designed with full swing AND, OR and XOR gates to alleviate threshold voltage problem which is commonly encountered in Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. This problem usually does not allow the full adder circuits to operate without additional inverters. However, the three full adders are successfully realized using full swing gates with the significant improvement in their performance. The performance of the proposed designs is compared with the other full adder designs, namely CMOS, CPL, hybrid and GDI through SPICE simulations using 45 nm technology models. Simulation results reveal that proposed designs have lower energy consumption among all the conventional designs taken for comparison.

  19. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  20. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  1. The Forbidden Quantum Adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U.; Sanz, M.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information provides fundamentally different computational resources than classical information. We prove that there is no unitary protocol able to add unknown quantum states belonging to different Hilbert spaces. This is an inherent restriction of quantum physics that is related to the impossibility of copying an arbitrary quantum state, i.e., the no-cloning theorem. Moreover, we demonstrate that a quantum adder, in absence of an ancillary system, is also forbidden for a known orthonormal basis. This allows us to propose an approximate quantum adder that could be implemented in the lab. Finally, we discuss the distinct character of the forbidden quantum adder for quantum states and the allowed quantum adder for density matrices. PMID:26153134

  2. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  3. Design of High Speed 128 bit Parallel Prefix Adders

    OpenAIRE

    T.KIRAN KUMAR; Srikanth, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose 128-bit Kogge-Stone, Ladner-Fischer, Spanning tree parallel prefix adders and compared with Ripple carry adder. In general N-bit adders like Ripple Carry Adders (slow adders compare to other adders), and Carry Look Ahead adders (area consuming adders) are used in earlier days. But now the most Industries are using parallel prefix adders because of their advantages compare to other adders. Parallel prefix adders are faster and area efficient. Parallel pref...

  4. The Forbidden Quantum Adder

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2014-01-01

    Addition plays a central role in mathematics and physics, while adders are ubiquitous devices in computation and electronics. In this sense, usual sum operations can be realized by classical Turing machines and also, with a suitable algorithm, by quantum Turing machines. Moreover, the sum of state vectors in the same Hilbert space, known as quantum superposition, is at the core of quantum physics. In fact, entanglement and the promised exponential speed-up of quantum computing are based on such superpositions. Here, we consider the existence of a quantum adder, defined as a unitary operation mapping two unknown quantum states encoded in different quantum systems onto their sum codified in a single one. The surprising answer is that this quantum adder is forbidden and it has the quantum cloning machine as a special case. This no-go result is of fundamental nature and its deep implications should be further studied.

  5. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Wood (Timothy); K. Harvey (Kirsten); M. Beck (Markus); M.G. Burin (Maira Graeff); Y.H. Chien; H.J. Church (Heather); V. D'Almeida (Vânia); O.P. van Diggelen (Otto); M. Fietz (Michael); R. Giugliani (Roberto); P. Harmatz (Paul); S.M. Hawley (Sara); W.L. Hwu; D. Ketteridge (David); Z. Lukacs; N. Miller (Nicola); M. Pasquali (Marzia); A. Schenone (Andrea); J.N. Thompson; K. Tylee (Karen); C. Yu (Cong); C. Hendriksz (Chris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and

  6. High Speed Boosted Cmos Differential Logic for Ripple Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Roy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a high speed boosted CMOS differential logic which is applicable in Ripple Carry Adders. The proposed logic operating with supply voltage approaching the MOS threshold voltage. The logic style improves switching speed by boosting the gate-source voltage of transistors along timing critical signal path. It allows a single boosting circuit to be shared by complementary outputs as a result the area overhead also minimizes. As compared to the conventional logic gates the EDP (energy delay product is improved. The test sets of logic gates and adders where designed in tsmc0.18μm of Mentor Graphics EDA tool. The experimental result for Ripple Carry Adders using the proposed logic style revealed that the addition time is reduced as compared with the conventional CMOS circuits.

  7. Two novel low-power and high-speed dynamic carbon nanotube full-adder cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshghi Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, two novel low-power and high-speed carbon nanotube full-adder cells in dynamic logic style are presented. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs are efficient in designing a high performance circuit. To design our full-adder cells, CNFETs with three different threshold voltages (low threshold, normal threshold, and high threshold are used. First design generates SUM and COUT through separate transistors, and second design is a multi-output dynamic full adder. Proposed full adders are simulated using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.9 V supply voltages. Simulation result shows that the proposed designs consume less power and have low power-delay product compared to other CNFET-based full-adder cells.

  8. Two novel low-power and high-speed dynamic carbon nanotube full-adder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherizadeh, Mehdi; Eshghi, Mohammad

    2011-09-02

    In this paper, two novel low-power and high-speed carbon nanotube full-adder cells in dynamic logic style are presented. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are efficient in designing a high performance circuit. To design our full-adder cells, CNFETs with three different threshold voltages (low threshold, normal threshold, and high threshold) are used. First design generates SUM and COUT through separate transistors, and second design is a multi-output dynamic full adder. Proposed full adders are simulated using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.9 V supply voltages. Simulation result shows that the proposed designs consume less power and have low power-delay product compared to other CNFET-based full-adder cells.

  9. Design of a High Speed Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Aritra Mitra; Amit Bakshi; Bhavesh Sharma; Nilesh Didwania

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have compared different addition algorithms such as Ripple Carry Adder, Carry Save Adder, Carry Select Adder, Carry Look Ahead Adder & Kogge Stone Adder for different performance parameters i.e. Area Utilization, Speed of operation and Power Consumption. A high speed Adder is then designed by merging Kogge Stone & Carry Select Algorithms. The circuits have been designed using Verilog HDL & Synthesize using TSMC 180 nm standard cell. The performance parameters are ...

  10. Comparative Design of 16-Bit Sparse-Tree Rsfq Adder

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saddam Hussain; S. Mahaboob Basha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propse 16-bit sparse tree RSFQ adder (Rapid single flux quantam), kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder. In general N-bit adders like Ripple carry adder s(slow adders compare to other adders), and carry lookahead adders(area consuming adders) are used in earlier days. But now the most of industries are using parallel prefix adders because of their advantages compare to kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder, Our prefix sparse tree adders are faster and ar...

  11. Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    R.Uma; Vidya Vijayan; M. Mohanapriya; Sharon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adders form an almost obligatory component of every contemporary integrated circuit. The prerequisite of the adder is that it is primarily fast and secondarily efficient in terms of power consumption and chip area. This paper presents the pertinent choice for selecting the adder topology with the tradeoff between delay, power consumption and area. The adder topology used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry lookahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, ca...

  12. Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    R.UMA,Vidya Vijayan; M. Mohanapriya; Sharon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adders form an almost obligatory component of every contemporary integrated circuit. The prerequisite of the adder is that it is primarily fast and secondarily efficient in terms of power consumption and chip area. This paper presents the pertinent choice for selecting the adder topology with the trade off between delay, power consumption and area. The adder topology used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry look ahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, ...

  13. Design of an energy-efficient CNFET Full Adder Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taeb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper by using the carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNFET, which is a promising alternative for the MOSFET transistor, two novel energy-efficient Full Adders are proposed. The proposed Full Adders show full swing logic and strong output drivability. The first design uses eight transistors and nine capacitors and the second design utilizes three capacitors less than the first design. Simulations, carried out using HSPICE based on the Stanford University CNFET model at 0.6V and 0.9V supply voltages, demonstrate the efficiency of type proposed circuit parameters such as delay, power and power-delay product.

  14. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Wood (Timothy); K. Harvey (Kirsten); M. Beck (Markus); M.G. Burin (Maira Graeff); Y.H. Chien; H.J. Church (Heather); V. D'Almeida (Vânia); O.P. van Diggelen (Otto); M. Fietz (Michael); R. Giugliani (Roberto); P. Harmatz (Paul); S.M. Hawley (Sara); W.L. Hwu; D. Ketteridge (David); Z. Lukacs; N. Miller (Nicola); M. Pasquali (Marzia); A. Schenone (Andrea); J.N. Thompson; K. Tylee (Karen); C. Yu (Cong); C. Hendriksz (Chris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and labor

  15. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Wood (Timothy); K. Harvey (Kirsten); M. Beck (Markus); M.G. Burin (Maira Graeff); Y.H. Chien; H.J. Church (Heather); V. D'Almeida (Vânia); O.P. van Diggelen (Otto); M. Fietz (Michael); R. Giugliani (Roberto); P. Harmatz (Paul); S.M. Hawley (Sara); W.L. Hwu; D. Ketteridge (David); Z. Lukacs; N. Miller (Nicola); M. Pasquali (Marzia); A. Schenone (Andrea); J.N. Thompson; K. Tylee (Karen); C. Yu (Cong); C. Hendriksz (Chris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and labor

  16. Single Spin Logic Implementation of VLSI Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Soumitra

    2011-01-01

    Some important VLSI adder circuits are implemented using quantum dots (qd) and Spin Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SPSTM) in Single Spin Logic (SSL) paradigm. A simple comparison between these adder circuits shows that the mirror adder implementation in SSL does not carry any advantage over CMOS adder in terms of complexity and number of qds, opposite to the trend observed in their charge-based counterparts. On the contrary, the transmission gate adder, Static and Dynamic Manchester carry gate adders in SSL reduce the complexity and number of qds, in harmony with the trend shown in transistor adders.

  17. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy C; Harvey, Katie; Beck, Michael; Burin, Maira Graeff; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Church, Heather J; D'Almeida, Vânia; van Diggelen, Otto P; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Hawley, Sara M; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Ketteridge, David; Lukacs, Zoltan; Miller, Nicole; Pasquali, Marzia; Schenone, Andrea; Thompson, Jerry N; Tylee, Karen; Yu, Chunli; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process.

  18. Comparative Design of 16-Bit Sparse-Tree Rsfq Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saddam Hussain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propse 16-bit sparse tree RSFQ adder (Rapid single flux quantam, kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder. In general N-bit adders like Ripple carry adder s(slow adders compare to other adders, and carry lookahead adders(area consuming adders are used in earlier days. But now the most of industries are using parallel prefix adders because of their advantages compare to kogge-stone adder, carry lookahead adder, Our prefix sparse tree adders are faster and area efficient. Parallel prefix adder is a technique for increasing the speed in DSP processor while performing addition. We simulate and synthesis different types of 16-bit sparse tree RSFQ adders using Xilinx ISE10.1i tool, By using these synthesis results, We noted the performance parameters like number of LUT’s and delay. We compare these three adders interms of LUT’s represents area and delay values.

  19. Study and Evaluation in CMOS Full Adders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国章; 陈昊; 何丕廉

    2003-01-01

    Low power adder circuits, SERF, 10T-Ⅰ,10T-Ⅱ,10T-Ⅲ and a complementary adder (28T) at physical layout level are evaluated. Simulations based on the extracted adder circuit layouts are run to assess how various circuit setups can impact the speed and power consumption. In addition, impacts of output inverters on the circuit performance of modified SERF and 10T adders due to threshold loss problem are also examined. Differences among these adders are addressed and applications of these adders are suggested.

  20. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  1. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  2. Mixed logic style adder circuit designed and fabricated using SOI substrate for irradiation-hardened experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shoucai; Liu, Yamei

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed a rail to rail swing, mixed logic style 28-transistor 1-bit full adder circuit which is designed and fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with 90 nm gate length technology. The main goal of our design is space application where circuits may be damaged by outer space radiation; so the irradiation-hardened technique such as SOI structure should be used. The circuit's delay, power and power-delay product (PDP) of our proposed gate diffusion input (GDI)-based adder are HSPICE simulated and compared with other reported high-performance 1-bit adder. The GDI-based 1-bit adder has 21.61% improvement in delay and 18.85% improvement in PDP, over the reported 1-bit adder. However, its power dissipation is larger than that reported with 3.56% increased but is still comparable. The worst case performance of proposed 1-bit adder circuit is also seen to be less sensitive to variations in power supply voltage (VDD) and capacitance load (CL), over a wide range from 0.6 to 1.8 V and 0 to 200 fF, respectively. The proposed and reported 1-bit full adders are all layout designed and wafer fabricated with other circuits/systems together on one chip. The chip measurement and analysis has been done at VDD = 1.2 V, CL = 20 fF, and 200 MHz maximum input signal frequency with temperature of 300 K.

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA and glycosaminoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaukat; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Mason, Robert W.; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A: OMIM 253000) is a lysosomal storage disease with an autosomal recessive trait caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). C6S and KS are mainly produced in the cartilage. Therefore, the undegraded substrates are stored primarily in cartilage and in its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on cartilage and bone development, and successive systemic skeletal dysplasia. Chondrogenesis, the earliest phase of skeletal formation, is maintained by cellular interactions with the ECM, growth and differentiation factors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors in a temporal-spatial manner. In patients with MPS IVA, the cartilage is disrupted at birth as a consequence of abnormal chondrogenesis and/or endochondral ossification. The unique skeletal features are distinguished by a disproportional short stature, odontoid hypoplasia, spinal cord compression, tracheal obstruction, pectus carinatum, kyphoscoliosis, platyspondyly, coxa valga, genu valgum, waddling gait, and laxity of joints. In spite of many descriptions of these unique clinical features, delay of diagnosis still happens. The pathogenesis and treatment of systemic skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA remains an unmet challenge. In this review article, we comprehensively describe historical aspect, property of GAGs, diagnosis, screening, pathogenesis, and current and future therapies of MPS IVA. PMID:27979613

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA and glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaukat; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Mason, Robert W; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A: OMIM 253000) is a lysosomal storage disease with an autosomal recessive trait caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). C6S and KS are mainly produced in the cartilage. Therefore, the undegraded substrates are stored primarily in cartilage and in its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on cartilage and bone development, and successive systemic skeletal dysplasia. Chondrogenesis, the earliest phase of skeletal formation, is maintained by cellular interactions with the ECM, growth and differentiation factors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors in a temporal-spatial manner. In patients with MPS IVA, the cartilage is disrupted at birth as a consequence of abnormal chondrogenesis and/or endochondral ossification. The unique skeletal features are distinguished by a disproportional short stature, odontoid hypoplasia, spinal cord compression, tracheal obstruction, pectus carinatum, kyphoscoliosis, platyspondyly, coxa valga, genu valgum, waddling gait, and laxity of joints. In spite of many descriptions of these unique clinical features, delay of diagnosis still happens. The pathogenesis and treatment of systemic skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA remains an unmet challenge. In this review article, we comprehensively describe historical aspect, property of GAGs, diagnosis, screening, pathogenesis, and current and future therapies of MPS IVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and Implementation of High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopinath; N Sangeetha; S.Jenifer nancy; T.Umarani

    2015-01-01

    In electronic adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. Adders can be constructed for many numerical representations such as arithmetic and logical operation. The most adders operates on binary numbers. Among the different types of adders, carry select adder is a one of the fastest adder.The gate level modification is to reduce the power and area of carry select adder by using the concept of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this paper , different techniques such as Binary T...

  6. [Compartment syndrome following adder bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Katzenstein, Terese

    2009-01-26

    Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children.

  7. Timing-Driven-Testable Convergent Tree Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie A. Huang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry lookahead adders have been, over the years, implemented in complex arithmetic units due to their regular structure which leads to efficient VLSI implementation for fast adders. In this paper, timing-driven testability synthesis is first performed on a tree adder. It is shown that the structure of the tree adder provides for a high fanout with an imbalanced tree structure, which likely contributes to a racing effect and increases the delay of the circuit. The timing optimization is then realized by reducing the maximum fanout of the adder and by balancing the tree circuit. For a 56-b testable tree adder, the optimization produces a 6.37%increase in speed of the critical path while only contributing a 2.16% area overhead. The full testability of the circuit is achieved in the optimized adder design.

  8. An efficient ternary serial adder based on carbon nanotube FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moaiyeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ternary serial adder for nanotechnology employing negative, positive and standard ternary logics. Multiple-valued logic results in chips with more density, less complexity and high-bandwidth data transfer. The unique properties of CNTFETs such as the capability of adapting the desired threshold voltage by changing the diameters of the nanotubes and same carrier mobility for the n-type and p-type devices play an important role in designing this circuit. The proposed design method considerably reduces the number of required devices of a ternary serial adder. In addition, the results of the simulations conducted using HSPICE with the Stanford comprehensive 32 nm CNTFET model, demonstrate improvements in terms of speed and power-delay product as compared to the cutting-edge CNTFET-based ternary designs.

  9. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  10. FPGA adders: performance evaluation and optimal design

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, S.; Yu, WWH

    1998-01-01

    Delay models and cost analyses developed for ASIC technology are not useful in designing and implementing FPGA devices. The authors discuss costs and operational delays of fixed-point adders on Xilinx 4000 series devices and propose timing models and optimization schemes for carry-skip and carry-select adders.

  11. Ultra low power full adder topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    In this paper several low power full adder topologies are presented. The main idea of these circuits is based on the sense energy recovery full adder (SERF) design and the GDI (gate diffusion input) technique. These subthreshold circuits are employed for ultra low power applications. While...

  12. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...

  13. LOW POWER-AREA DESIGN OF FULL ADDER USING SELF RESETTING LOGIC WITH GDI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Khokha1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various electronic devices such as mobile phones, DSPs,ALU etc., are designed by using VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration technology. In VLSI dynamic CMOS logic circuits are concentrating on the Area ,reducing the power consumption and increasing the Speed by reducing the delay. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Circuits are designed by using adder, subtractors, multiplier, divider, etc.Various adder circuits designs have been proposed over last few years with different logic styles. To reduce the power consumption several parameters are to be taken into account, such as feedthrough, leakage power single-event upsets, charge sharing by parasitic components while connecting source and drain of CMOS transistors There are situations in a logic that permit the use of circuits that can automatically precharge themselves (i.e., reset themselves after some prescribed delays. These circuits are hence called postcharge or self-resetting logic which are widely used in dynamic logic circuits. Overall performance of various adder designs is evaluated by using Tanner tool . The earlier and the proposed SRLGDI primitives are simulated using Tanner EDA with BSIM 0.250 lm technology with supply voltage ranging from 0 V to 5 V in steps of 0.2 V. On comparing the various SRLGDI logic adders, the proposed adder shows low power, delay and low PDP among its counterparts.

  14. A novel low-power A2 adder scheme based on reduced transistor count Full-Adder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem Boukadida; Néjib Hassen; Zied Gafsi; Kamel Besbes

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient 8-bits digital adder using the new arithmetic A2 redundant binary representation is presented. This structure is very suitable for implementation in VLSI of mixed-signal circuits built around Multiplier Digital to Analog Converter (MDAC) cells. Using a reduced transistor count Full-Adder cells shows that our approach significantly reduces the power consumption of such adders compared to the classical scheme using classical Full-Adder cells. The adder being studied was optimi...

  15. A New Adder Theory Based on Half Adder and Implementation in COMS Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfeng Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new theory of adder and its basic structure. The new adder of asynchronous structure constructed by half adders, called Parallel Feedback Carry Adder (PFCA as its carry mode is parallel feedback. In theory, the area consumption of n-bit PFCA is close to O(n and the average length of carry chain is O(log n. A CMOS gate implementation scheme is implemented. HSPICE simulation results show that PFCA has obvious advantages over RCA, CLA, CSeA in speed and area, especially when n is bigger.

  16. Design of Energy Aware Adder Circuits Considering Random Intra-Die Process Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lanuzza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is one of the main barriers to current high-performance designs. Moreover, the increased variability experienced in advanced process technologies implies further timing yield concerns and therefore intensifies this obstacle. Thus, proper techniques to achieve robust designs are a critical requirement for integrated circuit success. In this paper, the influence of intra-die random process variations is analyzed considering the particular case of the design of energy aware adder circuits. Five well known adder circuits were designed exploiting an industrial 45 nm static complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS standard cell library. The designed adders were comparatively evaluated under different energy constraints. As a main result, the performed analysis demonstrates that, for a given energy budget, simpler circuits (which are conventionally identified as low-energy slow architectures operating at higher power supply voltages can achieve a timing yield significantly better than more complex faster adders when used in low-power design with supply voltages lower than nominal.

  17. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  18. Design and Performance Analysis of Various Adders using Verilog

    OpenAIRE

    Maroju SaiKumar; Dr. P. Samundiswary

    2013-01-01

    Adders are one of the most widely digital components in the digital integrated circuit design and are the necessary part of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications. With the advances in technology, researchers have tried and are trying to design adders which offer either high speed, low power consumption, less area or the combination of them. In this paper, the design of various adders such as Ripple Carry Adder (RCA), Carry Skip Adder (CSkA), Carry Increment Adder (CIA), ...

  19. Unimolecular binary half-adders with orthogonal chemical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Whitfield, Wesley A; Zhu, Lei

    2008-04-28

    Unimolecular half-adders based upon an arylvinyl-bipyridyl fluorophore platform were demonstrated where all the chemical input combinations were fully processed by half-adder molecules to generate the arithmetic results of the entire truth table.

  20. Optimal design method for fast carry-skip adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Songjun; Swartzlander, Earl E., Jr.

    2001-11-01

    A carry-skip adder is faster than a ripple carry adder and it has a simple structure. To maximize the speed it is necessary to optimize the width of the blocks that comprise the carry skip adder. This paper presents a simple algorithm to select the size of each block. Assuming that each logic gate has a unit delay, the algorithm achieves slightly faster designs for 64 and 128 bit adders than previous methods developed by Guyot, et al. and Kantabutra.

  1. Functional Verification of High Performance Adders in COQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    formalize and verify adders in a formal proof assistant COQ. The proposed approach succeeds in formalizing the gate-level implementations and verifying the functional correctness of the most important adders of interest in industry, in a faithful, scalable, and modularized way. The methodology can be extended to other adder architectures as well.

  2. Design and analysis of carbon nanotube FET based quaternary full adders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hossein MOAIYERI; Shima SEDIGHIANI; Fazel SHARIFI; Keivan NAVI

    2016-01-01

    CMOS binary logic is limited by short channel effects, power density, and interconnection restrictions. The effective solution is non-silicon multiple-valued logic (MVL) computing. This study presents two high-performance quaternary full adder cells based on carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs). The proposed designs use the unique properties of CNTFETs such as achieving a desired threshold voltage by adjusting the carbon nanotube diameters and having the same mobility as p-type and n-type devices. The proposed circuits were simulated under various test conditions using the Synopsys HSPICE simulator with the 32 nm Stanford comprehensive CNTFET model. The proposed designs have on average 32% lower delay, 68% average power, 83% energy consumption, and 77% static power compared to current state-of-the-art quaternary full adders. Simulation results indicated that the proposed designs are robust against process, voltage, and temperature variations, and are noise tolerant.

  3. Modelling of Parasitic Inductances of a High Precision Inductive Adder for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J; Ovaska, S J

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flat-top of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. However, the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The primary leakage inductance, which cannot be computed accurately analytically, has a significant effect upon the output impedance of the inductive adder. This paper presents predictions, obtained by modelling the 3D geometry of the adder struc...

  4. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    OpenAIRE

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar; Prof. Dr.S.M.VALI

    2015-01-01

    The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gat...

  5. Novel Optimized Designs for QCA Serial Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new and efficient technology to implement logic Gates and digital circuits at the nanoscale range. In comparison with the conventional CMOS technology, QCA has many attractive features such as: low-power, extremely dense and high speed structures. Adders are the most important part of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU. In this paper, four optimized designs of QCA serial adders are presented. One of the proposed designs is optimized in terms of the number of cells, area and delay without any wire crossing methods. Also, two new designs of QCA serial adders and a QCA layout equivalent to the internal circuit of TM4006 IC are presented. QCADesigner software is used to simulate the proposed designs. Finally, the proposed QCA designs are compared with the previous QCA, CNTFET-based and CMOS technologies.

  6. Design and analysis of a high-performance CNFET-based Full Adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Faghih Mirzaee, Reza; Navi, Keivan; Momeni, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a high-speed and high-performance Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET) based Full Adder cell for low-voltage applications. The proposed Full Adder cell is composed of two separate modules with identical hardware configurations which generate the Sum and C out signals in a parallel manner. The great advantage of the proposed structure is its very short critical path which is composed of only two carbon nanotube pass-transistors. This design also takes advantage of the unique properties of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor-like CNFETs such as the feasibility of adjusting the threshold voltage of a CNFET by adjusting the diameter of its nanotubes to correct the voltage levels as well as to achieve a high performance. Comprehensive experiments are performed in various situations to evaluate the performance of the proposed design. Simulations are carried out using Synopsys HSPICE with 32-nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and 32-nm CNFET technologies. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed design in terms of speed, power consumption, power delay product, and less susceptibility to process variations, compared to other classical and modern CMOS and CNFET-based Full Adder cells.

  7. Optimal Final Carry Propagate Adder Design for Parallel Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    B., Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ASIC layout level simulation of 7 types of adder structures each of four different sizes, i.e. a total of 28 adders, we propose expressions for the width of each of the three regions of the final Carry Propagate Adder (CPA) to be used in parallel multipliers. We also propose the types of adders to be used in each region that would lead to the optimal performance of the hybrid final adders in parallel multipliers. This work evaluates the complete performance of the analyzed designs in terms of delay, area, power through custom design and layout in 0.18 um CMOS process technology.

  8. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  9. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  10. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit...... in reversible logic design by drastically reducing the number of garbage bits. Specialized designs benefit from support by reversible logic synthesis. All circuit components required for optimizing the original design could also be synthesized successfully by an implementation of an existing synthesis algorithm...

  11. Design the High Speed Kogge-Stone Adder by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUX

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Technical era the high speed and low area of VLSI chip are very- very essential factors. Day by day number of transistors and other active and passive elements are growing on VLSI chip. In Integral part of the processor adders play an important role. In this paper we are using proposed kogge-stone adders for binary addition to reduce the size and increase the efficiency or processors speed. Proposing kogge stone adder provides less components, less path delay and better speed compare to other existing kogge stone adder and other adders. Here we are comparing the kogge stone adders of different-different word size from other adders. The design and experiment can be done by the aid of Xilinx 14.1i Spartan 3 device family.

  12. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shen Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture delivers the sum and carry outputs in lesser unit delays than existing carry-skip adders. The adder is implemented in 0.25 m CMOS technology at 3.3 V. The critical delay for the proposed adder is 3.4 nanoseconds. The simulation results show that the proposed adder is 18% faster than the current fastest carry-skip adder.

  13. Designing novel reversible BCD adder and parallel adder/subtraction using new reversible logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rigui; Zhang, Manqun; Wu, Qian; Shi, Yang

    2012-10-01

    Reversible logic has received much attention in recent years when calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. Especially, interest is sparked in reversible logic by its applications in some technologies, such as quantum computing, low-power CMOS design, optical information processing and nanotechnology. This article proposes two new reversible logic gates, ZRQ and NC. The first gate ZRQ not only implements all Boolean functions but also can be used to design optimised adder/subtraction architectures. One of the prominent functionalities of the proposed ZRQ gate is that it can work by itself as a reversible full adder/subtraction unit. The second gate NC can complete overflow detection logic of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) adder. This article proposes two approaches to design novel reversible BCD adder using new reversible gates. A comparative result which is presented shows that the proposed designs are more optimised in terms of number of gates, garbage outputs, quantum costs and unit delays than the existing designs.

  14. Efficient carry skip Adder design using full adder and carry skip block based on reversible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, binary full Adder with Design I and Design II are proposed. The performance analysis is verified using number of reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs, delay, number of logical calculations and Quantum Cost. According to the suitability of full adder design I and design II carry skip adder block is also constructed with some improvement in terms of delay in block carry generation. It is observed that Reversible carry skip Binary Adder with Design II is efficient compared to Design I

  15. Optimized design of BCD adder and Carry skip BCD adder using reversible logic gates

    OpenAIRE

    H.R.Bhagyalakshmi,; M K Venkatesha

    2011-01-01

    Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nano technology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit BCD adder and an optimized one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.

  16. DESIGN OF OPTIMAL CARRY SKIP ADDER AND CARRY SKIP BCD ADDER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES

    OpenAIRE

    Praveena Murugesan; Thanushkodi Keppanagounder

    2014-01-01

    Reversible logic circuits have the ability to produce zero power dissipation which has found its importance in quantum computing, optical computing and low power digital circuits. The study presents improved and efficient reversible logic circuits for carry skip adder and carry skip BCD adder. The performance of the proposed architecture is better than the existing works in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant inputs. This design forms the basis for different quantum ALU and embe...

  17. Optimized design of BCD adder and Carry skip BCD adder using reversible logic gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R.Bhagyalakshmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nano technology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit BCD adder and an optimized one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.

  18. Characteristics of "Adders" in Proportional Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fou-Lai

    1991-01-01

    The errors and strategies made by students who consistently use the incorrect-addition strategy on "hard" ratio tasks were investigated. The characteristics of these "adders," such as awareness of noninteger multiples, the use of fractions and decimals, awareness of both within and between ratios, and distinguishing nonratio…

  19. Near threshold operation of 16-bit adders in 65nm CMOStechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Maddula, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is to implement different architectures of 16-bit adders such as; Ripple CarryAdder (RCA), Manchester Carry Chain Adder (MCCA) and Kogge Stone Adder (KSA), in 65nm CMOS technology and to study their performance in terms of power, operating frequency and speed at near threshold operating regions. The performance of these adders are evaluated and compared with each other and a final conclusion is made as to which adder structure is more suitable for implementati...

  20. A comparison of two fast binary adder configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, J.; Cameron, K.

    1990-01-01

    Conditional sum and binary lookahead carry are two methods for performing fast binary addition. These methods are quite different, but the adders have a common feature that makes them interesting to compare. Both adders have the carry generating logic implemented as a binary tree, which grows in depth as log(sub 2) n,n equals the number of bits in the adder. The delay in the carry paths also grows in proportion to log(sub 2) n. This paper shows that the Transmission-Gate Conditional-Sum adder and the binary lookahead carry adder have the same speed of addition, but that the conditional sum adder requires only 46 percent of the area.

  1. A C-Testable Multiple-Block Carry Select Adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Nobutaka; Fujii, Shinichi; Takagi, Naofumi

    We propose a C-testable multiple-block carry select adder with respect to the cell fault model. Full adders and 2: 1 multiplexers are considered as cells. By an additional external input, we obtain a C-testable carry select adder. We only modify the least significant position of each block. The adder is testable with a test set consisting of 16 patterns regardless of the size of each block and the number of blocks. This is the minimum test set for the adder. We show two gate-level implementations of the adder which are testable with a test set of 9 patterns and 7 patterns respectively, with respect to the single stuck-at fault model.

  2. Design of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders using VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vijay V. Gotmare; Dr. Pankaj Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Carry select adder (CSA) is a square-root time high-speed adder. CSA is one of the fastest adders used in many data processing systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. In this project we propose to design hybrid carry select adders with a focus on high speed. CSA is a compromise between the longer delay Ripple carry adder (RCA) and the shorter delay Carry look-ahead adder (CLA). Conventionally carry select adders are realize using the full adders and 2:1 multiplexers. On the other hand ...

  3. Functional Verification of High Performance Adders in COQ

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Wang; Xiaoyu Song; Ming Gu; Jiaguang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Addition arithmetic design plays a crucial role in high performance digital systems. The paper proposes a systematic method to formalize and verify adders in a formal proof assistant COQ. The proposed approach succeeds in formalizing the gate-level implementations and verifying the functional correctness of the most important adders of interest in industry, in a faithful, scalable, and modularized way. The methodology can be extended to other adder architectures as well.

  4. High performance pipelined multiplier with fast carry-save adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Angus

    1990-01-01

    A high-performance pipelined multiplier is described. Its high performance results from the fast carry-save adder basic cell which has a simple structure and is suitable for the Gate Forest semi-custom environment. The carry-save adder computes the sum and carry within two gate delay. Results show that the proposed adder can operate at 200 MHz for a 2-micron CMOS process; better performance is expected in a Gate Forest realization.

  5. Static power dissipation in adder circuits: the UDSM domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayouette, Steve; Al-Khalili, Dhamin

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents adder circuits of various architectures aimed at reducing static power dissipation. Circuit topologies for basic building blocks were evaluated for fabrication technologies of 65nm down to 32nm, and simulation results are presented. This work has lead to the development of various low power adder circuits and provides comparative analysis leading to the recommendation that a variable size block carry select adder is the best performer, taking into consideration both static and dynamic power dissipation.

  6. Self-timed Manchester chain carry propagate adder

    OpenAIRE

    Escribà, J; Carrasco, Juan A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present a self-timed adder that uses two Manchester chains to propagate carries in a two-rail code. With the inclusion of buffers in the chains, the adder meets the timing conditions typical of an asynchronous design based in the ‘bundled-data, bounded-delay’ model and is signifcantly faster than self-timed adders with restoring logic and similar complexity.

  7. Approximate Quantum Adders with Genetic Algorithms: An IBM Quantum Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Rui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimize them by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.

  8. A Novel Reversible BCD Adder For Nanotechnology Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Haghparast

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two reversible logic gates, HNFG and HNG. The first gate HNFG can be used as two Feynman Gates. It is suitable for a single copy of two bits with no garbage outputs. It can be used as “Copying Circuit” to increase fan-out because fan-out is not allowed in reversible circuits. The second gate HNG can implement all Boolean functions. It also can be used to design optimized adder architectures. This paper also proposes a novel reversible full adder. One of the prominent functionalities of the proposed HNG gate is that it can work singly as a reversible full adder unit. The proposed reversible full adder contains only one gate. We show that its hardware complexity is less than the existing reversible full adders. The proposed full adder is then applied to the design of a reversible 4-bit parallel adder. A reversible Binary Coded Decimal (BCD adder circuit is also proposed. The proposed circuit can add two 4-bit binary variables and it transforms the result into the appropriate BCD number using efficient error correction modules. We show that the proposed reversible BCD adder has lower hardware complexity and it is much better and optimized in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs with compared to the existing counterparts.

  9. Power comparison of CMOS and adiabatic full adder circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Sunil Gavaskar; 10.5121/vlsic.2011.2306

    2011-01-01

    Full adders are important components in applications such as digital signal processors (DSP) architectures and microprocessors. Apart from the basic addition adders also used in performing useful operations such as subtraction, multiplication, division, address calculation, etc. In most of these systems the adder lies in the critical path that determines the overall performance of the system. In this paper conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adiabatic adder circuits are analyzed in terms of power and transistor count using 0.18UM technology.

  10. An Efficient Power Optimized 1-bit CMOS Full Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.Poojithaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adders are the most important arithmetic units in a general microprocessor and the major source of power dissipation. Apart from addition, adders are also used in performing useful operations such as subtraction, multiplication, division and address calculation etc. In this paper, we have presented the study of different logic style using 1-bit full adder circuit and we have compared this 1-bit full adder on certain parameters such as power, number of transistor and frequency using microwind and T-spice.

  11. Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdie Qanbari; Reza Sabbaghi-Nadooshan

    2013-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are bett...

  12. Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Qanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are better than pervious designs in terms of area, delay, and complexity.

  13. Approximate Quantum Adders with Genetic Algorithms: An IBM Quantum Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2017-07-01

    It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimize them by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.

  14. Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Czyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.

  15. A decimal carry-free adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  16. Reviewing High-Radix Signed Digit Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Higher radix values of the form $\\beta=2^r$ have been employed traditionally for recoding of multipliers, and for determining quotient- and root-digits in iterative division and square root algorithms, usually only for quite moderate values of $r$, like 2 or 3. For fast additions, in particular f......, on the contrary, there are significant savings in using standard 4-to-2 adders, even saving half of the operations in multi-operand addition....

  17. IVA2 - ein Integriertes Vorklinisches Ausbildungssystem [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiebe, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] IVA2, like a Swiss Army Knife, is a content management system which is used for the Web-based entry, administration, local and external publication of all kinds of teaching material In parallel IVA2 serves as a resource where mc-examinations can be generated, administered and published and from where results of examinations can be statistically processed and disseminated. IVA2 also automatically generates hit lists of downloaded teaching and examination material. IVA2 further provides a mechanism for a rapid on-line evaluation of lectures with both, a general feedback to students and a detailed feedback to individual lecturers. IVA2 finally provides a forum for students in dialogue with university lecturers, where organizational and scientific questions can be raised and answered. The IVA2-software was created in line with established industrial standards in order to ensure long-term simple servicing. [german] IVA2 ist ein Datenbank-basiertes serverseitiges Content-Management System, das für die Eingabe, Speicherung, Verwaltung und Ausgabe von Lehr- und Prüfungsmaterial sowie Prüfungsergebnissen eingesetzt wird. Gleichzeitig dient IVA2 als Ausgabeplattform, wo Prüfungsergebnisse, statistisch aufbereitet, individualisiert oder generell bereitgestellt werden, Hitlisten der Downloads von genutztem Lehr- und Prüfungsmaterial sowie die Evaluation von Teillehrveranstaltungen durch statistische Angaben zur Akzeptanz errechnet werden. IVA2 kann von Studenten untereinander, von Studenten im Dialog mit Hochschullehrern, von Hochschullehrern allein und von Hochschullehrern untereinander in verschiedener Weise sinnvoll eingesetzt werden. IVA2- wurde so entwickelt, dass es gemäß dem "do-ut-des"-Prinzip Angebote und Forderungen stets miteinander kombiniert. Die Software wurde unter Beachtung etablierter Industriestandards erstellt, um eine einfache Wartung und Pflegemöglichkeit dauerhaft zu sichern.

  18. Initial measurements on a prototype inductive adder for the CLIC kicker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. To achieve ultra-flat pulses with a fast rise time the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The parasitic circuit elements of the inductive adder have a significant effect upon the output impedance and these values are very difficult to calculate accurately analytically. To predict these paramet...

  19. Efficient Implementation of Decimal Floating Point Adder in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huijing

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimal floating Point adder is one of the most frequent operations used by many financial, business and user-oriented applications but current implementations in FPGAs are very inefficient in terms of both area and latency when compared to binary floating point adder. This paper has shown an efficient implementation of a new parallel decimal floating point module on a reconfigurable platform, which is both area as well as performance optimal. The decimal floating-point Adder was further pipelined into five stages to increase the maximum frequency of operation. The synthesis results for a Stratix IV device indicate that our implementations have 25.1% reduction of the latency and 1.1% reduction of area compared to an existing alter-core adder design, presenting area and delay figures close to those of optimal binary adder trees.  

  20. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID FINAL ADDER FOR THE HIGH PERFORMANCE MULTIPLIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMKUMAR B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated arrival profile of the HPM based multiplier partial products reduction tree in two ways: 1.manual delay, area calculation through logical effort, 2.ASIC implementation. Based on the arrival profile, we worked with some recently proposed optimal adders and finally we proposed an optimal hybrid adder for the final addition in HPM based parallel multiplier. This work derives some mathematical expressions to find the size of different regions in the partial product arrival profile which helps to design optimal adder for each region. This work evaluates the performance of proposed hybrid adder in terms of area, power and delay using 90nm technology. This work deals with manual calculation for 8-b and ASIC simulation of different adder designs for 8-b, 16-b, 32-b and 64-b multiplier bit sizes.

  2. A novel reversible carry-selected adder with low latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Cui; Zhou, Ri-Gui

    2016-07-01

    Reversible logic is getting more and more attention in quantum computing, optical computing, nanotechnology and low-power complementary metal oxide semiconductor designs since reversible circuits do not loose information during computation and have only small energy dissipation. In this paper, a novel carry-selected reversible adder is proposed primarily optimised for low latency. A 4-bit reversible full adder with two kinds of outputs, minimum delay and optimal quantum cost is presented as the building block for ?-bit reversible adder. Three new reversible gates NPG (new Peres gate), TEPG (triple extension of Peres gate) and RMUX21 (reversible 2-to-1 multiplexer) are proposed and utilised to design efficient adder units. The secondary carry propagation chain is carefully designed to reduce the time consumption. The novelty of the proposed design is the consideration of low latency. The comparative study shows that the proposed adder achieves the improvement from 61.46% to 95.29% in delay over the existing designs.

  3. Atypical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Rush

    2016-09-01

    While this case describes neither a novel condition nor a new mutation, it does illustrate three important points in the diagnosis of patients with atypical forms of MPS IVA. First, that in many instances urine glycosaminoglycan analysis is not sufficient to rule out MPS IVA as a potential diagnosis. Patients in whom biochemical screening is advised should have measurement of leukocyte enzymatic activity. Second, that in patients with radiographic evidence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with additional features or with normal targeted testing, MPS IVA should remain in the differential diagnosis. Third, that whole exome sequencing represents a viable diagnostic platform for evaluation of patients with unknown skeletal or metabolic disease.

  4. On the Design and Analysis of Quaternary Serial and Parallel Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Anindya; Hasan, Masud

    2010-01-01

    Optimization techniques for decreasing the time and area of adder circuits have been extensively studied for years mostly in binary logic system. In this paper, we provide the necessary equations required to design a full adder in quaternary logic system. We develop the equations for single-stage parallel adder which works as a carry look-ahead adder. We also provide the design of a logarithmic stage parallel adder which can compute the carries within log2(n) time delay for n qudits. At last, we compare the designs and finally propose a hybrid adder which combines the advantages of serial and parallel adder.

  5. High Speed Multiple Valued Logic Full Adder Using Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect Transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Khatir, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Iman

    2011-01-01

    High speed Full-Adder (FA) module is a critical element in designing high performance arithmetic circuits. In this paper, we propose a new high speed multiple-valued logic FA module. The proposed FA is constructed by 14 transistors and 3 capacitors, using carbon nano-tube field effect transistor (CNFET) technology. Furthermore, our proposed technique has been examined in different voltages (i.e., 0.65v and 0.9v). The observed results reveal power consumption and power delay product (PDP) improvements compared to existing FA counterparts

  6. High Speed Multiple Valued Logic Full Adder Using Carbon Nano Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Khatir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High speed Full-Adder (FA module is a critical element in designing high performance arithmeticcircuits. In this paper, we propose a new high speed multiple-valued logic FA module. The proposed FAis constructed by 14 transistors and 3 capacitors, using carbon nano-tube field effect transistor (CNFETtechnology. Furthermore, our proposed technique has been examined in different voltages (i.e., 0.65v and0.9v. The observed results reveal power consumption and power delay product (PDP improvementscompared to existing FA counterparts.

  7. The Prototype Inductive Adder With Droop Compensation for the CLIC Kicker Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC predamping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce, through synchrotron radiation, an ultralow emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the DR kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02% (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. Recently, a five-layer prototype has been built at CERN. Passive analog modulation has been applied to compensate the voltage droop, for example of the pulse capacitors. The output waveforms of the prototype inductive adder have been compared with predictions of the voltage droop and pulse shape. Conclusions are drawn concern...

  8. Design & Analysis of Low Power, Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design & analysis of Carry Select Adder (CSLA & Carry lookahead adder (CLA. Adders are designed using 0.18µm CMOS process technology & simulated with Modelsim6.3f. The adder designs, Regular CSLA, modified CSLA using BEC, modified CSLA without using multiplexer, modified CSLA using D-Latch & Carry lookahead adders in 4-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, are compared with the simulated results on the basis area.

  9. Error correction in adders using systematic subcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. R. N.

    1972-01-01

    A generalized theory is presented for the construction of a systematic subcode for a given AN code in such a way that error control properties of the AN code are preserved in this new code. The 'systematic weight' and 'systematic distance' functions in this new code depend not only on its number representation system but also on its addition structure. Finally, to illustrate this theory, a simple error-correcting adder organization using a systematic subcode of 29 N code is sketched in some detail.

  10. Eerste boek. Titels IVa-Ve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, T.; Cleiren, C.P.M.; Crijns, J.H.; Verpalen, M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    IVa: Bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing V: Bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing voor het onderzoek naar het beramen of plegen van ernstige misdrijven in georganiseerd verband Va: Bijstand aan opsoring door burgers Vb: bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing van terroristische misdrijven Vc: Bijsta

  11. Eerste boek. Titels IVa-Ve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, T.; Cleiren, C.P.M.; Crijns, J.H.; Verpalen, M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    IVa: Bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing V: Bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing voor het onderzoek naar het beramen of plegen van ernstige misdrijven in georganiseerd verband Va: Bijstand aan opsoring door burgers Vb: bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing van terroristische misdrijven Vc:

  12. A Novel Approach For Error Detection And Correction Using Prefix-Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Naga Jyothi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable latency speculative Han-Carlson adder is a newly proposed adder to perform high speed arithmetic operations. Han-Carlson adder gives accurate results with error detection when compared to other adders like Kogge-Stone adder. In this paper, number of parallel prefix adders can be sub divided into number of stages and perform arithmetic operations. By using the Xilinx 14.2 software, the design of Kogge-Stone adder and Han-Carlson adder is developed. This paper focuses on the implementation and simulation of 8-bit, 16-bit Kogge-stone adder and Han- Carlson adder based on Verilog code and compared for their performance in Xilinx. When compared to other adders the delay performance for Han Carlson adder is less and it reduces the complexity. It is concluded that the proposed adder is better in terms of computational delay. By using Brent –Kung and Kogge-stone adder the parallel prefix Han-Carlson adder also be proposed.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis for the CLIC Damping Ring Inductive Adder

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. PSpice has been utilised to carry out a sensitivity analysis of the predicted output pulse to the value of both individual and groups of circuit compon...

  14. Preliminary Design of an Inductive Adder for CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping rings kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications; this topology allows the use of both digital and analogue modulation. To effectively use modulation techniques to achieve such low ripple and droop requires an in-depth knowledge of the behaviour of the solid-state switching components and their gate drivers, as well as a good understanding of the overa...

  15. Testability Synthesis for Jumping Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-In Henry Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis for testability ensures that the synthesized circuit is testable by exploring the fundamental relationship between don't care and redundancy. With the exploration of the relationship, redundancy removal can be applied to improve the testability, reduce the area and improve the speed of a synthesized circuit. The test generation problems have been adequately solved, therefore an innovative testability synthesis strategy is necessary for achieving the maximum fault coverage and area reduction for maximum speed. This paper presents a testability synthesis methodology applicable to a top–down design method based on the identification and removal of redundant faults. Emphasis has been placed on the testability synthesis of a high-speed binary jumping carry adder. A synthesized 32-bit testable adder implemented by a 1.2 μm CMOS technology performs addition in 4.09 ns. Comparing with the original synthesized circuit, redundancy removal yields a 100% testable design with a 15% improvement in speed and a 25% reduction in area.

  16. Molecule-based photonically switched half-adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, Joakim; Kodis, Gerdenis; Terazono, Yuichi; Liddell, Paul A; Bandyopadhyay, Subhajit; Mitchell, Reginald H; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2004-12-15

    A molecule-based binary half-adder with optical inputs and outputs has been demonstrated. The half-adder consists of two photochromic organic molecules in solution and a third-harmonic-generating crystal. One substance acts as an AND Boolean logic gate and the other as an XOR gate. Inputs are laser pulses at 1064 or 532 nm that initiate photoisomerization reactions. Outputs are the optical absorbance of a fullerene radical anion (AND gate) and fluorescence of a porphyrin (XOR gate). The system carries out binary addition based on the laser input pulses. Half-adders in combination are capable of carrying out all mathematical operations necessary for digital computing.

  17. Parallel Optimization of a Reversible (Quantum) Ripple-Carry Adder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2008-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of garbage. The CDKM-adder is a recent garbage-less reversible (quantum......(mk). We also show designs for garbage-less reversible set-less-than circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the CDKM and parallel adder in measures of circuit delay, width, gate and transistor count, and find that the parallelized adder offers significant speedups at realistic word sizes with modest...

  18. Implementation, Test Pattern Generation, and Comparative Analysis of Different Adder Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas K. Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition usually affects the overall performance of digital systems and an arithmetic function. Adders are most widely used in applications like multipliers, DSP (i.e., FFT, FIR, and IIR. In digital adders, the speed of addition is constrained by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. Various techniques have been proposed to design fast adders. We have derived architectures for carry-select adder (CSA, Common Boolean Logic (CBL based adders, ripple carry adder (RCA, and Carry Look-Ahead Adder (CLA for 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit length. In this work we have done comparative analysis of different types of adders in Synopsis Design Compiler using different standard cell libraries at 32/28 nm. Also, the designs are analyzed for the stuck at faults (s-a-0, s-a-1 using Synopsis TetraMAX.

  19. Efficient carry skip Adder design using full adder and carry skip block based on reversible Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Pratap Singh; Shiv Dayal; Manish Rai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, binary full Adder with Design I and Design II are proposed. The performance analysis is verified using number of reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs, delay, number of logical calculations and Quantum Cost. According t...

  20. All-optical prefix tree adder with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Tanay Chattopadhyay; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy

    2011-01-01

    We propose and describe an all-optical prefix tree adder with the help of a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) using a set of optical switches. The prefix tree adder is useful in compound adder implementation. It is preferred over the ripple carry adder and the carry lookahead adder. We also describe the principle and possibilities of the all-optical prefix tree adder. The theoretical model is presented and verified through numerical simulation. The new method promises higher processing speed and accuracy. The model can be extended for studying more complex all-optical circuits of enhanced functionality in which the prefix tree adder is the basic building block.%@@ We propose and describe an all-optical prefix tree adder with the help of a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) using a set of optical switches.The prefix tree adder is useful in compound adder implementation.It is preferred over the ripple carry adder and the carry lookahead adder.We also describe the principle and possibilities of the all-optical prefix tree adder.The theoretical model is presented and verified through numerical simulation.The new method promises higher processing speed and accuracy.The model can be extended for studying more complex all-optical circuits of enhanced functionality in which the prefix tree adder is the basic building block.

  1. Measurements on Prototype Inductive Adders with Ultra-Flat-Top Output Pulses for CLIC DR Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J; Belver-Aguilar, C

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC study is investigating the technical feasibility of an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the DR kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the DR extraction kickers call for a 160 ns duration flat-top pulses of ±12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications because this topology allows the use of both passive and analogue modulation methods to adjust the output waveform. Recently, two five-layer, 3.5 kV, prototype inductive adders have been built at CERN. The first of these has been used to test the passive and active analogue modulation methods to compensate voltage droop and ripple of the output pulses. Pulse waveforms have been reco...

  2. A pharmacological examination of venoms from three species of death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus, Acanthophis praelongus and Acanthophis pyrrhus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratna, J C; Hodgson, W C

    2001-01-01

    The common (A. antarcticus), northern (A. praelongus) and desert (A. pyrrhus) death adders are species belonging to the Acanthophis genus. The present study compared some pharmacological aspects of the venoms of these species and examined the in vitro efficacy of death adder antivenom. Neurotoxicity was determined by the time to produce 90% inhibition (t(90)) of indirect (0.1 Hz, 0.2 ms, supramaximal voltage) twitches in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle (3-10 microg/ml) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (10 microg/ml) preparations. A. praelongus venom was significantly less neurotoxic than A. antarcticus venom but was not significantly different from A. pyrrhus venom. In the biventer muscle, all three venoms (3-10 microg/ml) abolished responses to exogenous ACh (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM), but not KCl (40 mM), indicating activity at post-synaptic nicotinic receptors. All venoms (30 microg/ml) failed to produce significant inhibition of direct twitches (0.1 Hz, 2.0 ms, supramaximal voltage) in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. However, A. praelongus (30 microg/ml) venom initiated a significant direct contracture of muscle, indicative of some myotoxic activity. The prior (10 min) administration of death adder antivenom (1 unit/ml), which is raised against A. antarcticus venom, markedly attenuated the twitch blockade produced by all venoms (10 microg/ml). Administration of antivenom (1.5 units/ml) at t(90) markedly reversed, over a period of 4 h, the inhibition of twitches produced by A. praelongus (3 microg/ml, 72+/-6% recovery) and A. pyrrhus (3 microg/ml, 51+/-9% recovery) but was less effective against A. antarcticus venom (3 microg/ml, 22+/-7% recovery). These results suggest that all three venoms contain postsynaptic neurotoxins. Death adder antivenom displayed differing efficacy against the in vitro neurotoxicity of the three venoms.

  3. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shen Lin; Damu Radhakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture ...

  4. REALIZATION OF MULTIPLEOPERAND ADDER-SUBTRACTOR BASED ON VEDIC MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEETA PANDEY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multiple-operand adder-subtractor based on Nikhilam Sutra of Vedic mathematics. The Sutra is adapted for binary operands. The hardware implementation uses carry save adders and a new 2’s exponent subtractor for faster operation and hardware reduction. The suitability of the theoretical proposition is demonstrated through exhaustive examples. The functionality of the circuit is verified through VHDL simulations. The synthesis results and comparisons with conventional methods are also included.

  5. A Review of the 0.09 uM Standard Full Adders

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay, V; Prathiba, J.; S. Niranjan Reddy; P. Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents power analysis of the seven full adder cells [6] reported as having a low PDP (Power Delay Product), by means of speed, power consumption and area. These full adders were designed upon various logic styles to derive the sum and carry outputs. The existed standard full adders and the proposed full adders [6] are designed and showed the better result comparison. This paper describes how the proposed full adders [6] are better in contrast to the standard full adders. And ment...

  6. Design of Digital Adder Using Reversible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowthami P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have promising applications in Quantum computing, Low power VLSI design, Nanotechnology, optical computing, DNA computing and Quantum dot cellular automata. In spite of them another main prominent application of reversible logic is Quantum computers where the quantum devices are essential which are ideally operated at ultra high speed with less power dissipation must be built from reversible logic components. This makes the reversible logic as a one of the most promising research areas in the past few decades. In VLSI design the delay is the one of the major issue along with area and power. This paper presents the implementation of Ripple Carry Adder (RCA circuits using reversible logic gates are discussed.

  7. Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%.

  8. A transmon-based quantum half-adder scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dibyendu; Roy, Arijit

    2015-09-01

    A four-level qubit system is applied to realize quantum half-adder operation. The half-adder circuit is obtained in terms of a quantum CPHASE gate realized by the qubits comprised of four energy levels [C. P. Yang, Prog. Theor. Phys. 128, 587 (2012)], and such a CPHASE gate is demonstrated using the transmon. Commonly, higher energy levels are very sensitive and are easily perturbed by the noise sources. Compared to other qubit systems, the higher energy levels of the transmon are less prone to noise such as charge noise, flux noise and other noises. Further, the order of the dephasing time of the higher energy levels (third and fourth energy levels) is nearly the same as that of the lower energy levels of the transmon when the ratio between the Josephson energy and the charging energy ≫ 1. A system of three transmons coupled to a single high quality-factor superconducting coplanar resonator is demonstrated to obtain two- and three-qubit CPHASE gates which are in turn used to obtain the quantum half-adder operation. The main advantage of this quantum half-adder scheme is the reduction in the number of required elementary gates, leading to a significant increase in operational speed and robustness compared to the other existing half-adder schemes. The operational time of a complete half-adder operation is ˜ 37 ns. The methods presented in this article can also be implemented for more complicated quantum circuits.

  9. Area-Delay Efficient Binary Adders in QCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram. Gowda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA adder design is presented that decrease the number of QCA cells compared to previously method designs. The proposed one-bit QCA adder is based on a new algorithm that requires only three majority gates and two inverters for the QCA addition. A novel 128-bit adder designed in QCA was implemented. It achieved speed performances higher than all the existing. QCA adders, with an area requirement comparable with the low RCA and CFA established. The novel adder operates in the RCA functional, but it could propagate a carry signal through a number of cascaded MGs significantly lower than conventional RCA adders. In adding together, because of the adopted basic logic and layout strategy, the number of clock cycles required for completing the explanation was limited. As transistors reduce in size more and more of them can be accommodated in a single die, thus increasing chip computational capabilities. However, transistors cannot find much smaller than their current size. The quantum-dot cellular automata approach represents one of the possible solutions in overcome this physical limit, even though the design of logic modules in QCA is not forever straightforward

  10. Radiation therapy for stage IVA cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Naoya; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Morota, Madoka; Sumi, Minako; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Itami, Jun

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome and discover predictive factors for patients with stage IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with stage IVA cervical cancer who received definitive radiation therapy between 1992 and 2009. On univariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors for improved local control rate (LCR) were absence of pyometra (p=0.037) and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) at point A greater than 60 Gy (p=0.023). Prognostic factors for improved progression-free survival (PFS) were absence of pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial presentation (p=0.014), and EQD2 at point A greater than 60 Gy (p=0.023). Patients with stage IVA disease had poor median survival. However adequate radiation dose to point A produced favorable LCR and PFS, therefore efforts should be made to increase the point A dose.

  11. Preface of the IVA 2009 Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, Michael; Vilhjalmsson, Hannes Högni; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjalmsson, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, held 14-16 September, 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are interactive characters that exhibit humanlike qualities and communicate with humans or with each other using n

  12. IVA. Improving Vocational Administration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    The Texas Improving Vocational Administration (IVA) project was conceived to improve preservice and inservice programs for vocational education administrators. Primary objectives were to (1) develop a method, including a survey, to determine existing inservice and preservice administrative training program competencies; (2) determine, using the…

  13. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  14. IVA. Improving Vocational Administration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    The Texas Improving Vocational Administration (IVA) project was conceived to improve preservice and inservice programs for vocational education administrators. Primary objectives were to (1) develop a method, including a survey, to determine existing inservice and preservice administrative training program competencies; (2) determine, using the…

  15. Preface of the IVA 2009 Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, Michael; Vilhjalmsson, Hannes Högni; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjalmsson, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, held 14-16 September, 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are interactive characters that exhibit humanlike qualities and communicate with humans or with each other using

  16. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  17. Atypical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Eric T

    2016-09-01

    A 14 year old patient with short stature, type I diabetes, and cataracts was referred for evaluation of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Radiography was suggestive of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with decreased bone mineral density for age. Targeted molecular and biochemical testing were normal in this patient. Whole exome sequencing was performed and showed compound heterozygosity for previously reported pathogenic GALNS variants which were diagnostic of mucopolysaccharidosis, type IVA (Morquio A). While this case describes neither a novel condition nor a new mutation, it does illustrate three important points in the diagnosis of patients with atypical forms of MPS IVA. First, that in many instances urine glycosaminoglycan analysis is not sufficient to rule out MPS IVA as a potential diagnosis. Patients in whom biochemical screening is advised should have measurement of leukocyte enzymatic activity. Second, that in patients with radiographic evidence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with additional features or with normal targeted testing, MPS IVA should remain in the differential diagnosis. Third, that whole exome sequencing represents a viable diagnostic platform for evaluation of patients with unknown skeletal or metabolic disease.

  18. Design and Simulation of a New Optimized Full-Adder Using Carbon Nano Tube Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The full adder circuit is one of the most significant and prominent fundamental parts in digital processors and integrated circuits since it can be used for implementing all four basic computational functions including: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. so, in this paper a new low power and high performance full adder cell has been proposed with the benefit of using carbon nano tube field effect transistors. The proposed design contains 12 CNTFET transistors which are connected in pass transistor logic style to make the desired functionality. Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET has modified electrical characteristics such as low power consumption and high speed in comparison with MOSFET transistor; The proposed design is simulated using Hspice software based on CNTFET model and 0.65V supply voltage. the simulations are done considering three different frequencies, and three different load capacitors. The simulation results, which demonstrated in tables and diagrams, proved the superiority of proposed design in terms of power consumption and performance (PDP compared to the existing counterparts.

  19. Single bit full adder design using 8 transistors with novel 3 transistors XNOR gate

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manoj; Pandey, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    In present work a new XNOR gate using three transistors has been presented, which shows power dissipation of 550.7272$\\mu$W in 0.35$\\mu$m technology with supply voltage of 3.3V. Minimum level for high output of 2.05V and maximum level for low output of 0.084V have been obtained. A single bit full adder using eight transistors has been designed using proposed XNOR cell, which shows power dissipation of 581.542$\\mu$W. Minimum level for high output of 1.97V and maximum level for low output of 0.24V is obtained for sum output signal. For carry signal maximum level for low output of 0.32V and minimum level for high output of 3.2V have been achieved. Simulations have been performed by using SPICE based on TSMC 0.35$\\mu$m CMOS technology. Power consumption of proposed XNOR gate and full adder has been compared with earlier reported circuits and proposed circuit's shows better performance in terms of power consumption and transistor count.

  20. Partitioning and characterization of high speed adder structures in deep-submicron technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Adrián; Sassaw, Gashaw; Jiménez, Carlos J.; Valencia, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    The availability of higher performance (in area, time and power consumption) and greater precision binary adders is a constant requirement in digital systems. Consequently, the design and characterization of adders and, most of all, their adaptation to the requisites of present-day deep-submicron technologies, are today still issues of concern. The binary adder structures in deep-submicron technologies must be revised to achieve the best balance between the number of bits in the adder and its delay, area and power consumption. It is therefore very important to make an effort to carefully optimize adder structures, thus obtaining improvements in digital systems. This communication presents the optimization of adder structures for implementations in deep-submicron technologies through their partitioning into blocks. This partitioning consists of dividing the number of input bits to the adder into several subsets of bits that will constitute the inputs to several adder structures of the same or of different types. The structures used to accomplish this study range from the more traditional types, such as the carry look ahead adder, the ripple carry adder or the carry select adder, to more innovative kinds, like the parallel prefix adders of the type proposed by Brent-Kung, Han-Carlson, Kogge-Stone or Ladner-Fischer. The analyses carried out allow the characterization of structures implemented in deep-submicron technologies for area, delay and power consumption parameters.

  1. FPGA-Based Synthesis of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kokilavani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry select adder is a square-root time high-speed adder. In this paper, FPGA-based synthesis of conventional and hybrid carry select adders are described with a focus on high speed. Conventionally, carry select adders are realized using the following: (i full adders and 2 : 1 multiplexers, (ii full adders, binary to excess 1 code converters, and 2 : 1 multiplexers, and (iii sharing of common Boolean logic. On the other hand, hybrid carry select adders involve a combination of carry select and carry lookahead adders with/without the use of binary to excess 1 code converters. In this work, two new hybrid carry select adders are proposed involving the carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead subadders with/without binary to excess 1 converters. Seven different carry select adders were implemented in Verilog HDL and their performances were analyzed under two scenarios, dual-operand addition and multioperand addition, where individual operands are of sizes 32 and 64-bits. In the case of dual-operand additions, the hybrid carry select adder comprising the proposed carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead configurations is the fastest. With respect to multioperand additions, the hybrid carry select adder containing the carry select and conventional carry lookahead or section-carry based carry lookahead structures produce similar optimized performance.

  2. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regier DS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debra S Regier, Pranoot Tanpaiboon Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. Keywords

  3. On Design of Parity Preserving Reversible Adder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper novel parity preserving reversible logic blocks are presented and verified. Then, we present cost-effective parity preserving reversible implementations of Full Adder, 4:2 Compressor, Binary to BCD converter, and BCD adder using these blocks. The proposed parity preserving reversible BCD adder is designed by cascading the presented 4-digit parity preserving reversible Full Adder and a parity preserving reversible Binary to BCD Converter. In this design, instead of realizing the detection and correction unit, we design a Binary to BCD converter that its inputs are the output of parity preserving binary adder, and its output is a parity preserving BCD digit. In addition, several theorems on the numbers of garbage outputs, constant inputs, quantum cost and delay of the designs have been presented to show its optimality. In the presented circuits, the delay and the quantum cost are reduced by deriving designs based on the proposed parity preserving reversible blocks. The advantages of the proposed designs over the existing ones are quantitatively described and analysed. All the scales are in the Nano-metric area.

  4. Ultracompact all-optical full-adder and half-adder based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jingya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultracompact chip-integrated all-optical half- and full-adders are realized based on signal-light induced plasmonic-nanocavity-modes shift in a planar plasmonic microstructure covered with a nonlinear nanocomposite layer, which can be directly integrated into plasmonic circuits. Tremendous nonlinear enhancement is obtained for the nanocomposite cover layer, attributed to resonant excitation, slow light effect, as well as field enhancement effect provided by the plasmonic nanocavity. The feature size of the device is <15 μm, which is reduced by three orders of magnitude compared with previous reports. The operating threshold power is determined to be 300 μW (corresponding to a threshold intensity of 7.8 MW/cm2, which is reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with previous reports. The intensity contrast ratio between two output logic states, “1” and “0,” is larger than 27 dB, which is among the highest values reported to date. Our work is the first to experimentally realize on-chip half- and full-adders based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities having an ultrasmall feature size, ultralow threshold power, and high intensity contrast ratio simultaneously. This work not only provides a platform for the study of nonlinear optics, but also paves a way to realize ultrahigh-speed signal computing chips.

  5. Low Power Reversible Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraju H G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Low Power CMOS, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design I, Design II and Design III are proposed. In all the three design approaches, the full Adder and Subtractors are realized in a single unit as compared to only full Subtractor in the existing design. The performance analysis is verified using number reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs and Quantum Cost. It is observed that Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design III is efficient compared to Design I, Design II and existing design

  6. Novel designs for fault tolerant reversible binary coded decimal adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Li, Yan-Cheng; Zhang, Man-Qun

    2014-10-01

    Reversible logic circuits have received emerging attentions in recent years. Reversible logic is widely applied in some new technical fields, such as quantum computing, nanocomputing and optical computing and so on. In this paper, three fault tolerant gates are proposed, ZPL gate, ZQC gate and ZC gate. By using the proposed gates, fault tolerant quantum and reversible BCD adder and skip carry BCD adder are designed, which overcome the limitations of the existing methods. The proposed reversible BCD adders have also parity-preserving property. They are better than the existing counterparts, especially in the quantum cost. Proposed designs have been compared with existing designs with respect to the number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost.

  7. Low Power Reversible Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor

    CERN Document Server

    Rangaraju, H G; Muralidhara, K N; Raja, K B; 10.5121/vlsic.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Low Power CMOS, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design I, Design II and Design III are proposed. In all the three design approaches, the full Adder and Subtractors are realized in a single unit as compared to only full Subtractor in the existing design. The performance analysis is verified using number reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs and Quantum Cost. It is observed that Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design III is efficient compared to Design I, Design II and existing design.

  8. Low Power Reversible Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhara K N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications inLow Power CMOS, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays animportant role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, Reversible eight-bit ParallelBinary Adder/Subtractor with Design I, Design II and Design III are proposed. In all the three designapproaches, the full Adder and Subtractors are realized in a single unit as compared to only full Subtractorin the existing design. The performance analysis is verified using number reversible gates, Garbageinput/outputs and Quantum Cost. It is observed that Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractorwith Design III is efficient compared to Design I, Design II and existing design

  9. Design and Verification of Advanced Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Dixit Chepuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Design ofareaefficient data pathlogicsystems formsthelargestareasofresearch inVLSIsystem design.Indigital adders, thespeed of addition islimitedbythetimerequired totransmit a carrythroughtheadder.CarrySelectAdder (CSA isoneofthefastestadders usedinmanydata-processingprocessorstoperform fastarithmetic functions. Fromthestructure oftheCSA,itisclear thatthereisscopeforreducing thearea and powerintheCSA. This work usesasimpleandefficient gate-level modification todrasticallyreducetheareaandpower oftheCSA.Basedonthismodification 16,32,64 and128-bitsquare-root CSA(SQRT CSA architectureshavebeendevelopedandcomparedwith theregularSQRTCSAarchitecture. Theproposed designhasreducedarea and powerascompared withtheregular SQRTCSA.Thisworkestimates theperformanceof theproposed designsintermsofpower,areaand isimplementedusingXilinxISE and synthesized using cadence in 90nm technology.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF EXISTING LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION PLANTS BY ADDING A HYDRAULIC ADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiš

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recipes determine the quality of livestock feed and the hydraulic adders are one of the elements determining if the given recipe will be carried out. Generally, construction of existing adders does not allow accomplishment of that aim i.e. they do not meet recipe requirements. Consequently, researches which determined deviations in ingredient adding present with existing adders and with the experimental hydraulic adder were conducted. The research was conducted for two years (2005 and 2006 in two livestock feed factories in the Republic of Croatia on samples of feed mixtures for pigs weighing up to 15 and 25 kilos. Relative error was the means for comparison of weighing deviations between the hydraulic adder and the adders powered by means of an electric motor. Research results indicate that none of the two observed livestock feed production plants in 30 repetitions for two kinds of feed mixture showed a feed mixture weighing that would correspond to the specifications in the recipe. Additionally, hydraulic adders showed a greater precision in adding fish meal, extruded soybean and soybean meal when compared with the adders powered by means of an electric motor. However, the adders powered by means of an electric motor showed greater precision in adding corn. Based on the research results it can be concluded that using hydraulic adders instead of the adders powered by means of an electric motor will result in more accuracy in dosing ingredients with fine and middle granularity, whereas this can not be applied to dosing coarse grained ingredients.

  11. High Speed, Low Power, Area Efficient Mux-Add and Bec Based Implementation of Carry Select Adder.

    OpenAIRE

    Assistant Professor New Horizon College of Engineering

    2013-01-01

    Adder being the basic hardware block of any arithmetic operation, the major constraint in the field of signal processors, data processors to perform any operations are highly dependent on the adder performance of the circuit. The gate level implementation of the carry select adder (CSLA) and modified carry select adder has significantly reduced the area and power consumption which replaced the ripple carry adder (RCA) used in modified CSLA with MUX-ADD block has further reduced the power ...

  12. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP, and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC. Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constructions for binary addition have been planned over the last decades, covering a wide range of presentation characteristics. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost for ripple carry adder and carry skip adder. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  13. Morbidity and mortality following envenomation by the common night adder (Causus rhombeatus) in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cramer, Kurt G M; van Bart, Garreth A; Huberts, Freek

    2012-10-12

    In South Africa dogs are frequently presented to veterinarians following snakebite. The offending snakes are usually puff adders (Bitis arietans), cobras (Naja spp.) and mambas (Dendroaspis spp.). Night adder (Causus rhombeatus) bites in dogs have not yet been reported in South Africa. This article deals with three cases of dogs bitten by night adders in which extensive tissue damage was noted and one fatality occurred. Night adder bites may be indistinguishable from puff adder bites. Non-specific treatment included addressing the hypovolaemia and swelling. Specific treatment involving immunotherapy using the South African polyvalent antivenom would be ineffective as it does not contain immunoglobulins against night adder venom. Veterinarians should also include night adders as the possible cause of dogs suffering from severe and painful swellings suspected to be due to snakebites.

  14. Morbidity and mortality following envenomation by the common night adder (Causus rhombeatus in three dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt G.M. de Cramer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa dogs are frequently presented to veterinarians following snakebite. The offending snakes are usually puff adders (Bitis arietans, cobras (Naja spp. and mambas (Dendroaspis spp.. Night adder (Causus rhombeatus bites in dogs have not yet been reported in South Africa. This article deals with three cases of dogs bitten by night adders in which extensive tissue damage was noted and one fatality occurred. Night adder bites may be indistinguishable from puff adder bites. Non-specific treatment included addressing the hypovolaemia and swelling. Specific treatment involving immunotherapy using the South African polyvalent antivenom would be ineffective as it does not contain immunoglobulins against night adder venom. Veterinarians should also include night adders as the possible cause of dogs suffering from severe and painful swellings suspected to be due to snakebites.

  15. Layout parameter analysis in Shannon expansion theorem based on 32 bit adder circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senthilpari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 1-bit adder circuits are schematized using pass transistor logic (PTL technique, that’s optimized by the Shannon expansion theorem. The proposed 32 bit carry increment adder (CIA circuit is designed by bit slice method. The CIA adder layout gives tremendous change compared to existing author results. The proposed circuit achieved better performance on power consumption, speed, throughput, and area. The 32-bit adder circuits are implemented in various types of 1-bit adder cells, such as Shannon, Mixed-Shannon and MCIT-7T. Furthermore, the 32-bit CIA adder layout is furtherly investigated for RLC interconnect parameter such as capacitive impedance, inductive impedance, power factor sin ϕ, tan ϕ for applying frequency. The 32 bit adder circuit acts in a better way than existing circuits in terms of power dissipation, delay, throughput, latency, power factor, sin ϕ and tan ϕ.

  16. Design of Low Power Multiplier with Energy Efficient Full Adder Using DPTAAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kishore Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asynchronous adiabatic logic (AAL is a novel lowpower design technique which combines the energy saving benefits of asynchronous systems with adiabatic benefits. In this paper, energy efficient full adder using double pass transistor with asynchronous adiabatic logic (DPTAAL is used to design a low power multiplier. Asynchronous adiabatic circuits are very low power circuits to preserve energy for reuse, which reduces the amount of energy drawn directly from the power supply. In this work, an 8×8 multiplier using DPTAAL is designed and simulated, which exhibits low power and reliable logical operations. To improve the circuit performance at reduced voltage level, double pass transistor logic (DPL is introduced. The power results of the proposed multiplier design are compared with the conventional CMOS implementation. Simulation results show significant improvement in power for clock rates ranging from 100 MHz to 300 MHz.

  17. Genetic dissection of DivIVA functions in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaval, Karan Gautam; Hauf, Samuel; Rismondo, Jeanine; Hahn, Birgitt; Halbedel, Sven

    2017-10-02

    DivIVA is a membrane binding protein that clusters at curved membrane regions such as the cell poles and the membrane invaginations occurring during cell division. DivIVA proteins recruit many other proteins to these subcellular sites through direct protein-protein interactions. DivIVA-dependent functions are typically associated with cell growth and division, even though species-specific differences in the spectrum of DivIVA functions and their causative interaction partners exist. DivIVA from the Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has at least three different functions. In this bacterium, DivIVA is required for precise positioning of the septum at mid-cell, it contributes to secretion of autolysins required for breakdown of peptidoglycan at the septum after completion of cell division, and it is essential for flagellar motility. While the DivIVA interaction partners for control of division site selection are well-established, the proteins connecting DivIVA with autolysin secretion or swarming motility are completely unknown. We set out to identify divIVA alleles, in which these three DivIVA functions could be separated, since the question of the degree to which the three functions of L. monocytogenes DivIVA are interlinked could not be answered before. Here, we identify such alleles, and our results show that division site selection, autolysin secretion, and swarming represent three discrete pathways that are independently influenced by DivIVA. These findings provide the required basis for the identification of DivIVA interaction partners controlling autolysin secretion and swarming in the future.IMPORTANCE DivIVA of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a central scaffold protein that influences at least three different cellular processes, namely cell division, protein secretion and bacterial motility. How DivIVA coordinates these rather unrelated processes is not known. We here identify variants of L. monocytogenes DivIVA, in which

  18. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. PMID:27366102

  19. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age.

  20. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Kaphle; Ying-Ling Wu; Jen Hsou Lin

    2005-01-01

    More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP) and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS). IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly ...

  1. Low Power 256-bit Modified Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carry Select Adder (CSLA is one of the high speed adders used in many computational systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. When compared to earlier Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Look Ahead Adder, Regular CSLA (R-CSLA is observed to provide optimized results in terms of area. This study proposes an efficient method which replaces the RCA using BEC. The modified CSLA architecture has been developed using gate-level modification to significantly reduce the delay and power of the CSLA. Based on this modification 8-, 16-, 32-, 64- and 128-bit Square-Root CSLA (SQRT CSLA architecture have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design for 256-bit has reduced power and delay as compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. Designs were developed using structural Verilog module and synthesized using Xilinx ISE simulator and the implementation is done in cadence RTL compiler using 0.18 µm technology. For 256-bit addition in this study, it is proposed to simple gate level modification which significantly reduces the power by 19.4% when compared with R-CSLA. The result analysis shows that the proposed architecture achieves two folded advantages in terms of delay and power.

  2. Gluttony Causes Death in Juvenile Puff Adder Bitis arietans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Haagner

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the predator/prey relationship in reptiles. The puff adder Bitis arietans is known to feed on a variety of food items, their diet consisting mainly of rodents, while birds, lizards and toads may be included (Broadley 1983, FitzSimons' Snakes of Southern Africa, Johannesburg: Delta Books. Pitman (1974, The Snakes of Uganda, Glasgow: Wheldon and Wesley recorded larger prey for puff adders in East Africa, while Robertson, Chapman & Chapman (1965, Puku 3: 149-170 reported on the diet of puff adders in Tanzania and Zambia, respectively. A gravid puff adder was collected in the Manyeleti Game Reserve in the Mhala district (24@38'S, 31@28'E of Gazankulu. On 12 February 1986 she gave birth to 28 young. The average length of the fry was 219,12 mm (S.D. 9,72 mm and their average mass 15, 72 g (S.D. 0,67 g. The young were separated from the mother and placed in another cage. The first ecdysis was com- pleted within 24 hours. After 10 days some newly weaned mice were placed in the cage. On subsequent inspection, it was found that a young snake gorged itself to death. The young puff adder contained three young mice with a total mass of 13,8 g, while the post-mortem mass of the snake was 14,2 g. Having swallowed 97,2 of its own body weight, the snake evidently died of suffocation. The specimen was preserved and is now part of the Transvaal Museum collection in Pretoria (TM 64088.

  3. High Speed Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Russian Peasant Multiplier with Sklansky Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gunasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Reconfigurable FIR filters are commonly used digital filters which find its major applications in digital signal processing and multi-standard wireless communications. The Direct form of FIR filter used in DSP application which consumes more area and power. To overcome this problem Multiplier Control Signal Decision (MCSD window schemes is incorporated into direct form FIR filter in order to dynamically change the filter order. Conventional reconfigurable FIR filter is designed using Russian Peasant Multiplier which consumes more area and delay due to poor performance of adder used in multiplication unit. In this study, modified reconfigurable FIR filter is designed to further reduce the area, power and time. In proposed Reconfigurable FIR filter, a Wallace adder is replaced by carry select adder with sklansky adder in Russian Peasant Multiplication technique. Hence, modified Reconfigurable FIR filter with carry select adder with sklansky adder consumes less area, delay and power than the conventional Reconfigurable FIR architecture with Russian Peasant Multiplication technique.

  4. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.

  5. Review of clinical presentation and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksz, C J; Harmatz, P; Beck, M; Jones, S; Wood, T; Lachman, R; Gravance, C G; Orii, T; Tomatsu, S

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) was described in 1929 by Luis Morquio from Uruguay and James Brailsford from England, and was later found as an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. MPS IVA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Reduced GALNS activity results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). Clinical presentations of MPS IVA reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe "classical" phenotype to a mild "attenuated" phenotype. More than 180 different mutations have been identified in the GALNS gene, which likely explains the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Accumulation of C6S and KS manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex), including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. However, abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with MPS IVA. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical examination, skeletal radiographs, urinary GAG, and enzymatic activity of GALNS in blood cells or fibroblasts. Deficiency of GALNS activity is a common assessment for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS IVA; however, with recently increased availability, gene sequencing for MPS IVA is often used to confirm enzyme results. As multiple clinical presentations are observed, diagnosis of MPS IVA may require multi-system considerations. This review provides a history of defining MPS IVA and how the understanding of the disease manifestations has changed over time. A summary of the accumulated knowledge is presented, including information from the International Morquio Registry. The classical phenotype is contrasted with attenuated cases, which are now being recognized and diagnosed more frequently. Laboratory based diagnoses of MPS IVA are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapies of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Barbosa, Hector; Montaño, Adriana M; Barrera, Luis A; Shimada, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Mason, Robert W; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Tadao

    2013-10-01

    Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA) is one of the lysosomal storage diseases and is caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Deficiency of this enzyme leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S). The majority of KS is produced by chondrocytes, and therefore, the undegraded substrates accumulate mainly in cells and extracelluar matrix (ECM) of cartilage. This has a direct impact on cartilage and bone development, leading to systemic skeletal dysplasia. In patients with Morquio A, cartilage cells are vacuolated, and this results in abnormal chondrogenesis and/or endochondral ossification. This article describes the advanced therapies of Morquio A, focused on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and gene therapy to deliver the drug to avascular bone lesions. ERT and gene therapies for other types of MPS are also discussed, which provide therapeutic efficacy to bone lesions. ERT, gene therapy and hematopietic stem therapy are clinically and/or experimentally conducted. However, there is no effective curative therapy for bone lesion to date. One of the limitations for Morquio A therapy is that targeting avascular cartilage tissues remains an unmet challenge. ERT or gene therapy with bone-targeting system will improve the bone pathology and skeletal manifestations more efficiently.

  7. Design of High-Speed Adders for Efficient Digital Design Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Yagain; Vijaya Krishna A; Akansha Baliga

    2012-01-01

    The core of every microprocessor and digital signal processor is its data path. The heart of data-path and addressing units in turn are arithmetic units which include adders. Parallel-prefix adders offer a highly efficient solution to the binary addition problem and are well suited for VLSI implementations. This paper involves the design and comparison of high-speed, parallel-prefix adders such as Kogge-Stone, Brent-Kung, Sklansky, and Kogge-Stone Ling adders. It is found that Kogge-Stone Lin...

  8. Design of Low Power and Efficient Carry Select Adder Using 3-T XOR Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA.

  9. Optimized parity preserving quantum reversible full adder/subtractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Reversible logic is one of the indispensable aspects of emerging technologies for reducing physical entropy gain, since reversible circuits do not lose information in the form of internal heat during computation. This paper aimed to initiate constructing parity preserving reversible circuits. A novel parity preserving reversible block, HB is presented. Then a new design of a cost-effective parity preserving reversible full adder/subtractor (PPFA/S) is proposed. Next, we suggested a new parity preserving binary to BCD converter. Finally, we proposed new realization of parity preserving reversible BCD adder. The proposed designs are cost-effective in terms of quantum cost and delay. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.

  10. Reversible Logic Synthesis of Fault Tolerant Carry Skip BCD Adder

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; 10.3329/jbas.v32i2.2431

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic is emerging as an important research area having its application in diverse fields such as low power CMOS design, digital signal processing, cryptography, quantum computing and optical information processing. This paper presents a new 4*4 parity preserving reversible logic gate, IG. The proposed parity preserving reversible gate can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean function. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs. It is shown that a fault tolerant reversible full adder circuit can be realized using only two IGs. The proposed fault tolerant full adder (FTFA) is used to design other arithmetic logic circuits for which it is used as the fundamental building block. It has also been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and is efficient in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant inputs than the existing counterparts.

  11. Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina

    2011-01-01

    Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.

  12. Costs of reproduction in a population of European adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Shine, Richard

    1993-07-01

    Eleven years of data on a small population of adders (Vipera berus) in southern Sweden provide quantitative information on the nature and degree of costs faced by reproducing animals. Reproduction imposes both an energy cost (measured by loss in body mass) and a mortality cost on adders of both sexes. The extent of the energy cost is broadly independent of levels of reproductive activity in males, but mortality costs are highest for large males, perhaps because they are more obvious to predators. In females, energy costs include a high 'fixed' (fecundity-independent) component, such that a large litter may cost little more to produce than would a small litter. Energy costs and mortality costs are separate in males, but inter-related in females. Mortality of reproducing females is high (40% per year), primarily because post-parturient females are emaciated and must forage actively, hence increasing their vulnerability to predators. Females producing relatively large litters (high Relative Clutch Mass) lose more body mass, and are less likely to survive after reproducing. The observed low reproductive frequencies of female adders may result from the presence of high fecundity-independent costs of reproduction.

  13. New low power adders in Self Resetting Logic with Gate Diffusion Input Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective vividly defines a new low-power and high-speed logic family; named Self Resetting Logic with Gate Diffusion Input (SRLGDI. This logic family resolves the issues in dynamic circuits like charge sharing, charge leakage, short circuit power dissipation, monotonicity requirement and low output voltage. In the proposed design structure of SRLGDI, the pull down tree is implemented with Gate Diffusion Input (GDI with level restoration which apparently eliminated the conductance overlap between nMOS and pMOS devices, thereby reducing the short circuit power dissipation and providing High Output Voltage VoH. The output stage of SRLGDI has been incorporated with an inverter to produce both true and complementary output function. The Resistance Capacitance (RC delay model has been proposed to obtain the total delay of the circuit during precharge and evaluation phases. Using SRLGDI, the primitive cells and 3 different full adder circuits were designed and simulated in a 0.250 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process technology. The simulated result demonstrates that the proposed SRLGDI logic family is superior in terms of speed and power consumption with respect to other logic families like Dynamic logic (DY, CMOS, Self Resetting CMOS (SRCMOS and GDI.

  14. An enhanced high-speed multi-digit BCD adder using quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, D.; Ramanaiah, K. V.; Sumalatha, V.

    2017-02-01

    The advent of development of high-performance, low-power digital circuits is achieved by a suitable emerging nanodevice called quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). Even though many efficient arithmetic circuits were designed using QCA, there is still a challenge to implement high-speed circuits in an optimized manner. Among these circuits, one of the essential structures is a parallel multi-digit decimal adder unit with significant speed which is very attractive for future environments. To achieve high speed, a new correction logic formulation method is proposed for single and multi-digit BCD adder. The proposed enhanced single-digit BCD adder (ESDBA) is 26% faster than the carry flow adder (CFA)-based BCD adder. The multi-digit operations are also performed using the proposed ESDBA, which is cascaded innovatively. The enhanced multi-digit BCD adder (EMDBA) performs two 4-digit and two 8-digit BCD addition 50% faster than the CFA-based BCD adder with the nominal overhead of the area. The EMDBA performs two 4-digit BCD addition 24% faster with 23% decrease in the area, similarly for 8-digit operation the EMDBA achieves 36% increase in speed with 21% less area compared to the existing carry look ahead (CLA)-based BCD adder design. The proposed multi-digit adder produces significantly less delay of (N –1) + 3.5 clock cycles compared to the N* One digit BCD adder delay required by the conventional BCD adder method. It is observed that as per our knowledge this is the first innovative proposal for multi-digit BCD addition using QCA.

  15. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi; Gurinderpal Singh

    2014-01-01

    The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP), and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constru...

  16. An Optical Carry Chain Fast Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Al-Dabass

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in Arithmetic Unit design and particularly for systolic arrays remains the speed attainable in achieving high speed addition. The root of the problem is carry propagation and a method is presented which is relatively independent of word length. The problem is addressed by the description of a suggested radical design involving a hybrid optical and electronic approach. The method of carry chain addition through pass gates is explained and a suggested implementation utilising Fabry-Perott resonators, optical waveguides and voltage controlled couplers is described. The design is suitable for n-stage modular expansion.

  17. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IVa promotes invasion of choriocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Yamamoto, Eiko; Niimi, Kaoru; Sekiya, Yoko; Yamashita, Yoriko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-07-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) results from the malignant transformation of placental trophoblasts which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as do normal placenta or hydatidiform mole. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV (GnT-IV) is a glycosyltransferase which catalyses the formation of β1,4GlcNAc branches on the mannose core of N-glycans. Previous studies reported that β1,4GlcNAc branches on hCG were detected in GTN but not in normal pregnancy or hydatidiform mole. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of GnT-IVa in choriocarcinoma and find the target proteins for GnT-IVa glycosylation which contribute to the malignancy of choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-II staining and GnT-IVa staining were intense in trophoblastic cells of invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. We established a choriocarcinoma cell line with GnT-IVa overexpression (Jar-GnT4a), and examined its malignant potential and target proteins for GnT-IVa glycosylation. GnT-IVa overexpression increased the cell migration and invasion (2.5- and 1.4-fold) as well as the ability to adhere to the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, including fibronectin and collagen type I and IV. The tumour formation potential of Jar-GnT4a in mice was significantly higher than that of control (P=0.0407), and the cumulative survival rate of mice with Jar-GnT4a was relatively lower than those with control. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that β1,4GlcNAc branches of N-glycans on integrin β1 in choriocarcinoma cells were increased by GnT-IVa overexpression. Nano-LC/MS/MS analysis suggested that lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2) was a target protein for glycosylation by GnT-IVa. The increase in β1,4GlcNAc branches on LAMP-2 by GnT-IVa overexpression was confirmed by lectin blot analysis using whole cell lysate and conditioned medium. Our results suggest that highly branched N-glycans generated by the action of GnT-IVa

  18. Fast Multi Operand Decimal Adders using Digit Compressors with Decimal Carry Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadda, Luigi; Nannarelli, Alberto

    We consider multi operand decimal adders designed with an architecture implementing first the addition of all the digits of each column (i.e. with the same decimal weight) and then combining in various ways such column sums for obtaining the final result. Different and efficient architectures can...... of cells. A comparison is also made between multi-operand adders of different architectures....

  19. Design and implementation of a microfluidic half adder chip based on double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Yourui

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, DNA computing has gained significant research interest. The design of a biochip with DNA computing as a carrier has become a key area in the development of a DNA molecular computer. The half adder, as the basic unit of various arithmetic units, has a complex structure that directly affects the overall complexity of a computer's structure. In this study, a half adder on a microfluidic chip is developed by means of bio-reaction. This technology is combined with a biochip and adopts glass and polydimethylsiloxane to fabricate a microscale hybrid chip. Using a DNA strand as an operand, realization of the half adder on a microfluidic chip is achieved by controlling the annealing and denaturation of double-stranded DNA. The computing results are rapidly and accurately obtained by detecting the presence of double-stranded DNA in a solution by agarose gel electrophoresis. The microfluidic half-adder chip accurately realizes half-adder computations and overcomes the shortcomings of traditional integrated circuit half adders, optical half adders, and chemical molecule half adders, such as complex structure, limited component size, and low accuracy.

  20. IVA: accurate de novo assembly of RNA virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Martin; Gall, Astrid; Ong, Swee Hoe; Brener, Jacqui; Ferns, Bridget; Goulder, Philip; Nastouli, Eleni; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kellam, Paul; Otto, Thomas D

    2015-07-15

    An accurate genome assembly from short read sequencing data is critical for downstream analysis, for example allowing investigation of variants within a sequenced population. However, assembling sequencing data from virus samples, especially RNA viruses, into a genome sequence is challenging due to the combination of viral population diversity and extremely uneven read depth caused by amplification bias in the inevitable reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification process of current methods. We developed a new de novo assembler called IVA (Iterative Virus Assembler) designed specifically for read pairs sequenced at highly variable depth from RNA virus samples. We tested IVA on datasets from 140 sequenced samples from human immunodeficiency virus-1 or influenza-virus-infected people and demonstrated that IVA outperforms all other virus de novo assemblers. The software runs under Linux, has the GPLv3 licence and is freely available from http://sanger-pathogens.github.io/iva © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. High Speed, Low Power, Area Efficient Mux-Add and Bec Based Implementation of Carry Select Adder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant Professor New Horizon College of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adder being the basic hardware block of any arithmetic operation, the major constraint in the field of signal processors, data processors to perform any operations are highly dependent on the adder performance of the circuit. The gate level implementation of the carry select adder (CSLA and modified carry select adder has significantly reduced the area and power consumption which replaced the ripple carry adder (RCA used in modified CSLA with MUX-ADD block has further reduced the power consumption by efficiently utilizing the area with faster performance.

  2. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mutations in Chinese patients: 16 novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Yun; Meng, Yan; Su, Liang; Shi, Huiping; Huang, Shangzhi

    2010-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) and transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. This is the first systematic mutation screen in Chinese MPS IVA patients. Mutation detections in 24 unrelated Chinese MPS IVA patients were performed by PCR and direct sequencing of exons or the mRNA of GALNS. A total of 42 mutant alleles were identified, belonging to 27 different mutations. Out of the 27 mutations, 16 were novel, including 2 splicing mutations (c.567-1G>T and c.634-1G>A), 2 nonsense mutations (p.W325X and p.Q422X) and 12 missense mutations (p.T88I, p.H142R, p.P163H, p.G168L, p.H236D, p.N289S, p.T312A, p.G316V, p.A324E, p.L366P, p.Q422K and p.F452L). p.G340D was found to be a common mutation in the Chinese MPS IVA patients, accounting for 16.7% of the total number of mutant alleles. The results show that the mutations in Chinese MPS IVA patients are also family specific but have a different mutation spectrum as compared to those of other populations.

  3. High Speed Carry Select Adder for ALU Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Rama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The regular SQRT CSLA consists of two RCA blocks with carry input as 0 and 1.The Final sum will be selected from multiplexers (Mux by the carry out generated by the pervious block. This paper, proposes an area and delay efficient carry select adder with logical reduction of excess redundant hardware. In the proposed architecture, we had implemented the RCA with carry input as 1, only with Mux, Or gate and And gate. For 16-bit regular SQRT CSLA there is a reduction of basic logic gates from 434 to 323.The delay is reduced by replacing Full-adder with half-adder in first bit of every RCA in theproposed architecture. This will reduces the number of Iterations required to get the final sum. The proposed architecture shows that there is reduction of area and delay. Based on this architecture, wedesigned 4-bit,8-bit,16-bit and 32-bit Square-root CSLA (SQRT CSLA and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. In this work, we evaluated the performance of the proposed design in 90-ηm CMOS Technology in Cadence Tools. The result analysis shows that, the proposed SQRT CSLA of 4-bit, 8-bit 16- bit and 32-bit has a reduction of 31.74%, 30.13%, 21.92% and 21.76 % respectively compared with regular SQRT CSLA in area. The delay of Proposed SQRT CSLA of 4-bit,8-bit 16-bit and 32-bit are reduce by 27.47%, 17.23%, 14.32% and 11.63% respectively.

  4. Optimized reversible BCD adder using new reversible logic gates

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagyalakshmi, H R

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has received great attention in the recent years due to their ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in low power digital design. It has wide applications advanced computing, low power CMOS design, Optical information processing, DNA computing, bio information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. This paper presents an optimized reversible BCD adder using a new reversible gate. A comparative result is presented which shows that the proposed design is more optimized in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost than the existing designs.

  5. Implementation of Binary Coded Decimal Digit Adders and Multipliers on Fpga Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R. P. Sarnaik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary-coded decimal (BCD is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits. The main problem in existing decimal adders is the need of correction circuit as the result is in binary form which increases delay & area. In this paper, we propose a high speed BCD adder and multiplier without need of correction circuit. The Decimal carry-save adders (CSAs are used to design BCD digit adders which consist less area, low power and high speed performance. BCD Multiplier is design using Wallace Tree Architecture, explaining the use of half and full adders for addition of intermediate product terms obtained after the multiplication of two nibbles (4 bits.In this paper, correction free BCD Adder is efficient one. FPGAs provide an efficient hardware platform that can be employed for accelerating decimal algorithms. These designs are described and simulated using VHDL hardware description language Modelsim Simulator SE 6.3f. BCD Adders & BCD Multipliers are synthesized with the help of Altera Quartus II 9.1 sp2. Implementation results and comparison with existing designs are provided.

  6. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: correlation between genotype, phenotype and keratan sulfate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dũng, Vũ Chí; Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Gottesman, Gary; Bober, Michael B; Mackenzie, William; Maeda, Miho; Mitchell, Grant A; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), leading to systemic skeletal dysplasia because of excessive storage of keratan sulfate (KS) in chondrocytes. In an effort to determine a precise prognosis and personalized treatment, we aim to characterize clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in MPS IVA patients, and to seek correlations between genotype, phenotype, and blood and urine KS levels. Mutation screening of GALNS gene was performed in 55 MPS IVA patients (severe: 36, attenuated: 13, undefined: 6) by genomic PCR followed by direct sequence analysis. Plasma and urine KS levels were measured by ELISA method. Genotype/phenotype/KS correlations were assessed when data were available. Fifty-three different mutations including 19 novel ones (41 missense, 2 nonsense, 4 small deletions, 1 insertion, and 5 splice-site) were identified in 55 patients and accounted for 93.6% of the analyzed mutant alleles. Thirty-nine mutations were associated with a severe phenotype and ten mutations with an attenuated one. Blood and urine KS concentrations in MPS IVA patients were age-dependent and markedly higher than those in age-matched normal controls. Plasma and urine KS levels in MPS IVA patients with the severe phenotype were higher than in those with an attenuated form. This study provides evidence for extensive allelic heterogeneity of MPS IVA. Accumulation of mutations as well as clinical descriptions and KS levels allows us to predict clinical severity more precisely and should be used for evaluation of responses to potential treatment options. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Components for the High Precision Inductive Adder for the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. In addition to semiconductors working in their saturated region, semiconductors working in their linear region are needed for applying analogue modulation techniques. Simulat...

  8. Design and Performance Analysis of Various Adders and Multipliers Using GDI Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran kaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the active development of portable electronic devices, the need for low power dissipation, high speed and compact implementation, give rise to several research intentions. There are several design techniques used for the circuit configuration in VLSI systems but there are very few design techniques that gives the required extensibility. This paper describes the implementation of various adders and multipliers. The design approach proposed in the article is based on the GDI (Gate Diffusion Input technique. The paper also includes a comparative analysis of this low power method over CMOS design style with respect to power consumption, area complexity and delay. In this paper, a new GDI based cell designs are projected and are found to be efficient in terms of power consumption and area in comparison with existing CMOS based cell functionality. Power and delay has been calculated using Cadence Virtuoso tool at 45nm CMOS technology. The results obtained show better power and delay performance of the proposed designs at 1.3V supply voltage.

  9. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  10. Death adder envenoming causes neurotoxicity not reversed by antivenom--Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I Johnston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Death adders (Acanthophis spp are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Definite death adder bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project (ASP as defined by expert identification or detection of death adder venom in blood. Clinical effects and laboratory results were collected prospectively, including the time course of neurotoxicity and response to treatment. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure venom concentrations. Twenty nine patients had definite death adder bites; median age 45 yr (5-74 yr; 25 were male. Envenoming occurred in 14 patients. Two further patients had allergic reactions without envenoming, both snake handlers with previous death adder bites. Of 14 envenomed patients, 12 developed neurotoxicity characterised by ptosis (12, diplopia (9, bulbar weakness (7, intercostal muscle weakness (2 and limb weakness (2. Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for two patients for 17 and 83 hours. The median time to onset of neurotoxicity was 4 hours (0.5-15.5 hr. One patient bitten by a northern death adder developed myotoxicity and one patient only developed systemic symptoms without neurotoxicity. No patient developed venom induced consumption coagulopathy. Antivenom was administered to 13 patients, all receiving one vial initially. The median time for resolution of neurotoxicity post-antivenom was 21 hours (5-168. The median peak venom concentration in 13 envenomed patients with blood samples was 22 ng/mL (4.4-245 ng/mL. In eight patients where post-antivenom bloods were available, no venom was detected after one vial of antivenom. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Death adder envenoming is characterised by neurotoxicity, which is mild in most cases. One vial of death adder antivenom was sufficient to bind all circulating venom

  11. Death Adder Envenoming Causes Neurotoxicity Not Reversed by Antivenom - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher I.; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Brown, Simon G. A.; Currie, Bart J.; Halkidis, Lambros; Whitaker, Richard; Close, Benjamin; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Death adders (Acanthophis spp) are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Definite death adder bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project (ASP) as defined by expert identification or detection of death adder venom in blood. Clinical effects and laboratory results were collected prospectively, including the time course of neurotoxicity and response to treatment. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure venom concentrations. Twenty nine patients had definite death adder bites; median age 45 yr (5–74 yr); 25 were male. Envenoming occurred in 14 patients. Two further patients had allergic reactions without envenoming, both snake handlers with previous death adder bites. Of 14 envenomed patients, 12 developed neurotoxicity characterised by ptosis (12), diplopia (9), bulbar weakness (7), intercostal muscle weakness (2) and limb weakness (2). Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for two patients for 17 and 83 hours. The median time to onset of neurotoxicity was 4 hours (0.5–15.5 hr). One patient bitten by a northern death adder developed myotoxicity and one patient only developed systemic symptoms without neurotoxicity. No patient developed venom induced consumption coagulopathy. Antivenom was administered to 13 patients, all receiving one vial initially. The median time for resolution of neurotoxicity post-antivenom was 21 hours (5–168). The median peak venom concentration in 13 envenomed patients with blood samples was 22 ng/mL (4.4–245 ng/mL). In eight patients where post-antivenom bloods were available, no venom was detected after one vial of antivenom. Conclusions/Significance Death adder envenoming is characterised by neurotoxicity, which is mild in most cases. One vial of death adder antivenom was sufficient to bind all circulating venom. The

  12. Determinants of reproductive success in female adders, Vipera berus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Shine, Richard

    1992-10-01

    Female lifetime reproductive success in a small population of individually-marked adders in southern Sweden was studied over a period of seven years. Reproductive characteristics varied little from year to year and were consistent through time in individual females. Most females mature at four years of age and reproduce every two years. The total number of offspring produced by a female depends on her adult body size (and thus, litter size) and longevity (and thus, number of litters per lifetime). Adult body size in females is influenced mainly by subadult growth rates. Offspring size depends on maternal body size and a tradeoff between offspring size and offspring number. Maternal age does not affect litter sizes and offspring sizes except through ontogenetic changes in maternal body size.Survival of females after parturition is low because of the high energy costs of reproduction, compounded by low feeding rates of gravid females because of their sedentary behaviour at this time. About one-half of females produce only a single litter during their lifetimes, although some females live to produce four or five litters. On a proximate basis, rates of energy accumulation for growth (in subadults) and reproduction (in adults) may be the most important determinants of fitness in female adders.

  13. Cold hardiness in the boreal adder, Vipera berus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, S; Johansson, L

    2001-01-01

    In three freezing experiments we examined the freeze tolerance in newborn adders, Vipera berus, from East-central Sweden. After a two to three hours exposure to freezing, ten out of eleven fast frozen snakes survived and recovered completely after being exposed to -3.1 degrees C on average. In the other two experiments with fast and slow freezing followed by long exposures lasting for 22-30 hours, none of the snakes survived average exposures at -4.8 degrees C or -3.8 degrees C, respectively. The glucose content of blood from frozen snakes was significantly higher than in unfrozen ones. The increase was small and its contribution to freeze tolerance doubtful. Compared to other freeze tolerant reptiles, the adder was categorised as virtually non freeze tolerant capable of surviving only a short exposure not colder than approximately -4 degrees C. Supercooling could play a role in winter survival but their precise choice of hibernation site is probably the most important.

  14. Low power adder based digital filter for QRS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, L; Chitra, D; Manigandan, T

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65 nm technology library standard cells.

  15. Quantitative transformation for implementation of adder circuits in physical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Whiting, James G H; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Computing devices are composed of spatial arrangements of simple fundamental logic gates. These gates may be combined to form more complex adding circuits and, ultimately, complete computer systems. Implementing classical adding circuits using unconventional, or even living substrates such as slime mould Physarum polycephalum, is made difficult and often impractical by the challenges of branching fan-out of inputs and regions where circuit lines must cross without interference. In this report we explore whether it is possible to avoid spatial propagation, branching and crossing completely in the design of adding circuits. We analyse the input and output patterns of a single-bit full adder circuit. A simple quantitative transformation of the input patterns which considers the total number of bits in the input string allows us to map the respective input combinations to the correct outputs patterns of the full adder circuit, reducing the circuit combinations from a 2:1 mapping to a 1:1 mapping. The mapping of inputs to outputs also shows an incremental linear progression, suggesting its implementation in a range of physical systems. We demonstrate an example implementation, first in simulation, inspired by self-oscillatory dynamics of the acellular slime mould P. polycephalum. We then assess the potential implementation using plasmodium of slime mould itself. This simple transformation may enrich the potential for using unconventional computing substrates to implement digital circuits.

  16. Upper limb compartment syndrome after an adder bite:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Faouzi Hamdi; Sayed Baccari; Mehdi Daghfous; Lamjed Tarhouni

    2010-01-01

    Compartment syndrome after an adder bite is extremely rare, whose effects are only secondary to the cytotoxic and hemorrhagic effects of venom.Here we reported a case of compartment syndrome in the upper limb following an adder bite in the thenar eminence.Elevated compartment pressure was documented and immediate sur-gical fasciotomy was practiced.The patient achieved com-plete recovery with a good functional result.We discussed the controversies on fasciotomy and non-invasive measures in such a situation, and recommended intracompartmental pressure monitoring during the management of compart-ment syndrome following adder bites.

  17. Designing of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder(SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  18. Design of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  19. Low Power, Area- Efficient and High Speed Fast Adder for Processing Element

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ponmalar; T.R.Sureshkumar; T.Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    In electronics, adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. To perform fast arithmetic operations, carry select adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data- processing processors. The structure of CSLA is such that there is further scope of reducing the area, delay and power consumption. Simple and efficient gate – level modification is used in order to reduce the area, delay and power of CSLA. Based on the modifications, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bi...

  20. Low Power Modulo 2n+1 Adder Based on Carry Save Diminished-One Number System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Timarchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulo 2n+1 adders find great applicability in several applications including RNS implementations. This paper presents a new number system called Carry Save Diminished-one for modulo 2n+1 addition and a novel addition algorithm for its operands. In this paper, we also present a novel architectures for designing modulo 2n+1 adders, based on parallel-prefix carry computation units. CMOS implementations reveal the superiority of the resulting adders against previously reported solutions in terms of implementation area and delay.

  1. Upper limb compartment syndrome after an adder bite: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Mohamed Faouzi; Baccari, Sayed; Daghfous, Mehdi; Tarhouni, Lamjed

    2010-04-01

    Compartment syndrome after an adder bite is extremely rare, whose effects are only secondary to the cytotoxic and hemorrhagic effects of venom. Here we reported a case of compartment syndrome in the upper limb following an adder bite in the thenar eminence. Elevated compartment pressure was documented and immediate surgical fasciotomy was practiced. The patient achieved complete recovery with a good functional result. We discussed the controversies on fasciotomy and non-invasive measures in such a situation, and recommended intracompartmental pressure monitoring during the management of compartment syndrome following adder bites.

  2. Size of the Group IVA Iron Meteorite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, N.; Walker, R.

    2011-10-01

    The group IVA fractionally crystallized iron meteorites display a diverse range of metallographic cooling rates, ranging from 100 - 6600 K/Myr [1]. These have been attributed to their formation in a metallic core, ˜150 km in radius that cooled to crystallization without any appreciable insulating mantle. Such an exposed core may have resulted from a hit-and-run collision [2] between two large (˜ 103 km) protoplanetary bodies. Here we build upon this formation scenario by incorporating several new constraints. These include (i) a recent U-Pb radiometric closure age of 4565.3 Mya (IVA iron Muonionalusta [3], (ii) new measurements and modeling of highly siderophile element compositions for a suite of IVAs, and (iii) consideration of the thermal effects of heating by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 60Fe.

  3. Entire hemithorax irradiation for Masaoka stage IVa thymomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, André; Louro, Luís Vasco; Almeida, Marta; Sousa, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Thymomas are rare neoplasms that have an indolent growth with a preferentially intra-thoracic dissemination pattern. Surgery is currently the standard treatment of thymomas; however radiotherapy is often used in an adjuvant setting due to a high sensitivity of these tumors to such treatment. Postoperative entire hemithoracic irradiation has been used in selected Masaoka stage IVa cases after complete surgical excision of metastatic lesions. In the present article, the authors report three cases of Masaoka stage IVa thymoma that underwent entire hemithorax irradiation after surgical excision of metastatic lesions. The first two patients presented as stage IVa thymomas. The third case consisted of a pleural recurrence of a thymoma. Hemithoracic irradiation with low doses has been used by different authors; the available data shows that it is a well-tolerated treatment that could potentially lead to better loco-regional control and increased overall survival.

  4. Envenoming following bites by the Balkan adder Vipera berus bosniensis - first documented case series from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerström, Alexander; Petrov, Boyan; Tzankov, Nikolay

    2010-12-01

    We report the first detailed accounts of bites by the Balkan adder, Vipera berus bosniensis from Bulgaria. Documentation of bites by this subspecies is very rare in the literature and most available accounts are from the northern limit of its distribution. V. berus bosniensis is considered to possess neurotoxic venom but little evidence has hitherto been available to support this supposition. In this case series symptoms typical of adder bites developed including oedema, nausea, dizziness, lymphangitis, vomiting, and diarrhoea together with aberrant symptoms such as diplopia and ptosis that confirm the presence of neurotoxic venom in Balkan adders. In addition, unusual and atypical symptoms of adder bites such as painless bites and muscle cramps appeared. The inadequate treatment in hospital and the remote habitats in which this species is encountered are potential sources of complication.

  5. Recoded and nonrecoded trinary signed-digit adders and multipliers with redundant-bit representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, A K; Alam, M S

    1998-07-10

    Highly-efficient two-step recoded and one-step nonrecoded trinary signed-digit (TSD) carry-free adders-subtracters are presented on the basis of redundant-bit representation for the operands' digits. It has been shown that only 24 (30) minterms are needed to implement the two-step recoded (the one-step nonrecoded) TSD addition for any operand length. Optical implementation of the proposed arithmetic can be carried out by use of correlation- or matrix-multiplication-based schemes, saving 50% of the system memory. Furthermore, we present four different multiplication designs based on our proposed recoded and nonrecoded TSD adders. Our multiplication designs require a small number of reduced minterms to generate the multiplication partial products. Finally, a recently proposed pipelined iterative-tree algorithm can be used in the TSD adders-multipliers; consequently, efficient use of all available adders can be made.

  6. Design of efficient full adder in quantum-dot cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bibhash; Rajoria, Ayush; Sikdar, Biplab K

    2013-01-01

    Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters) for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock) with high compaction (0.01 μ m(2)) for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches.

  7. Design of Efficient Full Adder in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhash Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock with high compaction (0.01 μm2 for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches.

  8. Design and Analysis of a New Carbon Nanotube Full Adder Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ghadiry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel full adder circuit is presented. The main aim is to reduce power delay product (PDP in the presented full adder cell. A new method is used in order to design a full-swing full adder cell with low number of transistors. The proposed full adder is implemented in MOSFET-like carbon nanotube technology and the layout is provided based on standard 32 nm technology from MOSIS. The simulation results using HSPICE show that there are substantial improvements in both power and performance of the proposed circuit compared to the latest designs. In addition, the proposed circuit has been implemented in conventional 32 nm process to compare the benefits of using MOSFET-like carbon nanotubes in arithmetic circuits over conventional CMOS technology. The proposed circuit can be applied in very high performance and ultra-low-power applications.

  9. Implementation of Low Power And Propagation Delay Optimized Multiplexers Based Full Adder Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has emerged as a primary design constraint for integrated circuits (ICs. In the Nanometer technology regime, leakage power has become a major component of total power [1]. Full adder is the basic functional unit of an ALU. The power consumption of a processor is lowered by lowering the power consumption of an ALU, and the power consumption of an ALU can be lowered by lowering the power consumption of Full adder. So the full adder designs with low power characteristics are becoming more popular these days. In this paper we are going to design four different types of Full adder these are applied to 32-bit RCA .The four designs will be developed using Verilog HDL evaluating the performance using Cadence.

  10. High-performance full adder architecture in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rashidi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a new and promising computation paradigm, which can be a viable replacement for the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology at nano-scale level. This technology provides a possible solution for improving the computation in various computational applications. Two QCA full adder architectures are presented and evaluated: a new and efficient 1-bit QCA full adder architecture and a 4-bit QCA ripple carry adder (RCA architecture. The proposed architectures are simulated using QCADesigner tool version 2.0.1. These architectures are implemented with the coplanar crossover approach. The simulation results show that the proposed 1-bit QCA full adder and 4-bit QCA RCA architectures utilise 33 and 175 QCA cells, respectively. Our simulation results show that the proposed architectures outperform most results so far in the literature.

  11. A NOVEL DESIGN OF MULTIPLEXER BASED FULL-ADDER CELL FOR POWER AND PROPAGATION DELAY OPTIMIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RAMANA MURTHY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel high-speed and high-performance multiplexer based full adder cell for low-power applications. The proposed full adder is composed of two separate modules with identical hardware configurations that generate Sum and Carry signals in a parallel manner. The proposed adder circuit has an advantage in terms of short critical path when compared with various existing previous designs. Comprehensive experiments were performed in various situations to evaluate the performance of the proposed design. Simulations were performed by Microwind 2 VLSI CAD tool for LVS and BSIM 4 for parametric analysis of various feature sizes. The simulation results demonstrate clearly the improvement of the proposed design in terms of lower power dissipation, less propagation delay, less occupying area and low power delay product (PDP compared to other widely used existing full adder circuits.

  12. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-08-28

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  13. A 485ps 64-Bit Parallel Adder in 0.18μm CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Yu Zheng; Yan Sun; Shao-Qing Li; Liang Fang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an optimized 64-bit parallel adder.Sparse-tree architecture enables low carry-merge fan-outs and inter-stage wiring complexity.Single-rail and semi-dynamic circuit improves operation speed.Simulation results show that the proposed adder can operate at 485ps with power of 25.6mW in 0.18μm CMOS process.It achieves the goal of higher speed and lower power.

  14. Common N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS exon mutations in Brazilian patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Morquio A Syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA - MPS IVA, OMIM# 253000 is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS. We investigated five unrelated Brazilian MPS IVA families for mutations in exons 4, 5, 9 and 10 of the GALNS gene. Six out of the 10 mutant alleles were identified. Taken together with a previous study, which included six unrelated families, common mutations among Brazilian patients were p.N164T, p.G116S and p.G301C. Among one hundred control subjects three novel silent mutations were found (p.A107A; GCC -> GCT, p.Y108Y; TAC -> TAT, p.P357P; CCG -> CCA. Screening starting with exons 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11 may be a good strategy for genotyping of Brazilian patients since these exons include 73% of all mutations identified in the current and previous studies.

  15. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  16. An Improved Structure Of Reversible Adder And Subtractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world everyday a new technology which is faster, smaller and more complex than its predecessor is being developed. The increased number of transistors packed onto a chip of a conventional system results in increased power consumption that is why Reversible logic has drawn attention of Researchers due to its less heat dissipating characteristics. Reversible logic can be imposed over applications such as quantum computing, optical computing, quantum dot cellular automata, low power VLSI circuits, DNA computing. This paper presents the reversible combinational circuit of adder, subtractor and parity preserving subtractor. The suggested circuit in this paper are designed using Feynman, Double Feynman and MUX gates which are better than the existing one in literature in terms of Quantum cost, Garbage output and Total logical calculations.

  17. The adder (Vipera berus) in Southern Altay Mountains: population characteristics, distribution, morphology and phylogenetic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaopeng; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Daiqiang; Sun, Jizhou; Chu, Hongjun; Li, Chunwang; Jiang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    As the most widely distributed snake in Eurasia, the adder (Vipera berus) has been extensively investigated in Europe but poorly understood in Asia. The Southern Altay Mountains represent the adder's southern distribution limit in Central Asia, whereas its population status has never been assessed. We conducted, for the first time, field surveys for the adder at two areas of Southern Altay Mountains using a combination of line transects and random searches. We also described the morphological characteristics of the collected specimens and conducted analyses of external morphology and molecular phylogeny. The results showed that the adder distributed in both survey sites and we recorded a total of 34 sightings. In Kanas river valley, the estimated encounter rate over a total of 137 km transects was 0.15 ± 0.05 sightings/km. The occurrence of melanism was only 17%. The small size was typical for the adders in Southern Altay Mountains in contrast to other geographic populations of the nominate subspecies. A phylogenetic tree obtained by Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1,023 bp) grouped them within the Northern clade of the species but failed to separate them from the subspecies V. b. sachalinensis. Our discovery extends the distribution range of V. berus and provides a basis for further researches. We discuss the hypothesis that the adder expands its distribution border to the southwest along the mountains' elevation gradient, but the population abundance declines gradually due to a drying climate.

  18. Towards constructing multi-bit binary adder based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Mao; Wong, Ieong; Chou, Meng-Ta; Zhao, Xin

    2012-04-28

    It has been proposed that the spatial excitable media can perform a wide range of computational operations, from image processing, to path planning, to logical and arithmetic computations. The realizations in the field of chemical logical and arithmetic computations are mainly concerned with single simple logical functions in experiments. In this study, based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we performed simulations toward the realization of a more complex operation, the binary adder. Combining with some of the existing functional structures that have been verified experimentally, we designed a planar geometrical binary adder chemical device. Through numerical simulations, we first demonstrated that the device can implement the function of a single-bit full binary adder. Then we show that the binary adder units can be further extended in plane, and coupled together to realize a two-bit, or even multi-bit binary adder. The realization of chemical adders can guide the constructions of other sophisticated arithmetic functions, ultimately leading to the implementation of chemical computer and other intelligent systems.

  19. Towards constructing multi-bit binary adder based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Mao; Wong, Ieong; Chou, Meng-Ta; Zhao, Xin

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that the spatial excitable media can perform a wide range of computational operations, from image processing, to path planning, to logical and arithmetic computations. The realizations in the field of chemical logical and arithmetic computations are mainly concerned with single simple logical functions in experiments. In this study, based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we performed simulations toward the realization of a more complex operation, the binary adder. Combining with some of the existing functional structures that have been verified experimentally, we designed a planar geometrical binary adder chemical device. Through numerical simulations, we first demonstrated that the device can implement the function of a single-bit full binary adder. Then we show that the binary adder units can be further extended in plane, and coupled together to realize a two-bit, or even multi-bit binary adder. The realization of chemical adders can guide the constructions of other sophisticated arithmetic functions, ultimately leading to the implementation of chemical computer and other intelligent systems.

  20. HARDWARE MODELING OF BINARY CODED DECIMAL ADDER IN FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibn Ibrahimy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are insignificant relevant research works available which are involved with the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA based hardware implementation of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD adder. This is because, the FPGA based hardware realization is quiet new and still developing field of research. The article illustrates the design and hardware modeling of a BCD adder. Among the types of adders, Carry Look Ahead (CLA and Ripple Carry (RC adder have been studied, designed and compared in terms of area consumption and time requirement. The simulation results show that the CLA adder performs faster with optimized area consumption. Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL is used for designing the model with the help of Altera Quartus II Electronic Design Automation (EDA tool. EDA synthesis tools make it easy to develop an HDL model and which can be synthesized into target-specific architectures. Whereas, the HDL based modeling provides shorter development phases with continuous testing and verification of the system performance and behavior. After successful functional and timing simulations of the CLA based BCD adder, the design has been downloaded to physical FPGA device. For FPGA implementation, the Altera DE2 board has been used which contains Altera Cyclone II 2C35 FPGA device.

  1. Naval Research Laboratory Major Facilities 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Mexico seawater throughout the year. The tropical climate is ideally suited for marine exposure testing. There is minimal climatic variation and a...TW magnetically insulated inductive voltage adder ( IVA ). Mercury is a focal point of research for several areas, including IVA power-flow research...nuclear weapons effects simulation, and particle-beam source and transport research for various applications. DESCRIPTION: Mercury is a 6-stage IVA . The

  2. Intelligent Virtual Agents, 9th International Conference, IVA 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjalmsson, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, held 14-16 September, 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are interactive characters that exhibit humanlike qualities and communicate with humans or with each other using n

  3. Intelligent Virtual Agents, 9th International Conference, IVA 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, A.; Vilhjalmsson, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, held 14-16 September, 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are interactive characters that exhibit humanlike qualities and communicate with humans or with each other using n

  4. Scope of Reversible Engineering at Gate-Level : Fault - Tolerant Combinational Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Bharathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Reversible engineering has been one of the thrust areas ensuring that continual process of the innovation trends that explore and sustain the resources of the nature. This reversible engineering is used in many fields like quantum computing, low power CMOS design, nanotechnology, optical information processing, digital signal processing, cryptography, etc. These are the digital domain implementations of Reversible and Fault-Tolerant logic gates. Any arbitrary Boolean function can be synthesized by using the proposed parity preserving reversible gates. Not only the possibility of detecting errors is induced inherently in the proposed high speed adders at their output side but also it allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal that is detectable. The fault tolerant reversible full adder circuits are realized by using two IG gates only. The derived fault tolerant full adder is used for designing other arithmetic- logic circuit by using it as fundamental building block. The proposed reversible gate is designed to have less hardwarecomplexity and efficiecyt in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant input. In this paper, we design BCD adder using carry select logic, Carry-select and Bypass adders using FG gates, and newly designed TG gates.

  5. FPGA Fault Tolerant Arithmetic Logic: A Case Study Using Parallel-Prefix Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines fault tolerant adder designs implemented on FPGAs which are inspired by the methods of modular redundancy, roving, and gradual degradation. A parallel-prefix adder based upon the Kogge-Stone configuration is compared with the simple ripple carry adder (RCA design. The Kogge-Stone design utilizes a sparse carry tree complemented by several smaller RCAs. Additional RCAs are inserted into the design to allow fault tolerance to be achieved using the established methods of roving and gradual degradation. A triple modular redundant ripple carry adder (TMR-RCA is used as a point of reference. Simulation and experimental measurements on a Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA platform are carried out. The TMR-RCA is found to have the best delay performance and most efficient resource utilization for an FPGA fault-tolerant implementation due to the simplicity of the approach and the use of the fast-carry chain. However, the superior performance of the carry-tree adder over an RCA in a VLSI implementation makes this proposed approach attractive for ASIC designs.

  6. The adder (Vipera berus in Southern Altay Mountains: population characteristics, distribution, morphology and phylogenetic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the most widely distributed snake in Eurasia, the adder (Vipera berus has been extensively investigated in Europe but poorly understood in Asia. The Southern Altay Mountains represent the adder’s southern distribution limit in Central Asia, whereas its population status has never been assessed. We conducted, for the first time, field surveys for the adder at two areas of Southern Altay Mountains using a combination of line transects and random searches. We also described the morphological characteristics of the collected specimens and conducted analyses of external morphology and molecular phylogeny. The results showed that the adder distributed in both survey sites and we recorded a total of 34 sightings. In Kanas river valley, the estimated encounter rate over a total of 137 km transects was 0.15 ± 0.05 sightings/km. The occurrence of melanism was only 17%. The small size was typical for the adders in Southern Altay Mountains in contrast to other geographic populations of the nominate subspecies. A phylogenetic tree obtained by Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1,023 bp grouped them within the Northern clade of the species but failed to separate them from the subspecies V. b. sachalinensis. Our discovery extends the distribution range of V. berus and provides a basis for further researches. We discuss the hypothesis that the adder expands its distribution border to the southwest along the mountains’ elevation gradient, but the population abundance declines gradually due to a drying climate.

  7. Implementation of High Performance Fir Filter Using Low Power Multiplier and Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Kashyap,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing growth in laptop and portable systems in cellular networks has intensified the research efforts in low power microelectronics. Now a day, there are many portable applications requiring low power and high throughput than ever before. Thus, low power system design has become a significant performance goal. So this paper is face with more constraints: high speed, high throughput, and at the same time, consumes as minimal power as possible. The Finite Impulse Response (FIR Filter is the important component for designing an efficient digital signal processing system. So, in this paper author trying, a FIR filter is constructing, which is efficient not only in terms of power and speed but also in terms of delay. When consider the elementary structure of an FIR filter, it is found that it is a combination of multipliers and delays, which in turn are the combination of adders. . This paper presents an efficient implementation and analysis for performance evaluation of multiplier and adder to minimize the consumption of energy during multiplication and addition methodology to improve the performance by compares different type of Multipliers and adder, respectively. By using, power comparison result of adders and multiplier, choice low power adder and multiplier to implementation of high performance FIR filter.

  8. An $\\Theta(\\sqrt{n})$-depth Quantum Adder on a 2D NTC Quantum Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Byung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we propose an adder for the 2D NTC architecture, designed to match the architectural constraints of many quantum computing technologies. The chosen architecture allows the layout of logical qubits in two dimensions and the concurrent execution of one- and two-qubit gates with nearest-neighbor interaction only. The proposed adder works in three phases. In the first phase, the first column generates the summation output and the other columns do the carry-lookahead operations. In the second phase, these intermediate values are propagated from column to column, preparing for computation of the final carry for each register position. In the last phase, each column, except the first one, generates the summation output using this column-level carry. The depth and the number of qubits of the proposed adder are $\\Theta(\\sqrt{n})$ and O(n), respectively. The proposed adder executes faster than the adders designed for the 1D NTC architecture when the length of the input registers $n$ is larger than 58.

  9. Design of RSFQ wave pipelined Kogge-Stone Adder and developing custom compound gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, M.; Eren Çelik, M.; Tukel, Y.; Bozbey, A.

    2014-09-01

    Since the invention of computers, the calculation of arithmetic and logic operations using digital circuits has been one of the leading problems in processor designs. The challenge has been to compute more operations with less clock cycles by using additional specific logic circuits. One of the most fundamental processes is addition; in which the carry bit should be transferred from the least significant bit to the most significant one. A wide range of digital circuit designs have been sustained for specialized faster addition operation. One of these adder algorithms is Kogge Stone Adder which does faster calculation with fewer levels and minimum fan-out compared to today’s adders despite the only disadvantage of having an excessive amount of wiring. In this study, a custom Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) based, wave pipelined, Kogge Stone Adder is proposed to be used later in an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Two different design methodologies have been considered. In the first approach, we used standard logic gates for the whole adder design. In the second approach, utilization to compound gate design with adjustments over component parameters is done by using Particle Swarm Optimization and Statistical Timing Analysis Tools, to increase both efficiency and bias margin.

  10. Scope of Reversible Engineering at Gate-Level : Fault - Tolerant Combinational Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reversible engineering has been one of the thrust areas ensuring that continual process of the innovation trends that explore and sustain the resources of the nature. This reversible engineering is used in many fields like quantum computing, low power CMOS design, nanotechnology, optical information processing, digital signal processing, cryptography, etc. These are the digital domain implementations of Reversible and Fault-Tolerant logic gates. Any arbitrary Boolean function can be synthesized by using the proposed parity preserving reversible gates. Not only the possibility of detecting errors is induced inherently in the proposed high speed adders at their output side but also it allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal that is detectable. The fault tolerant reversible full adder circuits are realized by using two IG gates only. The derived fault tolerant full adder is used for designing other arithmetic- logic circuit by using it as fundamental building block. The proposed reversible gate is designed to have less hardware complexity and efficiecyt in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant input. In this paper, we design BCD adder using carry select logic, Carry-select and Bypass adders using FG gates, and newly designed TG gates.

  11. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. 18 CFR 35.22 - Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision of rate schedules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision of rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements. 35... Filing Requirements § 35.22 Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision...

  13. La estructura del IVA en México

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual García-Alba Iduñate

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la propuesta del gobierno mexicano de uniformar las tasas impositivas del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA), como parte de las llamadas reformas estructurales. Primero se consideran los antecedentes de esta propuesta y los cambios anteriores a la estructura de tasas de ese impuesto, para a partir de sus efectos, estimar el probable impacto de la reforma ahora sugerida. Luego se consideran las experiencias internacionales, para analizar las diferencias en evasión en p...

  14. Molecular genetic assay of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengmin; Huang, Yonglan; Ou, Zhiying; Sheng, Huiying; Li, Sheyong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Li, Ru; Zheng, Jipeng; Liu, Li

    2013-12-10

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Molecular mutational analysis was performed by PCR product sequencing for fourteen exons and exon-intron boundaries of GALNS gene in 21 patients from 19 unrelated families with severe MPS IVA in South China. We identified fifteen different mutations, including 10 reported mutations (p.P125L, p.G290S, p.M318R, p.G340D, p.L366P, p.R386C, p.A392V, c.1243-1G>C, p.L440RfsX54 and p.X523E) and five novel mutations (p.N177S, p.G290R, p.F306S, p.W403_T404delinsCS, p.W520X). All five novel mutations were inherited from parents of the patients and not found in 100 normal control alleles. Three mutations, p.M318R, p.L366P and p.R386C were common, accounting for 36.8% of mutant alleles investigated. One patient homozygous of p.A392V and the other two unrelated patients homozygous of p.L366P presented classical disease course. The results show that the GALNS gene has a different mutational spectrum in South China as compared to other regions. The p.A392V and p.L366P mutations were associated with severe phenotype of MPS IVA. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultra-Low-Voltage Self-Body Biasing Scheme and Its Application to Basic Arithmetic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Taco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gate level body biasing (GLBB is assessed in the context of ultra-low-voltage logic designs. To this purpose, a GLBB mirror full adder is implemented by using a commercial 45 nm bulk CMOS triple-well technology and compared to equivalent conventional zero body-biased CMOS and dynamic threshold voltage MOSFET (DTMOS circuits under different running conditions. Postlayout simulations demonstrate that, at the parity of leakage power consumption, the GLBB technique exhibits a significant concurrent reduction of the energy per operation and the delay in comparison to the conventional CMOS and DTMOS approaches. The silicon area required by the GLBB full adder is halved with respect to the equivalent DTMOS implementation, but it is higher in comparison to conventional CMOS design. Performed analysis also proves that the GLBB solution exhibits a high level of robustness against temperature fluctuations and process variations.

  16. Design and Analysis of Multi Vt and Variable Vt based Pipelined Adder for Low Power applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthala S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of Digital Signal Processing (DSP applications require arithmetic blocks such as multipliers and adders for hardware realization of complex algorithms. Power consumption of arithmetic blocks need to be minimized by use of low power techniques. In this paper, an experimental setup is developed to identify the sources of power dissipation and remedies that can be adopted to minimize power dissipation in arithmetic blocks. Use of low power techniques such as Multi Vt, variable Vt, pipelining, geometry scaling and use of appropriate load capacitance have been used to reduce power dissipation. A 4-bitpipelined adder is designed and the power dissipation is reduced to 4.17µW from 9.6µW. The designed pipelined adder can be used for DSP applications.

  17. A Novel Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible Full Adder Gate in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has become one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its applications in low power CMOS design, cryptography, optical information processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents a novel and quantum cost efficient reversible full adder gate in nanotechnology. This gate can work singly as a reversible full adder unit and requires only one clock cycle. The proposed gate is a universal gate in the sense that it can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean functions. It has been demonstrated that the hardware complexity offered by the proposed gate is less than the existing counterparts. The proposed reversible full adder gate also adheres to the theoretical minimum established by the researchers.

  18. Quaternary Galois field adder based all-optical multivalued logic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Taraphdar, Chinmoy; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2009-08-01

    Galois field (GF) algebraic expressions have been found to be promising choices for reversible and quantum implementation of multivalued logic. For the first time to our knowledge, we developed GF(4) adder multivalued (four valued) logic circuits in an all-optical domain. The principle and possibilities of an all-optical GF(4) adder circuit are described. The theoretical model is presented and verified through numerical simulation. The quaternary inverter, successor, clockwise cycle, and counterclockwise cycle gates are proposed with the help of the all-optical GF(4) adder circuit. In this scheme different quaternary logical states are represented by different polarized light. A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer interferometric switch plays an important role in this scheme.

  19. DESIGN OF A LOW LATENCY ASYNCHRONOUS ADDER USING EARLY COMPLETION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOK KEONG LAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for designing completion detection for asynchronous adders is introduced. The new completion detection is based on the property of a carrymerge tree for parallel-prefix adders where a generate bit at one level will have the same value as that in the previous level if there is no carry into the sequence of bits. This method has the advantages of a bundled data approach, allowing the use of single-rail completion detection design methodology, yet it allows the detection of early completion with very minimal gate count overhead. An alternative to "speculative completion," this method has approximately 10% improvement in performance at the costs of a 4% increase in area and a negligible increase in power consumption for Hybrid Skalansky Carry-Select and self-timed Kogge-Stone parallel prefix adders.

  20. Design and Implementation of 16-Bit Magnitude Comparator Using Efficient Low Power High Performance Full Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar S Kulkarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In VLSI applications, area, delay and power are the important factors which must be taken into account in the design of a fast adder [1]. The paper attempts to examine the features of certain adder circuits which promise superior performance compared to existing circuits. The advantages of these circuits are low-power consumption, a high degree of regularity and simplicity. In this paper, the design of a 16-bit comparator is proposed. Magnitude comparison is one of the basic functions used for sorting in microprocessor, digital signal processing, so a high performance, effective magnitude comparator is required. The main objective of this paper is to provide new low power, area solution for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI designers using low power high performance efficient full adders.

  1. Evaluation of renal impairment in dogs after envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Mari; Raekallio, Marja; Vainionpää, Mari; Lahtinen, Heini; Vainio, Outi

    2013-12-01

    Envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus) causes clinical renal injury in dogs. In this study, serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, total protein and urea were measured in 32 dogs bitten by adders. Urinary creatinine, protein, and retinol binding protein 4 concentrations, and the activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in 32 affected dogs and 23 healthy controls. Clinical assessment was conducted with a grading scale and a renal function score was applied to classify dogs based on laboratory findings. Urinary protein:creatinine, GGT:creatinine and ALP:creatinine ratios appear to be useful in evaluating renal impairment in dogs with adder envenomation. Increasing kidney function score was correlated with increased urinary ALP:creatinine and GGT:creatinine ratios.

  2. Comparative Analysis of ALU Implementation with RCA and Sklansky Adders In ASIC Design Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman Buzdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the heart of every central processing unit (CPU which performs basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and bitwise logic operations on binary numbers. This paper deals with implementation of a basic ALU unit using two different types of adder circuits, a ripple carry adder and a sklansky type adder. The ALU is designed using application specific integrated circuit (ASIC platform where VHDL hardware description language and standard cells are used. The target process technology is 130nm CMOS from the foundry ST Microelectronics. The Cadence EDA tools are used for the ASIC implementation. A comparative analysis is provided for the two ALU circuits designed in terms of area, power and timing requirements.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 4 GHz bit-stream adder based on ΣΔ modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Liang; Zhigong, Wang; Qiao, Meng; Xiaodan, Guo

    2010-08-01

    The conventional circuit model of a bit-stream adder based on sigma delta (ΣΔ) modulation is improved with pipeline technology to make it work correctly at high frequencies. The integrated circuit (IC) of the bit-stream adder is designed with the source coupled logic structure and designed at the transistor level to increase the operating frequency. The IC is fabricated in TSMC's 0.18-μm CMOS process. The chip area is 475 × 570 μm2. A fully digital ΣΔ signal generator is designed with a field programmable gate array to test the chip. Experimental results show that the chip meets the function and performance demand of the design, and the chip can work at a frequency of higher than 4 GHz. The noise performance of the adder is analyzed and compared with both theory and experimental results.

  4. Intellectual and neurological functioning in Morquio syndrome (MPS IVa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J E; Kearney, S; Horton, J; Foster, K; Peet, A C; Hendriksz, C J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVa (MPS IVa, Morquio syndrome OMIM #253000) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS, EC 3.1.6.4; encoded by GALNS gene at 16q24.3). Unlike other MPS disorders involving excessive heparan and dermatan sulfate, Morquio syndrome has not been associated with neurological involvement nor with intellectual impairment as this disorder of keratan sulfate has been described as a purely visceral and skeletal disorder. Neurocognitive assessment was undertaken of MPS IVa patients with age appropriate intellectual tests as well as a Child Behaviour Checklist as part of clinical follow up. Available neuroimaging studies (MRI and MR spectroscopy) were reviewed. Whilst more than half of the overall IQ scores fell in the average range, scores for 3/8 children fell below average. A number of behavioural problems were highlighted, including anxiety/depression, attention and somatic complaints. Subtle neuroimaging abnormalities were demonstrated in over half of the children. These findings present a challenge to existing assumptions about the nature of Morquio A syndrome. A hypothesis regarding the potential role of calcium signalling is explored.

  5. Surgical Approaches for Stage IVA Thymic Epithelial Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mark; Korst, Robert J

    2014-01-14

    Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare mediastinal neoplasms that can metastasize to the pleural space (stage IVA). Complete surgical resection remains the backbone of therapy for patients with early stage TET, however, the role of surgery in the management of patients with stage IVA disease is not fully defined. Published reports in this regard are mainly small, retrospective, and uncontrolled, with unclear inclusion criteria. Surgical options to manage pleural disease include metastasectomy, extrapleural pneumonectomy, and metastasectomy/pleurectomy combined with heated intrapleural chemotherapy. The choice of the most appropriate surgical strategy needs to be individualized according to the quantity and location of disease, the patient's overall condition, as well as operator and institutional expertise. In the majority of cases, metastasectomy of pleural implants will be sufficient to achieve a complete resection. The available literature suggests that in selected patients with stage IVA TET, delivery of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by complete resection is a viable treatment option that can be associated with long-term survival.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of the methanolic extract of Ajuga iva in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelouahab Diafat; Lekhmici Araar; Yacine Derradji; Farid Bouaziz

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Ajuga iva, known as “Chendgoura”, is widely used in North African countries in the traditional medicine. However, there is little toxicological informations available regarding its safety following repeated exposure. The present investigation describes the toxicity of a methanolic extract of Ajuga iva. The administration of the Ajuga iva methanolic extract (AIME) at 2 –14 g/kg of bodyweight (bwt) did not produce mortality or significant changes in the general behavior of mice. Howeve...

  7. Effects of Different Reading Purposes on L2 Learners’IVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei

    2015-01-01

    According to the former studies, there are many factors having effects on second language (L2) learners’incidental vo⁃cabulary acquisition (IVA). This paper is aimed to reveal how reading a text with different purposes might affect IVA of L 2 learn⁃ers. The results of this study show that there is a closed relationship between the efficiency of IVA and reading purposes. Besides, it also has something to do with L2 learners’reading abilities.

  8. The genetic structure of adders (Vipera berus) in Fennoscandia: congruence between different kinds of genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M; Söderberg, L; Tegelström, H

    2004-10-01

    In order to elucidate the colonization history of Fennoscandian adders (Vipera berus), the phylogeographical patterns of two nuclear sets of DNA markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite) are compared with that previously obtained from mitochondrial DNA. An eastern and a western lineage within Fennoscandian adders is readily distinguishable using both sets of nuclear markers, corroborating the hypothesis that the lineages stem from separate glacial refugia. Moreover, the same contact zones as were derived from mitochondrial data are clearly identifiable. Both sets of nuclear markers detect a high level of admixture across one zone in northern Finland, with introgression reaching far west into Sweden.

  9. A Novel Design of Low Power High Speed Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Sandhya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carry Select Adder (CSLA is one of the fastest adders used in many computational systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. It performs n-bit addition and provides a sum of n+1 bit. The structure of CSLA gives the future scope of reducing the area and power consumption which are needed for the rapidly growing mobile industry. The modified 64-Bit CSLA architecture has developed using Binary to Excess-1 converter(BEC.This paper proposes an efficient method of replacing RCA in regular proposal with BEC in modified proposal.

  10. Optoelectronic Recoded and Nonrecoded Trinary Signed-Digit Adder that uses Optical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, A K; Habib, M K; Alam, M S

    1998-04-10

    A symbolic-substitution-based optical numeric processor that uses recoded and nonrecoded trinary signed-digit (TSD) number representations is proposed. Also, we propose new joint spatial encodings for the TSD numbers that reduce the symbolic-substitution computation rules involved in the processor. Optoelectronic implementation of the proposed recoded adder is feasible. Also, the nonrecoded TSD addition can be performed optically in two steps. Both the proposed recoded and nonrecoded adders are more compact than a recently reported modified signed-digit counterpart and use fewer correlators and spatial light modulators.

  11. All-optical adder/subtractor based on tera-hertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical adder/subtractor (A/S) unit with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) is proposed.Tile all-optical A/S unit with a set of all-optical full-adders and optical exclusive-ORs (XORs),can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components.We try to exploit the advantages of TOAD-based optical switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit which can perform binary addition and subtraction.With computer simulation results confirming the described methods,conclusions are given.

  12. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa; Amit Grover; Neeti Grover; GurpreetSingh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can b...

  13. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can be greatly reduced from 1947 to 960.

  14. The symmetric MSD encoder for one-step adder of ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Song; LiPing, Yan

    2016-08-01

    The symmetric Modified Signed-Digit (MSD) encoding is important for achieving the one-step MSD adder of Ternary Optical Computer (TOC). The paper described the symmetric MSD encoding algorithm in detail, and developed its truth table which has nine rows and nine columns. According to the truth table, the state table was developed, and the optical-path structure and circuit-implementation scheme of the symmetric MSD encoder (SME) for one-step adder of TOC were proposed. Finally, a series of experiments were designed and performed. The observed results of the experiments showed that the scheme to implement SME was correct, feasible and efficient.

  15. Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bartscher, Tanja; Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-20

    Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression.

  16. Design of High Speed Low Power Reversible Logic Adder Using HNG Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Sankhwar,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversibility plays a fundamental role when computations with minimal energy dissipation are considered. In recent years, reversible logic has emerged as one of the most important approaches for power optimization with its application in low power CMOS, optical information processing, quantum computing and nanotechnology. This research proposes a new implementation of adder in reversible logic. The design reduces the number of gate operations compared to the existing adder reversible logic implementations. So, this design gives rise to an implementation with a reduced area and delay. We can use it to construct more complex systems in nanotechnology.

  17. A function of DivIVA in Listeria monocytogenes division site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaval, Karan Gautam; Rismondo, Jeanine; Halbedel, Sven

    2014-11-01

    The cell division protein DivIVA influences protein transport via the accessory SecA2 secretion route in Listeria monocytogenes. In contrast, DivIVA from the closely related bacterium Bacillus subtilis contributes to division site selection via the MinCDJ system. However, no classical min phenotype, i.e. filamentation and minicell production was observed with a listerial ΔdivIVA mutant. This has prompted the speculation that division site selection is DivIVA-independent in L. monocytogenes. We addressed this question with genetic, cytological and bacterial two-hybrid experiments and the data obtained correct this view. DivIVA not only binds to MinJ but also directly interacts with MinD. Experiments with fluorescently tagged proteins showed that localization of MinC and MinD was clearly DivIVA-dependent, whereas localization of MinJ was not. An impact of DivIVA on cell division was confirmed by careful comparisons of cell size distributions of divIVA and secA2 mutants. Gene deletion studies and epistasis experiments consistently reinforced these findings, and also revealed that MinJ must have a DivIVA-independent function. The frequency of minicell formation is low in L. monocytogenes min mutants. However, since listerial minicells might be useful as carriers for the introduction of therapeutic compounds into eukaryotic cells, we present a strategy how minicell frequency can be increased.

  18. Group IVA phospholipase A2 participates in the progression of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Akira; Nabe, Takeshi; Fushimi, Hideaki; Iriyama, Nao; Kanai, Shiho; Sato, Takashi; Uozumi, Naonori; Shimizu, Takao; Akiba, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2) is an enzyme that intiates the arachidonic acid pathway and plays an important role in inflammation. We demonstrate that IVA-PLA2 deficiency suppresses lipid deposition in the liver, which was induced by administration of a high-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 16 wk in mice. Herein, we performed 2-dimensional gel-based comparative proteomics to further define the suppressive effect of IVA-PLA2 deficiency on fatty liver formation. In comparisons among 4 groups, wild-type (WT)/normal diet (ND), IVA-PLA2-deficient knockout (KO)/ND, WT/HFCD, and KO/HFCD, 4 proteins, 3 of which are associated with hepatic fibrosis, were identified as molecules, of which altered expression by HFCD was suppressed in KO mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, we assessed the effect of IVA-PLA2 deficiency on hepatic fibrosis induced by HFCD or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mouse models. Biochemical and histological analyses revealed that IVA-PLA2 deficiency markedly reduced overall collagen accumulation in the liver of HFCD- and CCl4-derived mouse models. We found that IVA-PLA2 deficiency prevented activation of hepatic stellate cells and infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages without affecting other immunocytes such as CD8+ lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In summary, IVA-PLA2 deficiency attenuates not only lipid deposition in the liver but also hepatic fibrosis formation.

  19. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, B6c, University of Liege, B4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  20. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  1. Implementation of High Speed FIR Filter: Performance Comparison with Different Parallel Prefix Adders in FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the design of high speed FIR filter using parallel prefix adders and factorized multiplier. The fundamental component in constructing any high speed FIR filter consists of adders, multipliers and delay elements. To meet the constraint of high speed performance and low power consumption parallel prefix adders are more suitable. This study focus the design of new Parallel Prefix Adder (PPA and new multiplier cell called factorized multiplier with minimal depth algorithm and its functional characteristics is compared with the existing architecture in terms of delay and area. The performance evaluation of the proposed PPA and multiplier are examined for the bit sizes of 8, 16, 32 and 64. The coefficient of the filter is obtained through hamming window using MATLAB program. The proposed FIR filter using new PPA and factorized multiplier has been prototyped on XC3S1600EFG320 in Spartan-3E Platform using Integrated Synthesis Environment (ISE for 90 nm process. Nearly 14% of slice utilization and 34% of speed improvement has been obtained for FIR using new PPA and factorized multiplier.

  2. A New Design Technique of Reversible BCD Adder Based on NMOS With Pass Transistor Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Md Sazzad; Rahman, Md Motiur; Hossain, A S M Delowar; Hasan, Md Minul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design technique of BCD Adder using newly constructed reversible gates are based on NMOS with pass transistor gates, where the conventional reversible gates are based on CMOS with transmission gates. We also compare the proposed reversible gates with the conventional CMOS reversible gates which show that the required number of Transistors is significantly reduced.

  3. 1-bit sub threshold full adders in 65nm CMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Tuan Vu, Cao

    In this paper a new full adder (FA) circuit optimized for ultra low power operation is proposed. The circuit is based on modified XOR gates operated in the subthreshold region to minimize the power consumption. Simulated results using 65 nm standarad CMOS models are provided. The simulation results...

  4. Design and Performance Analysis of Hybrid Adders for High Speed Arithmetic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Sarma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adder cells using Gate Diffusion Technique (GDI & PTL-GDI technique are described in this paper. GDI technique allows reducing power consumption, propagation delay and low PDP (power delay productwhereas Pass Transistor Logic (PTL reduces the count of transistors used to make different logic gates, by eliminating redundant transistors. Performance comparison with various Hybrid Adder is been presented.In this paper, we propose two new designs based on GDI & PTL techniques, which is found to be much more power efficient in comparison with existing design technique. Only 10 transistors are used to implement the SUM & CARRY function for both the designs. The SUM and CARRY cell are implemented in a cascaded way i.e. firstly the XOR cell is implemented and then using XOR as input SUM as well as CARRY cell is implemented. For Proposed GDI adder the SUM as well as CARRY cell is designed using GDI technique. On the other hand in Proposed PTL-GDI adder the SUM cell is constructed using PTL technique and the CARRY cell is designed using GDI technique. The advantages of both the designs are discussed. The significance of these designs is substantiated by the simulation results obtained from Cadence Virtuoso 180 nm environment.

  5. Power efficient, clock gated multiplexer based full adder cell using 28 nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Murgai, Shruti; Gulati, Anmol; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-03-01

    Clock gating is a leading technique used for power saving. Full adders is one of the basic circuit that can be found in maximum VLSI circuits. In this paper clock gated multiplexer based full adder cell is implemented on 28 nm technology. We have designed a full adder cell using a multiplexer with a gated clock without degrading its performance of the cell. We have negative latch circuit for generating gated clock. This gated clock is used to control the multiplexer based full adder cell. The circuit has been synthesized on kintex FPGA through Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.7 using 28 nm technology in Verilog HDL. The circuit has been simulated on Modelsim 10.3c. The design is verified using System Verilog on QuestaSim in UVM environment. The total power of the circuit has been reduced by 7.41% without degrading the performance of original circuit. The power has been calculated using XPower Analyzer tool of XILINX ISE DESIGN SUITE 14.3.

  6. 1-bit sub threshold full adders in 65nm CMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Tuan Vu, Cao

    In this paper a new full adder (FA) circuit optimized for ultra low power operation is proposed. The circuit is based on modified XOR gates operated in the subthreshold region to minimize the power consumption. Simulated results using 65 nm standarad CMOS models are provided. The simulation resul...

  7. Case report: Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of puff adder (Bitis arietans) bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Peter P; Kaufmann, Peter; Smolle-Juettner, Freyja M; Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    The puff adder (Bitis arietans) is a venomous viper mainly found in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its common occurrence and potent venom, it is considered to be the most dangerous snake in Africa, responsible for most snakebite fatalities there. Puff adder bites outside Africa are rare and involve captive vipers. We present the unusual case of puff adder envenomation in an Austrian man. A 26-year-old Austrian man was bitten by a puff adder that he kept illegally in his home. On admission he showed signs of local and systemic toxicity. He was stabilized with antivenom, intravenous fluids, catecholamines and packed platelets. Hyperbaric oxygenation was begun due to incipient compartment syndrome on the second day and continued until the eleventh day, when the patient had recovered completely and could be discharged. The venom of Bitis arietans can cause serious systemic and local complications. Our patient suffered from both. Systemic signs included hemodynamic as well as hemostaseologic impairment. Local effects included swelling and incipient compartment syndrome. Systemic and local treatment, including hyperbaric oxygenation, effected a full recovery. We suggest that, whenever feasible, hyperbaric oxygenation should be considered as adjunct treatment in snake bites to avert adverse outcomes.

  8. Developments of All-optical Half-adder%全光半加器的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓寅; 李培丽; 徐荣青

    2009-01-01

    综述了全光半加器的研究进展和现状.阐述了不同结构全光半加器的工作原理、优缺点,并展望了全光半加器未来的发展方向.%It is summarized for current all-optical half-adder.The principles of different kinds of all-optical half-adders are analyzed,and their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed.Finally,the prospects of all-optical half-adder are given.

  9. Role of diversity in ICA and IVA: theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalı, Tülay

    2016-05-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been the most popular approach for solving the blind source separation problem. Starting from a simple linear mixing model and the assumption of statistical independence, ICA can recover a set of linearly-mixed sources to within a scaling and permutation ambiguity. It has been successfully applied to numerous data analysis problems in areas as diverse as biomedicine, communications, finance, geo- physics, and remote sensing. ICA can be achieved using different types of diversity—statistical property—and, can be posed to simultaneously account for multiple types of diversity such as higher-order-statistics, sample dependence, non-circularity, and nonstationarity. A recent generalization of ICA, independent vector analysis (IVA), generalizes ICA to multiple data sets and adds the use of one more type of diversity, statistical dependence across the data sets, for jointly achieving independent decomposition of multiple data sets. With the addition of each new diversity type, identification of a broader class of signals become possible, and in the case of IVA, this includes sources that are independent and identically distributed Gaussians. We review the fundamentals and properties of ICA and IVA when multiple types of diversity are taken into account, and then ask the question whether diversity plays an important role in practical applications as well. Examples from various domains are presented to demonstrate that in many scenarios it might be worthwhile to jointly account for multiple statistical properties. This paper is submitted in conjunction with the talk delivered for the "Unsupervised Learning and ICA Pioneer Award" at the 2016 SPIE Conference on Sensing and Analysis Technologies for Biomedical and Cognitive Applications.

  10. Protein-protein interaction domains of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, S.; Celik, I.N.; Kaval, K.G.; Bramkamp, M.; Hamoen, L.W.; Halbedel, S.

    2013-01-01

    DivIVA proteins are curvature sensitive membrane binding proteins that recruit other proteins to the poles and the division septum. They consist of a conserved N-terminal lipid binding domain fused to a less conserved C-terminal domain. DivIVA homologues interact with different proteins involved in

  11. Protein-protein interaction domains of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Baarle; I.N. Celik; K.G. Kaval; M. Bramkamp; L.W. Hamoen; S. Halbedel

    2012-01-01

    DivIVA proteins are curvature sensitive membrane binding proteins that recruit other proteins to the poles and the division septum. They consist of a conserved N-terminal lipid binding domain fused to a less conserved C-terminal domain. DivIVA homologues interact with different proteins involved in

  12. IVA (Illinois Vocational Association) Workshops--An Innovative Approach to Inservice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward T.

    1974-01-01

    A joint effort in inservice education between the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education and the Illinois Vocational Association (IVA) created ten diversified mini workshops which were conducted at the 1973 IVA convention in Chicago. The overall, average participant rating for the workshop was 3.76 on a one-to-four continuum. (EA)

  13. IVA (Illinois Vocational Association) Workshops--An Innovative Approach to Inservice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward T.

    1974-01-01

    A joint effort in inservice education between the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education and the Illinois Vocational Association (IVA) created ten diversified mini workshops which were conducted at the 1973 IVA convention in Chicago. The overall, average participant rating for the workshop was 3.76 on a one-to-four continuum. (EA)

  14. Morphology, reproduction and diet in Australian and Papuan death adders (Acanthophis, Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Spencer, Carol L; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Death adders (genus Acanthophis) differ from most other elapid snakes, and resemble many viperid snakes, in their thickset morphology and ambush foraging mode. Although these snakes are widely distributed through Australia and Papua New Guinea, their basic biology remains poorly known. We report morphological and ecological data based upon dissection of >750 museum specimens drawn from most of the range of the genus. Female death adders grow larger than conspecific males, to about the same extent in all taxa (20% in mean adult snout-vent length,  =  SVL). Most museum specimens were adult rather than juvenile animals, and adult males outnumbered females in all taxa except A. pyrrhus. Females have shorter tails (relative to SVL) than males, and longer narrower heads (relative to head length) in some but not all species. The southern A. antarcticus is wider-bodied (relative to SVL) than the other Australian species. Fecundity of these viviparous snakes was similar among taxa (mean litter sizes 8 to 14). Death adders encompass a broad range of ecological attributes, taking a wide variety of vertebrate prey, mostly lizards (55%), frogs and mammals (each 21%; based on 217 records). Dietary composition differed among species (e.g. frogs were more common in tropical than temperate-zone species), and shifted with snake body size (endotherms were taken by larger snakes) and sex (male death adders took more lizards than did females). Overall, death adders take a broader array of prey types, including active fast-moving taxa such as endotherms and large diurnal skinks, than do most other Australian elapids of similar body sizes. Ambush foraging is the key to capturing such elusive prey.

  15. Morphology, reproduction and diet in Australian and Papuan death adders (Acanthophis, Elapidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shine

    Full Text Available Death adders (genus Acanthophis differ from most other elapid snakes, and resemble many viperid snakes, in their thickset morphology and ambush foraging mode. Although these snakes are widely distributed through Australia and Papua New Guinea, their basic biology remains poorly known. We report morphological and ecological data based upon dissection of >750 museum specimens drawn from most of the range of the genus. Female death adders grow larger than conspecific males, to about the same extent in all taxa (20% in mean adult snout-vent length,  =  SVL. Most museum specimens were adult rather than juvenile animals, and adult males outnumbered females in all taxa except A. pyrrhus. Females have shorter tails (relative to SVL than males, and longer narrower heads (relative to head length in some but not all species. The southern A. antarcticus is wider-bodied (relative to SVL than the other Australian species. Fecundity of these viviparous snakes was similar among taxa (mean litter sizes 8 to 14. Death adders encompass a broad range of ecological attributes, taking a wide variety of vertebrate prey, mostly lizards (55%, frogs and mammals (each 21%; based on 217 records. Dietary composition differed among species (e.g. frogs were more common in tropical than temperate-zone species, and shifted with snake body size (endotherms were taken by larger snakes and sex (male death adders took more lizards than did females. Overall, death adders take a broader array of prey types, including active fast-moving taxa such as endotherms and large diurnal skinks, than do most other Australian elapids of similar body sizes. Ambush foraging is the key to capturing such elusive prey.

  16. Preserving Subject Variability in Group fMRI Analysis: Performance Evaluation of GICA versus IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMichael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.

  17. Preserving subject variability in group fMRI analysis: performance evaluation of GICA vs. IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew M; Anderson, Mathew; Miller, Robyn L; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA) and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA) are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of inter-subject spatial variability of components and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs) and time courses (TCs) of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1) at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2) at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3) both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4) if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5) in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic) and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift).

  18. Design and Implementation of Submicron Level 10T Full Adder in ALU Using Cell Based and SOC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Swathi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As technology scales into the nanometer regime leakage current, active power, delay and area are becoming important metric for the analysis and design of complex circuits. The main concern in mobile and battery based systems are leakage current and power dissipation. A transistor resizing approach for 10 transistor single bit full adder cells is used to determine optimal sleep transistor size which reduces power dissipation and leakage current. A submicron level 10-transistor single bit full adder cell is considered to achieve low leakage current, reduced power dissipation and high speed. In this paper initially 10T full adder cell is designed with submicron technique and later this is employed to design an ALU adder unit. The modified ALU is simulated and synthesized successfully on cadence 180nm technology.

  19. Vasorelaxant effect of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiaâ; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ex vivo and in vitro vascular activity of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normotensive Wistar rats. Chronic oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva did not significantly affect the systolic blood pressure. In aorta isolated from Ajuga iva-treated rats, the contractile response to noradrenaline was depressed compared to the responses obtained in aorta from untreated rats but the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by acetylcholine was not affected. In vitro, Ajuga iva extract inhibited the contraction evoked by noradrenaline. The addition of Ajuga iva extract during the plateau phase of noradrenaline-evoked contraction produced a relaxation that was sensitive to N-nitro-L-arginine. After pre-incubation of the artery in the presence of the plant extract, vasorelaxant effect was markedly less pronounced. The endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was concentration-dependently blunted in the presence of Ajuga iva extract in the bathing solution. This study indicates that the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva possesses NO-mediated and NO-independent vasorelaxing properties in vitro while only the endothelium-independent effect was observed ex vivo.

  20. Structure-activity relationships of ω-Agatoxin IVA in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Ha; Jung, Hoi Jong; Konishi, Shiro; Kim, Ha Hyung; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Jae Il

    2017-01-01

    To analyze structural features of ω-Aga IVA, a gating modifier toxin from spider venom, we here investigated the NMR solution structure of ω-Aga IVA within DPC micelles. Under those conditions, the Cys-rich central region of ω-Aga IVA still retains the inhibitor Cys knot motif with three short antiparallel β-strands seen in water. However, (15)N HSQC spectra of ω-Aga IVA within micelles revealed that there are radical changes to the toxin's C-terminal tail and several loops upon binding to micelles. The C-terminal tail of ω-Aga IVA appears to assume a β-turn like conformation within micelles, though it is disordered in water. Whole-cell patch clamp studies with several ω-Aga IVA analogs indicate that both the hydrophobic C-terminal tail and an Arg patch in the core region of ω-Aga IVA are critical for Cav2.1 blockade. These results suggest that the membrane environment stabilizes the structure of the toxin, enabling it to act in a manner similar to other gating modifier toxins, though its mode of interaction with the membrane and the channel is unique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IVa promotes invasion of choriocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, K; Yamamoto, E; Fujiwara, S; Shinjo, K; Kotani, T; Umezu, T; Kajiyama, H; Shibata, K; Ino, K; Kikkawa, F

    2012-12-04

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) are related to trophoblasts, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is secreted by GTDs as well as normal placentas. However, the asparagine-linked sugar chains on hCG contain abnormal biantennary structures in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma, but not normal pregnancy or hydatidiform mole. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV (GnT-IV) catalyses β1,4-N-acetylglucosamine branching on asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, which are consistent with the abnormal sugar chain structures on hCG. We investigated GnT-IVa expression in GTDs and placentas by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR. We assessed the effects of GnT-IVa knockdown in choriocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The GnT-IVa was highly expressed in trophoblasts of invasive mole and choriocarcinoma, and moderately in extravillous trophoblasts during the first trimester, but not in hydatidiform mole or other normal trophoblasts. The GnT-IVa knockdown in choriocarcinoma cells significantly reduced migration and invasive capacities, and suppressed cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. The extent of β1,4-N-acetylglucosamine branching on β1 integrin was greatly reduced by GnT-IVa knockdown, although the expression of β1 integrin was not changed. In vivo studies further demonstrated that GnT-IVa knockdown suppressed tumour engraftment and growth. These findings suggest that GnT-IVa is involved in regulating invasion of choriocarcinoma through modifications of the oligosaccharide chains of β1 integrin.

  2. GALNS mutations in Indian patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidchol, Abdul Mueed; Dalal, Ashwin; Shah, Hitesh; S, Suryanarayana; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Kabra, Madhulika; Gupta, Neerja; Danda, Sumita; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Phadke, Shubha R; Kapoor, Seema; Kamate, Mahesh; Verma, I C; Puri, Ratna Dua; Sankar, V H; Devi, A Radha Rama; Patil, S J; Ranganath, Prajnya; Jain, S Jamal Md Nurul; Agarwal, Meenal; Singh, Ankur; Mishra, Pallavi; Tamhankar, Parag M; Gopinath, Puthiya Mundyat; Nagarajaram, H A; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Girisha, Katta Mohan

    2014-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (Morquio syndrome A, MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS). The mutation spectrum in this condition is yet to be determined in Indians. We aimed to analyze the mutations in the GALNS gene in Asian Indians with MPS IVA. All the exons and the adjacent intronic regions of the gene were amplified and sequenced in sixty-eight unrelated Indian families. We identified 136 mutant alleles comprising of 40 different mutations. We report twenty-two novel mutations that comprise of seventeen missense (p.Asn32Thr, p.Leu36Arg, p.Pro52Leu, p.Pro77Ser, p.Cys79Arg, p.His142Pro, p.Tyr191Asp, p.Asn204Thr, p.Gly188Ser, p.Phe216Ser, p.Trp230Cys, p.Ala291Ser, p.Gly317Arg, p.His329Pro, p.Arg386Ser, p.Glu450Gly, p.Cys501Ser), three splice-site variants (c.120+1G>C, c.1003-3C>G, c.1139+1G>A), one nonsense mutation (p.Gln414*) and one frameshift mutation (p.Pro420Leufs*440). Eighteen mutations have been reported earlier. Among these p.Ser287Leu (8.82%), p.Phe216Ser (7.35%), p.Asn32Thr (6.61%) and p.Ala291Ser (5.88%) were the most frequent mutations in Indian patients but were rare in the mutational profiles reported in other populations. These results indicate that the Indian patients may have a distinct mutation spectrum compared to those of other populations. Mutant alleles in exon 1, 7 and 8 accounted for 44.8% of the mutations, and sequencing of these exons initially may be a cost-effective approach in Asian Indian patients. This is the largest study on molecular analysis of patients with MPS IVA reported in the literature, and the first report from India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mathematical Analysis of Ripple Carry Adders Based on Complements%行波进位补码加法器的数学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞

    2012-01-01

    Adders are very important to high-powered microprocessors and DSP. Most of the adders adopt the code of complements, and they are designed based on ripple carry adders. At present, the mathematical foundation of such adders is lacking in strictness and systematicness. This paper puts forward an irregular adder, based on complements and ripple carry. The design philosophy of the adder is very simple and different from the familiar adders. Then a systematic, concise and strict mathematical analysis is carried out on the new adder and the familiar ripple carry complemented adders.%加法器对于高性能微处理器和DSP处理器至关重要,而多数加法器是补码加法器,补码加法器的基础是行波进位加法器.目前,行波进位补码加法器的数学基础缺乏严密性与系统性.提出一种不规则补码加法器,其设计思想很简单并且完全不同于常用的补码加法器—变形补码加法器和单符号位加法器.然后对这三种补码加法器的行波进位电路进行了严密、系统、简洁的数学分析.

  4. Protein-protein interaction domains of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Suey; Celik, Ilkay Nazli; Kaval, Karan Gautam; Bramkamp, Marc; Hamoen, Leendert W; Halbedel, Sven

    2013-03-01

    DivIVA proteins are curvature-sensitive membrane binding proteins that recruit other proteins to the poles and the division septum. They consist of a conserved N-terminal lipid binding domain fused to a less conserved C-terminal domain. DivIVA homologues interact with different proteins involved in cell division, chromosome segregation, genetic competence, or cell wall synthesis. It is unknown how DivIVA interacts with these proteins, and we used the interaction of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA with MinJ and RacA to investigate this. MinJ is a transmembrane protein controlling division site selection, and the DNA-binding protein RacA is crucial for chromosome segregation during sporulation. Initial bacterial two-hybrid experiments revealed that the C terminus of DivIVA appears to be important for recruiting both proteins. However, the interpretation of these results is limited since it appeared that C-terminal truncations also interfere with DivIVA oligomerization. Therefore, a chimera approach was followed, making use of the fact that Listeria monocytogenes DivIVA shows normal polar localization but is not biologically active when expressed in B. subtilis. Complementation experiments with different chimeras of B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes DivIVA suggest that MinJ and RacA bind to separate DivIVA domains. Fluorescence microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged RacA and MinJ corroborated this conclusion and suggests that MinJ recruitment operates via the N-terminal lipid binding domain, whereas RacA interacts with the C-terminal domain. We speculate that this difference is related to the cellular compartments in which MinJ and RacA are active: the cell membrane and the cytoplasm, respectively.

  5. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IVa regulates metastatic potential of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells through glycosylation of CD147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhui; Wang, Shujing; Yu, Shengjin; He, Jingna; Zheng, Weilong; Zhang, Jianing

    2012-08-01

    N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT)-IV a is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the GlcNAC β1-4 branch on the core structure of complex N-Glycans, which is the common substrate for other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, such as GnT-III and GnT-V. Our recent study indicates that the expression of GnT-IVa in Hca-F cells was much higher than that in Hepa1-6 cells, these two mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines have high and no metastatic potential in lymph nodes respectively. To investigate the effects of GnT-IVa on the metastasis of hepatocarcinoma, exogenous GnT-IVa was introduced into Hepa1-6 cells, and on the other hand, the expression of GnT-IVa was down-regulated in Hca-F cells. The engineered overexpression of GnT-IVa in Hepa1-6 cells increased the antennary branches of complex N-glycans and reduced bisecting branches in vitro and in vivo, which leads to the increase in migration and metastatic capability of hepatocarcinoma cells. Conversely, down-regulated expression of GnT-IVa in Hca-F cells showed reduced tetra-antennary branches of N-Glycans, and significantly decreased the migration and metastatic capability. Furthermore, we found that the regulated GnT-IVa converts the heterogeneous N-glycosylated forms of CD147 in Hepa1-6 and Hca-F cells, and significantly changed the antennary oligosaccharide structures on CD147. These results suggest that GnT-IVa could be acting as a key role in migration and metastasis of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells through altering the glycosylation of CD147. These findings should be valuable in delineating the important function of GnT-IVa during the process of hepatocarcinoma growth and metastasis.

  6. Design of Sub-Microwatt Ultra-low Power Adder using Symmetric MRF Logics%采用对称结构MRF逻辑的亚微瓦级超低功耗加法器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿强; 段成华

    2012-01-01

    文中提出了一种具有高抗干扰能力的对称结构改进型MRF逻辑,并由此采用混合设计策略实现了一个8位超前进位加法器.该加法器在SynopsysHSPICE模拟仿真平台上使用台积电的65nm低K电介质工艺器件模型进行了验证.电路仿真结果表明,在0.25V的工作电压下,该加法器的功耗达到了亚微瓦级.与先前的对应设计相比,晶体管数量减小44.3%,功耗降低了34.9%~38.8%.%A modified MRF logic with symmetrical structure is proposed in this paper, using which an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder is implemented based on a hybrid design methodology. The adder is verified using 65nm low-k TSMC technology on Synopsys HSPICE D-2010 platform. Simulations show that at 0. 25V supply voltage, the proposed adder consumes less than one microwatt per MHz. Compared with former design, the transistor count can be saved by 44. 3% and 34. 9%-38. 8% power consumption is reduced.

  7. Design of a Ternary Reversible/Quantum Adder using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly G. Deibuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available —Typical methods of quantum/reversible synthesis are based on using the binary character of quantum computing. However, multi-valued logic is a promising choice for future computer technologies, given a set of advantages when comparing to binary circuits. In this work, we have developed a genetic algorithm-based synthesis of ternary reversible circuits using Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. The method for chromosomes coding that we present, as well as a judicious choice of algorithm parameters, allowed obtaining circuits for half-adder and full adder which are better than other published methods in terms of cost, delay times and amount of input ancillary bits. A structure of the circuits is analyzed in details, based on their decomposition.

  8. Efficient Approaches for Designing Fault Tolerant Reversible Carry Look-Ahead and Carry-Skip Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Combinational or Classical logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit implements only the functions having one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors and therefore naturally takes care of heating. Reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing fault tolerant reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed high speed reversible adders include MIG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The MIG gate is universal and parity preserving. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs...

  9. Clarks Originals Sport Series Adder Shoe猪鼻休闲鞋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    已逾百年历史的英国休闲鞋品牌Clarks近日推出了新鞋款Adder Shoe。在鞋款的整体设计上。Clarks还是秉承了品牌一贯的英伦风格,并且在舒适性上升级,生胶大底与加厚中底的组合让这双Adder Shoe更加舒适,经典的深棕色也是最受欢迎的Clarks鞋款颜色。不论从颜色还是制作水平上来看,Clarks依旧是领先业界的品牌之一。穿上它。你的双脚并不是被禁锢而是在享受。

  10. Unimolecular half-adders and half-subtractors based on acid-base reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei JIANG; Hengyi ZHANG; Yu LIU

    2009-01-01

    According to the structural analysis of reported mole-cular processors with acids and bases as inputs, we proposed a general method for constructing molecular half-adders and/or half-subtractors based on acid-base reaction. The method is preliminarily supported by four molecular processors (8-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxypyridine, 4-aminophenol and 5-amino-1-naphthol) capable of the elementary addition and/or subtraction algebraic operations. Noticeably, 8-hydroxyquinoline can mimic the functions of three logic devices, i.e. half-adder, half-subtractor and digital comparator, by the use of superposition and reconfi-guration. The method described in this paper may be useful not only for designing new unimolecular arithmetical processors with the same inputs and outputs as standard devices for the construction of future molecular computers, but it can also help us disclose the simplest molecules and biomolecules with computational properties concealed around us.

  11. Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evers Lars H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression.

  12. Las modificaciones introducidas en el IVA por la Ley 28/2014, de 27 de noviembre

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Caballero, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    La denominada “Reforma Fiscal” ha tenido como consecuencia la modificación de un gran número de artículos de la Ley del Impuesto sobre el Valor Añadido (Ley del IVA). El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la reforma del IVA partiendo de las razones que la motivan, intentando exponer las diferencias existentes en la regulación del impuesto antes y después de la reforma. Al final del trabajo, se ofrecen una serie de conclusiones extraídas del análisis de la reforma del IVA....

  13. El principio de neutralidad en el IVA en la doctrina del TJCE

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Muñoz, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda las cuestiones más controvertidas de la normativa española sobre el IVA desde el punto de vista de su compatibilidad con el Derecho comunitario. El principio de neutralidad fiscal en el IVA está adquiriendo una mayor relevancia en los últimos años con motivo de la doctrina interpretativa del TJCE. Tras el estudio y reflexión de los criterios esenciales que se deducen de la doctrina de este Tribunal, se analizan de forma crítica determinados aspectos de la Ley del IVA propo...

  14. Extension of the Operating Point of the Mercury IVA from 6 to 8 MV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    EXTENSION OF THE OPERATING POINT OF THE MERCURY IVA FROM 6 TO 8 MV∗ R. J. Allenξ, R. J. Commisso, G. Coopersteina, P. F. Ottingera and J. W...over 200 shots at 8 MV. I. INTRODUCTION The original design of the Mercury IVA allowed operation at 6 MV and 300 kA [1]. Although the...Operating Point Of The Mercury Iva From 6 To 8 Mv 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  15. A New Design Technique of Reversible BCD Adder Based on NMOS with Pass Transistor Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sazzad Hossain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have proposed a new design technique of BCD Adder using newly constructed reversible gates are based on NMOS with pass transistor gates, where the conventional reversible gates are based on CMOS with transmission gates. We also compare the proposed reversible gates with the conventional CMOS reversible gates which show that the required number of Transistors is significantly reduced.

  16. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF FIR FILTER USING COMPUTATIONAL SHARING MULTIPLIER BASED ON HIGH SPEED CARRY SELECT ADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile computing and multimedia applications demand high-performance and low-power VLSI Digital Signal Processing (DSP systems. One of the most widely used operations in DSP is Finite-Impulse Response (FIR filtering. In the existing method FIR filter is designed using array multiplier, which is having higher delay and power dissipation. The proposed method presents a programmable digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter for high-performance applications. The architecture is based on a computational sharing multiplier which specifically doing add and shift operation and also targets computation re-use in vector-scalar products. CSHM multiplier can be implemented by Carry Select Adder which is a high speed adder. A Carry-Select Adder (CSA can be implemented by using single ripple carry adder and add-one circuits using the fast all-one finding circuit and low-delay multiplexers to reduce the area and accelerate the speed of CSA. An 8-tap programmable FIR filter was implemented in tanner EDA tool using CMOS 180nm technology based on the proposed CSHM technique. In which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns of the filter using array multiplier are 6000, 3.732 and 9 respectively. The FIR filter using CSHM in which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns are 23500, 2.627 and 4.5 respectively. By adopting the proposed method for the design of FIR filter, the delay is reduced to about 43.2% in comparison with the existing method. The CSHM scheme and circuit-level techniques helped to achieve high-performance FIR filtering operation.

  17. Design and Performance Analysis of Various Adders and Multipliers Using GDI Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Simran kaur; Balwinder Singh; Jain, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    With the active development of portable electronic devices, the need for low power dissipation, high speed and compact implementation, give rise to several research intentions. There are several design techniques used for the circuit configuration in VLSI systems but there are very few design techniques that gives the required extensibility. This paper describes the implementation of various adders and multipliers. The design approach proposed in the article is based on the GDI (G...

  18. Optimized design of Carry Skip BCD adder using new FHNG reversible logic gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Belayet Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nanotechnology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.

  19. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  20. Chikusetsusaponin IVa Butyl Ester (CS-IVa-Be), a Novel IL6R Antagonist, Inhibits IL6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway and Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Qian, Shihui; Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Hu, Chunping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Qiang; Gao, S Paul; Cao, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The activation of IL6/STAT3 signaling is associated with the pathogenesis of many cancers. Agents that suppress IL6/STAT3 signaling have cancer-therapeutic potential. In this study, we found that chikusetsusaponin IVa butyl ester (CS-IVa-Be), a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Acanthopanas gracilistylus W.W.Smith, induced cancer cell apoptosis. CS-IVa-Be inhibited constitutive and IL6-induced STAT3 activation, repressed STAT3 DNA-binding activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, IL6-induced STAT3 luciferase reporter activity, IL6-induced STAT3-regulated antiapoptosis gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, and IL6-induced TF-1 cell proliferation. Surprisingly, CS-IVa-Be inhibited IL6 family cytokines rather than other cytokines induced STAT3 activation. Further studies indicated that CS-IVa-Be is an antagonist of IL6 receptor via directly binding to the IL6Rα with a Kd of 663 ± 74 nmol/L and the GP130 (IL6Rβ) with a Kd of 1,660 ± 243 nmol/L, interfering with the binding of IL6 to IL6R (IL6Rα and GP130) in vitro and in cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of CS-IVa-Be on the IL6-IL6Rα-GP130 interaction was relatively specific as CS-IVa-Be showed higher affinity to IL6Rα than to LIFR (Kd: 4,910 ± 1,240 nmol/L) and LeptinR (Kd: 4,990 ± 915 nmol/L). We next demonstrated that CS-IVa-Be not only directly induced cancer cell apoptosis but also sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via upregulating DR5. Our findings suggest that CS-IVa-Be as a novel IL6R antagonist inhibits IL6/STAT3 signaling pathway and sensitizes the MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1190-200. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. High Performance Hardware Design Of IEEE Floating Point Adder In FPGA With VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a floating-point adder that is compliant with the current draft revision of this standard. We provide synthesis results indicating the estimated area and delay for our design when it is pipelined to various depths.Our work is an important design resource for development of floating-point adder hardware on FPGAs. All sub components within the floating-point adder and known algorithms are researched and implemented to provide versatility and flexibility to designers as an alternative to intellectual property where they have no control over the design. The VHDL code is open source and can be used by designers with proper reference. Each of the sub-operation is researched for different implementations and then synthesized onto a Spartan FPGA device to be chosen for best performance. Our implementation of the standard algorithm occupied 370 slices and had an overall delay of 31 ns. The standard algorithm was pipelined into five stages to run at 100 MHz which took an area of 324 slices and power is 30mw.

  2. Redundant Logic Insertion and Latency Reduction in Self-Timed Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of logic redundancy insertion is presented that facilitates significant latency reduction in self-timed adder circuits. The proposed concept is universal in the sense that it can be extended to a variety of self-timed design methods. Redundant logic can be incorporated to generate efficient self-timed realizations of iterative logic specifications. Based on the case study of a 32-bit self-timed carry-ripple adder, it has been found that redundant implementations minimize the data path latency by 21.1% at the expense of increases in area and power by 2.3% and 0.8% on average compared to their nonredundant counterparts. However, when considering further peephole logic optimizations, it has been observed in a specific scenario that the delay reduction could be as high as 31% while accompanied by only meager area and power penalties of 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Moreover, redundant logic adders pave the way for spacer propagation in constant time and garner actual case latency for addition of valid data.

  3. Modified 16-b Square-root Low Power Area Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Meenaakshi Sundhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to acceptance of the portable system with fast growth of power density in the integrated circuits, the power dissipation and the performance is considered while the system is designed. The main goal of the VLSI design is to design the adders in more efficient way. By that way the Carry Select Adder (CSLA is an adder designed, which computes n+1 bit sum of two n bit numbers. In this study Modified 16-b SQRT with Modified Area efficient CSLA is proposed. From the design of Modified Area Efficient CSLA it is experiential that there is an option of reducing the area more and consumes low power when compared with Regular CSLA. Modified Area Efficient CSLA (MA-CSLA utilizes BEC which reduces the area more and the total gate count is also gets condensed. The proposed study makes use of a simple and well-organized gate-level alteration to considerably reduce the area and power of the CSLA. By the support of alteration 8-, 16-, 32- and 64-b, respectively Square-Root CSLA (SQRT CSLA model have been evolved and evaluated with the regular SQRT CSLA model. This study estimates the performance of the proposed designs in terms of delay, area and power. The results analysis shows that the proposed Modified Area Efficient CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.

  4. Simulation of 64-bit MAC Unit using Kogge Stone Adder and Ancient Indian Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aapurva Kaul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes that multiply and accumulate (MAC unit plays a very vital role in various Digital Signal Processing applications. Speed of these applications depends on the speed of these three sub units of MAC multiply unit, adder unit and accumulator unit. In this paper the delay of 64-bit MAC unit is decreased as compared to the previous MAC units. In this Kogge Stone Adder is used as adder in design Vedic Multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra. The designing of MAC unit is done under VIRTEX-4 family, XC4VFX140 device, FF1517 package and -11 speed and comparison of proposed MAC unit design is done under SPARTAN- 3E family, XC3S500 device, FG320 package and -5 speed in Xilinx ISE 8.1i. The combinational path delay of the 64-bit MAC unit is 59.705ns in SPARTAN-3E family. Ancient Indian mathematics is being used for designing of multiplier unit to decrease the overall delay of the MAC unit.

  5. An optimal adder-based hardware architecture for the DCT/SA-DCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, Andrew; Muresan, Valentin; O'Connor, Noel

    2005-07-01

    The explosive growth of the mobile multimedia industry has accentuated the need for ecient VLSI implemen- tations of the associated computationally demanding signal processing algorithms. This need becomes greater as end-users demand increasingly enhanced features and more advanced underpinning video analysis. One such feature is object-based video processing as supported by MPEG-4 core profile, which allows content-based in- teractivity. MPEG-4 has many computationally demanding underlying algorithms, an example of which is the Shape Adaptive Discrete Cosine Transform (SA-DCT). The dynamic nature of the SA-DCT processing steps pose significant VLSI implementation challenges and many of the previously proposed approaches use area and power consumptive multipliers. Most also ignore the subtleties of the packing steps and manipulation of the shape information. We propose a new multiplier-less serial datapath based solely on adders and multiplexers to improve area and power. The adder cost is minimised by employing resource re-use methods. The number of (physical) adders used has been derived using a common sub-expression elimination algorithm. Additional energy eciency is factored into the design by employing guarded evaluation and local clock gating. Our design implements the SA-DCT packing with minimal switching using ecient addressing logic with a transpose mem- ory RAM. The entire design has been synthesized using TSMC 0.09µm TCBN90LP technology yielding a gate count of 12028 for the datapath and its control logic.

  6. Low impedance z-pinch drivers without post-hole convolute current adders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Seidel, David Bruce; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Present-day pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime typically use post-hole convolute current adders to operate at sufficiently low impedance. These adders necessarily involve magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses in the vicinity of the nulls that can severely limit the efficiency of the delivery of the system's energy to a load. In this report, we describe an alternate transformer-based approach to obtaining low impedance. The transformer consists of coils whose windings are in parallel rather than in series, and does not suffer from the presence of magnetic nulls. By varying the pitch of the coils windings, the current multiplication ratio can be varied, leading to a more versatile driver. The coupling efficiency of the transformer, its behavior in the presence of electron flow, and its mechanical strength are issues that need to be addressed to evaluate the potential of transformer-based current multiplication as a viable alternative to conventional current adder technology.

  7. An unusual phospholipase A₂ from puff adder Bitis arietans venom--a novel blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Gorbacheva, Elena V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Kasheverov, Igor E; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Astashev, Maxim E; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2011-04-01

    The venoms of snakes from Viperidae family mainly influence the function of various blood components. However, the published data indicate that these venoms contain also neuroactive components, the most studied being neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s). Earlier we have shown (Gorbacheva et al., 2008) that several Viperidae venoms blocked nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and voltage-gated Ca²+ channels in isolated identified neurons of the fresh-water snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we report on isolation from puff adder Bitis arietans venom and characterization of a novel protein bitanarin that reversibly blocks nAChRs. To isolate the protein, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration, ion-exchange and reversed phase chromatography and fractions obtained were screened for capability to block nAChRs. The isolated protein competed with [¹²⁵I]iodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 and Torpedo californica nAChRs, as well as to acetylcholine-binding protein from L. stagnalis, the IC₅₀ being 20 ± 1.5, 4.3 ± 0.2, and 10.6 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. It also blocked reversibly acetylcholine-elicited current in isolated L. stagnalis neurons with IC₅₀ of 11.4 μM. Mass-spectrometry analysis determined the molecular mass of 27.4 kDa and the presence of 28 cysteine residues forming 14 disulphide bonds. Edman degradation of the protein and tryptic fragments showed its similarity to PLA₂s from snake venoms. Indeed, the protein possessed high PLA₂ activity, which was 1.95 mmol/min/μmol. Bitanarin is the first described PLA₂ that contains 14 disulphide bonds and the first nAChR blocker possessing PLA₂ activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient Preferences in Making Treatment Decisions in Patients With Stage I-IVA Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Tongue Cancer

  9. Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Patient Affected by MPS IVA with Osteoporotic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummolo, Albina; Gabrielli, Orazio; Gaeta, Alberto; Masciopinto, Maristella; Zampini, Lucia; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Di Natale, Paola; Papadia, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Morquio A syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA) (MPS IVA) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the defective degradation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Classically, MPS IVA patients present with severe multisystemic involvement and have a short life expectancy. Attenuated forms with clinical features limited to minor skeletal abnormalities and short stature have also been described, sometimes associated to an early-onset osteoporotic phenotype. No treatment with allogenic bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy is currently available for Morquio A syndrome, and enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation. We report a case of MPS IVA, who manifested tardily attenuated phenotype and significant bone mass reduction, which was treated with a bisphosphonate (BPN), resulting in an improvement of X-ray skeletal aspects and functional bone performance. We suggest that the use of bisphosphonates may be an interesting supportive therapeutic option for Morquio A patients with osteoporotic phenotype, but further studies involving more patients are necessary to confirm our findings.

  10. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2010-01-01

    of the spread of genotypes to new geographical areas. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). Balb/c mice were injected with purified VHSV-JF00Ehil (genotype...... IVa) from diseased farmed Japanese flounder. Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using cell cultures that were transfected...... with each of the viral protein genes, it was shown that the MAb VHS-10 recognizes a nonlinear genotype IVa-specific epitope on the VHSV N-protein....

  11. The I-Xe System in the IVA Iron Meteorite Steinbach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    Non-metallic phases from IVA Steinbach were separated and identified to be troilite, chromite, tridymite, and clino- and orthopyroxene. Xenon isotopic compositions are measured to identify possible iodine carrier phases suitable for the I-Xe dating.

  12. Meteoritic Versus Biotic Amino Acids: An Update on Aib and Iva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, H.; Degenkolb, T.; Fox, S.

    2016-08-01

    Biotically synthesized Aib and Iva hav been found in >1,350 structurally characterized microbial peptides. However, the structural diversity of the non-proteinogenic amino acids in CM-type meteorites is not displayed in individual fungal peptides.

  13. Binary full adder, made of fusion gates, in a subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    In an excitable thin-layer Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium a localized perturbation leads to the formation of omnidirectional target or spiral waves of excitation. A subexcitable BZ medium responds to asymmetric local perturbation by producing traveling localized excitation wave-fragments, distant relatives of dissipative solitons. The size and life span of an excitation wave-fragment depend on the illumination level of the medium. Under the right conditions the wave-fragments conserve their shape and velocity vectors for extended time periods. I interpret the wave-fragments as values of Boolean variables. When two or more wave-fragments collide they annihilate or merge into a new wave-fragment. States of the logic variables, represented by the wave-fragments, are changed in the result of the collision between the wave-fragments. Thus, a logical gate is implemented. Several theoretical designs and experimental laboratory implementations of Boolean logic gates have been proposed in the past but little has been done cascading the gates into binary arithmetical circuits. I propose a unique design of a binary one-bit full adder based on a fusion gate. A fusion gate is a two-input three-output logical device which calculates the conjunction of the input variables and the conjunction of one input variable with the negation of another input variable. The gate is made of three channels: two channels cross each other at an angle, a third channel starts at the junction. The channels contain a BZ medium. When two excitation wave-fragments, traveling towards each other along input channels, collide at the junction they merge into a single wave-front traveling along the third channel. If there is just one wave-front in the input channel, the front continues its propagation undisturbed. I make a one-bit full adder by cascading two fusion gates. I show how to cascade the adder blocks into a many-bit full adder. I evaluate the feasibility of my designs by simulating the evolution

  14. Predicting genetic traits and epitope analysis of apxIVA in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2011-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes a severe hemorrhagic pneumonia in pigs. Fifteen serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae express four different Apx toxins that belong to the pore-forming repeats-in-toxin (RTX) group of toxins. ApxIV, which is conserved and up-regulated in vivo, could be an excellent candidate for the development of a protective cross-serotype immunity vaccine, and could aid in the differential diagnosis of diseases caused by A. pleuropneumoniae. We identified and sequenced apxIVA from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 isolated in Korea (Kor-ApxIVA). The Kor-ApxIVA was closely related to Switzerland (AF021919), China (CP000687), and China (GQ332268), showing 98.6%, 98.4%, and 97.2% amino acid homology, respectively. The level of amino acid homology, however, was higher than the nucleotide homology. The structural characteristics of ApxIVA showed RTX proteins, including N-terminal hydrophobic domains, signature sequences for potential acylation sites, and repeated glycine-rich nonapeptides in the C-terminal region of the protein. Thirty glycine-rich nonapeptides with the consensus sequence, L/V-X-G-G-X-G-N/D-D-X, were found in the C-terminus of the Kor-ApxIVA. In addition, the Kor-ApxIVA was predicted for the linear B-cell epitopes and conserved domains with determined peptide sequences. This genetic analysis of the Kor-ApxIVA might be an important foundation for future biological and functional research on ApxIVA.

  15. Vessel shape alterations of the vertebrobasilar arteries in Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVa (Morquio A) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyildizi, Yasemin; Gökce, Seyfullah; Marini, Federico; Mayer, Anna K; Kirschner, Stefanie; Hennermann, Julia B; Brockmann, Marc A

    2017-08-01

    Main symptom of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVa (MPS IVa) is progressive systemic skeletal dysplasia. This is routinely monitored by cerebral and spinal MRI. The vascular system is generally not in the primary focus of interest. In our population of MPS IVa patients we observed vessel shape alterations of the vertebrobasilar arteries, which has not been described before. MRI-datasets of 26 patients with MPS IVa acquired between 2008 and 2015 were eligible for retrospective analysis of the vertebrobasilar arteries. The vessel length and angle of the basilar artery (BA) and both vertebral arteries (VA) were analyzed. A deflection angle between 90° and 130° in the vessel course was defined as tortuosity, less than 90° as kinking. The results were compared to a matched control group of 23 patients not suffering from MPS. The deflection angle [°] of the VA and BA was significantly decreased in the majority (85%) of MPS IVa patients compared to the control group: BA 132±24 vs. 177±6, BA/VA transition 113±21 vs. 152±13, right VA 108±23 vs. 156±13, left VA 110± 22 vs. 157±14 (all pIVa patients were significantly longer compared to the control group: BA 27±4 vs. 21±2, right VA 20±6 vs. 10±1, left VA 18±5 vs. 11±2 (all pIVa is associated with significantly increased tortuosity of vertebrobasilar arteries. Therefore the vascular system of MPS IVa patients should be monitored on routinely basis, as vessel shape alterations had been associated with dissections, leading to a higher risk of cerebrovascular events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Chondroitin 6-Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA and VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W; Mackenzie, William G; Shibata, Yuniko; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji; Orii, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin 6-sulfate (C6S), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is distributed mainly in the growth plates, aorta, and cornea; however, the physiological function of C6S is not fully understood. One of the limitations is that no rapid, accurate quantitative method to measure C6S has been established. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA and VII (MPS IVA and VII) are caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and β-D-glucuronidase, respectively, resulting in accumulation of C6S and other GAG(s). While levels of keratan sulfate (KS), heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate in samples from MPS patients are well described, this is the first report of quantitative analysis of C6S levels in samples from MPS IVA and VII patients.We developed a method to digest polymeric C6S and measure resultant disaccharides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). C6S levels were measured in the blood from control subjects and patients with MPS IVA and VII aged from 0 to 58 years of age. We also assayed KS levels in the same samples for comparison with C6S.Levels of C6S in the blood decreased with age and were significantly elevated in patients with MPS IVA and VII, compared with age-matched controls. Levels of KS in patients with MPS IVA were also higher than those in age-matched controls, although differences were less pronounced than with C6S. Combining KS and C6S data, discriminated patients with MPS IVA from age-matched control subjects were better than either C6S or KS levels alone.In conclusion, this first report showing that blood levels of C6S are quantitatively evaluated in patients with MPS IVA and VII indicates that C6S could be a useful biomarker for these metabolic disorders.

  17. Validation of keratan sulfate level in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Oguma, Toshihiro; Dung, Vu Chi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Gutiérrez, María L; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Masaru; Kida, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Barrera, Luis; Orii, Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A disease), a progressive lysosomal storage disease, causes skeletal chondrodysplasia through excessive storage of keratan sulfate (KS). KS is synthesized mainly in cartilage and released to the circulation. The excess storage of KS disrupts cartilage, consequently releasing more KS into circulation, which is a critical biomarker for MPS IVA. Thus, assessment of KS level provides a potential screening strategy and determines clinical course and efficacy of therapies. We have recently developed a tandem mass spectrometry liquid chromatography [LC/MS/MS] method to assay KS levels in blood. Forty-nine blood specimens from patients with MPS IVA [severe (n = 33), attenuated (n = 11) and undefined (n = 5)] were analyzed for comparison of blood KS concentration with that of healthy subjects and for correlation with clinical severity. Plasma samples were digested by keratanase II to obtain disaccharides of KS. Digested samples were assayed by LC/MS/MS. We found that blood KS levels (0.4-26 µg/ml) in MPS IVA patients were significantly higher than those in age-matched controls (0.67-4.6 µg/ml; P IVA peaked between 2 years and 5 years of age (mean 11.4 µg/ml). Blood KS levels in severe MPS IVA (mean 7.3 µg/ml) were higher than in the attenuated form (mean 2.1 µg/ml) (P = 0.012). We also found elevated blood KS levels in other types of MPS. These findings indicate that the new KS assay for blood is suitable for early diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of disease severity in MPS IVA.

  18. Oxidative stress and inflammation in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe P; Biancini, Giovana B; Deon, Marion; Manini, Paula R; da Rosa, Helen T; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer; Bender, Fernanda; Burin, Maira G; Coitinho, Adriana S; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is an inborn error of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism due to the deficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase that leads to accumulation of the keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in body fluids and in lysosomes. The pathophysiology of this lysosomal storage disorder is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokine and GAG levels in MPS IVA patients. We analyzed urine and blood samples from patients under ERT (n=17) and healthy age-matched controls (n=10-15). Patients presented a reduction of antioxidant defense levels, assessed by a decrease in glutathione content and by an increase in superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Concerning lipid and protein damage, it was verified increased urine isoprostanes and di-tyrosine levels and decreased plasma sulfhydryl groups in MPS IVA patients compared to controls. MPS IVA patients showed higher DNA damage than control group and this damage had an oxidative origin in both pyrimidine and purine bases. Interleukin 6 was increased in patients and presented an inverse correlation with GSH levels, showing a possible link between inflammation and oxidative stress in MPS IVA disease. The data presented suggest that pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant states occur in MPS IVA patients even under ERT. Taking these results into account, supplementation of antioxidants in combination with ERT can be a tentative therapeutic approach with the purpose of improving the patient's quality of life. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study relating MPS IVA patients with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A disease): clinical review and current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, S; Montaño, A M; Oikawa, H; Smith, M; Barrera, L; Chinen, Y; Thacker, M M; Mackenzie, W G; Suzuki, Y; Orii, T

    2011-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A, is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalatosamine-6-sulfate-sulfatase (GALNS), which catalyzes a step in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S). It leads to accumulation of the KS and C6S, mainly in bone and cornea, causing a systemic skeletal chondrodysplasia. MPS IVA has a variable age of onset and variable rate of progression. Common presenting features include elevation of urinary and blood KS, marked short stature, hypoplasia of the odontoid process, pectus carinatum, kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum, laxity of joints and corneal clouding; however there is no central nervous system impairment. Generally, MPS IVA patients with a severe form do not survive beyond the third decade of life whereas those patients with an attenuated form may survive over 70 years. There has been no effective therapy for MPS IVA, and care has been palliative. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) have emerged as a treatment for mucopolysaccharidoses disorders, including Morquio A disease. This review provides an overview of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and symptomatic management of patients with MPS IVA and describes potential perspectives of ERT and HSCT. The issue of treating very young patients is also discussed.

  20. Spinal involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio-Brailsford or Morquio A syndrome): presentation, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Guirish A; Martin, Kenneth W; Theroux, Mary C; Lampe, Christina; White, Klane K; Shediac, Renée; Lampe, Christian G; Beck, Michael; Mackenzie, William G; Hendriksz, Christian J; Harmatz, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio-Brailsford or Morquio A syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme N-acetyl-galactosamine-6-sulphate sulphatase (GALNS). MPS IVA is multisystemic but manifests primarily as a progressive skeletal dysplasia. Spinal involvement is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in MPS IVA. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of problems involving the spine are critical in preventing or arresting neurological deterioration and loss of function. This review details the spinal manifestations of MPS IVA and describes the tools used to diagnose and monitor spinal involvement. The relative utility of radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of cervical spine instability, stenosis, and cord compression is discussed. Surgical interventions, anaesthetic considerations, and the use of neurophysiological monitoring during procedures performed under general anaesthesia are reviewed. Recommendations for regular radiological imaging and neurologic assessments are presented, and the need for a more standardized approach for evaluating and managing spinal involvement in MPS IVA is addressed.

  1. Antithrombotic effect of chikusetsusaponin IVa isolated from Ilex paraguariensis (Maté).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, Tabitha; Berger, Markus; Barlette, Adriana Gregory; Reck, José; Segalin, Jéferson; Verza, Simone; Ortega, George González; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida; Verli, Hugo; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-12-01

    The triterpene chikusetsusaponin IVa was isolated from the fruit of Ilex paraguariensis. Using biochemical and pharmacological methods, we demonstrated that chikusetsusaponin IVa (1) prolongs the recalcification time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time of normal human plasma in a dose-dependent manner, (2) inhibits the amidolytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa upon synthetic substrates S2238 and S2222, (3) inhibits thrombin-induced fibrinogen clotting (50% inhibition concentration, 199.4 ± 9.1 μM), and (4) inhibits thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The results also indicate that chikusetsusaponin IVa preferentially inhibits thrombin in a competitive manner (K(i)=219.6 μM). Furthermore, when administered intravenously to rats, chikusetsusaponin IVa inhibited thrombus formation in a stasis model of venous thrombosis, although it did not induce a significant bleeding effect. Chikusetsusaponin IVa also prolonged the ex vivo activated partial thromboplastin time. Altogether, these data suggest that chikusetsusaponin IVa exerts antithrombotic effects, including minor hemorrhagic events. This appears to be important for the development of new therapeutic agents.

  2. Elosulfase Alfa: a review of its use in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2014-10-01

    Elosulfase alfa (Vimizim(®)) is a recombinant form of the human lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) that is lacking in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome). It is the first, and currently only, disease-specific treatment option for this very rare, progressively degenerative, autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Enzyme replacement therapy with elosulfase alfa aims to restore GALNS activity, thereby preventing the accumulation of keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate in lysosomal compartments of cells that results in the clinical manifestations of MPS IVA. In clinical trials in children and adults with MPS IVA, intravenous elosulfase alfa 2 mg/kg/week provided significant and sustained improvements in urinary levels of KS (a pharmacodynamic biomarker for the disease). In the key placebo-controlled, 24-week, phase 3 trial in patients with MPS IVA aged ≥5 years, elosulfase alfa 2 mg/kg/week significantly improved endurance [least squares mean placebo-adjusted change from baseline in 6-min walk test distance 22.5 m (95 % CI 4.0-40.9)]. Infusion-associated reactions, the primary tolerability issue associated with elosulfase alfa, are generally mild to moderate in severity, self-limiting, and manageable. In the absence of a cure, GALNS enzyme replacement therapy with elosulfase alfa is an important achievement in the treatment of MPS IVA.

  3. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  4. Group IVA phospholipase A(2) deficiency prevents CCl4-induced hepatic cell death through the enhancement of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Kanai, Shiho; Tanaka, Kikuko; Kawashita, Eri; Akiba, Satoshi

    2016-02-26

    Group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2), which generates arachidonate, plays a role in inflammation. IVA-PLA2-deficiency reduced hepatotoxicity and hepatocyte cell death in mice that received a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) without any inhibitory effects on CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation. An immunoblot analysis of extracts from wild-type mouse- and IVA-PLA2 KO mouse-derived primary hepatocytes that transiently expressed microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3) revealed a higher amount of LC3-II, a typical index of autophagosome formation, in IVA-PLA2-deficient cells, suggesting the enhancement of constitutive autophagy. IVA-PLA2 may promote CCl4-induced cell death through the suppression of constitutive autophagy in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fir Filter Design Using The Signed-Digit Number System and Carry Save Adders – A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Altwaijry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work looks at optimizing finite impulse response (FIR filters from an arithmetic perspective. Since the main two arithmetic operations in the convolution equations are addition and multiplication, they are the targets of the optimization. Therefore, considering carry-propagate-free addition techniques should enhance the addition operation of the filter. The signed-digit number system is utilized to speedup addition in the filter. An alternative carry propagate free fast adder, carry-save adder, is also used here to compare its performance to the signed-digit adder. For multiplication, Booth encoding is used to reduce the number of partial products. The two filters are modeled in VHDL, synthesized and place-and-routed. The filters are deployed on a development board to filter digital images. The resultant hardware is analyzed for speed and logic utilization

  6. Design of Improved One's Complement Adder%一种改进的反码加法器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 许团辉; 王玉艳

    2011-01-01

    Conventional adder adding the required number of.signed operands into the form of complement operations, and return a result in signed magnitude number. This paper proposes a new structure one's complement Signed Adder(SA) based on the flagged prefix adder, which could combine the increment unit with the adder, to reduce the delay of the signed adder. A 64-bits enhanced SA has been implemented in SMIC 180nm CMOS technology. Compared with previous work, the area, power, and delay of our design are decreased by 39.1%, 39.9%, and 5.1%, respectively.Results show that this structure is superior to two's complement adder.%传统的加法器在有符号数相加时需将操作数转化为补码形式进行运算,运算结束将计算结果再转化为原码.为减少关键路径延迟,在标志前缀加法器的基础上,提出一种改进的反码加法器,将常用反码加法器中的加一单元合并到加法运算中.在SMIC 0.18μm工艺下,将改进的64位反码加法器与常用的64位补码加法器进行比较,数据显示面积减少了39.1%,功耗降低了39.9%,关键路径延迟降低了5.1%.结果表明,改进的反码加法器性能较优.

  7. Clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of Korean patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Hee; Cho, Sung Yoon; Maeng, Se Hyun; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Hyung-Doo; Jin, Dong Kyu

    2012-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Only a few MPS IVA cases have been reported in the Korean literature; there is a paucity of research about clinical or radiologic findings for this disorder. Therefore, we studied clinical findings, radiological features, and genetic data of Korean MPS IVA patients for determining factors that may allow early diagnosis and that may thus improve the patients' quality of life. MPS IVA was confirmed via assay for enzymatic activity of leukocytes in 10 patients. The GALNS gene was analyzed. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for obtaining clinical features and evaluated for radiological skeletal surveys, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and ophthalmologic test results. Nine patients had severe clinical phenotype, and 1 had an intermediate phenotype, on the basis of clinical phenotype criteria. Radiologic findings indicated skeletal abnormalities in all patients, especially in the hips and extremities. Eight patients had an odontoid hypoplasia, and 1 showed mild atlantoaxial subluxation and cord myelopathy. Genetic analysis indicated 10 different GALNS mutations. Two mutations, c.451C>A and c.1000C>T, account for 37.5% (6/16) and 25% (4/16) of all mutations in this samples, respectively. An understanding of the clinical and radiological features involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of MPS IVA. Adequate evaluations and therapy in the early stages may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal abnormalities and may reduce life-threatening effects of atlantoaxial subluxation.

  8. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  9. A 3-input all magnetic full adder with misalignment-free clocking mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2017-01-01

    The clocking field misalignment is a critical issue for the application of Magnetic Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). Recent work demonstrates a novel architecture to address this issue—by progressively tuning the shape anisotropy, we could enforce a misalignment-free signal propagation and logic operation. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture of a 3-input full adder based on the 45°-clocking field mechanism. The effectiveness of this design is confirmed through both simulation and experiments. Our work paves the way for the application of MQCA logic.

  10. Experimental study on all-optical half-adder based on semi-conductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing-chen; YU Jin-long; WANG Wen-rui; ZHANG Li-tai; HU Hao; YANG En-ze

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel all-optical half-adder based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAS). Two optical band-pass filters are used to select the two idlers generated by four-wave mixing (FWM) effect of the first SOA. Therefore, the AND gate and XNOR logic are realized simultaneously. The second SOA acts as a NOT gate, in which the NOR logic is achieved with the input of the logic XNOR. As a result, the output is the sum of the two input bits and the carry. In the experiment, all-optical half-addition calculation is achieved between two 10 Gb/s signals.

  11. An Enzyme-Based Half-Adder and Half-Subtractor with a Modular Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Brian E; Lewer, Jessica M; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-18

    A half-adder and a half-subtractor have been realized using enzymatic reaction cascades performed in a flow cell device. The individual cells were modified with different enzymes and assembled in complex networks to perform logic operations and arithmetic functions. The modular design of the logic devices allowed for easy re-configuration, enabling them to perform various functions. The final output signals, represented by redox species [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) or NADH/NAD(+) , were analyzed optically to derive the calculation results. These output signals might be applicable in the future for actuation processes, for example, substance release activated by logically processed signals.

  12. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C

    2015-08-28

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.

  13. Physiological and glycomic characterization of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa and -IVb double deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Shinji; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Ohtsubo, Kazuaki; Ditto, David; Chiba, Yasunori; Le, Dzung T; Morris, Howard R; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Marth, Jamey D; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV (GnT-IV) has two isoenzymes, GnT-IVa and GnT-IVb, which initiate the GlcNAcbeta1-4 branch synthesis on the Manalpha1-3 arm of the N-glycan core thereby increasing N-glycan branch complexity and conferring endogenous lectin binding epitopes. To elucidate the physiological significance of GnT-IV, we engineered and characterized GnT-IVb-deficient mice and further generated GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficient mice. In wild-type mice, GnT-IVa expression is restricted to gastrointestinal tissues, whereas GnT-IVb is broadly expressed among organs. GnT-IVb deficiency induced aberrant GnT-IVa expression corresponding to the GnT-IVb distribution pattern that might be attributed to increased Ets-1, which conceivably activates the Mgat4a promoter, and thereafter preserved apparent GnT-IV activity. The compensative GnT-IVa expression might contribute to amelioration of the GnT-IVb-deficient phenotype. GnT-IVb deficiency showed mild phenotypic alterations in hematopoietic cell populations and hemostasis. GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency completely abolished GnT-IV activity that resulted in the disappearance of the GlcNAcbeta1-4 branch on the Manalpha1-3 arm that was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS and GC-MS linkage analyses. Comprehensive glycomic analyses revealed that the abundance of terminal moieties was preserved in GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency that was due to the elevated expression of glycosyltransferases regarding synthesis of terminal moieties. Thereby, this may maintain the expression of glycan ligands for endogenous lectins and prevent cellular dysfunctions. The fact that the phenotype of GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency largely overlapped that of GnT-IVa single deficiency can be attributed to the induced glycomic compensation. This is the first report that mammalian organs have highly organized glycomic compensation systems to preserve N-glycan branch complexity.

  14. IVA-CPT检测儿童ADHD的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜林

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过IVA-CPT(整合视听连续执行测试)检测儿童ADHD(注意缺陷多动障碍)的临床研究,探讨IVA-CPT在临床上的应用价值.方法:对158名ADHD专科门诊儿童进行IVA-CPT测试,同时进行DSM-Ⅳ(美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册第四版)诊断,统计分析结果,对比、评价其临床意义.结果:DSM-Ⅳ 和IVA-CPT对ADHD的阳性检出率分别为67.72%和60.13%,经χ2相关分析两者呈正相关,χ2相差分析差异不明显;对ADHD临床分型的诊断两方法同样呈正相关和相差不明显.结论:IVA-CPT可应用于ADHD及其临床分型的辅助诊断.

  15. Size of the group IVA iron meteorite core: Constraints from the age and composition of Muonionalusta

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    The group IVA fractionally crystallized iron meteorites display a diverse range of metallographic cooling rates. These have been attributed to their formation in a metallic core, approximately 150 km in radius, that cooled to crystallization in the absence of any appreciable insulating mantle. Here we build upon this formation model by incorporating several new constraints. These include (i) a recent U-Pb radiometric closure age of <2.5 Myr after solar system formation for the group IVA iron Muonionalusta, (ii) new measurements and modeling of highly siderophile element compositions for a suite of IVAs, and (iii) consideration of the thermal effects of heating by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 60Fe. Our model for the thermal evolution of the IVA core suggests that it was approximately 50 - 110 km in radius after being collisionally exposed. This range is due to uncertainties in the initial abundance of live 60Fe incorporated into the IVA core. Our models define a relationship between cooling rat...

  16. Robonaut 2 on the International Space Station: Status Update and Preparations for IVA Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Thomas D.; Diftler, Myron E.; Berka, Reginald B.; Badger, Julia M.; Yayathi, Sandeep; Curtis, Andrew W.; Joyce, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics engineers, ground controllers and International Space Station (ISS) crew have been running successful experiments using Robonaut 2 (R2) on-board the ISS for more than a year. This humanoid upper body robot continues to expand its list of achievements and its capabilities to safely demonstrate maintenance and servicing tasks while working alongside human crewmembers. The next phase of the ISS R2 project will transition from a stationary Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) upper body using a power/data umbilical, to an IVA mobile system with legs for repositioning, a battery backpack power supply, and wireless communications. These upgrades will enable the R2 team to evaluate hardware performance and to develop additional control algorithms and control verification techniques with R2 inside the ISS in preparation for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) phase of R2 operations. As R2 becomes more capable in assisting with maintenance tasks, with minimal supervision, including repositioning itself to different work sites, the ISS crew will be burdened with fewer maintenance chores, leaving them more time to conduct other activities. R2's developers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are preparing the R2 IVA mobility hardware and software upgrades for delivery to the ISS in late 2013. This paper summarizes R2 ISS achievements to date, briefly describes the R2 IVA mobility upgrades, and discusses the R2 IVA mobility objectives and plans.

  17. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Molecular analysis of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Sonia; Alcalde, Carlos; Couce, Ma Luz; Del Toro, Mireia; González-Meneses, Antonio; Guillén, Encarna; Pineda, Mercè; Pintos, Guillem; Gort, Laura; Coll, Ma José

    2012-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A) is an inherited metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. The pathology is due to a deficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate-sulfatase, which is involved in the degradation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. To date more than 150 mutations have been described in the GALNS gene in different populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the mutations and polymorphisms in Spain in order to know the epidemiology of our population and also to offer genetic counseling to affected families. We found 30 mutant alleles in the 15 families analyzed completing all the genotypes. Most of the mutations that we found were missense mutations, six of which were novel: p.S74F, p.E121D, p.Y254C, p.E260K, p.T394P and p.N495Y; we also found a small deletion (c.1142delC) and a probable deep intronic mutation that causes the loss of exon 5 (c.423_566del) found in cDNA. Both mutations are described in this study for the first time. We also identified 20 polymorphisms previously reported and 2 novel ones: (c.633+222T/C and c.898+25C>G). In conclusion, we have identified the mutations responsible for Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A in Spain. We found great allelic heterogeneity, as occurs in other populations, which hinders the establishment of genotype-phenotype correlations in Spain. This study has been very useful for genetic counseling to the affected families.

  19. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  20. Design of Optimized Low Power and Area Efficient Digital FIR Filter using Modified Group Structures based Square Root Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murugeswari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Digital Signal Processing, Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter is mostly used for communications and radar applications. The Performance of FIR filter depends on Multiplier and adder circuits used in filter. To reduce the dynamic power consumption and chip size, different multiplier and adder combinations are used in order to improve the overall performance of FIR filter. The Low Power Modified Square Root Carry Select Adder (M-SQRT CSLA is presented in this study by introducing half adders instead of full adders. The proposed M-SQRT CSLA has been designed to reduce dynamic power consumption. Hence the modified SQRT CSLA is applied into Wallace multiplier for addition process after the partial product generation stage. MAC unit of the Digital FIR filter is designed by using modified Wallace multipliers and M-SQRT CSLA. Further the Group 2, Group 3; Group 4 and Group5 structures of SQRT CSLA were constructed using half adders only. Comparison between proposed SQRT CSLA and Modified Carry Save Adder (MCSA has been done with reference to the Area, Power and Delay. It is proved that the proposed SQRT CSLA consumes less area and power than all other methods. Simulation is performed by Modelsim6.3c and Synthesis process is done by Xilinx 10.1. The simulation result shows that digital filter with proposed SQRT CSLA occupies less area and consumes low power.

  1. Fault tolerant reversible logic synthesis: Carry look-ahead and carry-skip adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar; 10.1109/ACTEA.2009.5227871

    2010-01-01

    Irreversible logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit naturally takes care of heating because it implements only the functions that have one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors. Therefore reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed 16-bit high speed reversible adder will include IG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The IG gate is universal in the sense that it can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean-functions. The IG gate is parity preserving, that is, the parity of the input...

  2. VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION THROUGH ADDER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE AT DCT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Divya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Data compression plays a vital role in multimedia devices to present the information in a succinct frame. Initially, the DCT structure is used for Image compression, which has lesser complexity and area efficient. Similarly, 2D DCT also has provided reasonable data compression, but implementation concern, it calls more multipliers and adders thus its lead to acquire more area and high power consumption. To contain an account of all, this paper has been dealt with VLSI architecture for image compression using Rom free DA based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform structure. This technique provides high-throughput and most suitable for real-time implementation. In order to achieve this image matrix is subdivided into odd and even terms then the multiplication functions are removed by shift and add approach. Kogge_Stone_Adder techniques are proposed for obtaining a bit-wise image quality which determines the new trade-off levels as compared to the previous techniques. Overall the proposed architecture produces reduced memory, low power consumption and high throughput. MATLAB is used as a funding tool for receiving an input pixel and obtaining output image. Verilog HDL is used for implementing the design, Model Sim for simulation, Quatres II is used to synthesize and obtain details about power and area.

  3. An ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashadee Kay; Maritz, Bryan; McKay, Shannon; Glaudas, Xavier; Alexander, Graham J

    2015-12-22

    Ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. Resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. However, unlike for visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. Field observations of puff adders (Bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and prey species led us to investigate chemical crypsis in this ambushing species. We trained dogs (Canis familiaris) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to test whether a canid and a herpestid predator could detect B. arietans using olfaction. We also tested for chemical crypsis in five species of active foraging snakes, predicted to be easily detectable. Dogs and meerkats unambiguously indicated active foraging species, but failed to correctly indicate puff adder, confirming that B. arietans employs chemical crypsis. This is the first demonstration of chemical crypsis anti-predatory behaviour, though the phenomenon may be widespread among ambushers, especially those that experience high mortality rates owing to predation. Our study provides additional evidence for the existence of an ongoing chemically mediated arms race between predator and prey species.

  4. Implementation of an Arithmetic Logic Using Area Efficient Carry Lookahead Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An arithmetic logic unit acts as the basic building blocks or cell of a central processing unit of a c omputer. And it is a digital circuit comprised of the basic electronics components, which is used to perform va rious function of arithmetic and logic and integral opera tions further the purpose of this work is to propos e the design of an 8-bit ALU which supports 4-bit multipl ication. Thus, the functionalities of the ALU in th is study consist of following main functions like addi tion also subtraction, increment, decrement, AND, O R, NOT, XOR, NOR also two complement generation Multip lication. And the functions with the adder in the airthemetic logic unit are implemented using a Carr y Look Ahead adder joined by a ripple carry approac h. The design of the following multiplier is achieved using the Booths Algorithm therefore the proposed A LU can be designed by using verilog or VHDL and can al so be designed on Cadence Virtuoso platform

  5. Design and Analysis of Adders using Nanotechnology Based Quantum dot Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The area and complexity are the major issues in circuit design. Here, we propose different types of adder designs based on Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA that reduces number of QCA cells and area compare to previous designs. The quantum dot cellular automata is a novel computing paradigm in nanotechnology that can implement digital circuits with faster speed, smaller size and low power consumption. By taking the advantages of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. The QCA cell is a basic building block of nanotechnology that can be used to make gates, wires and memories. The basic logic circuits used in this technology are the inverter and the Majority Gate (MG, using this other logical circuits can be designed. Approach: In this paper, the adders such as half, full and serial bit were designed and analyzed. These structures were designed with minimum number of cells by using cell minimization techniques. The techniques are (1 using two cells inverter and (2 suitable arrangement of cells without overlapping of neighboring cells. The proposed method can be used to minimize area and complexity. Results: These circuits were designed by majority gate and implemented by QCA cells. Then, they simulated using QCA Designer. The simulated results were verified according to the truth table. Conclusion: The performance analyses of those circuits are compared according to complexity, area and number of clock cycles and are also compared with previous designs.

  6. Prognostic significance of tumour progression and human papillomavirus in advanced tonsillar cancer classified as stage IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Jung, K-Y; Kwon, S-Y; Woo, J-S; Cho, J-G; Park, M W; Kim, I S; Kim, S J; Baek, S-K

    2015-01-01

    To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas. Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53. Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours. The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.

  7. IVA the robot: Design guidelines and lessons learned from the first space station laboratory manipulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, Carl R.; Powers, Allen K.; Dewitt, J. Russell

    1991-01-01

    The first interactive Space Station Freedom (SSF) lab robot exhibit was installed at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, and has been running daily since. IntraVehicular Activity (IVA) the robot is mounted in a full scale U.S. Lab (USL) mockup to educate the public on possible automation and robotic applications aboard the SSF. Responding to audio and video instructions at the Command Console, exhibit patrons may prompt IVA to perform a housekeeping task or give a speaking tour of the module. Other exemplary space station tasks are simulated and the public can even challenge IVA to a game of tic tac toe. In anticipation of such a system being built for the Space Station, a discussion is provided of the approach taken, along with suggestions for applicability to the Space Station Environment.

  8. Life-threatening systemic toxicity and airway compromise from a common European adder bite to the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, L C G; Jessen, C L; Lambertsen, K

    2009-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was bit on the tongue by a European common adder. Within 15 min following envenomation, he experienced tongue swelling, hypotension and impaired consciousness. Antihistamine, corticosteroid and crystalloids were administered. Within 105 min of envenomation, increasing oral...

  9. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of the methanolic extract of Ajuga iva in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouahab Diafat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Ajuga iva, known as “Chendgoura”, is widely used in North African countries in the traditional medicine. However, there is little toxicological informations available regarding its safety following repeated exposure. The present investigation describes the toxicity of a methanolic extract of Ajuga iva. The administration of the Ajuga iva methanolic extract (AIME at 2 –14 g/kg of bodyweight (bwt did not produce mortality or significant changes in the general behavior of mice. However, single intraperitoneal injections of AIME (2–6 g/kg bwt produced a dose-dependent increase in adverse effects in the general behavior and the mortality rate. The LD50 by  intraperitoneal route  was 3.980 g/kg bwt. In chronic toxicological studies in rats, oral administration the AIME with daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg bwt, did not cause any significant differences in the general conditions like growth, organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters or in microscopic appearance of the organs (brain, liver and the kidney. In contrast, a transient rise in platelet counts and a decrease in serum glucose and cholesterol levels were noted. Therefore, the NOAEL for the AIME is 600 mg/kg/day administered orally for 13 weeks. So AI methanolic extract has low toxicity. Industrial relevance. The extract of the plant Ajuga iva can be used as herbal teas or for the treatment of several disease such as diabetes, high cholesterol and increased serum triglycerides. However, information regarding its toxicological properties is not available. In this study, we have shown that the methanolic extract of Ajuga iva has low toxicity in rodent models and may be considered for human use after further studies. Keywords. Ajuga iva; methanolic extract; acute toxicity; sub chronic toxicity

  11. The design of the asynchronous abacus adder%异步算盘加法器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐阳扬; 杨银堂; 周端; 弥晓华

    2011-01-01

    目的 开发一种新型的高速低功耗加法器设计方案.以满足SOC对高速低功耗运算的需要.方法 采用中国算盘算法,接口采用异步双轨握手协议,将算盘加法与异步自定时技术相结合,减少运算的进位产生,提高运算并行度.结果 提出了一种新的高速加法器电路.测试结果表明,在SMIC 0.18 μm工艺下,32位异步算盘加法器平均运算完成时间为0.957ns,其速度是同步串行加法器的6.747倍,是异步串行加法器的1.517倍和异步进位选择加法器的1.033倍.且电路平均功耗只有异步进位选择加法器的25%.结论 中国算盘算法与异步自定时电路相结合的加法器电路,有很好的速度和功耗特性,有很广阔的应用和研究前景.%Aim To develop a new high speed and low power adder design scheme for the demand of high speed and low power computing in SOC. Methods A new adder design is proposed in this paper. The adder adopts the Chinese abacus algorithm, combined with asynchronous self-timed techniques, and it also introduces the hybrid handshake protocol in the scheme. It can decrease the number of the carries and increase the parallel computing degrees. So it can achieve high speed while maintaining low power. Results The adder implemented the 0. 18μm technique of SMIC. The test result shows the 32-bit asynchronous parallel adder achieves the average computation duration is 0.957ns. Its speed is 7. 33 times faster than the synchronous ripple adder, 1.517 times faster than the a-synchronous ripple adder, and 1.033 times faster than the asynchronous carry-select adder. And its average power is only 25% of the asynchronous carry-select adder. Conclusion The adder design which combine with Chinese abacus algorithm and asynchronous self-timed techniques has good performance on high speed and low power. It has wide implement and develop prospective.

  12. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto

  13. El IVA en el consumo por vía electrónica

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Peer reviewed Las operaciones comerciales electrónicas llevadas a cabo por los consumidores se ven afectadas por la fiscalidad indirecta que grava el consumo general, es decir, por el impuesto sobre el valor añadido. Al respecto, los aspectos más importantes que se plantean son, en primer lugar, la localización de las operaciones comerciales electrónicas en el IVA; en segundo lugar, la aplicación del régimen especial del IVA para el comercio electrónico, y, en tercer lugar, la regulación d...

  14. Design of an accounting system that legally optimizes the IVA declaration in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Montenegro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Ecuador’s contributors don’t prepare a well elaborate tax credit application form for their IVA declarations, which lead them to give a payment that goes unnecessary above the actual value, due to the inadequate form filling. In this article, we can see that through the implementation of a simple accounting system, taxpayers can optimize their IVA declaration without breaking any current tax provision, even more, going side by side with our country’s established law.

  15. In vitro effect of genistein on DNA damage in leukocytes from mucopolysaccharidosis IVA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negretto, G W; Deon, M; Burin, M; Biancini, G B; Ribas, G; Garcia, S C; Goethel, G; Fracasso, R; Giugliani, L; Giugliani, R; Vargas, C R

    2014-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA is a lysosomal storage disorder leading to an increase in glycosaminoglycans storage. Genistein is an isoflavone capable to inhibit glycosaminoglycans production. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro effect of different concentrations of genistein on DNA injury in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA patients. The lower concentration tested (10 μM) showed a significant increase on DNA injury in vitro, although higher concentrations (30 μM and 50 μM) showed higher DNA damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Design of Quantum Ternary Full Adder%量子三值全加器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    量子多值加法器是构建量子多值计算机的基本模块。通过认真分析三元域上加法的运算规则及带进位加法的真值表,通过设置扩展三值 Toffoli 门的控制条件有效实现一位加法在各种情况下的进位,利用三值 Feynman 门实现一位加法的求和运算,由此设计出一位量子三值全加器,再利用进位线将各位量子全加器连接起来构造出 n 位量子三值全加器。与同类电路相比,此量子全加器所使用的辅助线及量子代价都有所减少。%Quantum multiple-valued adder is the basic module to construct quantum multiple-valued computer .By analyzing addition operation rules and truth table of addition with carry in ternary field ,setting control conditions of quantum generalized ternary Toffoli gates to realize the addition carry in all cases and making use of ternary Feynman gates to realize sum ,one qutrit full adder is given .At last ,nqutrit ternary full adder is constructed by using carry bit to connect all one qutrit full adders .Compared with other same type circuits ,the ancilla qubits and quantum costs of this quantum full adder have been decreased .

  17. Silica and Pyroxene in IVA Irons; Possible Formation of the IVA Magma by Impact Melting and Reduction of L-LL-Chondrite Materials Followed by Crystallization and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.; Matsunami, Yoshiyuki; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Group IVA is a large magmatic group of iron meteorites. The mean DELTA O-17 (= delta O-17 - 0.52(raised dot) delta O-18) of the silicates is approx. plus or minus 1.2%o, similar to the highest values in L chondrites and the lowest values in LL chondrites; delta O-18 values are also in the L/LL range. This strongly suggests that IVA irons formed by melting L-LL parental material, but the mean Ni content of IVA irons (83 mg/g) is much lower than that of a presumed L-LL parent (approx. 170 mg/g) and the low-Ca pyroxene present in two IVA meteorites is Fs13, much lower than the Fs20-29 values in L and LL chondrites. Thus, formation from L-LL precursors requires extensive addition of metallic Fe, probably produced by reduction of FeS and FeO. Group IVA also has S/Ni, Ga/Ni, and Ge/Ni ratios that are much lower than those in L-LL chondrites or any chondrite group that preserves nebular compositions, implying loss of these volatile elements during asteroidal processing. We suggest that these reduction and loss processes occurred near the surface of the asteroid during impact heating, and resulted partly from reduction by C, and partly from the thermal dissociation of FeS and FeO with loss of O and S. The hot (approx. 1770 K) low-viscosity melt quickly moved through channels in the porous asteroid to form a core. Two members of the IVA group, Sao Joao Nepomuceno (hereafter, SJN) and Steinbach, contain moderate amounts of orthopyroxene and silica, and minor amounts of low-Ca clinopyroxene. Even though SJN formed after approx. 26% crystallization and Steinbach formed after approx. 77% Crystallization of the IVA core, both could have originated within several tens of meters of the core-mantle interface if 99% of the crystallization occurred from the center outwards. Two other members of the group (Gibeon and Bishop Canyon) contain tabular tridymite, which we infer to have initially formed as veins deposited from a cooling SiO-rich vapor. The silicates were clearly introduced

  18. The Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) gene maps to 16q24. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.; Xiaohui Guo; Orsborn, A.M.; Sutherland, G.R.; Callen, D.F.; Hopwood, J.J.; Morris, C.P. (Adelaide Children' s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia))

    1993-01-01

    The gene for N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, the deficiency of which results in Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA), was assigned to chromosome 16 at band q24.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Localization to this band was confirmed by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel used for fine mapping of chromosome 16. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Patient Affected by MPS IVA with Osteoporotic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Tummolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morquio A syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the defective degradation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Classically, MPS IVA patients present with severe multisystemic involvement and have a short life expectancy. Attenuated forms with clinical features limited to minor skeletal abnormalities and short stature have also been described, sometimes associated to an early-onset osteoporotic phenotype. No treatment with allogenic bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy is currently available for Morquio A syndrome, and enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation. We report a case of MPS IVA, who manifested tardily attenuated phenotype and significant bone mass reduction, which was treated with a bisphosphonate (BPN, resulting in an improvement of X-ray skeletal aspects and functional bone performance. We suggest that the use of bisphosphonates may be an interesting supportive therapeutic option for Morquio A patients with osteoporotic phenotype, but further studies involving more patients are necessary to confirm our findings.

  20. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Olesen, N J; Skall, H F; Sano, M; Kurita, J; Nakajima, K; Iida, T

    2010-02-24

    The viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) comprises 4 major genotypes and a number of subtypes with, in most cases, distinct geographical distribution. A quick and simple detection method that can discriminate the different genotypes is desirable for a quick and more efficient prevention of the spread of genotypes to new geographical areas. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). Balb/c mice were injected with purified VHSV-JF00Ehil (genotype IVa) from diseased farmed Japanese flounder. Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using cell cultures that were transfected with each of the viral protein genes, it was shown that the MAb VHS-10 recognizes a nonlinear genotype IVa-specific epitope on the VHSV N-protein.

  1. GROWTH OF THE MARSH ELDER IVA FRUTESCENS IN RELATION TO DURATION OF TIDAL FLOODING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iva frutescens is a common shrub at the upland fringe of salt marshes throughout the East and Gulf coasts of North America. Its position and relative size are governed largely by the degree of flooding by seawater. Cross sections of older stems (living and standing dead) from sa...

  2. Crystal structure and kinetic mechanism of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase-2″-IVa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Marta; Frase, Hilary; Antunes, Nuno Tiago; Smith, Clyde A; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2010-01-01

    Acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics primarily results from deactivation by three families of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Here, we report the kinetic mechanism and structure of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase 2″-IVa (APH(2″)-IVa), an enzyme responsible for resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinical enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates. The enzyme operates via a Bi-Bi sequential mechanism in which the two substrates (ATP or GTP and an aminoglycoside) bind in a random manner. The APH(2″)-IVa enzyme phosphorylates various 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside antibiotics with catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of 1.5 × 103 to 1.2 × 106 (M−1 s−1). The enzyme uses both ATP and GTP as the phosphate source, an extremely rare occurrence in the phosphotransferase and protein kinase enzymes. Based on an analysis of the APH(2″)-IVa structure, two overlapping binding templates specifically tuned for hydrogen bonding to either ATP or GTP have been identified and described. A detailed understanding of the structure and mechanism of the GTP-utilizing phosphotransferases is crucial for the development of either novel aminoglycosides or, more importantly, GTP-based enzyme inhibitors which would not be expected to interfere with crucial ATP-dependent enzymes. PMID:20556826

  3. GROWTH OF THE MARSH ELDER IVA FRUTESCENS IN RELATION TO DURATION OF TIDAL FLOODING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iva frutescens is a common shrub at the upland fringe of salt marshes throughout the East and Gulf coasts of North America. Its position and relative size are governed largely by the degree of flooding by seawater. Cross sections of older stems (living and standing dead) from sa...

  4. Asymmetric division and differential gene expression during a bacterial developmental program requires DivIVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahathees Eswaramoorthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a developmental program in which a progenitor cell differentiates into two different cell types, the smaller of which eventually becomes a dormant cell called a spore. The process begins with an asymmetric cell division event, followed by the activation of a transcription factor, σF, specifically in the smaller cell. Here, we show that the structural protein DivIVA localizes to the polar septum during sporulation and is required for asymmetric division and the compartment-specific activation of σF. Both events are known to require a protein called SpoIIE, which also localizes to the polar septum. We show that DivIVA copurifies with SpoIIE and that DivIVA may anchor SpoIIE briefly to the assembling polar septum before SpoIIE is subsequently released into the forespore membrane and recaptured at the polar septum. Finally, using super-resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that DivIVA and SpoIIE ultimately display a biased localization on the side of the polar septum that faces the smaller compartment in which σF is activated.

  5. Identification of a common mutation in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: correlation among genotype, phenotype, and keratan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Dieter, Tatiana; Schwartz, Ida V; Sarmient, Piedad; Giugliani, Roberto; Barrera, Luis A; Guelbert, Norberto; Kremer, Raquel; Repetto, Gabriela M; Gutierrez, Monica A; Nishioka, Tatsuo; Serrato, Olga Peña; Montaño, Adriana Maria; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Noguchi, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Mutation screening of the GALNS was performed by genomic PCR and direct sequence analyses in 20 MPS IVA patients from Latin America. In this study, 12 different gene mutations including nine unreported ones were identified in 16 severe and four attenuated patients and accounted for 90.0% of the unrelated mutant alleles. The gene alterations were missense mutations except one insertion. Six recurrent mutations, p.A75G, p.G116S, p.G139S, p.N164T, p.R380S, and p.R386C, accounted for 5.0, 10.0, 5.0, 7.5, 5.0, and 32.5% of the unrelated mutant alleles, respectively. The p.R386C mutation was identified in all Latin American populations studied. Eleven mutations correlated with a severe form, while one mutation, p.R380S, was associated with an attenuated form. MPS IVA patients had an elevation of urine and plasma keratan sulfate (KS) concentrations compared with those of the age-matched control. KS concentrations in severe patients were higher than those in attenuated patients. These data provide evidence for extensive allelic heterogeneity and presence of a common mutation in Latin American patients. Accumulation of mutations with clinical description and KS concentration will lead us to predict clinical severity of the patient more precisely.

  6. Clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of Korean patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hee Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome is rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by &lt;I&gt;N&lt;/I&gt;-acetylgalactosamine- 6-sulfatase (GALNS deficiency. Only a few MPS IVA cases have been reported in the Korean literature; there is a paucity of research about clinical or radiologic findings for this disorder. Therefore, we studied clinical findings, radiological features, and genetic data of Korean MPS IVA patients for determining factors that may allow early diagnosis and that may thus improve the patients’ quality of life. &lt;B&gt;Method:&lt;/B&gt; MPS IVA was confirmed via assay for enzymatic activity of leukocytes in 10 patients. The &lt;I&gt;GALNS&lt;/I&gt; gene was analyzed. Patients’ charts were retrospectively reviewed for obtaining clinical features and evaluated for radiological skeletal surveys, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and ophthalmologic test results. &lt;B&gt;Result:&lt;/B&gt; Nine patients had severe clinical phenotype, and 1 had an intermediate phenotype, on the basis of clinical phenotype criteria. Radiologic findings indicated skeletal abnormalities in all patients, especially in the hips and extremities. Eight patients had an odontoid hypoplasia, and 1 showed mild atlantoaxial subluxation and cord myelopathy. Genetic analysis indicated 10 different &lt;I&gt;GALNS&lt;/I&gt; mutations. Two mutations, c.451C&gt;A and c.1000C&gt;T, account for 37.5% (6/16 and 25% (4/16 of all mutations in this samples, respectively. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; An understanding of the clinical and radiological features involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of MPS IVA. Adequate evaluations and therapy in the early stages may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal abnormalities and may reduce life-threatening effects of

  7. Predictors of periprocedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction, as assessed by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Italo; Di Vito, Luca; Burzotta, Francesco; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Trani, Carlo; Leone, Antonio M; Biasucci, Luigi M; Vergallo, Rocco; Limbruno, Ugo; Crea, Filippo

    2012-02-01

    Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is easily able to define both pre- and post-stenting features of the atherosclerotic plaque that can potentially be related to periprocedural complications. We sought to examine which FD-OCT-defined characteristics, assessed both before and after stent deployment, predicted periprocedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction (MI). FD-OCT was performed before and after coronary stenting in 50 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for either non-ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) or stable angina. All patients underwent single-vessel stenting, and only drug-eluting stents were implanted. Troponin T was analyzed on admission, before PCI, and at 12 and 24 hours after PCI, and type IVa MI was defined in stable angina as a rise of at least 3× upper reference limit and in NSTEMI as a pre-PCI troponin T fall, followed by post-PCI troponin T rise >20%. Type IVa MI was diagnosed in 21 patients, while the remaining 29 represented the control group. FD-OCT analysis showed that thin-cap fibroatheroma (76.2% versus 41.4%; P=0.017) prior to PCI, intrastent thrombus (61.9% versus 20.7%; P=0.04), and intrastent dissection (61.9% versus 31%; P=0.03) after PCI were significantly more frequent in type IVa MI than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed thin-cap fibroatheroma (OR 29.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 32.1), intrastent thrombus (OR 5.5, CI 1.2 to 24.9) and intrastent dissection (OR 5.3, CI 1.2 to 24.3) as independent predictors of type IVa MI. In conclusion, presence of thin-cap fibroatheroma at pre-PCI FD-OCT and of intrastent thrombus and intrastent dissection at post-PCI FD-OCT predict type IVa MI in a contemporary sample of patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stents. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 predictors of type IVa MI were not apparent at pre-PCI FD-OCT.

  8. [Analysis of GALNS gene mutation in thirty-eight Chinese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun; Lei, Hong-lin; Zhang, Hui-wen; Qiu, Wen-juan; Han, Lian-shu; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-yan; Gu, Xue-fan

    2013-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) needed to degrade glycosaminoglycanes (GAGs), accumulation of GAGs in the tissue resulting in disorder of function. So far, the small number of articles about clinical study of Chinese MPS IVA were published and only one paper about gene mutation analysis was published. This study aimed to investigate the mutation spectrum and characteristic of GALNS gene in Chinese patients with MPS IVA who were diagnosed in our hospital. Thirty-eight patients from 36 families (male 17, female 21) were diagnosed as MPS IVA by GALNS activity determination [(0.85 ± 1.33) nmol/(17 h·mg)] and clinical symptoms during 2006-2012. The average age of diagnosis was (5.7 ± 3.6) years. Mutation analysis of GALNS gene performed performed by PCR-direct DNA sequencing for 38 patients. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for validating novel mutation, and also to assess amino acid conservation for novel missense variants in five different species. PolyPhen-2 tool was used to predict the possible impact of missense mutations on the structure and function of the human GALNS protein, etc. Analysis of GALNS activity and gene mutation in amniotic fluid were performed to provide the prenatal diagnosis for some families with MPS type IVA. (1) Thirty-eight kinds of mutation in GALNS gene were identified in 38 patients of them, 71% were missense mutations. p. M318R was a hot-spot mutation (21%) tested. Five kinds of mutation i.e., p. P163H, p.G168L, p. A324E, p. L366P and p. F452L were only found in Chinese patients with MPS IVA. Eighteen kinds of novel mutation were detected including p. E315K, p.G304D, p.R251Q, p.Y240C, p.G161E, p.N32D, p.L390P, p. D60E, p. P420S, W403C/T404S, p.L454P, for p.W405X, p. M1I, c.409_ c.420del12, c.1176_1178del3, c.1046delG, c.1188delG and IVS9-2A>C. (2) The polymorphism of

  9. Real-time fault tolerant full adder design for critical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the complex computing system, processing units are dealing with devices of smaller size, which are sensitive to the transient faults. A transient fault occurs in a circuit caused by the electromagnetic noises, cosmic rays, crosstalk and power supply noise. It is very difficult to detect these faults during offline testing. Hence an area efficient fault tolerant full adder for testing and repairing of transient and permanent faults occurred in single and multi-net is proposed. Additionally, the proposed architecture can also detect and repair permanent faults. This design incurs much lower hardware overheads relative to the traditional hardware architecture. In addition to this, proposed design also provides higher error detection and correction efficiency when compared to the existing designs.

  10. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempster Andrew G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that the -dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG- technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG- technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG- DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp- algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

  11. Analysis of intraspecific variation in venoms of Acanthophis antarcticus death adders from South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Kohler, Maxie; Grund, Kai F; Reeve, Shane; Smith, A Ian; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in venom composition and activity has been reported from a wide range of snakes. Geographical origin can be one cause for this variation and has recently been documented from Acanthophis antarcticus death adders sampled across four different Australian states. The present study examined whether a narrower sampling range of A. antarcticus from four collection sites within one Australian state (i.e., South Australia) would also exhibit variation in venom composition and/or activity. The present LC-MS results reveal marked differences in the venom composition from different collection sites. The most striking difference was the reduced venom complexity found in the only venom originating from a mallee scrub habitat in comparison to the venoms from coastal heath scrub habitats. Interestingly, the pharmacological activity of all venoms was found to be the same, independent of the collection site.

  12. Electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry fingerprinting of Acanthophis (death adder) venoms: taxonomic and toxinological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Bryan G; Wickramaratna, Janith C; Hodgson, Wayne C; Alewood, Paul F; Kini, R M; Ho, Hao; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Death adders (genus Acanthophis) are unique among elapid snakes in both morphology and venom composition. Despite this genus being among the most divergent of all elapids, the venom has been historically regarded as relatively quite simple. In this study, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis has revealed a much greater diversity in venom composition, including the presence of molecules of novel molecular weights that may represent a new class of venom component. Furthermore, significant variation exists between species and populations, which allow for the LC/MS fingerprinting of each species. Mass profiling of Acanthophis venoms clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique which underpins fundamental studies ranging from chemotaxonomy to drug design.

  13. Design and Performance Analysis of 1-Bit FinFET Full Adder Cells for Subthreshold Region at 16 nm Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Aqilah binti Abdul Tahrim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaling process of the conventional 2D-planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is now approaching its limit as technology has reached below 20 nm process technology. A new nonplanar device architecture called FinFET was invented to overcome the problem by allowing transistors to be scaled down into sub-20 nm region. In this work, the FinFET structure is implemented in 1-bit full adder transistors to investigate its performance and energy efficiency in the subthreshold region for cell designs of Complementary MOS (CMOS, Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic (CPL, Transmission Gate (TG, and Hybrid CMOS (HCMOS. The performance of 1-bit FinFET-based full adder in 16-nm technology is benchmarked against conventional MOSFET-based full adder. The Predictive Technology Model (PTM and Berkeley Shortchannel IGFET Model-Common Multi-Gate (BSIM-CMG 16 nm low power libraries are used. Propagation delay, average power dissipation, power-delay-product (PDP, and energy-delay-product (EDP are analysed based on all four types of full adder cell designs of both FETs. The 1-bit FinFET-based full adder shows a great reduction in all four metric performances. A reduction in propagation delay, PDP, and EDP is evident in the 1-bit FinFET-based full adder of CPL, giving the best overall performance due to its high-speed performance and good current driving capabilities.

  14. Phylogeography of the widespread African puff adder (Bitis arietans) reveals multiple Pleistocene refugia in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Axel; Baker, Karis; Hendry, Catriona R; Peppin, Lindsay; Phelps, Tony; Tolley, Krystal A; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Evidence from numerous Pan-African savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. However, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. We present a phylogeographic investigation of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occur across the current distribution of B. arietans, including a widespread southern African clade that is subdivided into four separate clades. We investigated the historical processes responsible for generating these phylogeographic patterns in southern Africa using species distribution modelling and genetic approaches. Our results show that interior regions of South Africa became largely inhospitable for B. arietans during glacial maxima, whereas coastal and more northerly areas remained habitable. This corresponds well with the locations of refugia inferred from mitochondrial data using a continuous phylogeographic diffusion model. Analysis of data from five anonymous nuclear loci revealed broadly similar patterns to mtDNA. Secondary admixture was detected between previously isolated refugial populations. In some cases, this is limited to individuals occurring near mitochondrial clade contact zones, but in other cases, more extensive admixture is evident. Overall, our study reveals a complex history of refugial isolation and secondary expansion for puff adders and a mosaic of isolated refugia in southern Africa. We also identify key differences between the processes that drove isolation in B. arietans and those hypothesized for sympatric savannah mammals.

  15. Enzyme replacement therapy in newborn mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mice: early treatment rescues bone lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Dung, Vu Chi; Hashimoto, Amiko; Oguma, Toshihiro; Gutiérrez, Monica L; Takahashi, Tatsuo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Orii, Tadao; Sly, William S

    2015-02-01

    We treated mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) mice to assess the effects of long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiated at birth, since adult mice treated by ERT showed little improvement in bone pathology [1]. To conduct ERT in newborn mice, we used recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in a CHO cell line. First, to observe the tissue distribution pattern, a dose of 250units/g body weight was administered intravenously in MPS IVA mice at day 2 or 3. The infused enzyme was primarily recovered in the liver and spleen, with detectable activity in the bone and brain. Second, newborn ERT was conducted after a tissue distribution study. The first injection of newborn ERT was performed intravenously, the second to fourth weekly injections were intraperitoneal, and the remaining injections from 5th to 14th weeks were intravenous into the tail vein. MPS IVA mice treated with GALNS showed clearance of lysosomal storage in the liver and spleen, and sinus lining cells in bone marrow. The column structure of the growth plate was organized better than that in adult mice treated with ERT; however, hyaline and fibrous cartilage cells in the femur, spine, ligaments, discs, synovium, and periosteum still had storage materials to some extent. Heart valves were refractory to the treatment. Levels of serum keratan sulfate were kept normal in newborn ERT mice. In conclusion, the enzyme, which enters the cartilage before the cartilage cell layer becomes mature, prevents disorganization of column structure. Early treatment from birth leads to partial remission of bone pathology in MPS IVA mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with nedaplatin in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Toru; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Masae; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Nabeta, Motoo; Koizumi, Koji; Matsubara, Yuko; Hamada, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Katayama, Tomihiro; Nawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of nadaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. Patients with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were treated with nadaplatin-based CCRT, using high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone, in patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. CCRT with nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2)) was administered on Days 1 and 29. The records of 17 women treated either with nadaplatin-based CCRT using HSR-ICBT (n=8) or RT alone (n=9), for stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The activity and toxicity were compared in the two treatment groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the main endpoints. The 5-year overall survival rates in the CCRT and RT groups were 68.6 and 77.8%, respectively. The median OS of the CCRT and RT groups was 38.5 and 27.3 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in either PFS (P=0.618) or OS (P= 0.231). The most common grade 3-4 or higher toxicities in the CCRT groups were leuko-/neutropenia (37.5%). The frequency of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was higher in the CCRT compared to the RT group. However, no statistically significant difference was observed. Nedaplatin-based CCRT was safely performed. Although the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma was not significantly improved, fewer distant relapses were observed in this treatment. Consequently, nedaplatin-based CCRT may be considered as a potential alternative to cisplatin-based CCRT in this patient population.

  17. Diseño de un sistema contable que permite optimizar legalmente la declaración del IVA en Ecuador/Design of an accounting system that legally optimizes the IVA declaration in Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Díaz Montenegro

    2010-01-01

      Most of Ecuador's contributors don't prepare a well elaborate tax credit application form for their IVA declarations, which lead them to give a payment that goes unnecessary above the actual value...

  18. A General Design Methodology for Synchronous Early-Completion-Prediction Adders in Nano-CMOS DSP Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Olivieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous early-completion-prediction adders (ECPAs are used for high clock rate and high-precision DSP datapaths, as they allow a dominant amount of single-cycle operations even if the worst-case carry propagation delay is longer than the clock period. Previous works have also demonstrated ECPA advantages for average leakage reduction and NBTI effects reduction in nanoscale CMOS technologies. This paper illustrates a general systematic methodology to design ECPA units, targeting nanoscale CMOS technologies, which is not available in the current literature yet. The method is fully compatible with standard VLSI macrocell design tools and standard adder structures and includes automatic definition of critical test patterns for postlayout verification. A design example is included, reporting speed and power data superior to previous works.

  19. Toward defect guard-banding of EUV exposures by full chip optical wafer inspection of EUV mask defect adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Scott D.; Meli, Luciana; Delancey, Robert; Vemareddy, Kaushik; Crispo, Gary; Bonam, Ravi; Burkhardt, Martin; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The detection of EUV mask adder defects has been investigated with an optical wafer defect inspection system employing a methodology termed Die-to-"golden" Virtual Reference Die (D2VRD). Both opaque and clear type mask absorber programmed defects were inspected and characterized over a range of defect sizes, down to (4x mask) 40 nm. The D2VRD inspection system was capable of identifying the corresponding wafer print defects down to the limit of the defect printability threshold at approximately 30 nm (1x wafer). The efficacy of the D2VRD scheme on full chip wafer inspection to suppress random process defects and identify real mask defects is demonstrated. Using defect repeater analysis and patch image classification of both the reference die and the scanned die enables the unambiguous identification of mask adder defects.

  20. Species and regional variations in the effectiveness of antivenom against the in vitro neurotoxicity of death adder (Acanthophis) venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B G; Wickramaratna, J C; Jones, A; Alewood, P F; Hodgson, W C

    2001-09-01

    Although viperlike in appearance and habit, death adders belong to the Elapidae family of snakes. Systemic envenomation represents a serious medical problem with antivenom, which is raised against Acanthophis antarcticus venom, representing the primary treatment. This study focused on the major Acanthophis variants from Australia and islands in the Indo-Pacific region. Venoms were profiled using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and analyzed for in vitro neurotoxicity (0.3-10 microg/ml), as well as the effectiveness of antivenom (1-5 units/ml; 10 min prior to the addition of 10 microg/ml venom). The following death adder venoms were examined: A. antarcticus (from separate populations in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia), A. hawkei, A. praelongus, A. pyrrhus, A. rugosus, A. wellsi, and venom from an unnamed species from the Indonesian island of Seram. All venoms abolished indirect twitches of the chick isolated biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, all venoms blocked responses to exogenous acetylcholine (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM), but not KCl (40 mM), suggesting postsynaptic neurotoxicity. Death adder antivenom (1 unit/ml) prevented the neurotoxic effects of A. pyrrhus, A. praelongus, and A. hawkei venoms, although it was markedly less effective against venoms from A. antarcticus (NSW, SA, WA), A. rugosus, A. wellsi, and A. sp. Seram. However, at 5 units/ml, antivenom was effective against all venoms tested. Death adder venoms, including those from A. antarcticus geographic variants, differed not only in their venom composition but also in their neurotoxic activity and susceptibility to antivenom. For the first time toxicological aspects of A. hawkei, A. wellsi, A. rugosus, and A. sp. Seram venoms were studied.

  1. Development of an optical parallel logic device and a half-adder circuit for digital optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athale, R. A.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and operation of an optical parallel logic (OPAL) device which performs Boolean algebraic operations on binary images. Several logic operations on two input binary images were demonstrated using an 8 x 8 device with a CdS photoconductor and a twisted nematic liquid crystal. Two such OPAL devices can be interconnected to form a half-adder circuit which is one of the essential components of a CPU in a digital signal processor.

  2. Development of an optical parallel logic device and a half-adder circuit for digital optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athale, R. A.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and operation of an optical parallel logic (OPAL) device which performs Boolean algebraic operations on binary images. Several logic operations on two input binary images were demonstrated using an 8 x 8 device with a CdS photoconductor and a twisted nematic liquid crystal. Two such OPAL devices can be interconnected to form a half-adder circuit which is one of the essential components of a CPU in a digital signal processor.

  3. Analysis of results of IVA-CPT for 100 children with ADHD diagnosis%ADHD儿童100例IVA-CPT测试结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影; 岳亿玲; 魏晓春

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨视听整合连续执行测试(IVA-CPT)在临床诊断儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)中的应用.方法 对2009 年1 月-2010 年12 月我院多动症门诊主诉以多动、注意力不集中的、符合ADHD 诊断标准的100例儿童进行IVA-CPT 测试,对其结果 进行分析.结果 男童中注意缺陷型占28%,多动型占45%,混合型占27%;女童中注意缺陷型占40%,多动型占25%,混合型占35%.差异有显著性(P<0.005).男童的综合反应控制商数和综合注意力商数分别为80.50±20.01和66.93±17.30;女童的综合反应控制商数和综合注意力商数分别为86.45±19.50和64.54±15.20,各项数值比较,差异均有显著性(P<0.01).结论 IVA-CPT 是一种对儿童ADHD 具有诊断价值的客观检查方法.

  4. Subclassification of stage IV gastric cancer (IVa, IVb, and IVc) and prognostic significance of substages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei; Li, Yanfeng; Lan, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yongle; Zhang, Ming

    2010-03-01

    Although the prognosis of stage IV gastric cancer is poor, some patients with stage IV gastric cancer had a long-term survival after gastrectomy. The objective of this study was to subclassify stage IV gastric cancer according to survival differences, evaluate the prognosis by substage, and identify the factors associated with patient survival in each substage. The data from 1,176 patients who underwent gastric resection for stage IV gastric cancer between 1988 and 2007 at Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into three substages according to the survival differences: stage IVa (T1-2N3M0), stage IVb (T3N3M0 and T4N1-2M0), and stage IVc (T4N3M0 and TanyNanyM1). The clinicopathological characteristics as well as survival of the patients were evaluated retrospectively by substage. There were no significant differences in survival among T3N3M0, T4N1M0, and T4N2M0 groups (p = 0.884) and between T4N3M0 and TanyNanyM1 groups (p = 0.192). The 5-year survival rates in stage IVa (T1-2N3M0), stage IVb (T3N3M0 and T4N1-2M0), and stage IVc (T4N3M0 and TanyNanyM1) were 22.7%, 9.9%, and 2.2%, respectively (p IVa and IVb; chemotherapy and operation type for stage IVc. For 406 patients with curative resection in stage IVa and IVb, hematogenous recurrence (35.9%) was the dominant recurrence pattern in stage IVa, whereas the most common patterns of recurrence were peritoneal (40.8%) and locoregional recurrence (31.8%) in stage IVb. Subclassification of stage IV gastric cancer into IVa (T1-2N3M0), IVb (T3N3M0 and T4N1-2M0), and IVc (T4N3M0, TanyNanyM1) may be helpful to predict the outcome and determine the therapeutic strategies for patients with stage IV gastric cancer.

  5. Las entidades del Tercer Sector como prestadores de servicios asistenciales en el IVA: exenciones y tipos reducidos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navarro Egea, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    El estudio trata de dar respuesta a las incertidumbres que se derivan de la actual regulacion del IVA en materia de asistencia social, un sector de actividad de gran interes para las entidades de la economia social (Tercer Sector...

  6. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  8. On-Chip Implementation of High Resolution High Speed Floating Point Adder/Subtractor with Reducing Mean Latency for OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Teymourzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is widely applied in OFDM trance-receiver communications system. Hence efficient FFT algorithm is always considered. Approach: This study proposed FPGA realization of high resolution high speed low latency floating point adder/subtractor for FFT in OFDM trance-receiver. The design was implemented for 32 bit pipelined adder/subtractor which satisfied IEEE-754 standard for floating-point arithmetic. The design was focused on the trade-off between the latency and speed improvement as well as resolution and silicon area for the chip implementation. In order to reduce the critical path and decrease the latency, the novel structure was designed and investigated. Results: Consequently, synthesis report indicated the latency of 4 clock cycles due to each stage operated within just one clock cycle. The unique structure of designed adder well thought out resulted 6691 equivalent gate count and lead us to obtain low area on chip. Conclusion: The synthesis Xilinx ISE software provided results representing the estimated area and delay for design when it is pipelined to various depths. The report showed the minimum delay of 3.592 ns or maximum frequency of 278.42 MHz.

  9. Design and implementation of floating-point adders%FPU加法器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田祎; 颜军

    2012-01-01

    Floating point adders is the core component of FPU, It's the foundation of floating-point operation instruction, To improve the design optimization is very important of floating-point calculation speed and precision. This article from the floating-point adder algorithm and circuit implementation give design method, Through the VHDL language in Quartusii in design and validation ,The adder through the FSM control operations, Effective to reduce the power consumption, Improve the speed and function.%浮点运算器的核心运算部件是浮点加法器,它是实现浮点指令各种运算的基础,其设计优化对于提高浮点运算的速度和精度相当关键。文章从浮点加法器算法和电路实现的角度给出设计方法,通过VHDL语言在QuartusⅡ中进行设计和验证,此加法器通过状态机控制运算,有效地降低了功耗,提高了速度,改善了性能。

  10. Determination and validation of chikusetsusaponin IVa in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Mei-Hua; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CHS-IVa) in rat plasma was established and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated by precipitation of protein with acetonitrile and chromatographed on a Waters Symmetry C18 analytical column (4.6 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.05% formic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The deprotonated molecular ions [M - H](-) were employed in electrospray negative ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.99) over the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for CHS-IVa. The recoveries of CHS-IVa were >92.5% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study of CHS-IVa in rats. For oral administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa increased to a peak value at 0.35 ± 0.14 h, followed by a gradual decrease to the lower limit of quantitation in 24 h. For intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa decreased quickly (t1/2 , 1.59 ± 0.25 h). The absolute bioavailability of CHS-IVa in rats was 8.63%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Development of a fluorometric microtiter plate based enzyme assay for MPS IVA (Morquio type A) using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullal, Anirudh J; Millington, David S; Bali, Deeksha S

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA or Morquio type-A disease is a hereditary lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). The disease is caused by lysosomal accumulation of unprocessed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that manifests with severe to mild skeletal and cardiopulmonary abnormalities. We have developed a modified microtiter plate-based enzyme activity assay using dried blood spots and a fluorescent substrate for measuring specific GALNS activity to identify patients with MPS IVA.

  13. Group IVA phospholipase A2-associated production of MMP-9 in macrophages and formation of atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Hontani, Naoya; Toshida, Issei; Oka, Mayuko; Sato, Takashi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2008-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in atherogenesis, and the production of MMP-9 in macrophages is considered to be mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade. The present study examined the possible involvement of group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2), a key enzyme in the arachidonic acid cascade, in the production of MMP-9 induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages and high-fat diet-induced formation of atherosclerotic lesions using IVA-PLA2-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background). In wild-type mouse peritoneal macrophages, oxLDL induced an increase in MMP-9 in the culture medium. The oxLDL-promoted production of MMP-9 was markedly reduced in IVA-PLA2-deficient macrophages compared to wild-type macrophages. Feeding of wild-type mice with a high-fat diet caused the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root with increases in MMP-9 and macrophages in the lesions and with higher serum levels of total cholesterol. Such lesions were apparently less severe in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet, despite higher total cholesterol levels. Under the conditions, a high-fat diet reduced the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in wild-type mice. However, IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were protected against the decrease in HDL-C levels. The present results suggest that IVA-PLA2 is involved in the oxLDL-induced production of MMP-9 in macrophages and the high-fat diet-induced formation of early atherosclerotic lesions. The protection against the lesions in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice may be ascribable, in part, to the impaired production of MMP-9 and/or the maintained levels of HDL-C.

  14. 三值绝热多米诺加法器开关级设计%Design of Ternary Adiabatic Domino Adder on Switch-level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏君; 杨乾坤; 郑雪松

    2012-01-01

    通过对绝热多米诺电路和加法器的研究,该文提出一种新颖低功耗三值加法器的开关级设计方案.该方案首先利用开关-信号理论,结合绝热多米诺电路结构特点,推导出三值加法器本位和电路与进位电路的开关级结构式,由此得到一位三值加法器单元电路;然后通过单元电路的级联得到四位三值绝热多米诺加法器;最后,利用Spice软件对所设计的电路进行模拟,结果显示所设计的四位三值绝热多米诺加法器具有正确的逻辑功能,与四位常规多米诺三值加法器相比,能耗节省约61%.%By researching the adiabatic domino circuit and the adder, a novel design of low power ternary adder on switch-level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of ternary adder's summing circuit and carrying circuit are derived according to the switch-signal theory and the peculiarity of adiabatic domino circuit. The design of the one bit adiabatic Domino adder unit and the four bit adder are obtained. Finally, the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the results show that the logic function of the four bit adiabatic Domino adder is correct. The energy consumption of the four bit adiabatic Domino adder is 61% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  15. Therapeutic effect of phytoecdysteroids rich extract from Ajuga iva on alloxan induced diabetic rats liver, kidney and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Khaled; Ayadi, Fatma; Jamoussi, Kamel; Masmoudi, Hatem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, the effect of Ajuga iva extract on blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic and renal toxicity and antioxidant enzyme activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was confirmed by measuring the glucoserua concentration 15 days after alloxan administration. Ajuga iva extract was administrated orally 3 weeks after alloxan injection. Our results investigate that Ajuga iva extract supplementation increased the levels of both enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and metals antioxidants (iron, copper, magnesium, calcium) and decreased lipid peroxidation level (TBARs). Besides Ajuga iva ameliorated diabetes provoked hepatic and renal toxicity appeared by a lower level in total and direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol and a higher level in HDL-cholesterol. Besides, the activities of phosphatase alkalines (PAL), aspartate and lactate transaminase (AST & ALT) were decreased. The benefices effects of phytoecdysteroids of Ajuga iva confirmed by histological observation in pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, Ajuga iva phytoecdysteroids supplements seem to be beneficial for correcting the hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications in liver, pancreas and kidneys.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Chikusetsusaponin IVa on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Qi, J; Li, L; Wu, T; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Ning, Q

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of Chikusetsusaponin IVa (Chi IVa), one of the main bioactive components in saponins from Panacis japonica (SPJ), which is used in traditional Tujia and Hmong Chinese medicine. To this end, changes in the inflammatory profiles of lipopolysacchride (LPS)-stimulated phrobol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA)-differented THP-1 macrophages were evaluated following Chi IVa treatment. The results showed that Chi IVa markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both the mRNA and protein level, which proved to be dose-dependent. Further studies revealed that Chi IVa strongly suppressed NF-κB activation and downregulated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Our present study demonstrates that Chi IVa suppresses the production of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells likely by inhibiting NF-κB activation and ERK, JNK, and p38 signal pathway phosphorylation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Targeted genetic inactivation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa impairs insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and evokes type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    The biological significance of protein N-glycosylation has been elucidated using a mouse model bearing a genetic mutation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases (GnTs), which initiate the formation of specific branch structures on the mannose core of N-glycans. These glycosylation defects evoked a variety of abnormalities and disorders in specific cell types, tissues, and the whole body, reflecting functional requirements. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa (GnT-IVa) initiates the GlcNAcbeta1-4 branch synthesis on the Manalpha1-3 arm of the N-glycan core thereby increasing N-glycan branch complexity. To investigate the physiological function of GnT-IVa, we engineered and characterized GnT-IVa-deficient mice. GnT-IVa-deficient mice showed a metabolic disorder subsequently diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. In this chapter, methods for characterizing GnT-IVa-deficient mice by physiological analyses to detect metabolic alterations and biochemical analyses using primary isolated pancreatic beta cells are summarized and discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assignments of 1H and 13C NMR Signals of Mogroside IVa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJian-ye; YANGXiu-wei

    2003-01-01

    Aim To investigate the structure of mogroside IVa isolated from traditional Chinese medicine fructus momordicae [fruits of Siraitia grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffery] and summarize the NMR characteristics of the structure. Methods Cormnon extraction, separafion and purification methods were used. Various NMR techniques including 1H NMR,13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and molecular model simulated by comtmter were used to elucidate the structure. Results 1H and 13C NMR signals of mogroside IVa were assigned, and spectroscopic basis was obtained for identification of such type of compounds. Conclusion 1D and 2D NMR techniques including 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY spectra are powerful tools for structure analysis. The structure determined by NMR methods is identical with energy minimized conformation simulated by computer.

  19. Shock-thermal history of Kavarpura IVA iron: Evidences from microtextures and nickel profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2015-11-01

    We classify Kavarpura iron (fell in August, 2006, in Rajasthan, India), an inclusion-free member of high-Ni IVA group. Widmanstätten pattern and finger-cellular plessites textures characteristic of IVA group are present in Kavarpura. Symmetric and asymmetric textural zoning within the cloudy taenite and plessite refer to long term martensitisation process with mean metallographic cooling rate of 200 °C/Ma. Imprints of variable shock pressure domains (Neumann bands and shock hatched ε kamacite) suggest alteration by up to 600 kb shock pressure. Degeneration of cellular plessites, bending of finger plessites and plastic flowage of taenites bear textural evidences corresponding to post-shock annealing which is further confirmed by Ni profiles across the cloudy taenites and plessites under high shock pressure domains. Based on microtextural evidences and Ni profiling, we suggest Kavarpura had cooled at steady state and subsequently suffered multiple impacts.

  20. A core origin for group IVA iron meteorites - A reply to Moren and Goldstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J.; Wasson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Because uncertainties in experimental data are large, one has considerable latitude in choosing the input parameters needed to calculate iron meteorite cooling rates. The best way to test input parameters is by examining their ability to yield the observed properties of the meteorites. Our phase diagram yields fits to kamacite profiles that are superior to those based on the Moren-Goldstein phase diagram. Our method of allowing for the effect of P on the Ni diffusion coefficient takes into account the enhancement in this effect with decreasing temperature; Moren and Goldstein use a relationship derived for a temperature of 1100 C, well outside the 700-350 C range where kamacite growth occurs. Use of our input parameters yields cooling rates in IVA irons that are independent of composition, consistent with a core origin. Since the fractionation of siderophiles in group IVA also indicates a core origin, we conclude that this is the correct model for this group.

  1. El IVA en el consumo por vía electrónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Delgado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las operaciones comerciales electrónicas llevadas a cabo por los consumidores se ven afectadas por la fiscalidad indirecta que grava el consumo general, es decir, por el impuesto sobre el valor añadido. Al respecto, los aspectos más importantes que se plantean son, en primer lugar, la localización de las operaciones comerciales electrónicas en el IVA; en segundo lugar, la aplicación del régimen especial del IVA para el comercio electrónico, y, en tercer lugar, la regulación de la facturación telemática.

  2. Surgical treatment of type IV-A choledochal cyst in a single institution: children vs. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiuhai; Gu, Wanqing; Xia, Hongtian; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Liang, Bin; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shizhong; Zeng, Jianping; Dong, Jiahong

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of type IV-A choledochal cyst is particularly difficult and remains a challenge because of the rareness and the various presentations of the disease involving not only the extrahepatic but also the intrahepatic biliary tract. The purpose of this study is to analyze our clinical experience for surgical treatment of type IV-A choledochal cyst, and compare between children and adults. During a 10-year period of time (2000-2010), clinical data of 81 consecutive patients with type IV-A choledochal cyst were retrospectively analyzed. We divided these patients into two groups, the child group (age ≤ 18 years) and the adult group (age >18 years). According to whether the patient received additional liver resection, patients were divided into a extrahepatic cystectomy (EHC) group and an additional liver resection (LR) group. The long-term outcomes after surgery were evaluated in two groups. Of all 81 patients, there were 17 children and 64 adults; 16 children and 35 adults belonged to EHC group, one child and 29 adults belonged to LR group. The morbidity of biliary stricture and/or lithiasis in the adults was significantly higher than that in the children (p = 0.041 adults was significantly higher than that of children (p = 0.019 adult patients, the morbidity of biliary stricture and/or lithiasis and the reoperation rate in EHC group was significantly higher than that in LR group (p = 0.037 adults were found to have cholangiocarcinoma within a follow-up period, while no child was found to. However, for adult patients, no significant discrepancy was observed between EHC group and LR group (p = 0.366 > 0.05). The present study suggests that the children have better outcomes than adults for patients with type IV-A choledochal cyst after EHC, while LR brings better outcomes than EHC for adult patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural history and clinical assessment of Taiwanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chiu, Pao Chin; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Niu, Dau-Ming; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lin, Ju-Li; Lin, Shuan-Pei

    2014-02-10

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency, which catalyzes a step in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. This disease has a variable age of onset and rate of progression. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 24 patients with MPS IVA (11 males, 13 females; current mean age ± SD, 12.6 ± 6.6 years; age range, 1.4-29.4 years) seen at 6 medical centers in Taiwan from January 1996 through June 2013 was performed. Mean ages of onset of symptoms and confirmed diagnosis were 2.0 ± 1.6 and 5.7 ± 4.5 years, respectively. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were kyphosis (100%), pectus carinatum (96%), abnormal gait (93%), striking short trunk dwarfism (92%), genu valgum (92%), and valvular heart disease (91%). Eight patients (33%) experienced at least one surgical procedure with the most common being ear tube insertion (25%), adenoidectomy (17%), tonsillectomy (13%), supraglottoplasty (13%), spinal decompression (13%), and spinal fusion (13%). The most prevalent cardiac valve abnormalities were aortic stenosis (45%) and mitral regurgitation (45%). At the time of the study, 8 out of 24 patients (33%) have died at the mean age of 17.2 ± 7.7 years. An understanding of the natural history involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of the disease. All affected Taiwanese patients experienced significant functional limitations. Adequate evaluations and timely management may improve clinical outcomes and quality of life.

  4. Five novel mutations of GALNS in Korean patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Doo; Ko, Ah-Ra; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Jong-Won; Cho, Sung Yoon; Kim, Se Hwa; Park, Sung Won; Sohn, Young Bae; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; OMIM #253000) is caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), a lysosomal enzyme involved in the catabolism of keratan and chondroitin sulfate. In this study, we examined biochemical and genetic data from 6 Korean patients presenting with classic MPS IVA by measuring GALNS activity in peripheral blood leukocytes and skin fibroblasts. We initially identified Korean patients with MPS IVA by clinical, biochemical, and genetic analyses. We performed PCR-direct sequencing to identify molecular defects of the GALNS gene in patients and assessed the mutational statuses of family members as well as 50 healthy unrelated subjects. In silico analyses were performed to check for novel mutations. The mean age of the six female patients was 8.0 ± 5.2 years (range: 2-17 years), and were all found to have severe reductions of GALNS enzyme. A total of 12 mutant alleles were identified, corresponding to 7 different mutations. Five novel mutations were c.218A>G (p.Y73C), c.451C>A (p.P151T), c.725C>G (p.S242C), c.752G>A (p.R251Q), and c.1000C>T (p.Q334X). Two other mutations were c.1156C>T (p.R386C) and c.1243-1G>A. Two mutations, c.451C>A and c.1000C>T, accounted for 58% of all mutations in this sample. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA: evidence of primary and secondary central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlot, Felippe; Arantes, Paula Ricci; Quaio, Caio Robledo; Franco, José Francisco da Silva; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Gomy, Israel; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

    2014-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase. Studies usually focus on skeletal abnormalities and their consequences. This study explores the neurological manifestations in a cohort of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients, with a detailed focus on brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. We performed a cross-sectional study involving nine patients with a biochemical confirmation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA. The protocol consists of a comprehensive clinical examination and brain and spinal cord MRI analysis for all subjects. The mean age was 16.4 years (±5.7) and the mean onset of symptoms was 11.5 months (±6.3). Overall, cognition was spared in all but one patient and motor weakness was a constant finding in all patients. Deep sensation impairment was found in six patients. The brain MRIs showed non-specific white matter changes in two patients. Other abnormalities such as clival hypoplasia, basilar invagination, and arachnoid cists appeared in seven of the nine patients. Eight patients presented spinal cord compression, and in three of them, two spinal levels were compromised. Odontoid hypoplasia and degenerative features in the neuroaxis were present in all patients. Our experience with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients supports the evidence of central nervous system involvement. We emphasize the importance of regular clinical assessments with complete MRI studies, as an attempt to detect the early signs of spinal cord compression. This evaluation may be especially important before surgical interventions, as occult lesions may become symptomatic and promote postoperative unfavorable outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-term therapeutic efficacy of allogenic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Higa, Takeshi; Tomatsu, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Tadao; Hyakuna, Nobuyuki

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is one of the lysosomal storage diseases. It is caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to accumulation of the specific glycosaminoglycans keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. This accumulation has a direct impact on cartilage and bone development, resulting in systemic skeletal dysplasia. There is no curative therapy for this skeletal dysplasia. This report describes long-term therapeutic efficacy in a 15-year-old boy with a severe form of MPS IVA who received successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his HLA-identical carrier sister. The level of the GALNS enzyme in the recipient's lymphocytes reached almost half of normal level within two years after BMT. For the successive 9+ years post-BMT, GALNS activity in his lymphocytes maintained the same level as the donor's, and the level of urinary uronic acid was reduced. Lumbar bone mineral density increased around 50% one year later post-BMT and was kept consistent. Radiographs showed that the figures of trochanter major and minor appeared, while the epiphyseal dysplasia in the femoral cap was almost unchanged. Loud snoring and apnea disappeared. Vital capacity increased to around 20% for the first two years and was maintained. Activity of daily life (ADL) was improved in work/study efficacy, respiratory status, sleep, joint pain, and frequency of infection. In conclusion, the long-term study of hematopoetic stem cell transplantation has shown clinical improvements in respiratory function, radiograph findings, ADL, and biochemical findings, suggesting that it is a potential therapeutic option for patients with MPS IVA.

  7. Extended surgical resections of advanced thymoma Masaoka stages III and IVa facilitate outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Michael; Potzger, Tobias; Sziklavari, Zsolt; Diez, Claudius; Neu, Reiner; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Extended thymoma resections including adjacent structures and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) perfusion were performed in a multidisciplinary treatment regime. Between July 2000 and February 2012, 22 patients with Masaoka stage III (n = 9; 41%) and Masaoka stage IVa (n = 13; 59%) thymic tumors were included. Mean age was 55 years (25-84 years) and 50% (11 out of 22) of patients were female. World Health Organization histological classification was as follows: B2 (n = 15), A (n = 1), B1 (n = 1), B3 (n = 2), and thymic carcinoma (C; n = 3). Radical thymectomy and partial resection of the mediastinal pleura and pericardium were performed. Of the 13, 9 patients with pleural involvement (stage IVa) received radical P/D followed by HITHOC (cisplatin). Macroscopic complete resection (R0/R1) was achieved in 19 (86%) patients. All patients received multimodality treatment depending on tumor stage, histology, and completeness of resection. Thirty-day mortality was 0% and three (13.6%) patients needed operative revision. Recurrence of thymoma was documented in five (22.7%) patients (stage III, n = 1; stage IVa, n = 4). Mean disease-free interval of patients with complete resection (n = 14 out of 22) was 30.2 months. After a mean follow-up of 29 months, 18 out of the 22 (82%) patients are alive. After P/D and HITHOC, 89% (8 out of 9 patients) are alive (current median survival is 25 months) without recurrence. Extended surgical resection of advanced thymic tumors infiltrating adjacent structures (stage III) or with pleural metastases (stage IVa) is safe and feasible. It provides a low recurrence rate and an acceptable survival. Additional HITHOC in patients with pleural thymoma spread seems to offer a better local tumor control. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Occipitocervical stabilization using bilateral laminar C2 screws in children with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Petr; Homolkova, Helena; Benes, Vladimir; Zeman, Jiri

    2015-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a multisystemic storage disorder. Patient's disability and life expectancy depends upon skeletal complications, including cervical myelopathy due to upper cervical compression or instability. Posterior decompression followed by occipitocervical fixation or C1-2 fusion are the most frequently recommended surgical interventions. The bony elements of C1 and C2 are often inadequately developed making routine screw insertion difficult. The main purpose of this work was to present novel technique of occipitocervical fixation using two C2 laminar screws. Four children with MPS IVA underwent decompression and C0-C2 instrumented fusion using two C2 bilateral laminar screws. The dimensions of the C2 lamina were measured. Clinical and radiological results were monitored prospectively for a minimum 3 years. The mean laminar length was 24 ± 1.15 mm, width 6.15 ± 0.55 mm and height 7.4 ± 0.6 mm. Patients remained in a stable neurological condition. The mean antero-posterior diameter of the spinal canal on the pre-operative MR was 6.2 ± 0.74 mm and it was enlarged to 11.4 ± 0.8 mm after 3 years. All screws were placed adequately. In all patients, the control CT scan 2 years post-operatively revealed a stable position of the treated segments, but solid bony fusion was not registered in any patient. Decompression and fusion of the upper cervical spine is a generally accepted approach to treat upper cervical spine instability and myelopathy in MPS IVA patients. The feasibility and the suitability of the technique of C0-C2 stabilization using bilateral C2 laminar screws have been presented.

  9. Peptides from puff adder Bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Serebryakova, Marina V; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Kryukova, Elena V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kopylova, Nina V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Ivanov, Igor A; Kudryashova, Ksenia S; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography. The amino acid sequences of peptides were established by de novo sequencing using MALDI mass spectrometry. Baptide 1 comprised 7, baptides 2 and 3-10 amino acid residues, the latter being acetylated at the N-terminus. This is the first indication for the presence of such post-translational modification in snake venom proteins. None of the peptides contain cysteine residues. For biological activity studies the peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. Baptide 3 and 2 blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents in isolated Lymnaea stagnalis neurons with IC50 of about 50 μM and 250 μM, respectively. In addition baptide 2 blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in muscle nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC50 of about 3 μM. The peptides did not compete with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and α7 nAChRs at concentration up to 200 μM that suggests non-competitive mode of inhibition. Calcium imaging studies on α7 and muscle nAChRs heterologously expressed in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells showed that on α7 receptor baptide 2 inhibited acetylcholine-induced increasing intracellular calcium concentration with IC50 of 20.6 ± 3.93 μM. On both α7 and muscle nAChRs the suppression of maximal response to acetylcholine by about 50% was observed at baptide 2 concentration of 25 μM, the value being close to IC50 on α7 nAChR. These data are in

  10. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  11. Structure of the type IVa major pilin from the electrically conductive bacterial nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Patrick N; Mueller, Karl T

    2013-10-11

    Several species of δ proteobacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires are polymeric assemblies of proteins belonging to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution NMR structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is >85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  12. Structure of the Type IVa Major Pilin from the Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Patrick N.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-10-11

    Several species of bacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires belong to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is over 85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  13. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-06-06

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community.

  14. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction following elective coronary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Akiyoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Ando, Hirohiko; Kumagai, Soichiro; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Gosho, Masahiko; Amano, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction (MI) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We analyzed data from 165 of 178 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent de novo successful stent implantation in the native coronary artery. Patients were assigned to receive statin therapy in combination with 1800mg/day of EPA or statin alone. Post-procedural index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) values were calculated for 30 patients in the EPA group and 32 controls. In the multivariate logistic model, EPA administration, low kidney function, and the presence of slow flow/no reflow were significantly and independently associated with type IVa MI. Post-procedural IMR values were significantly lower in the EPA group [19.8 (6.4, 51.1) vs. 27.8 (8.2, 89.3), p=0.003] compared to the control group. Pre-treatment with EPA in addition to statins significantly reduced the incidence of type IVa MI compared to statin therapy only, which may be attributed to the ability of EPA to reduce microvascular dysfunction induced by PCI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 加法器的QCA设计与研究进展%Design and Research Progress of the Adder Implemented with the QCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧; 解光军; 黄文龙

    2012-01-01

    量子细胞自动机(QCA)是一种基于元胞自动机结构的纳米器件,该器件通过电子占据量子点的位置来表征二进制信息.针对QCA加法器电路的国内外研究状况,首先分别详细地综述了进位传送加法器、载流加法器、超前进位加法器和并行前缀加法器,得出QCA加法器向大规模和规律化方向发展的结论.然后进一步从元胞个数、元胞所占面积和时钟延迟上进行分析评述,指出了载流加法器的整体性能是最优的;但与其他加法器相比,前缀加法器中的Brent-Kung Adder的稳定性最好,并对今后QCA加法器电路的研究方向进行了展望.%Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is a kind of nano-device based on the cellular automata structure, and the position of the quantum dot is occupied by electron to represent binary information. According to the research status of QCA adder circuits at home and abroad, the ripple carry adder, carry flow adder, carry look-ahead adder and parallel prefix adder are reviewed in detail, respectively. The conclusion is obtained that the QCA adder circuits are developing into the large-scale and regularity. Furthermore, the number of cells, the occupied area and the delay of clocks are analyzed. It shows that the overall performance of CFA is the best and the stability of Brent-Kung Adder is the best compared with other adders. The research orientation of the QCA adder circuits in future is prospected.

  16. Low Power and Low Ground Bouncing Noise Nanometer CMOS Full Adder%低功耗低电源线噪声纳米CMOS全加器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田曦; 乔飞; 董在望

    2012-01-01

    A low power and low ground bouncing noise nanometer CMOS full adder is presented. The full adder with power gating structure is used to reduce leakage power consumption. The sum generator circuit of complementary CMOS full adder is modified and the transistor counts are reduced. Sizing of the sleep transistor and the transistors for the full adder is done. The proposed full adder is simulated using 45nm CMOS technology and the simulation results demonstrate better improvements in average power -delay product, leakage power consumption and grounding bouncing noise.%提出一种低功耗低电源线噪声的纳米CMOS全加器.采用电源门控结构的全加器来降低纳米CMOS电路的漏电功耗,改进了传统互补CMOS全加器的求和电路,减少了所需晶体管的数目,并进一步对休眠晶体管的尺寸和全加器的晶体管尺寸进行了联合优化.用Hspice在45nmCMOS工艺下的电路仿真结果表明,改进后的全加器电路在平均功耗时延积、漏电功耗和电源线噪声等方面取得了很好的效果.

  17. Transient Voltage Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  18. Cooperative heteroassembly of the adenoviral L4-22K and IVa2 proteins onto the viral packaging sequence DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chieh; Maluf, Nasib Karl

    2012-02-21

    Human adenovirus (Ad) is an icosahedral, double-stranded DNA virus. Viral DNA packaging refers to the process whereby the viral genome becomes encapsulated by the viral particle. In Ad, activation of the DNA packaging reaction requires at least three viral components: the IVa2 and L4-22K proteins and a section of DNA within the viral genome, called the packaging sequence. Previous studies have shown that the IVa2 and L4-22K proteins specifically bind to conserved elements within the packaging sequence and that these interactions are absolutely required for the observation of DNA packaging. However, the equilibrium mechanism for assembly of IVa2 and L4-22K onto the packaging sequence has not been determined. Here we characterize the assembly of the IVa2 and L4-22K proteins onto truncated packaging sequence DNA by analytical sedimentation velocity and equilibrium methods. At limiting concentrations of L4-22K, we observe a species with two IVa2 monomers and one L4-22K monomer bound to the DNA. In this species, the L4-22K monomer is promoting positive cooperative interactions between the two bound IVa2 monomers. As L4-22K levels are increased, we observe a species with one IVa2 monomer and three L4-22K monomers bound to the DNA. To explain this result, we propose a model in which L4-22K self-assembly on the DNA competes with IVa2 for positive heterocooperative interactions, destabilizing binding of the second IVa2 monomer. Thus, we propose that L4-22K levels control the extent of cooperativity observed between adjacently bound IVa2 monomers. We have also determined the hydrodynamic properties of all observed stoichiometric species; we observe that species with three L4-22K monomers bound have more extended conformations than species with a single L4-22K bound. We suggest this might reflect a molecular switch that controls insertion of the viral DNA into the capsid.

  19. Heart and Cardiovascular Involvement in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA (Morquio-A Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Christoph; Abu-Tair, Tariq; Gökce, Seyfullah; Lampe, Christina; Reinke, Jörg; Mengel, Eugen; Hennermann, Julia B; Wiethoff, Christiane M

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with multiple skeletal and non-skeletal abnormalities requiring multiple surgical interventions. It is well known that patients with MPS IVA suffer from tachycardia, but cardiac and hemodynamic alterations have not been reported to date. We investigated the cardiovascular and hemodynamic alterations in patients with MPS IVA and developed a possible patho-mechanism for cardiovascular deterioration during anesthesia. In this observational study, serial cardiac examinations were performed in 54 patients with MPS IVA who were followed at the Children's Hospital of the Mainz Medical University (Mainz, Germany) between 1991 and 2014 (follow-up 1-24 years; median 5.8 years). Results were compared with data from a large central European cohort of more than 2000 healthy infants and children. None of the patients had arterial hypertension, but 4% had evidence of increased pulmonary artery pressure. Patients developed aortic root extension up to 6.9 standard deviations above normal. Left-sided valve leaflet thickening occurred in 26 patients (five with valve disease). Patients had lower left ventricular dimensions (z: -1.02±0.1), lower stroke volumes (z: -2.3±0.17), lower left ventricular mass (z: -1.5±0.21), but higher wall thickness (z: +0.8±0.16), and higher work index (z: +2.5±0.2) compared to healthy control subjects. Cardiac output was preserved by an increase in heart rate of 21%. Sixty % of patients showed impaired diastolic filling; heart rate (99.0±1.8 vs. 92.0±2.1 bpm), age (18.0±1.8 vs. 14.2±1 years), and cardiothoracic ratio (61.6±3.6% vs. 55±4.2%) of these patients were higher compared to those with normal filling. The results of this study suggest an age-progressive disproportion of the intra-thoracic organs of patients with MPS IVA, which is accompanied by aortic root extension and thickened left ventricles, with reduced stroke volumes, impaired diastolic filling patterns, and

  20. Venom physiology and composition in a litter of Common Death Adders (Acanthophis antarcticus) and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, Anna F V; Winter, Kelly L; Krockenberger, Andrew K; Seymour, Jamie E

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic expenditure has been shown to increase abruptly in several snake species directly after venom expenditure, while the later stages of venom replenishment seem to involve minor costs. This study examines the dependence of increases in metabolic rate following venom expenditure on the stage of venom replenishment that the venom producing tissue is in at the time of venom extraction in the Common Death Adder, Acanthophis antarcticus. Potential changes in venom composition during venom replenishment are also explored to elucidate whether replenishment is achieved via low rates of synthesis of all venom components or by non-parallel protein production, i.e. initial production of some venom components and subsequent synthesis of others. The results of this study indicate that venom expenditure is followed by a sudden increase in metabolic rate when snakes have previously not expended venom for at least two days, suggesting that repetitive venom expenditure does not further increase the activity of venom gland tissue in this initial time period but that a second upregulation occurs when the tissue is past the initial activation stage. In addition, venom composition appears to remain constant during replenishment within an individual, while substantial variations can be observed even between siblings.

  1. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  2. A snake in the clinical grass: late compartment syndrome in a child bitten by an adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawrse, N H; Inglefield, C J; Hayes, C; Palmer, J H

    2002-07-01

    Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the UK, but requires vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. We describe a case requiring delayed fasciotomies for closed compartment syndrome of the leg and thigh, and discuss in detail the controversies surrounding decompression in such a case. Adder bites are uncommon in the UK, but can result in envenomation of varying severity. Apart from the numerous possible systemic effects that require attention, there are local effects that, very rarely, can be limb threatening. Of these, elevated limb compartment pressures are of paramount importance, and recognition of closed compartment ischaemia is vital if the limb is to be saved by surgical decompression. Guidelines on threshold compartment pressures and fasciotomies are indistinct regarding snakebite, with diagnostic emphasis still placed on clinical signs and symptoms. In the paediatric setting, measurement of compartment pressures is a valuable adjunct to clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome secondary to snakebite.

  3. Group IVA irons: New constraints on the crystallization and cooling history of an asteroidal core with a complex history

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Rumble, D.; Chabot, N. L.; Ash, R. D.; Corrigan, C. M.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    We report analyses of 14 group IVA iron meteorites, and the ungrouped but possibly related, Elephant Moraine (EET) 83230, for siderophile elements by laser ablation ICP-MS and isotope dilution. EET was also analyzed for oxygen isotopic composition and metallographic structure, and Fuzzy Creek, currently the IVA with the highest Ni concentration, was analyzed for metallographic structure. Highly siderophile elements (HSE) Re, Os and Ir concentrations vary by nearly three orders of magnitude over the entire range of IVA irons, while Ru, Pt and Pd vary by less than factors of five. Chondrite normalized abundances of HSE form nested patterns consistent with progressive crystal-liquid fractionation. Attempts to collectively model the HSE abundances resulting from fractional crystallization achieved best results for 3 wt.% S, compared to 0.5 or 9 wt.% S. Consistent with prior studies, concentrations of HSE and other refractory siderophile elements estimated for the bulk IVA core and its parent body are in generally chondritic proportions. Projected abundances of Pd and Au, relative to more refractory HSE, are slightly elevated and modestly differ from L/LL chondrites, which some have linked with group IVA, based on oxygen isotope similarities. Abundance trends for the moderately volatile and siderophile element Ga cannot be adequately modeled for any S concentration, the cause of which remains enigmatic. Further, concentrations of some moderately volatile and siderophile elements indicate marked, progressive depletions in the IVA system. However, if the IVA core began crystallization with ˜3 wt.% S, depletions of more volatile elements cannot be explained as a result of prior volatilization/condensation processes. The initial IVA core had an approximately chondritic Ni/Co ratio, but a fractionated Fe/Ni ratio of ˜10, indicates an Fe-depleted core. This composition is most easily accounted for by assuming that the surrounding silicate shell was enriched in iron

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: Identification of a common missense mutation I113F in the N-Acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Fukuda, Seiji; Rezvi, Maruf [Univ. School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). The recent isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic sequences encoding GALNS has facilitated identification of the molecular lesions that cause MPS IVA. We identified a common missense mutation among Caucasian MPS IVA patients. The mutation was originally detected by SSCP, and successive sequencing revealed an A{yields}T transversion at nt 393. This substitution altered the isoleucine at position 113 to phenylalanine (I113F) in the 622 amino acid GALNS protein and was associated with a severe phenotype in a homozygote. Compound heterogzygotes with one I113F-allele mutation have a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Transfection experiments in GALNS-deficient fibroblasts revealed that the mutation drastically reduces the enzyme activity of GALNS. Allele-specific oligonucleotide or SSCP analysis indicated that this mutation accounted for 22.5% (9/40) of unrelated MPS IVA chromosomes from 23 Caucasian patients, including 6 consanguineous cases. Of interest, the I1e 113{yields}Phe substitution occurred in only Caucasian MPS IVA patients and in none of the GALNS alleles of 20 Japanese patients. These findings identify a frequent missense mutation among MPS IVA patients of Caucasian ancestry that results in severe MPS IVA when homoallelic, and will facilitate molecular diagnosis of most such patients and identification of heterozygous carriers. In addition to this common mutation, 10 different point mutations and 2 small deletions were detected, suggesting allelic heterogeneity in GALNS gene. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. MD-2 Residues Tyrosine 42, Arginine 69, Aspartic Acid 122, and Leucine 125 Provide Species Specificity for Lipid IVA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianmin; Drolet, Joshua R.; Monks, Brian G.; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the innate immune response through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)·MD-2 complex. A synthetic lipid A precursor, lipid IVA, induces an innate immune response in mice but not in humans. Both TLR4 and MD-2 are required for the agonist activity of lipid IVA in mice, with TLR4 interacting through specific surface charges at the dimerization interface. In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to identify the MD-2 residues that determine lipid IVA species specificity. A single mutation of murine MD-2 at the hydrophobic pocket entrance, E122K, substantially reduced the response to lipid IVA. Combining the murine MD-2 E122K with the murine TLR4 K367E/S386K/R434Q mutations completely abolished the response to lipid IVA, effectively converting the murine cellular response to a human-like response. In human cells, however, simultaneous mutations of K122E, K125L, Y41F, and R69G on human MD-2 were required to promote a response to lipid IVA. Combining the human MD-2 quadruple mutations with the human TLR4 E369K/Q436R mutations completely converted the human MD-2/human TLR4 receptor to a murine-like receptor. Because MD-2 residues 122 and 125 reside at the dimerization interface near the pocket entrance, surface charge differences here directly affect receptor dimerization. In comparison, residues 42 and 69 reside at the MD-2/TLR4 interaction surface opposite the dimerization interface. Surface charge differences there likely affect the binding angle and/or rigidity between MD-2 and TLR4, exerting an indirect influence on receptor dimerization and activation. Thus, surface charge differences at the two MD-2/TLR4 interfaces determine the species-specific activation of lipid IVA. PMID:20592019

  6. ALL OPTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED AND LOW POWER REVERSIBLE FULL ADDER USING SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER BASED MACH-ZEHNDER INTERFEROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bommi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years reversible logic design has promising applications in low power computing, optical computing, quantum computing. VLSI design mainly concentrates on low power logic circuit design. In the present scenario researchers have made implementations of reversible logic gates in optical domain for its low energy consumption and high speed. This study is all about designing a reversible Full adder using combination of all optical Toffoli and all optical TNOR and to compare it with the Full adder designed using all optical Toffoli gate in terms of optical cost. All optical TNOR gate can work as a replacement of existing NAND based All optical Toffoli Gate (TG. The gates are designed using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI based optical switch. The proposed system is developed with the basic of reversibility to design all optical full Adder implemented with CMOS transistors. The design is efficient in terms of both architecture and in power consumption.

  7. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  8. All-Optical Half-Adder Using All-Optical XOR and AND Gates for Optical Generation of "Sum" and "Carry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, J. W. M.; Fraga, W. B.; Ferreira, A. C.; Guimarães, G. F.; Filho, A. F. G. F.; Sobrinho, C. S.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2010-07-01

    In this article, a numerical simulation study using the symmetric planar three-core non-linear directional coupler, operating with a short light pulse (2 ps), for the implementation of an all-optical half-adder is presented. The half-adder is the key building block for many digital processing functions such as shift register, binary counter, and serial parallel data converters. Optical couplers are an important component for application in optical fiber telecommunication systems and all integrated optical circuits because of very high switching speeds (as high as the femto-second range). In this numerical simulation, the symmetric planar three-core non-linear directional coupler presents a planar symmetrical structure with three cores in a parallel equidistant arrangement, three logical inputs (CP, A, and B), and two output logic functions (C and S). The CP(ΔΦ) input is a control pulse with a phase difference ΔΦ = Δθπ (0 ≤ Δθ ≤ 2) between inputs A and B (logical inputs of the half-adder) and one amplitude discriminator circuit. The half-adder uses two output logic functions of Sum(S) and Carry(C), which can be demonstrated by using XOR and AND gates, respectively. For the half-adder, the phase [ΔΦMIN, ΔΦMAX] intervals are studied, allowing the operation of the device as a half-adder. For the selected range of CP(ΔΦBETTER), the extinction ratio was studied, the compression factors for both Sum(S) and Carry(C) outputs of the symmetric planar three-core non-linear directional coupler.

  9. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  10. Separate and simultaneous generation of multioutputs in a polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting scheme: design of half- and full adders and subtractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, R A; Zaheer, K; Zubairy, M S

    1988-12-15

    A design algorithm for separate and simultaneous generation of multioutputs in a polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting (POSC) scheme is presented. The logic unit truth table is converted into POSC logic equations for true and false logic. These are then solved consistently to obtain source plane, input pixel, and the decoding mask characteristics. The algorithm is used to design binary half-adder and half-subtractor and full adder and full subtractor to carry out all operations with a fixed source plane and a fixed decoding mask. The results have been verified experimentally.

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A syndrome) and VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): under-recognized and challenging to diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Ralph S; Burton, Barbara K; Clarke, Lorne A; Hoffinger, Scott; Ikegawa, Shiro; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kano, Hiroki; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Lampe, Christina; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Shediac, Renée; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot; White, Klane K

    2014-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, or Morquio A syndrome) and VI (MPS VI, or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders. Skeletal abnormalities are common initial presenting symptoms and, when recognized early, may facilitate timely diagnosis and intervention, leading to improved patient outcomes. Patients with slowly progressing disease and nonclassic phenotypes can be particularly challenging to diagnose. The objective was to describe the radiographic features of patients with a delayed diagnosis of MPS IVA or VI. This was a retrospective study. The records of 5 MPS IVA and 3 MPS VI patients with delayed diagnosis were reviewed. Radiographs were evaluated by a radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias. An important common theme in these cases was the appearance of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) with epiphyseal changes seemingly confined to the capital (proximal) femoral epiphyses. Very few patients had the skeletal features of classical dysostosis multiplex. Radiologists should appreciate the wide phenotypic variability of MPS IVA and VI. The cases presented here illustrate the importance of considering MPS in the differential diagnosis of certain skeletal dysplasias/disorders, including MED, some forms of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SED), and bilateral Perthes-like disease. It is important to combine radiographic findings with clinical information to facilitate early testing and accurate diagnosis.

  12. Quantum half-adder Boolean logic gate with a nano-graphene molecule and graphene nano-electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Kino, Hiori; Joachim, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A molecule Boolean 1 / 2 -adder is designed and the XOR and AND truth table calculated at +0.1 V using 4 graphene electrodes. It functions with level repulsion and destructive interferences effects using 4 molecule electronic states in a quantum Hamiltonian computing approach (QHC) with the abrupt change of the molecular orbital weight of those 4 calculating states as a function of the logical input configuration. The logical inputs enter rotating the two nitro groups of the central board. With QHC, a complex Boolean digital function can be implemented employing the same graphene material for interconnects and the molecule calculating parts.

  13. Presence of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of Australo-Papuan death adders (Acanthophis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklow, Benjamin; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Hodgson, Wayne C; Nicholson, Graham M

    2010-06-01

    Australo-papuan death adders (Acanthophis spp.) are a cause of serious envenomations in Papua New Guinea and northern Australia often resulting in neurotoxic paralysis. Furthermore, victims occasionally present with delayed-onset neurotoxicity that sometimes responds poorly to antivenom or anticholinesterase treatment. This clinical outcome could be explained by the presence of potent snake presynaptic phospholipase A(2) neurotoxin (SPAN) complexes and monomers, in addition to long- and short-chain postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxins, that bind irreversibly, block neurotransmitter release and result in degeneration of the nerve terminal. The present study therefore aimed to determine within-genus variations in expression of high molecular mass SPAN complexes in the venoms of six major species of Acanthophis, four geographic variants of Acanthophis antarcticus. Venoms were separated by size-exclusion liquid chromatography under non-denaturing conditions and fractions corresponding to proteins in the range of 22 to >60 kDa were subjected to pharmacological characterization using the isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle (CBCNM) preparation. All venoms, except Acanthophis wellsi and Acanthophis pyrrhus, contained high mass fractions with phospholipase A(2) activity that inhibited twitch contractions of the CBCNM preparation. This inhibition was of slow onset, and responses to exogenous nicotinic agonists were not blocked, consistent with the presence of SPAN complexes. The results of the present study indicate that clinicians may need to be aware of possible prejunctional neurotoxicity following envenomations from A. antarcticus (all geographic variants except perhaps South Australia), Acanthophis praelongus, Acanthophis rugosus and Acanthophis. laevis species, and that early antivenom intervention is important in preventing further development of toxicity.

  14. Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy Costello, Ben De; Adamatzky, Andy; Jahan, Ishrat; Zhang, Liang

    2011-03-01

    The light-sensitive modification (ruthenium catalysed) of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction exhibits various excitability regimes depending on the level of illumination. Within a narrow range of applied illumination levels the medium is in a sub-excitable state. When in this state an asymmetric perturbation of the medium leads to formation of a travelling localized excitation (wave-fragment) which moves along a predetermined trajectory, ideally preserving its shape and velocity over an extended time period. Collision-based computing can be implemented with these wave-fragments whereby values of Boolean variables are represented as the presence/absence of a wave-fragment at specific sites. When two wave-fragments collide they either annihilate, or form new wave-fragments. The trajectories of the wave-fragments after the collision represent the result of a computation, e.g. construction of a simple logical gate. However, wave-fragments in sub-excitable chemical media are difficult to control. Therefore, we adopted a hybrid procedure in order to construct collision-based logical gates. We used channels of low light intensity projected onto the excitable media in order to subtly tune and stabilise the propagating wave-fragments allowing them to collide at the junctions between channels. Using this methodology we were able to implement both in theoretical models (using the Oregonator) and in experiment two interaction-based logical gates and assemble the gates into a basic one-bit binary adder. We present the first ever experimental approach towards constructing arithmetic circuits in spatially-extended excitable chemical systems where light is used to impart functionality.

  15. Nueva regulación del IVA en el comercio electrónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Delgado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La Ley 28/2014, de 27 de noviembre, por la que se modifica la Ley 37/1992, de 28 de diciembre, del impuesto sobre el valor añadido, introduce nuevas reglas de localización de los servicios de telecomunicaciones, de radiodifusión y televisión y de las prestaciones de servicios efectuadas por vía electrónica. A partir del 1 de enero de 2015, de acuerdo con las reglas de localización introducidas en la Directiva 2006/112/CE por la Directiva 2008/8/CE, de 12 de febrero de 2008, cuando estos servicios se presten a un consumidor final, pasan a gravarse en el lugar donde el destinatario esté establecido, tenga su domicilio o residencia habitual, independientemente del lugar donde esté establecido el prestador.

    Estas nuevas reglas de localización en el IVA vienen acompañadas de dos nuevos regímenes especiales del IVA, que son opcionales y que permiten a los sujetos pasivos liquidar el impuesto adeudado por la prestación de dichos servicios a través de un portal web «ventanilla única» en el estado miembro de la UE en que estén identificados, lo cual les evita tener que registrarse en cada estado miembro donde realicen las operaciones.

    Asimismo, debe tenerse en cuenta la normativa comunitaria que desarrolla la Directiva del IVA en este aspecto y que resulta directamente aplicable en cada uno de los Estados miembros: el Reglamento de Ejecución (UE 1042/2013, del Consejo, de 7 de octubre de 2013, y el Reglamento de Ejecución (UE 967/2012, del Consejo, de 9 de octubre de 2012.

  16. Isolation of four ecdysones from Ajuga iva roots and a rapid semiquantitative method for ecdysone determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, N N; Asaad, A; Khafagy, S M

    1981-07-01

    The ethereal extract of AJUGA IVA (L.) S CHREB. roots, yielded 4 ecdysones. Three were proved to be cyasterone, makisterone A and ecdysterone, by using UV, IR, MS spectral methods and comparison with standard samples. Spectral data indicate that the fourth ecdysone is similar to cyasterone but having an additional hydroxy group in the side-chain. The chromatographic pattern of ecdysone content in roots, stems and leaves is presented as well as a rapid and simple Semiquantitative method for their estimation. The roots had the highest total content (0.381%).

  17. Ecdysteroid profiles of two Ajuga species, A. iva and A. remota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrim, Ahmed; Ngunjiri, Johnpeter; Crouzet, Sophie; Guibout, Louis; Balducci, Christine; Girault, Jean-Pierre; Lafont, René

    2014-08-01

    Phytoecdysteroids are plant analogues of insect moulting hormones and are used by plants to repel or disturb phytophagous insects. They are also active on mammals and present in many plants used in traditional medicine. The Ajuga genus contains several such species, which occur in various pharmacopoeias. We report the isolation and identification of major and minor ecdysteroids present in two Ajuga species, A. iva and A. remota, both of which are used as medicinal plants in Africa. Three minor ecdysteroids (abutasterone, ponasterone A and sidisterone) have been found for the first time in the Ajuga genus.

  18. Changes in antioxidant defense status in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with Ajuga iva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, S; Lamri-Senhadji, M; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) on serum and tissues lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities in red blood cells (RBC) and tissues, in high hypercholesterolemic rats (HC). Male Wistar rats (n=12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15d. After this adaptation phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (total cholesterol=6.5+/-0.6mol/l) were divided into two groups fed the same diet and treated or not with Ai for 15d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in serum, LDL-HDL(1), HDL(2) and HDL(3) were respectively, 5-, 7.8-, 2.3- and 5-fold lower in Ai treated than untreated hypercholesterolemic groups. TBARS concentrations were 1.4-fold lower in heart and 2.8-fold higher in kidney in Ai-HC treated than untreated HC group. Superoxide dismutase activity was respectively, 1.2- and 1.4-fold higher in RBC and muscle in Ai treated than untreated group. In RBC, Ajuga iva treatment enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (+9%) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) (+12%) in Ai-HC treated than untreated HC group. GSSH-Red activity was 1.4- and 1.5-fold higher in adipose tissue and heart, respectively and 3.7-fold lower in kidney in Ai treated than untreated group. Liver catalase activity was 1.6-fold higher in Ai treated than untreated group. Adipose tissue and muscle total glutathione content represented in Ai treated group 35% and 36% of the value noted in untreated group. Nitric oxide values of liver, adipose tissue and heart were 3.3-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher in Ai-HC than HC group. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced alpha-tocopherol contents (+25%) in Ai treated than untreated group. In conclusion, Ajuga iva treatment is more effective to improve the antioxidant capacity of RBC than that of tissues. Indeed, Ai is able to reduce the oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic rats by increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity.

  19. Investigation of group IVA elements combined with HAXPES and first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.-T.; Li, G.-L.; Oji, H.; Son, J.-Y.

    2014-04-01

    The core level and valence band spectra of group IVA elements were investigated with hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) photon energy of 7.939 keV by bulk sensitive manner. The survey and valance band spectra were presented, relative peaks intensity are discussed by thinking about inelastic mean free path (IMFP) and photoionization cross section of photoelectrons (PICS). In order to understand bulk band structures, valence bands are compared with the calculated ones by considering PICS, IMFP and total energy resolution. The calculated results by GGA, HSE06 and GW0 methods are simply discussed by comparing with experiment spectra.

  20. Feedback i klynger, nye roller og kompetencer – en undersøgelse af klyngevejledning på IVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Denne rapport beskriver erfaringer fra et projekt i foråret 2015 med afprøvning af klyngevejledning på IVA. Projektet undersøger potentialet ved klyngevejledning som effektiv lærings- og vejledningsform samt barrierer for samme. Undersøgelsen er en del af en større pædagogisk udviklingsindsats på...... IVA, der også har til formål at bidrage til studerendes faglige og sociale trivsel. Projektet er gennemført fra januar til september 2015 og baserer sig på spørgeskemabesvarelser samt to fokusgruppeinterview med undervisere fra henholdsvis IVA-Vest og -Øst. Rapporten beskriver resultater samt giver en...

  1. Lipid IVa incompletely activates MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mouse macrophage cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Norihiko; Muroi, Masashi; Sugiura, Yuka; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the difference in the effect of synthetic lipid A compounds on MyD88-dependent and -independent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mouse macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, Escherichia coli-type hexa-acylated lipid A 506, Salmonella-type hepta-acylated lipid A 516, the lipid A precursor lipid IVa and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similar levels of production of the MyD88-dependent cytokine IL-1β although their potencies varied, whereas the maximum production of the MyD88-independent cytokine RANTES induced by lipid IVa was less than 50% that of other lipid A compounds. A maximum level of NF-κB activation, which is involved in IL-1β gene transcription, was also induced to a similar level by these four lipid A compounds, while the maximum level of IFN-β promoter activity induced during MyD88-independent signaling was also less than 50% for lipid IVa stimulation compared with other lipid A compounds. Early IκBα phosphorylation activated by MyD88-dependent signaling was similarly induced by 506 and lipid IVa, whereas lipid IVa barely stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF3, a MyD88-independent transcription factor, although efficient phosphorylation was observed with 506 stimulation. These results indicate that lipid IVa has limited activity toward MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, in macrophage cell lines, despite having efficient activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of IVA and GIG-ICA in Brain Functional Network Estimation Using fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhui; Lin, Dongdong; Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Chen, Jiayu; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Adali, Tulay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-01

    Spatial group independent component analysis (GICA) methods decompose multiple-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data into a linear mixture of spatially independent components (ICs), some of which are subsequently characterized as brain functional networks. Group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) as a variant of GICA has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the subject-specific ICs estimation by optimizing their independence. Independent vector analysis (IVA) is another method which optimizes the independence among each subject's components and the dependence among corresponding components of different subjects. Both methods are promising in neuroimaging study and showed a better performance than the traditional GICA. However, the difference between IVA and GIG-ICA has not been well studied. A detailed comparison between them is demanded to provide guidance for functional network analyses. In this work, we employed multiple simulations to evaluate the performances of the two approaches in estimating subject-specific components and time courses under conditions of different data quality and quantity, varied number of sources generated and inaccurate number of components used in computation, as well as the presence of spatially subject-unique sources. We also compared the two methods using healthy subjects' test-retest resting-state fMRI data in terms of spatial functional networks and functional network connectivity (FNC). Results from simulations support that GIG-ICA showed better recovery accuracy of both components and time courses than IVA for those subject-common sources, and IVA outperformed GIG-ICA in component and time course estimation for the subject-unique sources. Results from real fMRI data suggest that GIG-ICA resulted in more reliable spatial functional networks and yielded higher and more robust modularity property of FNC, compared to IVA. Taken together, GIG-ICA is appropriate for estimating networks

  3. Convergent validity of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus): associations with working memory, processing speed, and behavioral ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Eamonn; Kuentzel, Jeffrey; Barnett, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.

  4. Development of a fluorometric microtiter plate based enzyme assay for MPS IVA (Morquio type A using dried blood spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh J. Ullal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA or Morquio type-A disease is a hereditary lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS. The disease is caused by lysosomal accumulation of unprocessed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs that manifests with severe to mild skeletal and cardiopulmonary abnormalities. We have developed a modified microtiter plate-based enzyme activity assay using dried blood spots and a fluorescent substrate for measuring specific GALNS activity to identify patients with MPS IVA.

  5. Lineamientos de armonización tributaria del IVA del comercio electrónico en la CAN

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Mendieta, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como finalidad hacer una revisión de los aspectos generales de la armonización tributaria y de los procesos de integración, revisando principalmente lo relacionado a la imposición indirecta y el desarrollo del comercio electrónico. Se ha procedido a revisar la armonización del IVA en la Unión Europea, así como en la Comunidad Andina, atendiendo a los principios fiscales aplicables al IVA; los sujetos del impuesto en el Ecuador; así como los sujetos pasivos del IV...

  6. Neurotoxicity, anticoagulant activity and evidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients bitten by death adders (Acanthophis sp.) in southern Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, D G; Trevett, A J; Black, J; Mapao, J; Saweri, A; Naraqi, S; Owens, D; Kamiguti, A S; Hutton, R A; Theakston, R D; Warrell, D A

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with enzyme-immunoassay-proven death adder (Acanthophis sp.) bites were studied in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Eighteen were envenomed; local signs were rare and none had incoagulable blood, but all except one had signs of neurotoxicity. Five (27.7%) envenomed patients required intubation and ventilation. One patient developed renal failure, previously undescribed following death adder bites. Laboratory investigations showed mild prolongation of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times in some patients. In vitro studies showed that the venom contains anticoagulant activity, but does not cause fibrinogenolysis. In contrast to taipan envenoming, neurotoxicity did not progress after antivenom administration, and there was reversal of neurotoxicity, evident within 6 h, in three severely envenomed patients treated less than 12 h after the bite. One patient treated with antivenom and anticholinesterases had the most dramatic response to treatment; the optimum management of bites by this species may include prompt treatment with both antivenom and anticholinesterases in addition to effective first aid.

  7. New adders using hybrid circuit consisting of three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum

    2007-11-01

    A half-adder (HA) and a full-adder (FA) using hybrid circuits combining three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) are proposed. The proposed HA consists of three TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs, and the proposed FA consists of eight TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs. The complexities in the HA and the FA are 7 and 12, respectively, and the worst-case delays in the HA and the FA are 1.48 ns and 2.25 ns, respectively. Compared with the conventional CMOS FA with 0.35 microm technology, the proposed FA can be constructed with 0.43 of devices, and can operate with 3.5 of worst-case delay, 1/534 of average power consumption, and 1/152 of power-delay-product (PDP). The proposed HA and FA can be operated as a half-subtractor (HS) and a full-subtractor (FS) in the case when the levels of the control gates in the HA and the FA are fitly determined. The basic operations of the proposed HA and the proposed FA have been successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of TG-SETs.

  8. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  9. The antagonist activity of lipid IVa on the stimulation by lipid A of TNF-alpha production from canine blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kenji; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2011-09-15

    Lipid A, the active component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exists in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and binds to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 complex. On the other hand, the synthetic precursor of Escherichia coli lipid A, tetraacylated lipid IVa, is an agonist for TLR4 and MD-2 complex in murine, equine and feline cells but is an antagonist for lipid A in human cells. The aim of the study was to examine the function of canine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 complex on canine blood mononuclear cells (BMC), by analyzing lipid A- or lipid IVa-induction of TNF-α production from these cells in order to understand canine innate immune system. After 5-h culture of canine BMC with lipid A (lipid A culture) or lipid IVa (lipid IVa culture), the TNF-α, as determined by ELISA, had increased in the supernatants of the lipid A cultures in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the TNF-α was undetectable in supernatant of lipid IVa-treated cultures. The TNF-α was statistically significantly different between the lipid A and lipid IVa cultures (100 and 1000 ng/ml). TNF-α production from canine BMC was inhibited, in a lipid IVa-dose-dependent manner, when the BMC were pre-cultured with lipid IVa for 60 min and then cultured with lipid A for 5h, while in control BMC cultures production if TNF-α was unchanged. These results indicate that the TNF-α production stimulated by lipid A was competed out by pre-exposing the BMC to lipid IVa. Thus, lipid A is an agonist for TNF-α production in canine BMC, whereas lipid IVa appears to be an antagonist against this lipid A stimulation of canine BMC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 新型8管一位全加器电路设计%Design of a novel 8-transistor full adder circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳燕; 韦一; 陈君

    2013-01-01

    Based on the research and analysis of existing full adder circuits, a novel full adder cell used only 8 transistors was proposed. The novel circuit was composed of two 3-XNOR gates and one multiplexer. Compared with the typical full adder circuits,the proposed full adder circuit shows a significant improvement in transistor count power consumption and power delay product by tested with HSPICE simulation based on 0. 18μm CMOS process.%通过对已有全加器电路的研究与分析,提出了仅需8个晶体管的新型全加器单元.新电路包括2个3管同或门模块和1个选择器模块.在台积电(TSMC)0.18 μm互补氧化物半导体(CMOS)工艺器件参数下经电路模拟程序(HSPICE)进行性能测试,与现有典型的全加器相比,新电路在晶体管数目、功耗和功耗延迟积有较大的优势.

  11. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  13. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  14. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar; Cecati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbala...

  15. Hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of the whole plant of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single and repeated oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva L (AI) at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced a slight and significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats 6 h after administration and after 3 weeks of treatment. AI reduced plasma glucose levels of streptozotocin diabetic rats from 337+/-9.3 to 102.2+/-17.7 mg/dl after 6 h of oral administration (P<0.001). Repeated oral administration of AI to streptozotocin diabetic rats significantly decreased the plasma glucose levels after 1 week of treatment (112+/-14.4 mg/dl at 1 week vs 337+/-9.3 mg/dl at the baseline values, (P<0.001). It continuously decreased thereafter and showed a rapid normalisation after 1 week of AI treatment. It is concluded that these results demonstrated that the water extract of the whole plant of AI possess a strong hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic rats, and support therefore, its traditional use in diabetes mellitus control.

  16. Oxidative profile exhibited by Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients at diagnosis: Increased keratan urinary levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe P; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Diaz; Ribas, Graziela; Deon, Marion; Manini, Paula; da Rosa, Helen Tais; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2017-06-01

    Morquio A disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA) is one of the 11 mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by deficiency in enzymes need to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Morquio A is characterized by a decrease in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity and subsequent accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in cells and body fluids. As the pathophysiology of this LSD is not completely understood and considering the previous results of our group concerning oxidative stress in Morquio A patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in Morquio A patients at diagnosis. It was studied 15 untreated Morquio A patients, compared with healthy individuals. The affected individuals presented higher lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels and no protein damage, determined by sulfhydryl groups in plasma and di-tyrosine levels in urine. Furthermore, Morquio A patients showed DNA oxidative damage in both pyrimidines and purines bases, being the DNA damage positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. In relation to antioxidant defenses, affected patients presented higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were similar to controls. Our findings indicate that Morquio A patients present at diagnosis redox imbalance and oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, reinforcing the idea about the importance of antioxidant therapy as adjuvant to ERT, in this disorder.

  17. Molecular testing of 163 patients with Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) identifies 39 novel GALNS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, A; Tylee, K L; Al-Sayed, M; Brusius-Facchin, A C; Caciotti, A; Church, H J; Coll, M J; Davidson, K; Fietz, M J; Gort, L; Hegde, M; Kubaski, F; Lacerda, L; Laranjeira, F; Leistner-Segal, S; Mooney, S; Pajares, S; Pollard, L; Ribeiro, I; Wang, R Y; Miller, N

    2014-06-01

    Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by partial or total deficiency of the enzyme galactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS; also known as N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase) encoded by the GALNS gene. Patients who inherit two mutated GALNS gene alleles have a decreased ability to degrade the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, thereby causing GAG accumulation within lysosomes and consequently pleiotropic disease. GALNS mutations occur throughout the gene and many mutations are identified only in single patients or families, causing difficulties both in mutation detection and interpretation. In this study, molecular analysis of 163 patients with Morquio A identified 99 unique mutations in the GALNS gene believed to negatively impact GALNS protein function, of which 39 are previously unpublished, together with 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Recommendations for the molecular testing of patients, clear reporting of sequence findings, and interpretation of sequencing data are provided. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mechanical properties, anisotropy and hardness of group IVA ternary spinel nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying-Chun; Chen, Min

    2013-10-01

    In this work, new ternary cubic spinel structures are designed by the substitutional method. The structures, elasticity properties, intrinsic hardness and Debye temperature of the cubic ternary spinel nitrides are studied by first principles based on the density-functional theory. The results show that γ-CSn2N4, γ-SiC2N4, γ-GeC2N4 and γ-SnC2N4 are not mechanically stable. The elastic constants Cij of these cubic spinel structures are obtained using the stress-strain method. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behaviour are estimated using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. The B/G value, the Poisson's ratio and anisotropic factor are calculated for eight ternary stable crystals. Based on the microscopic hardness model, we further estimate the Vickers hardness of all the stable crystals. From the calculated hardness of the stable group IVA ternary spinel nitrides by Gao's and Jiang's methods, it is observed that the stable group IVA ternary spinel nitrides are not superhard materials except for γ-CSi2N4. Furthermore, the Debye temperature for the eight stable crystals is also estimated.

  19. La sujeción al IVA de las bibliotecas virtuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Gil Maciá

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años, las bibliotecas virtuales han irrumpido con fuerza en el panorama educativo y cultural español y, en este sentido, deben reconocerse las medidas impulsoras que se han adoptado tanto en el ámbito nacional como en el ámbito comunitario. Desde fundaciones hasta sociedades mercantiles, cada vez son más las instituciones y entidades que a través de Internet ofrecen servicios de biblioteca virtual. En un plano estrictamente tributario, y centrando nuestra atención en el IVA, no puede desconocerse que, en la mayor parte de los casos, dichos servicios se ofrecen de forma totalmente altruista; en otros casos, en cambio, puede comprobarse que la gratuidad de su prestación es precisamente la que sirve de apoyo a las principales vías de obtención de recursos económicos -como inserción de publicidad, asesoramiento científico y técnico o elaboración de informes-; y en ciertos casos sencillamente se exige contraprestación directa a sus usuarios. En este estudio, atendiendo a la casuística descrita, vamos a analizar la sujeción al IVA de las distintas formas en las que se vienen prestando los servicios de biblioteca virtual.

  20. Simulation design and analysis of full adder function and application%全加器功能及应用的仿真设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙津平

    2011-01-01

    加法运算是数字系统中最基本的算术运算.为了能更好地利用加法器实现减法、乘法、除法、码制转换等运算,提出用Multisim虚拟仿真软件中的逻辑转换仪、字信号发生器、逻辑分析仪,时全加器进行功能仿真设计、转换、测试、分析,强化Multisim的使用,并通过用集成全加器74LS283实现两个一位8421码十进制数的减法运算,掌握了全加器的应用方法.测试证明,全加器功能的扩展和应用,利用Multisim软件的仿真设计能较好地实现.%Addition operation is the most basic digital system arithmetic. In order to achieve better use of adder subtraction ,multiplication,division ,transcoding operations ,this paper proposed using Multisim virtual simulation software ,the logic of conversion device,digital signal generator,logic analyzer,the full adder design for functional simulation,conversion,testing,analysis,and strengthened the use of Multisim and by using a full adder 74LS283 integrated to achieve a 8421 yards two decimal subtraction and master the application method of the full adder. Testing shows the expansion and application of full adder function can be well implemented by using simulation design of Multisim software.

  1. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  2. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real-time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, T.J.; Bouma, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, B.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of the apxIVA gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was validated using pure cultures of A. pleuropneumoniae and tonsillar and nasal swabs from experimentally inoculated Caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets and naturally infected

  3. Reflexiones sobre la teoría y la práctica del IVA en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Jaramillo H.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo discute, a la luz de la teoría tributaria, la manera de calcular el impuesto al valor agregado (IVA de acuerdo con el Artículo 447 del Estatuto Tributario colombiano. El análisis teórico muestra que la implementación del IVA en Colombia no permite explotar todas las ventajas que el impuesto tiene en la teoría. En particular, la práctica colombiana induce cascadas tributarias y evita solo parcialmente las distorsiones en precios de bienes intermedios. A manera de ilustración, presentamos también una simulación numérica para mostrar la magnitud del efecto de cascadas tributarias en el IVA colombiano. En este sentido, si bien el impuesto es claramente superior a un impuesto a las ventas en cada etapa de la cadena productiva, es bastante inferior al IVA teórico, resultando en tasas de tributación efectiva que pueden ser el doble de las nominales. El documento demuestra, además, que la diferencia que se genera en precios según se use el método colombiano o el teórico no genera diferencia en el recaudo real cuando el impuesto se aplica a todos los bienes. Es decir, mientras que el efecto de las cascadas será regresivo, el recaudo real no presentará variaciones.

  4. Discarding in the shrimp fisheries in Skagerrak and the Norwegian Deep (ICES Divs. IIIa and IVa east)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Ulmestrand, Mats; Søvik, Guldborg

    by TACs and subsequent national quotas. Estimates of the total amount of discards in the shrimp fisheries in IIIa and IVa east are based both on onboard sampling of catches (Denmark and Sweden) and indirect estimates (Norway). In fisheries management in the North Atlantic discarding has become...

  5. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real-time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, T.J.; Bouma, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, B.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of the apxIVA gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was validated using pure cultures of A. pleuropneumoniae and tonsillar and nasal swabs from experimentally inoculated Caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets and naturally infected convention

  6. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  8. Novel missense mutation in the GALNS gene in an affected patient with severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhassani, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Yavari, Mahdieh; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2015-10-23

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which causes major skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities and affects multiple organ systems. In this study, one MPS IVA patient with a severe form from consanguine large Iranian family has been investigated. To find a mutation, all of the 14 exons and intron-exon junctions of GALNS gene were sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using bioinformatic analysis in order to predict probable pathogenic effect of the variant. One novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 5, c.542A>G (p.Y181C), was found in the proband. That was predicted as being probably pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis. Segregation and familial study confirmed this pathogenic mutation. In conclusion, we have identified the novel mutation responsible for MPS IVA in an Iranian patient to assist in the diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of the affected families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cr-Bearing Inclusions in IVA Irons: Implication for Cr and Volatile Behaviors in the Metallic Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Wasson, J. T.

    2015-07-01

    We found inclusions that contribute to bulk Cr concentrations and found fO2 or fS2 changes during crystallization. O-isotope compositions of chromite are mass-dependently lighter than other IVA oxides. Also, we discovered a new mineral MnCr2S4.

  10. Structural variations of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Type IVa in Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 8 and unrelated lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit

    2011-01-01

    PCR mapping of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa and adjacent mobile elements in 94 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains identified two primary structures (A and B) that could be further classified into two (A1 and A2) and five (B1 to B5) variants, primarily...

  11. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. Capturing subject variability in fMRI data: A graph-theoretical analysis of GICA vs. IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Jonathan; Westlake, Kelly P; Ma, Sai; Woytowicz, Elizabeth; Calhoun, Vince D; Adalı, Tülay

    2015-05-30

    Recent studies using simulated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data show that independent vector analysis (IVA) is a superior solution for capturing spatial subject variability when compared with the widely used group independent component analysis (GICA). Retaining such variability is of fundamental importance for identifying spatially localized group differences in intrinsic brain networks. Few studies on capturing subject variability and order selection have evaluated real fMRI data. Comparison of multivariate components generated by multiple algorithms is not straightforward. The main difficulties are finding concise methods to extract meaningful features and comparing multiple components despite lack of a ground truth. In this paper, we present a graph-theoretical (GT) approach to effectively compare the ability of multiple multivariate algorithms to capture subject variability for real fMRI data for effective group comparisons. The GT approach is applied to components generated from fMRI data, collected from individuals with stroke, before and after a rehabilitation intervention. IVA is compared with widely used GICA for the purpose of group discrimination in terms of GT features. In addition, masks are applied for motor related components generated by both algorithms. Results show that IVA better captures subject variability producing more activated voxels and generating components with less mutual information in the spatial domain than Group ICA. IVA-generated components result in smaller p-values and clearer trends in GT features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 对数跳跃加法器的静态CMOS实现%Static CMOS Implementation of Logarithmic Skip Adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾嵩; 刘飞; 刘凌; 陈中建; 吉利久

    2003-01-01

    Circuit design of 32-bit logarithmic skip adder (LSA) is introduced to implement high performance,low power addition.ELM carry lookahead adder is included into groups of carry skip adder and the hybrid structure costs 30% less hardware than ELM.At circuit level,a carry-incorporating structure to include the primary carry input in carry chain and an "and-xor" structure to implement final sum logic in 32-bit LSA are designed for better optimization.For 5V,1μm process,32-bit LSA has a critical delay of 5.9ns and costs an area of 0.62mm2,power consumption of 23mW at 100MHz.For 2.5V,0.25μm process,critical delay of 0.8ns,power dissipation of 5.2mW at 100MHz is simulated.%介绍了一种32位对数跳跃加法器结构.该结构采用ELM超前进位加法器代替进位跳跃结构中的组内串行加法器,同ELM相比节约了30%的硬件开销.面向该算法,重点对关键单元进行了晶体管级的电路设计.其中的进位结合结构利用Ling算法,采用支路线或电路结构对伪进位产生逻辑进行优化;求和逻辑的设计利用传输管结构,用一级逻辑门实现"与-民或"功能;1.0μm CMOS工世实现的32位对数跳跃加法器面积为0.62mm2,采用1μm和0.25μm 工世参数的关键路径延迟分别为6ns和0.8ns,在100MHz下功耗分别为23和5.2mW.

  14. Practical and reliable enzyme test for the detection of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio Syndrome type A) in dried blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelier, Marli V; Burin, Maira G; De Mari, Jurema; Vieira, Taiane A; Marasca, Giórgia; Giugliani, Roberto

    2011-09-18

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA), or Morquio Syndrome type A, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), resulting in excessive lysosomal storage of keratan sulfate in many tissues and organs. This accumulation causes a severe skeletal dysplasia with short stature, and affects the eye, heart and other organs, with many signs and symptoms. Morquio A syndrome is estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 to 300,000 live births. Clinical trials with enzyme replacement therapy for this disease are in progress, and it is probable that the treatment, when available, would be more effective if started early. We describe an innovative fluorometric method for the assay of GALNS in dried blood spots (DBS). We used dried blood spots (DBS) as the enzyme source and compared it with leukocytes samples, having studied 25 MPS IVA patients and 54 healthy controls. We optimized the assay conditions, including incubation time and stability of DBS samples. To eppendorf type tubes containing a 3-mm diameter blood spot we added elution liquid and substrate solution. After 2 different incubations at 37°C, the amount of hydrolyzed product was compared with a calibrator to allow the quantification of the enzyme activity. Results in DBS were compared to the ones obtained in leukocytes using the standard technique. The fluorescent methodology was validated in our laboratory and the assay was found sensitive and specific, allowing reliable detection of MPS IVA patients. The use of DBS simplifies the collection and transport steps, and is especially useful for testing patients from more remote areas of large countries, and when samples need to cross country borders. This assay could be easily incorporated into the protocol of reference laboratories and play a role in the screening for MPS IVA, contributing to earlier detection of affected patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of the Vibrio cholerae Type IVb Pilus and stability comparison with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IVa pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juliana; Egelman, Edward H; Craig, Lisa

    2012-04-20

    Type IV pili are multifunctional filaments displayed on many bacterial pathogens. Members of the Type IVa pilus subclass are found on a diverse group of human pathogens, whereas Type IVb pili are found almost exclusively on enteric bacteria. The Type IVa and IVb subclasses are distinguished by differences in the pilin subunits, including the fold of the globular domain. To understand the implications of the distinct pilin folds, we compared the stabilities of pilin subunits and pilus filaments for the Type IVa GC pilus from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the Type IVb toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) from Vibrio cholerae. We show that while recombinant TCP pilin is more stable than GC pilin, the GC pili are more resistant to proteolysis, heat and chemical denaturation than TCP, remaining intact in 8 M urea. To understand these differences, we determined the TCP structure by electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. TCP have an architecture similar to that of GC pili, with subunits arranged in a right-handed 1-start helix and related by an 8.4-Å axial rise and a 96.8° azimuthal rotation. However, the TCP subunits are not as tightly packed as GC pilins, and the distinct Type IVb pilin fold exposes a segment of the α-helical core of TCP. Hydrophobic interactions dominate for both pilus subtypes, but base stacking by aromatic residues conserved among the Type IVa pilins may contribute to GC pilus stability. The extraordinary stability of GC pili may represent an adaptation of the Type IVa pili to harsh environments and the need to retract against external forces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis.

  18. Enzyme replacement in a human model of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in vitro and its biodistribution in the cartilage of wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Dvorak-Ewell

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS, an enzyme that degrades keratan sulfate (KS. Currently no therapy for MPS IVA is available. We produced recombinant human (rhGALNS as a potential enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IVA. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing GALNS and sulfatase modifying factor-1 were used to produce active ( approximately 2 U/mg and pure (>or=97% rhGALNS. The recombinant enzyme was phosphorylated and was dose-dependently taken up by mannose-6-phosphate receptor (K(uptake = 2.5 nM, thereby restoring enzyme activity in MPS IVA fibroblasts. In the absence of an animal model with a skeletal phenotype, we established chondrocytes isolated from two MPS IVA patients as a disease model in vitro. MPS IVA chondrocyte GALNS activity was not detectable and the cells exhibited KS storage up to 11-fold higher than unaffected chondrocytes. MPS IVA chondrocytes internalized rhGALNS into lysosomes, resulting in normalization of enzyme activity and decrease in KS storage. rhGALNS treatment also modulated gene expression, increasing expression of chondrogenic genes Collagen II, Collagen X, Aggrecan and Sox9 and decreasing abnormal expression of Collagen I. Intravenous administration of rhGALNS resulted in biodistribution throughout all layers of the heart valve and the entire thickness of the growth plate in wild-type mice. We show that enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GALNS results in clearance of keratan sulfate accumulation, and that such treatment ameliorates aberrant gene expression in human chondrocytes in vitro. Penetration of the therapeutic enzyme throughout poorly vascularized, but clinically relevant tissues, including growth plate cartilage and heart valve, as well as macrophages and hepatocytes in wild-type mouse, further supports development of rhGALNS as enzyme replacement therapy for

  19. Enzyme replacement in a human model of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in vitro and its biodistribution in the cartilage of wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Wendt, Dan; Hague, Chuck; Christianson, Terri; Koppaka, Vish; Crippen, Danielle; Kakkis, Emil; Vellard, Michel

    2010-08-16

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), an enzyme that degrades keratan sulfate (KS). Currently no therapy for MPS IVA is available. We produced recombinant human (rh)GALNS as a potential enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IVA. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing GALNS and sulfatase modifying factor-1 were used to produce active ( approximately 2 U/mg) and pure (>or=97%) rhGALNS. The recombinant enzyme was phosphorylated and was dose-dependently taken up by mannose-6-phosphate receptor (K(uptake) = 2.5 nM), thereby restoring enzyme activity in MPS IVA fibroblasts. In the absence of an animal model with a skeletal phenotype, we established chondrocytes isolated from two MPS IVA patients as a disease model in vitro. MPS IVA chondrocyte GALNS activity was not detectable and the cells exhibited KS storage up to 11-fold higher than unaffected chondrocytes. MPS IVA chondrocytes internalized rhGALNS into lysosomes, resulting in normalization of enzyme activity and decrease in KS storage. rhGALNS treatment also modulated gene expression, increasing expression of chondrogenic genes Collagen II, Collagen X, Aggrecan and Sox9 and decreasing abnormal expression of Collagen I. Intravenous administration of rhGALNS resulted in biodistribution throughout all layers of the heart valve and the entire thickness of the growth plate in wild-type mice. We show that enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GALNS results in clearance of keratan sulfate accumulation, and that such treatment ameliorates aberrant gene expression in human chondrocytes in vitro. Penetration of the therapeutic enzyme throughout poorly vascularized, but clinically relevant tissues, including growth plate cartilage and heart valve, as well as macrophages and hepatocytes in wild-type mouse, further supports development of rhGALNS as enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IVA.

  20. Development and application of quantitative detection method for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Si-Woo; Han, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-05-23

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R² values of the primer set developed in this study were -0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID₅₀) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID₅₀, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis.

  1. Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV Genogroup IVa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Oh Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR method based on the nucleocapsid (N gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa. The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were −0.2928 (96% efficiency and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50 showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis.

  2. An EEMD-IVA framework for concurrent multidimensional EEG and unidimensional kinematic data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; McKeown, Martin J; Poizner, Howard; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-07-01

    Joint blind source separation (JBSS) is a means to extract common sources simultaneously found across multiple datasets, e.g., electroencephalogram (EEG) and kinematic data jointly recorded during reaching movements. Existing JBSS approaches are designed to handle multidimensional datasets, yet to our knowledge, there is no existing means to examine common components that may be found across a unidimensional dataset and a multidimensional one. In this paper, we propose a simple, yet effective method to achieve the goal of JBSS when concurrent multidimensional EEG and unidimensional kinematic datasets are available, by combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with independent vector analysis (IVA). We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method through numerical simulations and application to data collected from reaching movements in Parkinson's disease. The proposed method is a promising JBSS tool for real-world biomedical signal processing applications.

  3. Transparent conductivity modulation of ZnO by group-IVA doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fan, X. F.; Sun, C. Q.; Zhu, W.

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effect of group-IVA doping on the electronic structure and transmittance of ZnO using first-principle calculations. All these doped ZnO materials are found to perform n-type conductive behavior. Si-doped ZnO and Pb-doped ZnO are found to have larger optical band gap than those of Ge-doped ZnO and Sn-doped ZnO. The transmittance of Si-doped ZnO is found to be high in both UV and visible region. The enhancement of UV region transmittance can be attributed to the enhanced optical band gap, while the reduction of visible region transmittance is due to the intraband optical transition.

  4. Verification of the IVA4 film boiling model with the data base of Liu and Theofanous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.I. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Part 1 of this work presents a closed analytical solution for mixed-convection film boiling on vertical walls. Heat transfer coefficients predicted by the proposed model and experimental data obtained at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden by Okkonen et al are compared. All data predicted are inside the {+-}10% error band, with mean averaged error being below 4% using the slightly modified analytical solution. The solution obtained is recommended for practical applications. The method presented here is used in Part 2 as a guideline for developing model for film boiling on spheres. The new semi-empirical film boiling model for spheres used in IVA4 computer code is compared with the experimental data base obtained by Liu and Theofanous. The data are predicted within {+-}30% error band. (author)

  5. Efficient Implementation of 16-Bit Multiplier-Accumulator Using Radix-2 Modified Booth Algorithm and SPST Adder Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki Purna Ramesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new multiplier-and-accumulator (MAC architecture for low power and high speed arithmetic. High speed and low power MAC units are required for applications of digital signal processing like Fast Fourier Transform, Finite Impulse Response filters, convolution etc. For improving the speed and reducing the dynamic power, there is a need to reduce the glitches (1 to 0 transition and spikes (0 to 1 transition. Adder designed using spurious power suppression technique (SPST avoids the unwanted glitches and spikes, thus minimizing the switching power dissipation and hence the dynamic power. Radix -2 modified booth algorithm reduces the number of partial products to half by grouping of bits from the multiplier term, which improves the speed. The proposed radix-2 modified Booth algorithm MAC with SPST gives a factor of 5 less delay and 7% less power consumption as compared to array MAC.

  6. Antioxidant effect of Ajuga iva aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Senouci, D; Ghomari, H; Krouf, D; Bouderbala, S; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible antioxidant effect of an aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve diabetic rats were divided into two groups fed a casein diet supplemented or not with Ai (0.5%), for 4 weeks. In vitro, the Ai extract possessed a very high antioxidant effect (1 mg/ml was similar to those of trolox 300 mmol/l). The results indicated that plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were reduced by 41% in Ai-treated compared with untreated diabetic rats. TBARS concentrations were lower 1.5-fold in liver, 1.8-fold in heart, 1.9-fold in muscle and 2.1-fold in brain in Ai-treated than untreated group. In erythrocytes, Ai treatment increased significantly the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (+25%) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) (+22%). Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in muscle (+22%), while GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in liver (+28%), heart (+40%) and kidney (+45%) in Ai-treated compared with untreated group. Liver and muscle GSSH-Red activity was, respectively, 1.6- and 1.5-fold higher in Ai-treated than untreated diabetic group. Catalase activity was significantly increased in heart (+36%) and brain (+32%) in Ai-treated than untreated group. Ai treatment decreased plasma nitric oxide (-33%), carbonyls (-44%) and carotenoids (-68%) concentrations. In conclusion, this study indicates that Ajuga iva aqueous extract improves the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities in plasma, erythrocytes and tissues of diabetic rats.

  7. 基于全加器的逻辑判别电路设计%Based on the logic of full adder discriminant circuit design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敬敏

    2016-01-01

    Full adder is realized arithmetic addition of the basic device is configured to use a conventional multi-bit binary number or arithmetic adder circuit. This paper discusses on the full adder logic function expansion method, the purpose is to explore the full adder using unconventional direction change application logic design technology, which uses a combination of more than one full adder, connected to form a plurality of inputs plus arithmetic operation circuit, the number of input variables in a different result of the addition is different, based on the result of the addition and then design a majority vote, other odd or even logic discrimination circuit. The innovation of the proposed method is applied to change the direction of the full adder logic design methods.%全加器是实现算术加法运算的基本器件,常规使用是构成1位或多位二进制数算术加法运算电路。本文探讨了对全加器进行逻辑功能扩展的方法,目的是探索全加器进行非常规使用改变应用方向的逻辑设计技术,即用多个一位全加器组合、连接构成对多个输入量算术加运算电路,输入变量中1的个数不同,相加的结果也就不同,在相加结果的基础上再进行多数表决、奇偶数判别等逻辑判别电路的设计。所述方法的创新点是提出了全加器改变应用方向的逻辑设计方法。

  8. High Voltage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  9. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  10. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  11. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  13. Crystal structures of Boc-D- and L-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl: unturned conformation of Aib-Pro sequence unaffected by replacement of Me with Et in Aib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Omori, Y; Yamamura, H; Butsugan, Y; Taga, T; Miwa, Y

    1993-08-01

    The crystal structures of the isovaline (Iva) containing dipeptides, Boc-D-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl and Boc-L-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl, were determined by x-ray diffraction. The diastereomeric peptides were shown to adopt unturned conformations closely similar to each other (phi Iva 52 degrees, psi Iva 46 degrees, phi Pro -65 degrees, and psi Pro 143 degrees for D-Iva-L-Pro sequence and phi Iva 52 degrees, psi Iva 44 degrees, phi Pro -63 degrees, and psi Pro 148 degrees for L-Iva-L-Pro sequence). The Pro ring of each peptide was in C gamma-endo conformation. The unusually large angle CIva-NPro-C delta Pro values (131 degrees in both peptides) were observed, that was due to steric repulsion between the delta-methylene of Pro and the alkyl side chain of Iva residue. These conformations were essentially the same as that of the corresponding alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib)-containing peptide Boc-Aib-L-Pro-OBzl. The result has demonstrated that replacement of either one of the two methyl groups of the Aib residue in Boc-Aib-L-Pro-OBzl with an ethyl group does not cause any significant change in the unturned conformation of the dipeptide.

  14. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  15. Outcome of stage IVA cervical cancer patients with disease limited to the pelvis in the era of chemoradiation: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter G; Ali, Shamshad; Whitney, Charles W; Lanciano, Rachelle; Stehman, Frederick B

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of stage IVA cervical cancer treated with radiation and concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. We conducted a retrospective study of stage IVA cervical cancer patients from four trials (Gynecologic Oncology Group protocols 56, 85, 120, and 165) treated with radiotherapy with or without concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patient records were reviewed for demographic and tumor features, treatment, and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Stage IVA patients were compared to stage IIIB patients from these same studies. Among the 51 stage IVA patients studied, 92% were stage IVA on the basis of bladder involvement. The median PFS was 10.1 months (95% CI=6.3-14.5 months) and median OS was 21.2 months (95% CI=13.3-30.5 months). The 3 year survival was 32%. On univariate analysis, only advanced age was associated with OS (p=0.0115) but age had only marginal effect on PFS (p=0.083). Pathologic proven pelvic nodal metastasis was of marginal significance for both PFS and OS, p=0.059 and 0.064, respectively. Despite similar patient characteristics, the use of cisplatin-based chemotherapy had no impact on PFS or OS but was underpowered to address this question. When compared to stage IIIB patients, stage IVA patients had a poorer performance status (p=0.0231), larger tumor size (p=0.0302), and more frequent bilateral parametrial involvement (0.0063). Patients with stage IVA disease had poor median survival of only 21 months with only 32% 3 year survival. Stage IVA patients have larger tumor size, more bilateral parametrial involvement, and poorer survival when compared to stage IIIB patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 新型BCD加法器及其可逆逻辑实现%New BCD Adders and Their Reversible Logic Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日贵; 张满群; 吴茜; 施洋

    2011-01-01

    Reversible logic is a new research area that has developed rapidly in recent years. It has received great attention in all aspects due to their ability to reduce the power dissipation. This paper proposes a new reversible logic gate-NC gate. This gate can independently complete Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) adder overflow detection logic. Meanwhile, with 4×4 reversible adder circuits-ZS gate which was designed by the author, a new reversible BCD adder is designed in this paper. The proposed reversible BCD adder is optimized in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs compared to the previous counterparts.%可逆逻辑是最近几年迅速发展起来的新兴研究领域,由于它在传递信息时能减少能量损耗而引起各方面越来越多的关注.该文设计了一种新型的4×4可逆逻辑门—NC门,该门能够独立实现可逆BCD溢出检测逻辑电路.同时,借助作者曾经设计的4×4可逆加法电路—ZS门,设计出一种新型可逆BCD加法电路.设计的电路与以往的相比,无论是在门的数量上还是在垃圾输出的数量上都达到最优的效果.

  17. FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI IMPLEMENTASI PROGRAM DETEKSI DINI KANKER SERVIKS MELALUI PEMERIKSAAN IVA (INSPEKSI VISUAL ASAM ASETAT DI PUSKESMAS WILAYAH KOTA SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritria Dwi Anggraini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer detection program through an examination of the IVA has been implemented in all health centers in Surabaya since 2010. Target of this program are 80 % WUS and the target examination at least 25 people per month , but the achievement only 3-4 people permonth. The purpose of research is to analyze the factors that affect the implementation of IVA’s programs in healthcare centers in  Surabaya .Research conducted observational analytic cross sectional approach . The study population was responsible for IVA program at the health center for 52 people with a total sampling . The data was collected through interviews with  questionnaire . Analyzed using T test track with the program VPLS.The results showed IVA program by parent centers in the city of Surabaya 57.7 % poor , 51.9 % of communication is not good , the attitude of the respondents 55.8 % positive / supportive IVA program, character health centers provide less at 53.8 % support , understanding of the standard and target 51.9 % less understand . Based on the test results showed that the communication model of the structure , characteristics and health centers responsible attitude directly affects the implementation of the  program , while managing and understanding of the standard target indirectly influence the IVA program implementation through communication and attitud. Taken together these five factors influence the implementation of the IVA program with a contribution of 82.7 % which is the most influential variable is communication.

  18. Crystal structures of antibiotic-bound complexes of aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa highlight the diversity in substrate binding modes among aminoglycoside kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Houston, Douglas R; Berghuis, Albert M

    2011-07-19

    Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa [APH(2'')-IVa] is a member of a family of bacterial enzymes responsible for medically relevant resistance to antibiotics. APH(2'')-IVa confers high-level resistance against several clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics in various pathogenic Enterococcus species by phosphorylating the drug, thereby preventing it from binding to its ribosomal target and producing a bactericidal effect. We describe here three crystal structures of APH(2'')-IVa, one in its apo form and two in complex with a bound antibiotic, tobramycin and kanamycin A. The apo structure was refined to a resolution of 2.05 Å, and the APH(2'')-IVa structures with tobramycin and kanamycin A bound were refined to resolutions of 1.80 and 2.15 Å, respectively. Comparison among the structures provides insight concerning the substrate selectivity of this enzyme. In particular, conformational changes upon substrate binding, involving rotational shifts of two distinct segments of the enzyme, are observed. These substrate-induced shifts may also rationalize the altered substrate preference of APH(2'')-IVa in comparison to those of other members of the APH(2'') subfamily, which are structurally closely related. Finally, analysis of the interactions between the enzyme and aminoglycoside reveals a distinct binding mode as compared to the intended ribosomal target. The differences in the pattern of interactions can be utilized as a structural basis for the development of improved aminoglycosides that are not susceptible to these resistance factors.

  19. 低功耗非全摆幅互补传输管加法器%Low-Power Non-full Swing Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic Adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗静; 齐家月

    2006-01-01

    文章提出了一种新型传输管全加器,该全加器采用互补传输管逻辑(Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic)实现.与现有的CPL全加器相比:该全加器具有面积、进位速度和功耗上的优势:并且提供了进位传播信号的输出,可以更简单的构成旁路进位加法器(Carry SkipAdder).在此全加器基础上可以实现一种新型行波进位加法器(Ripple Carry Adder),其内部进位信号处于非全摆幅状态,具有高速低功耗的特点.HSPICE模拟表明:对4位加法器而言,其速度接近CMOS提前进位加法器(Carry Look ahead Adder),而功耗减小了61%.适用于高性能、低功耗的VLSI电路设计.

  20. 基于组间进位预测的快速进位加法器%Rapid Carry Adder Based on Carry Forecast Between Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宜栋; 刘昌明; 方湘艳

    2011-01-01

    为加快密码系统中大数加法的运算速度,提出并实现一种基于组间进位预测的快速进位加法器.将参与加法运算的大数进行分组,每个分组采用改进的超前进位技术以减少组内进位延时,组间通过进位预测完成不同进位状态下的加法运算,通过每个组产生的进位状态判断最终结果.性能分析表明,该进位加法器实现1024位大数加法运算的速度较快.%This paper presents and realizes a rapid carry adder based on carry forecast between groups to improve the speed of the large numbers adder in some cryptography systems. The large numbers is divided into many groups, the delay of carry-chain is reduced by carry lookahead in group. The group addition operation of different carry state is finished by carry forecast between groups. The addition sun of different carry forecast state is selected as the final result based on the carry state. Performance analysis shows that the computing speed of the carry adder is faster when realizing the 1 024 bit large numbers add operation.