Sample records for voloknistogo materiala napolnennogo

  1. Kinds of Materialas to Use as Homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón Argüello Martha Liliana


    Full Text Available As our environment is basically monolingual, there is an absence of an adequate linguistic context, except for some music in English, cable TV or internet. In order to reinforce what students learn in English class, teachers try to assign extraclass exercises in order to complement students’ learning, but these exercises or homework must be attractive and interesting for them. It is clear that the kind of material used as homework is important to motivating students to do it.

  2. Triply twisted Möbius annulene: a new class of two-photon active material--a computational study. (United States)

    Kundi, Varun; Alam, Md Mehboob; Thankachan, Pompozhi Protasis


    In the present work, we have studied the gas phase one- and two-photon absorption (OPA and TPA) properties of the first two excited states of the triply twisted Möbius annulene molecule (G. R. Schaller, et al., Nat. Chem. 2014, 6, 608) and five model systems substituted with different donor and acceptor groups. The main purpose of this study is to explore the OPA and TPA properties of this newly synthesized molecule and the unique π-conjugation provided by it. We have used the linear and quadratic response theory methods with the CAMB3LYP functional and the cc-pVDZ basis set for calculating the required parameters. Our results indicate that in the absence of any directive force (i.e. the donor-acceptor groups) the unsubstituted molecule is completely TP inactive. However, as soon as we insert the donor-acceptor group the system becomes TP active which can further be enhanced (up to 3640 GM in our case) by changing the donor-acceptor groups. We have explained the results by performing a two-state model calculation and by analyzing the TP tensor elements and the orbitals involved in the transition processes.

  3. Remobilization of pentavalent antimony and vanadium from a granular iron hydroxide material--a comparative study of different leaching systems. (United States)

    Kolbe, Falko; Weiss, Holger; Wennrich, Rainer; Lorenz, Wilhelm Georg; Daus, Birgit


    The remobilization of antimony and vanadium from previously loaded commercial granular ferric-hydroxide GEH material (intended for water treatment) was examined by using a sequential extraction procedure and three different leaching systems to evaluate their physicochemical mobility and potential availability under different simulated environmental conditions. A classical batch extraction, an extraction cell (EC) and rotating-coiled columns (RCC) were used as extraction systems. For each system it could be shown that the content of ion-exchangeable antimony and vanadium in previously loaded material is negligible (extraction time and the possibility of generating information to the leaching kinetics. It is shown that the efficiency of the three leaching systems is quite different employing Wenzel's sequential fractionation protocol. Only by working with RCC, the iron (hydr)oxide matrix was completely dissolved within four steps resulting in the total mobilization of antimony and vanadium. EC seems to be less suitable for leaching studies of Sb and V sorbed on iron(hydr)oxide. The remobilizable proportion of the several fractions was lower in comparison to batch and RCC and seems to be a result of an agglomeration of the GEH in the EC device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues. (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder


    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed in genetically modified crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of carbon content on the corrosion of MgO-C refractory material caused by acid and alkaline ladle slag: Vpliv vsebnosti ogljika na korozijo ognjevzdržnega materiala MgO-C v kisli in bazični pečni žlindri:


    Adolf, Zdeněk; Husar, Ivo; Suchánek, Petr


    The paper describes an investigation of the influence of increasing carbon content on the corrosion of MgO-C refractory material by molten slag. The refractory material contained mass fraction of 98 % MgO, approximately 2 % Fesub{2}Osub{3}, and graded quantities from 3 % to 18 % C. The corrosion was investigated in melts of reduction ladle slags at a temperature of 1600 compositumC in laboratory conditions. A sample of refractory material with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 100 mm was submerged into...



    Trebičnik, Bogomir


    Transport sipkega materiala v PREMOGOVNIKU VELENJE poteka s tračnimi transporterji širin od 650 mm do 1400 mm. Ker je postalo pridobivanje premoga zahtevnejše, so proge, kjer poteka transport sipkega materiala, dostikrat speljane s konkavnimi krivinam. Na teh krivinah se pojavljajo težave pri zagonu transporterja, saj se trak praznega tračnega transporterja včasih dvigne do stropa proge, kar predstavlja varnostni problem. Do sedaj se je omenjeni problem reševal z dvema transporterjema, kar za...

  7. Alabi et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the materialas revealed by the SEM image shows coaleascence of grains as large island. Photocatalytic activity of the black coloured Copper (II) oxide was ... semiconductor, conduction arises from the presence of holes in the valence band (VB). CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has.

  8. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.


    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…



    Turk, Dejan


    Namen magistrskega dela je bil pridobiti in okarakterizirati ekstrakte iz trosnjakov in primodijev gobe Ganoderma lucidum. V ta namen smo izvedli klasično ekstrakcijo materiala z različnimi organskimi topili, pri dveh temperaturah (sobna, vroča). Sledila je kemijska karakterizacija ekstraktov, ki je obsegala določevanje vsebnosti skupnih fenolov, polisaharidov in proteinov. Določevanje biološke aktivnosti je obsegalo merjenje antioksidativne aktivnosti ekstraktov z DPPH• metodo in sposobnost ...

  10. Optimizacija enodimenzionalnega razreza z uporabnim ostankom pri zaporednih naročilih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Gradišar


    Full Text Available V članku je predstavljena metoda za reševanje problema enodimenzionalnega razreza z uporabnimi ostanki (1DCSPUL; angl. One-dimensional Cutting Stock Problem with Usable Leftovers, kjer se lahko ostanki trenutnega naročila uporabijo v prihodnosti, če so daljši ali enaki meji t. Krajši ostanki predstavljajo izgubo. Metoda obravnava problem določanja t. Pri nižjem t se na zalogi proizvede večje število uporabnih ostankov (UL; angl. Usable Leftovers, izguba materiala pri prihodnjih naročilih pa se posledično poveča. Predlagana metoda TOP-ECOLA je sestavljena iz dveh algoritmov; TOP in ECOLA. TOP izračuna optimalen t in optimalno število UL na zalogi. ECOLA minimizira izgubo materiala in ohranja optimalno raven UL. Metoda je preizkušena z uporabo računalniških simulacij, kjer so UL prejšnjih naročil uporabljeni v naslednjem naročilu, namesto da bi bili ustvarjeni naključno. Dobljeni rezultati kažejo, da TOP-ECOLA zmanjšuje izgubo materiala pri zaporednih naročilih in preprečuje nenadzorovano rast UL na zalogi.

  11. Electromagnetics and Electrothermal Approach to Evaluate Failures in Microelectronic Devices Caused by Electrostatic Discharges: Stochastical Aspects of the Device Reliability. (United States)


    bet-speza followed by a region of esurem-eoetrohlled Negative 92 Minneapolis, MN September 10, 11, 12,1985 3 %4, 4 . rFr differential resistance ( MDR ...Olson associated the formation of high current density filaments with 2 the presence of not only the MDR . but also with that of the decreasing FDR...sero in a nirgin sittto to unity at shown in Fig. 10. Silicon and CeAs are taken as the rupture. For moet of the materiala the value s of a In test

  12. Obnova skladiščnega sistema v podjetju Resistec


    Pavlovič, Mateja


    V diplomskem delu je predstavljen problem, ki se je pojavil v podjetju Resistec UPR d.o.o. & Co k.d.. Podjetje je z umestitvijo nove proizvodne linije v skladiščni prostor zmanjšalo prostor za skladiščenje. Za nemoteno delovanje potrebuje zadostni prostor za skladiščenje vhodnega in izhodnega materiala. Potrebni so novi prostori za skladiščenje. Pri rešitvi problema z novim skladiščnim prostorom smo predstavili najboljše in maksimalno izkoriščenost prostora s postavitvijo regalov. Potrebn...

  13. Vzdrževanje stroja za vodni razrez


    Špan, Janez


    Stroj za vodni razrez je mehatronskih sistem, s katerim lahko material brez dodatnega abrazivnega sredstva režemo s čisto vodo, ne da bi obdelovancu spremenili strukturo. S strojem lahko razrežemo materiale do debeline 300 mm. Za razrez kot orodje uporabljamo vodni curek s tlakom do 3800 bar. Hitrost rezanja je odvisna od debeline ter strukture materiala. Zaradi zelo visokega delavnega tlaka so obremenjene komponente stroja, kot so visokotlačni agregat ter visokotlačni vodi. Pri razrezu pr...



    Jantolek, Uroš


    Skladiščenje je zelo pomembno poslovno področje vsakega podjetja, saj mora imeti tekoče podatke o zalogah materiala, polizdelkov in končnih izdelkov. Odsev spremembe poslovanja se zelo močno pozna v logističnih procesih podjetij. Razvoj in uporaba novih informacijskih tehnologij že danes v osnovi spreminja sisteme v logistiki. Obseg logističnih operacij se iz dneva v dan močno povečuje, zato je v uspešnem podjetju nujno zagotoviti kakovostno in zanesljivo informacijsko podporo. V sodobnem čas...

  15. Insulation Retrofit under Low-Slope Roofs. (United States)


    manufactured by Thermo Products Company, is a cellulose material with a 3 SURVEY RESULTS density of about 2.5 lb/cu ft (40 kg/m 3 ). An adhesive material...a glass-fiber-reinforced, few products that can be used under the roof deck polyisocyanurate plastic core. The plastic foam core are available; most...syrstemJs that use various ty’pes of me1chanical fastening 20. It has a high- impact-resistant surface wArith a low d evices. in which either adhesive -applied



    Širec, Tanja


    Z razgradnjo rastlinskega materiala, živali in mikroorganizmov v tleh in vodi se proizvajajo različne kompleksne organske molekule, ki jih imenujemo naravne organske snovi (NOM). Namen naloge je bil uspešno odstranit naravne organske snovi iz modelne vode. Ker moramo omenjene snovi iz vode odstraniti, se v zadnjem času v ta namen veliko uporabljajo membrane. Zato smo v nalogi izvajali poskuse s tistimi snovmi, ki lahko najbolj mašijo membrane. Izbrali smo predstavnika sladkorjev, polietilengl...

  17. Using EDUCache Simulator for the Computer Architecture and Organization Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasko Ristov


    Full Text Available The computer architecture and organization course is essential in all computer science and engineering programs, and the most selected and liked elective course for related engineering disciplines. However, the attractiveness brings a new challenge, it requires a lot of effort by the instructor, to explain rather complicated concepts to beginners or to those who study related disciplines. The usage of visual simulators can improve both the teaching and learning processes. The overall goal is twofold: 1~to enable a visual environment to explain the basic concepts and 2~to increase the student's willingness and ability to learn the material.A lot of visual simulators have been used for the computer architecture and organization course. However, due to the lack of visual simulators for simulation of the cache memory concepts, we have developed a new visual simulator EDUCache simulator. In this paper we present that it can be effectively and efficiently used as a supporting tool in the learning process of modern multi-layer, multi-cache and multi-core multi-processors.EDUCache's features enable an environment for performance evaluation and engineering of software systems, i.e. the students will also understand the importance of computer architecture building parts and hopefully, will increase their curiosity for hardware courses in general.

  18. Modelling Eutectic Growth in Unmodified and Modified Near-Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Taylor, John A.


    A numerical model that describes solidification of primary aluminium grains and nucleation and growth of eutectic cells is used to analyse the solidification of an Al-12.5wt% Si alloy. Nucleation of eutectic cells is modelled using an Oldfield-type nucleation model where the number of nuclei in t...... in the liquid and the growth velocity of the eutectic cells to determine the size and distribution of eutectic cells in the solidified material.......A numerical model that describes solidification of primary aluminium grains and nucleation and growth of eutectic cells is used to analyse the solidification of an Al-12.5wt% Si alloy. Nucleation of eutectic cells is modelled using an Oldfield-type nucleation model where the number of nuclei...... in the melt is determined by the amount of active nuclei and the local undercooling from the surface to the centre of a plate casting. Eutectic grains are modelled as spheres growing between the dendrites. The growth velocity of the eutectic cells is a function of undercooling. Experimentally determined...

  19. A novel option of uninterrupted closure of surgical wounds

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    Sulamanidze Marlen


    Full Text Available Background : A cosmetically pleasing postoperative scar is an important aim of all aesthetic surgeries. Use of proper suture materials for delicate and gentle suturing of the operative injury is an important requirement for achieving satisfactory scars. However, closure of the edges of wounds by means of conventional suture materials does not always meet the requirements to achieve this objective. Aim : To simplify and facilitate the process of surgical wound closure, to improve the quality of scar, and to achieve a good cosmetic effect through the introduction of a new type of suture material. Materials and Methods : We have introduced a new surgical suturing material-a nontraumatic, barbed thread connected with the suture needle-APTOS SUTURE (European patent 1075843 as of 1999. Presented herein is a new modification of the technique of uninterrupted subcutaneous and intracutaneous suturing of wound edges, and the details of our experience with this material. Results : Our experience shows that, with use of APTOS, wound closure is carried out easily and quickly. The wound remains stable, the time of healing is shortened, and the process of suture removal is simplified, resulting in an aesthetically pleasing scar. Conclusions : The technique of surgical wound suturing proposed herein is a simple, facilitated, and efficient option of wound-edge closure, which can successfully be used, both in general and in aesthetic surgery for wound closure, such as plasty of scars, face lift, mammoplasty, and abdominal plasty.

  20. Finding mechanism of transitions in complex systems: formation and migration of dislocation kinks in a silicon crystal. (United States)

    Pedersen, Andreas; Pizzagalli, Laurent; Jónsson, Hannes


    We demonstrate how a saddle point search method can be used to study dislocation mobility in a covalent material-a non-trivial transition mechanism in a complex system. Repeated saddle point searches have been carried out by using the minimum mode following algorithm and dimer method in combination with several empirical potential functions for silicon in order to determine the mechanisms for the creation and migration of kinks on a non-dissociated screw dislocation in a silicon crystal. For the environment-dependent interatomic potential, three possible kink migration processes have been identified with activation energies of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 eV. The Lenosky potential gives a single, low energy migration mechanism with an activation energy of 0.07 eV, in good agreement with density functional theory results. The kink formation mechanism determined using this potential has an activation barrier of 1.2 eV. Calculations were also carried out with the Tersoff potential, Stillinger-Weber potential and Bolding-Andersen potential. The various potential functions give quite different results for the kink structure and the mechanism of transition.

  1. Investigation of Peripheral Effects of Citrus Limon Essential Oil on Somatic Pain in Male Wistar Rats: Role of Histaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mojtahedin


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: One of the plants used in traditional medicine is lemon which has analgesic effect. However, little research has been performed on the analgesic effect of lemon and mechanisms of action with an emphasis on neurotransmitters systems. Therefore, the present study set to investigate the peripheral effects of lemon essential oil on somatic pain using formalin test with an emphasis on histaminergic system in male Wistar rats. Materiala & Methods: Sixty male rats weighing approximately 200-250g and aged 14-16 wk were divided into 10 groups: sham (Salin + Formalin 1% intraplantar, three treatment groups with lemon essential oil (EO (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, three treatment groups with Chlorpheniramine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 1 treatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg, 1 pretreatment group with Chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg + EO (50mg/kg, and 1 pretreatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg + EO (50 mg/kg. Formalin test was used to assess somatic pain. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Results:  Intraperitoneal injection of lemon essential oil reduced the pain response induced by formalin in both phases (P<0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and lemon essential oil enhanced the analgesic response in both phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Lemon essential oil had analgesic effects, probably caused by the histaminergic system.

  2. Use of Green Mussel Shell as a Desulfurizer in the Blending of Low Rank Coal-Biomass Briquette Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin


    Full Text Available Calcium oxide-based material is available abundantly and naturally. A potential resource of that material comes from marine mollusk shell such as clams, scallops, mussels, oysters, winkles and nerites. The CaO-based material has exhibited a good performance as the desulfurizer oradsorbent in coal combustion in order to reduce SO2 emission. In this study, pulverized green mussel shell, without calcination, was utilized as the desulfurizer in the briquette produced from a mixture of low rank coal and palm kernel shell (PKS, also known as bio-briquette. The ratio ofcoal to PKS in the briquette was 90:10 (wt/wt. The influence of green mussel shell contents and combustion temperature were examined to prove the possible use of that materialas a desulfurizer. The ratio of Ca to S (Ca = calcium content in desulfurizer; S = sulfur content in briquette werefixed at 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1, and 2:1 (mole/mole. The burning (or desulfurization temperature range was 300-500 °C; the reaction time was 720 seconds and the air flow rate was 1.2 L/min. The results showed that green mussel shell can be introduced as a desulfurizer in coal briquette or bio-briquette combustions. The desulfurization process using that desulfurizer exhibited the first order reaction and the highest average efficiency of 84.5%.

  3. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael


    in the October respectively February measurement. The CH4 emission from the compost area was 0.5 kg CH4 h-1, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and nitrous oxide (N2O) was quantified to be in the order of 332 kg CO2 h-1 and 0.06 kg N2O h-1 respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material......A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...... sources; a composting facility and a sewage sludge storage unit by scaling the tracer method down. Two field campaigns were performed; during October 11-12, 2006 and February 19-20, 2007. At both field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH4 emission from the old landfill section...

  4. Benefits of a European project on diagnostics of highly pathogenic agents and assessment of potential dual use issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eGrunow


    Full Text Available R. Grunow1 (Coordinator, G. Ippolito2 (Co-Coordinator, D. Jacob1, U. Sauer1, A. Rohleder1, A. Di Caro2, R. Iacovino2, and on behalf of the QUANDHIP partners31-Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany; 2- L. Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy; 3- (Quality Assurance Exercises and Networking on the Detection of Highly Infectious Pathogens is a Joint Action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Networks on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB and of P4 laboratories (ENP4 both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries.The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of-a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical External Quality Assurance Exercises, comprising living agents, that aim to improve laboratory performance, accuracy and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses.-recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents-an international repository comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material-a standardized and transparent biosafety and biosecurity strategy safeguarding healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens-the design and organisation of response capabilities dealing with cross border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of European

  5. Superamphiphobic overhang structured coating on a biobased material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Mikko, E-mail: [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden—Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Teisala, Hannu [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Honkanen, Mari; Vippola, Minnamari [Tampere University of Technology, Material Characterization, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Bardage, Stig [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sustainable Built Environment, Biobased Materials and Products, Box 5609, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Wålinder, Magnus E.P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden—Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Highlights: • A superamphiphobic coating on a wood shows extreme liquid repellence against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil. • The coated wood sample can have the required geometrical homogeneity to establish superamphiphobic properties. • To our knowledge, this is the first time superamphiphobicity based on overhang structures has been shown for a renewable bio-based material.A superamphiphobic coating on a wood shows extreme liquid repellence with static contact angles (CA) greater than 150° and roll-off angles less than 10° against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil. - Abstract: A superamphiphobic coating on a biobased material shows extreme liquid repellency with static contact angles (CA) greater than 150° and roll-off angles less than 10° against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil, and a CA for hexadecane greater than 130°. The coating consisting of titania nanoparticles deposited by liquid flame spray (LFS) and hydrophobized using plasma-polymerized perfluorohexane was applied to a birch hardwood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging after sample preparation by UV laser ablation of coated areas revealed that capped structures were formed and this, together with the geometrically homogeneous wood structure, fulfilled the criteria for overhang structures to occur. The coating showed high hydrophobic durability by still being non-wetted after 500 000 water drop impacts, and this is discussed in relation to geometrical factors and wetting forces. The coating was semi-transparent with no significant coloration. A self-cleaning effect was demonstrated with both water and oil droplets. A self-cleanable, durable and highly transparent superamphiphobic coating based on a capped overhang structure has a great potential for commercial feasibility in a variety of applications, here exemplified for a biobased material.

  6. Transformation of Metal-Organic Frameworks/Coordination Polymers into Functional Nanostructured Materials: Experimental Approaches Based on Mechanistic Insights. (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Jae Hwa; Jeoung, Sungeun; Moon, Hoi Ri


    , the appropriate choice of precursor MOFs and heat treatment can be expected to yield carbon-based nanomaterials. We address the relationship between the nature of the parent MOF and the porosity of the daughter carbon material-a controversial issue in the synthesis of porous carbons. Based on an understanding of the mechanism of MOF conversion, morphologically or compositionally advanced materials are synthesized by adopting appropriate MOF precursors and thermolysis conditions. Despite the progressive understanding of conversion phenomena of MOFs/CPs, this research field still has rooms to be explored and developed, ultimately in order to precisely control the properties of resultant nanomaterials. In this sense, we should pay more attention to the mechanism investigations of MOF conversion. We believe this Account will facilitate a deeper understanding of MOF/CP conversion routes and will accelerate further development in this field.

  7. Effect of spray volume on the moisture of stored corn and wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alberto Vásquez-Castro


    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray volume on the moisture of the stored grains of the corn and wheat. Two kg of each type of the grain were placed into the plastic bags and sprayed with the theoretical doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 liters of water / ton of the grain. The grain moisture content was evaluated 24 h after the spray operation by the oven method. The increase in the grain moisture was quadratic and showed the same trend in both the corn and wheat. The grain moisture after spraying 10 L.t-1 showed little increase (0.8 % as compared to the initial moisture content. Thus, the application of any spray volume as used in this study made no difference for a possible better uniformity in the distribution of insecticide throughout the sprayed material.A pulverização de inseticidas é o principal método de controle preventivo das pragas dos grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do volume de pulverização na umidade de grãos de milho e trigo armazenados. Foram acondicionados 2 kg de grãos em sacos plásticos e pulverizados com doses teóricas de zero, 1, 3, 5, 8 e 10 litros de água / tonelada de grão. A avaliação do teor de umidade dos grãos foi feita 24 horas após a pulverização mediante o método da estufa. O acréscimo na umidade dos grãos em função do volume de água pulverizado, foi quadrático e teve a mesma tendência tanto para o milho como para o trigo. A umidade dos grãos após a pulverização de 10 L.t-1 teve pequeno acréscimo (0,8 % quando comparado com o teor inicial. Desse modo, é indiferente o uso de qualquer volume estudado, visando a maior uniformidade de distribuição do inseticida na massa de grãos.

  8. Nitrogen-15 labeling of Crotalaria juncea green manure Marcação do adubo verde Crotalaria juncea com 15N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano


    Full Text Available Most studies dealing with the utilization of 15N labeled plant material do not present details about the labeling technique. This is especially relevant for legume species since biological nitrogen fixation difficults plant enrichment. A technique was developed for labeling leguminous plant tissue with 15N to obtain labeled material for nitrogen dynamics studies. Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. was grown on a Paleudalf, under field conditions. An amount of 58.32 g of urea with 70.57 ± 0.04 atom % 15N was sprayed three times on plants grown on eight 6-m²-plots. The labelled material presented 2.412 atom % 15N in a total dry matter equivalent to 9 Mg ha-1 This degree of enrichment enables the use of the green manure in pot or field experiments requiring 15N-labeled material.A grande maioria dos estudos com a utilização de material vegetal marcado com o isótopo 15N não apresentam detalhes tão importantes sobre como foram obtidos esses materiais. Em se tratando de marcação de leguminosas as dificuldades em se obter material marcado com 15N são ainda maiores pelo fato de serem plantas fixadoras de nitrogênio. Isso posto foi estabelecida uma técnica de marcação de leguminosas com nitrogênio (15N, com o objetivo de obter material vegetal marcado isotopicamente para estudos de dinâmica do nitrogênio. Cultivou-se a leguminosa crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L., em Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico, em campo. Ao se aplicarem via foliar 58,32 gramas de uréia em oito canteiros experimentais, (uréia com 70,57 ± 0,04% de átomos de 15N parceladas em três vezes, obteve-se material vegetal marcado seco que continha 2,412 % em átomos de 15N em uma massa seca equivalente a 9 Mg ha-1. Essa marcação permite o uso dessa massa vegetal em estudos de dinâmica de nitrogênio.

  9. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains (United States)

    Foster, M.D.


    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  10. Tissue culture techniques in the proliferation of shoots and roots of Calendula officinalis Utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos na proliferação de brotos e enraizamento de Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório


    Full Text Available The high demand for plant material from Calendula officinalis in the production of herbal medicines and cosmetics, turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. A protocol for tissue culture was developed from segments of seedlings of C. officinalis, in order to improve the proliferation of shoots and roots. We used a Murashige and Skoog (MS½N medium, reduced to half the concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 to verify the effect of different types of explants (basal, intermediate, and apical, a medium containing beach sand as support instead of agar, and the effect of auxins and cytokinins (TDZ tidiazuron; BAP, 6-benzylaminopurine, IAA, indol-3-acetic acid, IBA, indol-3-butyric acid, NAA, naphthalene-acetic acid on plant development in vitro. The results showed pronounced rooting from the apical explants, as well as a greater elongation of shoots and number of leaves. The solid medium was more suitable for the C. officinalis cultures. Shoot proliferation was dependent on cytokinins with better results from the influence of TDZ or BAP compared to the other treatments. Plants regenerated from the medium containing TDZ displayed a glazed appearance and morphogenetic deformations. The highest rate for rooting (80% was obtained using IAA 0.1mgL-1. Through in-vitro propagation, healthy C. officinalis plants were obtained with roots which can acclimatise, allowing the continuous supplement of raw material.A alta demanda por material vegetal de Calendula officinalis para produção de fitoterápicos e cosméticos, configura a técnica de cultura de tecidos vegetais como uma das alternativas para o aprimoramento das culturas em curto período de tempo. Um protocolo de cultura de tecidos foi desenvolvido a partir de segmentos de plântulas de C. officinalis, no intuito de melhorar a proliferação de brotos e o enraizamento. Foi utilizado o meio Murashige e Skoog (MS

  11. Manufacturing Research of Surface Quality and Working Deep Hole Accuracy in the Camshaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Solov'ev


    Full Text Available Study of surface quality and machining accuracy of a deep hole in the camshaft in manufacturing environment is conducted to make recommendations to eliminate emerging stress concentrators on the hole surface after machining and arising cracks while the engine is in operation.So it is important to conduct a comprehensive task-driven study to determine qualitative and quantitative values of arithmetical mean deviation of the surface roughness profile (parameter of height and available stress concentrators, as well as to define regularities of changing accuracy parameters for deep-hole length such as deviation size, radial run-out, and geometric tolerance in cross section. A guide diameter of the drill bushing and an outer diameter of the cutting part of one-sided cut have been determined too.A camshaft casting from ductile iron HF 65-48-1 was processed in the automatic line on the machine "Hȕller" by a drill with the cutting head from the hard alloy VK6 with simultaneously rotating workpiece and tool. The drill was guided through drill bushing from solid alloy VK 15.The measurement results showed that in 53% of samples there were tears and scratches up to 0.15 mm in depth, which could serve as stress concentrators and in the process of operation encourage growth of cracks in the bulk of the camshaft material.A significantly increasing value of the radial run-out size and all six studied harmonic components show that there is a deviation of the hole axis (run from the nominal (specified position and faceting available with their copied (increased values along the entire length of the hole. This is a qualitative confirmation that in processing the holes in parts made from grey cast iron, there is a mechanism of copying errors earlier available.It is found that the size of a clearance between guide diameter of drill bushing and diameter of tool gage ribbon makes 0. 150 mm and almost 3 times exceeds the recommended value.All this reduces resistance