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  1. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palao José M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000-2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players' needs regarding the actions they perform. Player´s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females.

  2. Postural status of female volleyball players aged 12 to 16 years

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    Đurić Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period of children's development there are morphological, motor, physiological and psychological transformations, which may alter posture and natural forms of the human body on a temporary or permanent way. Many studies and systematic reviews indicate that there are a growing number of school children with impaired body state. Studies indicate the fact that many sports which include a lot of high torque and asymmetrical muscle involvements, are a precondition for the asymmetry of the spinal column. Also, some research has shown that girls are more susceptible to deviation of the spinal column than boys. The goal of this study was to detect the postural status female volleyball players of V.C. 'Eaton Srem Tempo' from Sremska Mitrovica. Subjects were 72 female volleyball players aged 12 to 16 years. The methods that are used to detect possible postural disorder are both clinical and plantography method whose results were interpreted with Thomsen's method. According to the results of the studies, it was concluded that there is improper posture status of a 68% female volleyball players (clinical method, while the irregular status of the foot has 58% of female volleyball players (plantography method. The most common physical irregularities were observed: knee joint hyperextension (34.72%, followed by unequal Lorenz's triangles or triangles stature (26.39%, and abnormal position of the shoulder (25% of subjects. We performed a correlational analysis between the values of body mass index and the drooping of the left and right foot index. The obtained values of correlation coefficients were 0.055 for the left and 0.083 for the right foot. Due to the nature of the results, the implementation of preventive and corrective measures is essential. Certain sports can be very effective for that, and there are discussions of various authors that it can be volleyball. Their application should be adapted to gender, age, physical status, current physical

  3. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

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    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  4. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  5. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

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    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  6. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

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    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  7. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

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    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  8. Generalized Joint Laxity and Ligament Injuries in High School–Aged Female Volleyball Players in Japan

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    Sueyoshi, Ted; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generalized joint laxity has been linked to ligamentous injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tear and ankle sprain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate generalized joint laxity and incidence of ligament injuries in high school–aged female volleyball players. It was hypothesized that volleyball players with a past history of sprains would have increased generalized joint laxity compared with those without any history and that athletes with multiple sprains would demonstrate with a higher generalized joint laxity score than those who had only 1 sprain. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty-seven subjects were tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI). They were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of past ligament injury: injury group (IG) and noninjury group (NG). The IG group was further divided into 2 groups based on whether they had a single ligamentous injury (IGS) or multiple injuries (IGM) in the past to study whether there was any difference in scores between the subgroups. The collected data were analyzed statistically with 1-way analysis of variance. Results: Subjects in the IG group scored significantly higher on the BHJMI than those in the NG group. The mean score for the IG group was 2.40 ± 1.42, as opposed to 1.24 ± 1.09 for the NG group (P = .006). Eleven subjects in the IG group had suffered multiple injuries or recurrent injuries (IGM) and scored significantly higher than the remaining 19 individuals in the IG group, who had only sustained a single injury (IGS). The mean BHJMI scores were 3.18 ± 1.47 and 1.95 ± 1.22 for IGM and IGS, respectively (P = .02). Conclusion: Female athletes with a high generalized joint laxity score may be more prone to ligament injury and potentially to recurrent ligament injuries. PMID:27761474

  9. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (pvolleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  10. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

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    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  11. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

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    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  12. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

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    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  13. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

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    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players.

  14. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

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    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  15. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

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    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  16. Long-term training adaptations in elite male volleyball players.

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    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2012-08-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated differences in anthropometry, jump performance, and strength variables between developmental and elite-level volleyball players. However, within the elite level of play, the magnitude of change that can occur with training is unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the anthropometric, vertical jump, and strength quality changes over 2 years in a group of national team volleyball players. Fourteen national team volleyball players (age, 23.0 ± 4.1 years; height, 1.98 ± 0.07 m; weight, 91.7 ± 7.9 kg) began and completed this study. Participants had all played international matches (representing Australia) before the examination time period and continued to do so during the international season. Anthropometry (stature, mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), vertical jump measures (countermovement vertical jump; depth jump from 0.35 m, DJ; spike jump, SPJ, all including arm swing), and lower-body power (jump squat at body mass, and jump squat + 50% body weight, JS50) measures were tested before and at the conclusion of the investigation period. Significant (p 0.70) in the sum of 7 skinfolds reduction, SPJ, and leg extensor power. This study has demonstrated that elite male volleyball players can improve leanness and power, which contribute to improvements in vertical jump.

  17. Relations of competitive state anxiety and efficacy of young volleyball players.

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    Milavić, Boris; Jurko, Damir; Grgantov, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of validating the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory on a population of young Croatian volleyball players, 286 examinees, 106 male and 180 female volleyball players (average age of 16.09+/-1.83), filled out the CSAI-2, constructed by Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump and Smith (1990)1. Given the fact that all scales of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory have good homogeneity, reliability and sensitivity, it can be concluded that they represent high-quality measuring instruments for measuring psychological characteristics of young volleyball players. Young male and female volleyball players generally have a moderate level of self-confidence, and their cognitive anxiety is more prominent that somatic anxiety. In order to determine the age and gender differences in somatic and cognitive anxiety and self-confidence, parametric analysis of differences was performed and coefficients of the independent samples t-test were calculated. By analysis of differences according to age, it has been established that female junior players, in relation to female youth players, express a significantly lower level of somatic and cognitive anxiety and a significantly higher level of self-confidence. As opposed to female players, male youth and junior players do not differ in any of the analysed variables. By analysis of differences according to gender, it has been established that male youth players have a significantly higher level of self-confidence in comparison to female youth players. No significant differences were found in the level of competitive anxiety and self-confidence by analysis of variance between different player roles. No significant differences were found by discriminant analysis in somatic and cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence of female volleyball players of different situational efficacy. The group of least efficient male volleyball players is characterized by a very low level of self-confidence, while the most efficient group of volleyball

  18. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  19. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  20. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  1. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

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    GOH PIN SIANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.

  2. Y-balance normative data for female collegiate volleyball players.

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    Hudson, Christy; Garrison, J Craig; Pollard, Kalyssa

    2016-11-01

    The Lower Quarter Y Balance (YBT-LQ) Test performance varies depending on competitive level, sport, gender, and age; therefore, determining normative scores specific to a population may be helpful in identifying injury-risk thresholds and return-to-play criteria following an injury. The purpose of this study was to determine normative YBT-LQ scores by assessing a subset of female, Division I volleyball players. A descriptive analysis cohort study. Ninety healthy (19.6 ± 1.2 y/o), collegiate female volleyball players. YBT-LQ was measured in 3 distinct directions of anterior (ANT), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) on both the dominant and non-dominant limbs. In addition, a one way ANOVA was performed to determine mean group differences of YBT-LQ dominant and non-dominant limb composite score across position. Baseline values for this population were 94.1 ± 6.6% on the dominant limb and 93.9 ± 6.2% on the non-dominant limb. There were no significant differences for YBT-LQ composite scores on dominant (P = 0.867) and non-dominant (P = 0.989) limbs between position. This study identified normative YBT-LQ composite scores for healthy, female, collegiate volleyball players. Participants performed similarly despite their position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

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    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  4. MEANING TO BE VOLLEYBALL PLAYER IN CAREER TRANSITION PHASE

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    Adriana Justino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the meaning of being that a volleyball player for the under-19 players who are experiencing a transition in their in career. Sixteen male players aged 17 and 18 were evaluated, by being asked the triggering question “What does being a volleyball player mean to you?” The analysis of the discourses was carried out according to the procedures recommended by Miles & Huberman (2004. Four response categories resulted: psychoemotional and behavioral skills, emotions in sport, recognition and financial return, skills as an athlete/player. The athletes showed that the meaning of sport lies especially in the passion for practice, but also, in the improving of their tactics and techniques, in the development of psychoemotional and behavioral skills, in the professional recognition and, to a lesser degree, in the financial aspect. Most athletes state they intend to continue in the juvenile sports categories, therefore, understanding the meaning of this activity in their life can be the key to the elaboration of a plan of psychological preparation whose aim is to provide support to their needs in this moment of professional choice.

  5. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  6. Verbal aggressiveness and state anxiety of volleyball players and coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Alexandra; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sakellariou, Kimon

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation of verbal aggressiveness and state anxiety (somatic, cognitive, and self-confidence) in sports settings based on the ratings by volleyball coaches and their athletes. The sample consisted of volleyball athletes (n=208; 98 men and 110 women) and their coaches (n=20; 16 men and 4 women). Analysis showed that male volleyball players rated somatic anxiety higher and were more affected by the verbal aggressiveness of their coaches than female volleyball players. No mean differences were significant for male and female coaches on somatic or cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, or verbal aggressiveness. Also, correlation between subscale scores for male and female volleyball players and coaches was found. The correlations of verbal aggressiveness with self-confidence and anxiety were positive for these athletes, leading them to better behavior. This relationship needs further examination in sport settings.

  7. Morphological classification of novice female volleyball players

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    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physique have been the subject of several studies in sport sciences because high-level competitive sports place maximum demands on the physical constitution of players. Furthermore, the specifi c function performed by a player in a game may be related to a particular modality. The goals of this study were: (1 to describe and to compare, from a somatic point of view, the physiques of 71 female volleyball players at beginner levels A and B (aged 12-14 years; and (2 to identify the components of somatic structure that best differentiate the athletics by level of experience. In order to evaluate the players’ somatic structure,we performed 21 measurements including: weight and height, diameters, circumferences, upper and lower limb measurements and skinfolds thicknesses. Discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to identify the power of variables classifi cation. No difference was found in physique between level A and level B players. They were classifi ed by somatotype as mesomorphic endomorphs (A = 4.76 - 3.78 - 1.85; and B = 4.37 - 4.02 - 1.88. RESUMO As características morfológicas têm sido objeto de vários estudos em Ciências Desporto, pelo fato de o fenômeno do desporto de alta competição exigir o máximo da estrutura física dos atletas e pela expectativa da função que o atleta desempenha em jogo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo: (1 descrever e comparar, do ponto de vista somático, a estrutura morfológica de 71 atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino dos escalões de formação A e B (entre os 12 e 14 anos de idade; (2 identifi car os componentes da estrutura somática que melhor diferenciam as atletas de níveis distintos. Para a avaliação da estrutura somática das atletas foram efetuadas 21 avaliações, incluindo além do peso e altura, comprimento dos membros, perímetros, diâmetros e pregas de adiposidade subcutâneas. Com o intuito de verifi car o poder discriminatório das variáveis na

  8. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2012-12-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  10. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  11. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

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    Notarnicola Angela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7% than middle hitters (53.7% (p = 0.01, opposite hitters (55.5% (p = 0.02 and libero players (54.4% (p = 0.008, whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2% (p > 0.05. Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles.

  12. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p = 0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p = 0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p = 0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p > 0.05). Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles. PMID:22853746

  13. [Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB.

  14. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of University Volleyball Players and Sedentary Young People in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra Province in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afshan; Mudassir, Syed; Badaam, Khaled Mohsin; Shete, A N; Khan, Shoeb

    2015-07-01

    Volleyball is considered a physically demanding athletic sport; characterized by rapid acceleration, deceleration, and sudden changes of direction. It has been highlighted that aerobic capacity (VO2 max) which indicates cardiorespiratory fitness has a significant effect on the performance of athletes and is an important element of success in sports. The objective of this study was to compare aerobic capacity of university volleyball players from the region with that of matched sedentary controls. The secondary objective was to compare the findings with the aerobic capacity data reported in literature for the volleyball players and sedentary population. Sample size was calculated for detecting a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.8) with α as 0.05 and power of study as 80% for two tailed hypothesis testing. By using Queen's college step test, VO2 max was measured in 30 male volleyball players in the age group of 20 to25 years and was compared with 30 age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle. The mean predicted VO2 max was 52.99 ± 5.13 ml/kg/min in volleyball players and 37.01 ± 3.94 ml/kg/min in controls. The difference in mean values of VO2 max (ml/kg/min) in volleyball players and controls was statistically highly significant with p-value less than 0.001. The volleyball players showed a superior aerobic capacity compared with age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle.

  16. Superolateral Hoffa's Fat Pad Edema in Collegiate Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert; England, Eric; Dʼheurle, Albert; Newton, Keith; Kenter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Superolateral Hoffa's fat pad (SHFP) edema is a previously described magnetic resonance (MR) finding located between the patellar tendon and the lateral femoral condyle. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of SHFP edema in female collegiate volleyball players. Sixteen female collegiate volleyball players were consented for bilateral knee evaluations which consisted of history, physical examination and MR imaging. Each MR study was reviewed for the presence of SHFP edema, and 6 patellar maltracking measurements were done. These were tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, patellar translation, lateral patellofemoral angle, trochlear depth, trochlear sulcus angle, and lateral trochlear inclination angle. A total of 16 athletes, 32 knees (16 girls; age range, 18-22 years; mean, 19.9) were enrolled in the study. Sixteen knees (50%) in 8 athletes had SHFP edema, with 100% bilaterality; 16 knees in 8 athletes had no evidence of SHFP edema (50%). Functional outcomes and physical examination findings were within normal limits for all athletes with no difference noted between SHFP edema-positive and -negative individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, patellar translation, and patellofemoral angle (P value of volleyball athletes have a very high prevalence of SHFP edema, which is always bilateral. Although the exact etiology of SHFP edema remains inconclusive, it could potentially be a sensitive indicator of subtle patellar maltracking which cannot be distinguished by history and physical examination findings. Given the very high prevalence of SHFP edema and this being an asymptomatic finding, there is likely little clinical significance of this in majority of high-performance athletes.

  17. The Effects of Acoustic Disturbance on Anaerobic Endurance in Female Volleyball Players

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    Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza Edyta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of the study was to assess anaerobic endurance in volleyball players through repeated vertical jump performance under quiet and noisy conditions. Methods. A group of 12 female players aged 19-28 year completed six sets of eight standing vertical jump jumps; jump height and heart rate before and after the protocol were measured in quiet and noisy (fan cheering conditions. Results. Maximum and minimum vertical jump heights were higher and intragroup differences were smaller in noisy than quiet conditions. Conclusions. Vertical jump testing, a measure of physical activity typical of volleyball, is suitable for monitoring training effects. The influence of noise typical during volleyball matches had a positive effect on player performance and anaerobic endurance.

  18. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabara, M

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. T...

  19. METRIC TESTS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING JUMPING FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Toplica Stojanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With goal to establish metric tests characteristics for estimating jumping for volleyball players, it was organized a pilot research on pattern of 23 volleyball players from cadet team and 23 students from high-school. For needs of this research four tests are valid for estimation, jump in block with left and right leg and jump in spike with left and right leg. Each test has been taken three times, so that we could with test-re test method determine their reliability, and with factor analysis their validity. Data were processed by multivariate analysis (item analysis, factor analysis from statistical package „Statistica 6.0 for windows“. On the results of research and discussion we can say that the tests had high coefficient of reliability, as well as factor validity, and these tests can be used to estimate jumping for volleyball players.

  20. Shoulder pain among high-level volleyball players and preseason features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthomme, Benedicte; Wieczorek, Valerie; Frisch, Anne; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2013-10-01

    The main goal of this prospective study was to identify the most significant intrinsic risk factors for shoulder pain by measuring strength developed by shoulder rotators and by carrying out various morphostatic assessments. Sixty-six players (mean ± SD age = 24 ± 5 yr) were recruited from nine volleyball teams from the first and second divisions (34 men and 32 women) to participate in the study. Before the start of the volleyball season, all the participants completed a preseason questionnaire and underwent both a bilateral isokinetic evaluation of the shoulders and morphostatic measurements. During the subsequent 6 months of the competition period, the players reported through a weekly questionnaire any shoulder pain experienced. During the ongoing season, 23% (15 of 66 players) of the volleyball players experienced dominant shoulder pain. Interestingly, participants who reported a history of dominant shoulder pain were found to have nine times higher risk of suffering further pain in their dominant shoulder. The eccentric maximal strength developed by the internal and external rotators was found to represent a protective factor in the volleyball players (respective odds ratios = 0.946, P = 0.01 and 0.94, P = 0.05). No risk factors were found among the shoulder morphostatic measurements. In our study, the evaluation of shoulder rotator muscle strength through isokinetic assessment, especially eccentric mode, appeared to be the most contributing parameter to identify risk factors for shoulder pain. This evaluation should allow to better identify players at risk.

  1. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  2. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  3. Perfection of the special preparation of volleyball players

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    Volodymyr Bogush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and apply the complex of exercises for perfection of the special physical preparation of volleyball players and its constituents: special quickness, force, endurance. Material and Methods: sportsmen (candidates in sport masters, I and II digits inspected in age from 16 to 23 in an amount 40 persons; the special quickness and its constituents are probed: latent period of the reaction, the speed of individual movements; maximum force in various modes; endurance – speed, hopping, power. Results: at drawing on the offered complex of exercises the improvement of indexes of speed and endurance hopping, speed-power capabilities is marked at stimulation of tension of muscles in the conditions of development of a maximum of dynamic effort. Conclusions: terms and methods are certain for the effective conducting of training process, which provides optimum intercommunication of levels of bodily and functional conditions, technical and tactical preparation.

  4. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  5. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball player

  6. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  7. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball player

  8. The effects of 20-m repeated sprint training on aerobic capacity in college volleyball players

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    Kaynak Kerimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a repeated sprint training program in addition to volleyball training on the aerobic capacity of college volleyball players.

  9. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.

  10. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Santos, Patricia; Figueiredo, Teresa; João, Paulo Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school. A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n=10; 14.0±0.0 years; 1.6±0.1 m; 52.0±7.0 kg and 20.7±2.4% body mass) and the control group (n=10; 13.8±0.4 years, 1.6±0.1 m; 53.5±4.7 kg and 20.3±1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training. Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P=0.00; and counter movement jump: P=0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatotype, role and performance in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Zaccagni, L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the importance of the somatometric components of elite male and female volleyball players in relation to their different game roles and levels of performance. Two hundred and thirty-four male athletes (aged 24.7+/-4.4 years) and 244 female athletes (aged 23.1+/-4.4 years) from the Italian A1 and A2 volleyball leagues underwent anthropometric measurements during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 seasons. Somatotypes were estimated with the Heath-Carter method. Marked sexual dimorphism in somatotype was observed in the total sample. The average somatotype for men was 2.2-4.2-3.2 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.9), and for women it was 3.0-3.3-2.9 (SD 0.8-1.0-0.9). The somatotype was significantly different in players at different levels of performance (A1 vs A2 leagues), as it follows: 2.1-4.1-3.3 (SD 0.6-0.8-0.7) vs 2.3-4.3-3.0 (SD 0.7-1.0-0.8) in males; 2.9-3.1-3.0 (SD 0.8-1.0-0.9) vs 3.1-3.5-2.7 (SD 0.8-0.9-0.8) in females. The somatotype was also significantly different in players in different roles. In male sex the mean somatotypes for setters were 2.4-4.5-2.8 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.8), for centres they were 2.0-4.0-3.5 (SD 0.6-1.0-0.8), for spikers they were 2.2-4.3-3.0 (SD 0.6-0.9-0.7), for opposites they were 2.2-4.3-3.1 (SD 0.6-0.9-0.8). In female sex the mean somatotypes for setters were 3.1-3.6-2.5 (SD 0.8-1.0-1.0), for centres they were 2.8-3.1-3.1 (SD 0.8-0.9-0.7), for spikers they were 3.0-3.5-2.8 (SD 0.9-1.0-0.9) and for opposites they were 3.0-3.2-3.0 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.8). The physique of athletes in the A1 league is characterized by higher ectomorphy and lower endomorphy and mesomorphy. There is also a slight tendency of male players to a greater homogeneity in somatotype within the group at the maximum level of performance. Moreover somatotype differs in relation to game role in volleyball players of both sexes: the mesomorphic component is maximal in setters, while the ectomorphic component is maximal in centres.

  12. Effects of habitual loading on patellar tendon mechanical and morphological properties in basketball and volleyball players.

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    Zhang, Z J; Ng, G Y F; Fu, S N

    2015-11-01

    Tendon mechanical properties are linked to sports performance and tendon-related injuries, such as tendinopathy. Whether habitual loading, such as participation in regular jumping activities, would induce adaptation on tendon mechanical properties remains unclear. Forty healthy subjects (10 sedentary, 15 volleyball players, and 15 basketball players) aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited. Supersonic shearwave imaging was used to measure the shear elastic modulus and thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the proximal patellar tendons of both knees at 30° of flexion. Significant group differences in tendon shear elastic modulus were found among the three groups. In the dominant leg, reduction in tendon shear elastic modulus by 18.9 % (p = 0.018) and 48.7 % (p = 0.000) were observed in the basketball and volleyball players, respectively, when compared with sedentary subjects. In the non-dominant leg, reduction in tendon shear elastic modulus were 27.3 % (p = 0.034) and 47.1 % (p = 0.02) in the basketball and volleyball players, respectively. The athlete groups were found to have larger CSA but with similar tendon thickness than sedentary group. The CSA were larger by 24-29 % and by 22-24 % in the basketball players and volleyball players, for the dominant and non-dominant legs, respectively (all p < 0.05). Age and body mass are related to tendon stiffness and CSA, particularly in the sedentary subjects. The proximal patellar tendon can undergo substantial adaptation on tendon mechanical and morphological properties when exposed in jumping sports. Intrinsic factors such as age and body mass could influence tendon properties.

  13. THE MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OF JUMP ACTIONS STRUCTURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Stech M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop generalized and individual models of the jump actions of skilled female volleyball players. The main prerequisite for the development of the jump actions models were the results of our earlier studies of factor structure of jump actions of 10 sportswomen of the Polish volleyball team "Gedania" (Premier League in the preparatory and competitive periods of the annual cycle of preparation. The athletes age was 22.0 +- 2.9 years, the sports experience - 8.1 +- 3.1 years, body height - 181.9 +- 8.4 years and body weight - 72.8 +- 10.8 kg. Mathematical and statistical processing of the data (the definition of M ± SD and significant differences between the samples was performed using a standard computer program "STATISTICA 7,0". Based on the analysis of the factor structure of 20 jump actions of skilled women volleyball players determined to within 5 of the most informative indexes and their tentative values recommended for the formation of a generalized model of this structure. Comparison of individual models of jump actions of skilled women volleyball players with their generalized models in different periods of preparation can be used for the rational choice of means and methods for the increasing of the training process efficiency.

  14. Physical and physiological attributes of female volleyball players--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidor, Ronnie; Ziv, Gal

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 31) on physical attributes, physiological attributes, and on-court performances of female volleyball players. Empirical and practical knowledge emerging from studies on training-related issues in volleyball, such as body mass, fat-free mass, aerobic profile, strength, and agility and speed, should be integrated and applied when planning annual training programs for volleyball players. Based on our review, it was found that (a) players of a higher skill level are taller, somewhat heavier, and have higher vertical jump values than players of a lower level; (b) the aerobic profile of female volleyball players is similar to that of female basketball players; (c) ballistic resistance training can increase vertical jump values in female volleyball players; and (d) preseason conditioning should be conducted to prevent fatigue and reduced performance at the beginning of the season. Among the research concerns discussed in the article are that there is a lack data for on-court performance and time-motion analysis in female volleyball players and that more experimental/manipulative studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs on physiological attributes of female volleyball players. Two practical implications are suggested for volleyball and strength and conditioning coaches: (a) functional and nonfunctional overreaching should be carefully monitored when planning strength and conditioning programs, and (b) volleyball programs should include ballistic-type training.

  15. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

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    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  16. The effects of 6 weeks of preseason skill-based conditioning on physical performance in male volleyball players.

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    Trajković, Nebojša; Milanović, Zoran; Sporis, Goran; Milić, Vladan; Stanković, Ratko

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance after a 6-week skill-based conditioning training program in male competitive volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players (mean ± SD: age 22.3 ± 3.7 years, body height 190.7 ± 4.2 cm, and body mass 78.4 ± 4.5 kg) participated in this study. The players were tested for sprinting (5- and 10-m sprint), agility, and jumping performance (the vertical-jump test, the spike-jump test, and the standing broad jump [SBJ]). Compared with pretraining, there was a significant improvement in the 5- and 10-m speed. There were no significant differences between pretraining and posttraining for lower-body muscular power (vertical-jump height, spike-jump height, and SBJ) and agility. Based on our results, it could be concluded that a preseason skill-based conditioning program does not offer a sufficient stimulus for volleyball players. Therefore, a general conditioning and hypertrophy training along with specific volleyball conditioning is necessary in the preseason period for the development of the lower-body strength, agility and speed performance in volleyball players.

  17. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P drink. Commercially available energy drinks can significantly improve physical performance in female volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  18. Relations between Some Anthropometric Characteristics and the Variable for Assess Situation - Motoric Knowledge Smash from the Zone 4 for the Women Volleyball Players in the Age of 14 - 18 in Republic of Macedonia in the Season 2009/10

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    Andrijana M ISOVSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was made on a sample of 151 female volleyball players in the age of 14 - 18 in Macedonia, which represents the population of players competing in state championships for the young categories in season 2009/10. The study applied 1 variable to assessment situation - motor knowledge and 18 variables for the assessment of the anthropometric characteristics . In order to determine the relationship between anthropometrical characteristics and variables for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge linear regression analysis is applied, were the criteria for assessment situation - motor knowledge is the variabl e smash from the zone 4 and predictors are the anthropometrical variables. Based on the obtained results it can be determined that the predictor system of anthropometrical variables has statistically significant relationships on variable for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge.

  19. A training program to improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players.

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    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players. We combined components from a previously published knee ligament injury prevention intervention program for jump and strength training with additional exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular indices in high school female volleyball players. Thirty-four athletes (age 14.5 years ± 1.0) participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the school's volleyball court and weight room facilities. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and sit-up test before and after training. A significant increase was found in the mean VO2max score (p volleyball programs.

  20. Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Assessment of Elite US Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher K; Dyar, Dan A; Vargas, Lisa A; Grossfeld, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of elite volleyball players, including aortic dimensions. Previous studies have shown that the upper limit of normal aortic sinus diameter for male and female athletes is 4 and 3.4 cm, respectively. Cross-sectional analysis. United States Olympic Volleyball Training Facility and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Seventy (37 male) members of the US national volleyball team. Athletes underwent evaluation that included medical and family histories, targeted physical examinations specifically focusing on abnormalities present in Marfan syndrome (MFS), and transthoracic echocardiograms. Cardiac chamber and great artery size, valve function, and coronary artery origins were assessed. Three male athletes (8%) had an aortic sinus diameter ≥4 cm, one of whom also had an ascending aorta >4 cm. Two female athletes (6%) had aortic sinus diameter ≥3.4 cm, and another had an ascending aorta of 3.4 cm. There were no other intracardiac or arterial abnormalities. Individual musculoskeletal characteristics of MFS were common among the athletes but not more frequent or numerous in those with aortic dilation. The prevalence of aortic root dilation in this population of athletes was higher than what has previously been reported in other similar populations. Further study is needed to determine whether these represent pathological changes or normal variations in tall athletes. This study adds to the existing knowledge base of athlete's heart, with specific attention to aortic dimensions in elite volleyball players. The data are relevant to similar athletes' medical care and to preparticipation cardiac screening in general.

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the shoulder in elite Italian beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, G; Tramontana, A; Mc Donald, K; Sorge, R; Tiloca, A; Foti, C

    2015-10-01

    Beach volleyball is an overhead sport that subjects the hitting shoulder to intense functional loads. The purpose of this study is to identify ultrasonographically the prevalence of myotendinous alterations in professional Italian beach volleyball players at the Italian championship and to look for associations between ultrasound findings and the other data collected. Fifty-three beach volleyball players (31 women, 22 men) were recruited during the second stage of the Italian championship held in July 2012 in Rome, Italy. Clinical history was obtained from all subjects, followed by physical exam. Each athlete completed a questionnaire regarding sports activities. Bilateral ultrasonographic evaluation of the shoulders was then performed. Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff of the hitting shoulder was identified ultrasonographically in 30% of the athletes. The mean age of the athletes with calcific tendinopathy was older than subjects with other abnormalities on ultrasonographic examination (33.1 years vs. 25.8 years, t-test; Pvolleyball players has a prevalence of 30% ultrasonographically, greater than that reported in the general population. In these athletes, the presence of calcific tendinopathy correlates positively with age.

  2. Energy availability of female varsity volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Meloche, Renee D

    2013-02-01

    Female athletes should aim to achieve energy balance to maintain health and have a high performance output. The purpose of this study was to investigate energy availability (EA) among members of a medium-size Canadian Interuniversity Sport women's volleyball team and to describe exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) during practices, game warm-ups, and games. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed over 7 d using the Bodymedia Sensewear Mini armband, while energy intake (EI) was measured with dietary food logs. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Energy availability was calculated using the equation EA = (EI(kcal) - ExEE(kcal))/kg fat-free mass (FFM). Participants consumed 3,435 (±1,172) kcal/day and expended 3479 (± 604) kcal/day. Mean EA was 42.5 kcal·kg FFM(-1) d(-1) across all 7 d, and 2 participants fell below the 30-kcal·kg FFM(-1)·d(-1) threshold. Furthermore, participants expended 511 (± 216), 402 (± 50), and 848 (± 155) kcal during practices, game warm-ups, and games, respectively. Overall, the participants were relatively weight stable and should be encouraged to continue fueling their exercise and high ExEE needs with appropriate nutritional strategies.

  3. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  4. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

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    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  5. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Analysis of the relationship between the amount of training and cognitive expertise. A study of young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alexander; Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luís; Claver, Fernando; Del Villar, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this research was to analyze the relationship between the amount of practice accumulated in training and the level of cognitive expertise achieved by volleyball players who are still in training. Another goal was to determine the number of training hours per week needed to improve knowledge significantly. The study's sample was composed of 520 volleyball players between the ages of 12 and 16 years. The independent variable was the amount of training, defined as the number of weekly hours that the volleyball player devoted to training. The dependent variable was cognitive expertise, measured by declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. A univariate analysis of variance was done to examine the relationship between the number of weekly hours and the declarative and procedural knowledge reached by volleyball players in the athletic formation training stages. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. There were significant differences in knowledge according to the number of weekly training hours (p < 0.001). These results confirm that there is a relationship between the quantity of practice and the development of cognitive expertise. It is recommended that young players dedicate at least 4 hours weekly to training to achieve a significant improvement in cognitive expertise.

  7. Correlations of dominant handgrip strength with selected anthropometric and physiological characteristics in inter-university volleyball players

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    Shyamal Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with selected anthropometric and physiological characteristics in inter-university volleyball players. Three anthropometric characteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological characteristics were measured on randomly selected 63 inter-university volleyball players (38 males and 25 females aged 18.25 years from six Indian universities, competition was held in Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. An adequate number of controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females were also taken from the same place for comparisons. In results, one way analysis of variance showed significant (p . .004 - .000 differences in all the variables between volleyball players and controls. In volley players, significantly positive correlations were found between right and left handgrip strength and all the variables studied except percent body fat (where the correlations were significantly negative. It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had some strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in inter-university volleyball players.

  8. Estimating Maximal Heart Rate with the ‘220-Age’ Formula in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

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    Nikolaidis Pantelis Theodoros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although maximal heart rate (HRmax is used widely to assess exercise intensity in training, there are limited data with regards to the validity of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the measured-HRmax of two prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220 − age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208 − 0.7 × age in young female volleyball players. Methods. The study involved 47 volleyball players (age 13.39 ± 2.01 years, body mass 54.0 ± 10.8 kg, height 162.7 ± 10.2 cm who performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test to assess HRmax. Measured-HRmax values were compared with the Fox and Tanaka prediction equations. Results. The results showed that mean scores for HRmax significantly differed between measured and predicted values (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.49. Post-hoc tests revealed that Fox-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax (mean difference 5.7 bpm; 95% CI [3.0, 8.5], whereas Tanaka-HRmax was similar to measured-HRmax (-2.2 bpm; 95% CI [-4.9, 0.4]. HRmax did not correlate with age (r = 0.16, p = 0.291. Conclusions. The results of this study failed to validate the widely used ‘220−age’ formula in volleyball players. Coaches and fitness trainers should take into account that the overestimation of HRmax by the Fox equation might lead to prescribing exercise at a higher intensity than what is targeted. Therefore, the Tanaka equation appears to offer a more accurate prediction equation of HRmax than the Fox equation in young female volleyball players.

  9. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  10. Specific warm-up exercise is the best for vertical countermovement jump in young volleyball players

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    Fernando Nazário de Rezende

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the effect of performing various distinct warm-up exercises on vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ performance. Eight volleyball players (age 15.4 ± 0.5 yrs performed five different warm-up activities (in a counterbalanced, randomized crossover study over five days, at 24-h intervals: stretching (4 × 30 s, 30 s between sets, cycloergometer (5 min at 50 W + 5 min at 100 W, resistance exercise (leg press 45°, 3 × 5 repetitions maximum, 3-min pause between sets, specific vertical jumping (4 × 10 VCMJ, 2-min pause between sets, and no warm-up at all (control condition. Beginning 3 min after their warm-up, the players performed 3 attempts (at intervals of 3 min of VCMJ (on a contact carpet, and each player's best jump was considered in the analysis. All warm-up activities presented higher VCMJ performance (p< 0.05 than the control condition, with the exception of stretching. Vertical jumping revealed a large effect size(0.8 than other interventions. We conclude that in practical terms, vertical jumps are the best warm-up exercise (when applied by itself to acutely improve VCMJ performance in volleyball players, but that other exercises can make a complementary contribution.

  11. Development of muscular imbalance in the shoulder girdle in volleyball players

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    VRBOVÁ, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor?s thesis deals with the development of muscular imbalance in the shoulder girdle in volleyball players. The volleyball player?s shoulder is the most exposed and vulnerable joint. In addition, the way the sport has developed, the pressure on this joint has grown. Shoulder pain limits the player?s most important move: the strength and the power of the smash and the smash serve. This thesis consists of two parts: theoretical and a practical. The theoretical part deals with the anat...

  12. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON TOTAL MOOD DISTURBANCE OF VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Rajagopal I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on total mood disturbance (TMD for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15 and women (n = 15] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of total mood disturbance were selected for this study. The experimental design used was static group factorial design. The data were collected at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours on total mood disturbance by using profile of mood state (POMS questionnaire during the academic year of 2009 – 2010. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using two-way factorial (2 x 6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Cosinor analysis. RESULTS: 1 There was significant difference in total mood disturbance between genders, 2 significant difference in total mood disturbance at different times of the day irrespective of gender status and 3 significant difference in total mood disturbance for men and women volleyball players at different times of the day. 4 Significant circadian rhythmicity exists on total mood disturbance for women and 5 Insignificant circadian rhythmicity exists on total mood disturbance for men. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to the physical educators to adopt the findings of this study while planning to improve sports skills for the players and athletes.

  13. Training increases anabolic response and reduces inflammatory response to a single practice in elite male adolescent volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Pilz-Burstein, Rutie; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Fourteen male, elite, national team-level, Israeli volleyball players (age, 16.3±1.1 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60-min volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phases of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and testosterone; the catabolic hormone cortisol; the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of both anaerobic and aerobic properties. Before the training intervention, the typical volleyball practice was associated with a significant increase of GH and testosterone and also with a significant increase of IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly greater GH response (ΔGH, 2.5±2.4 vs. 4.7±3.0 ng/mL, before and after training, respectively; pvolleyball practice. The results suggest that, along with the improvement of anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training leads to a greater anabolic and reduced inflammatory response to exercise.

  14. Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Elite Volleyball Players

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    Alves, Heloisa; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Deslandes, Andrea; Cossich, Victor; Salles, Jose Inacio; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task). In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship. PMID:23471100

  15. Nursing care management in the context of the high performance volleyball player

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    Rafael Marcelo Soder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the relationship between the central phenomenon “care management in the context of the high performance volleyball player: living and surviving in the multidimensionality of the sporting environment” and the categories which involved the perspective of management of health care of the athletes in the context of volleyball. Methods: it is a qualitative study, guided by the Theory Grounded in Data, made between February and September 2013, with 34 participants in three sample groups. Results: four categories were found, meaning care, health and disease concerning the high performance volleyball athlete; living and surviving on the limit between being a high performance athlete and a human being; waking up to the reality of high performance volleyball; unveiling possibilities and potentialities of health care in high performance volleyball. Conclusion: it is evident that there are concrete and tangible possibilities of insertion of the management of health care and nursing in the high performance volleyball.

  16. Strength of the Shoulder Rotators in Second-League Volleyball Players

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    Popieluch Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main aim of the study was to assess the strength of the shoulder rotator muscles of a group of second-league volleyball players. These muscles are assumed to have a crucial impact on attack effectiveness in volleyball. Strength was assessed based on peak torque values obtained for the rotator muscles measured using the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC method. Torque was measured in both limbs and the differences between the two limbs were examined. The torque values obtained for the volleyball players were also compared against those measured in a group of students who had never trained any sports.

  17. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    I. Rajagopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on diastolic blood pressure for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15 and women (n = 15] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of diastolic blood pressure were selected for this study. The experimental design used was static group factorial design. The data were collected at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours on diastolic blood pressure by using Erkameter during the academic year of 2009 – 2010. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using two-way factorial (2 x 6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Cosinor analysis. RESULTS: There was insignificant difference between genders, significant difference at different times of the day and insignificant circadian rhythmicity exists on diastolic blood pressure for women and significant for men. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to the physical educators to adopt the findings of this study while planning to improve sports skills for the players and athletes.

  18. Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.

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    Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

    2014-11-01

    There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players.

  19. The Changing Rules of the Game, Volleyball Player Systematic Structure and Effects in Applying

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    Özgür DİNÇER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We the purpose of this study, ranging from past to present and play volleyball rule changes that occur related to industry structure, how structure affects in applying with a systematic trial. Method: Volleyball, starting from the date of the present day sports entertainment, sport has become a subject performance. . As regards; the changing rules of the game, in terms of volleyball player systematic structure and effects on performance. The changing rules of the game, volleyball player systematic structure and effects the exhibition of the game, tactical understanding of the game is to combine the implementation of different systems to meet the needs of training and competition has created situations. Volleyball to purpose of changing the rules of the game, service, location and block combinations to improve defense, reducing the effect of conditions of service coverage and attack the ball to extend the duration of stay in the game. Thus, the visuals might volleyball, in terms of spectators and media will become attractive. While this study, scan was used during the research literature. Results: According to the data obtained from the literature, that the structural changes in the volleyball is thought to cause the positive and negative impact in the volleyball. Conclusion: Result of this research, the changing rules of the game affected the players' and the exhibition of the game and the diversity of training, volleyball game speed has increased, and became the focus of visual winning. The conclusion of every move made in the field with a number of players has increased and with it the responsibility of the importance of individual tactical exercises may have gained more importance.

  20. Somatotype and body composition of volleyball players and untrained female students – reference group for comparison in sport

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    Pastuszak Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that somatotype and success in sport and physical performance are positively related. Existing somatotype data on athletes are useful as guidelines for sport selection and choice of training appropriate to the enhancement of desired somatotype characteristics. Updated somatotype data from non-athlete reference groups complement comparative analysis applied in assessing the effects of the training process and selection. The aim of this study was to determine the somatotype of untrained girls studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of female volleyball players compared with the non-athlete group. Twelve Second Division female volleyball players (age 21.6±1.5 years, body height 177.3±6.2 cm, body mass 71.0±6.5 kg, training experience 8.4±3.4 years and 150 female untrained students of the University of Technology in Warsaw (age 20.0±6.4 years, body height 166.5±6.4 cm, body mass 59.7±8.4 kg participated in a study carried out in 2011. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. The volleyball players were a little older and were significantly taller and heavier than female students (p<0.05. Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of the elbow, breadth of the wrist, biacromial diameter, arm circumference and crus circumference (p<0.05. The mean somatotype of the volleyball players was 4.5-3.4-2.8. (4.5±1.0-3.4±1.2-2.8±1.3, whilst that of the untrained students was 5.1-3.6-2.8. (5.1±1.4-3.6±1.1-2.8±1.3; the groups did not differ significantly in somatotype. The groups were significantly different in body composition (F [kg] and LBM [kg], as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p<0.05. No differences were observed between the groups in the skinfolds. Morphological characteristics of the female volleyball players depended on the competition level

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERSONALITY OF INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS OF BRAZIL AND INDIA

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    Govind Kadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the personality of the volleyball players of India. All the players of Indian team and the players of Brazil team, who came for FIVB Men Volleyball World Championship held at Pune in August 2009, were selected for the study. They were administered the Cattell’s 16 PF questionnaire. The results wereanalyzed with the help of ‘t’ test which showed that there are significant differences found between Indian volleyball players and Brazilian Volleyball players on seven factors but not on nine factors of 16 PF Questionnaire. Indian players scored high on factor ‘F’, factor ‘I’ and factor ‘M’ whereas Brazilian players have scored high on factor ‘B’, factor ‘G’, factor ‘H’ and factor ‘L’. Indian players scored low on Factor B which means that they tend to be slow to learn and grasp and they were dull as compared with Brazilian team, and gives concrete and literal interpretation. This dullness simply represents poor functioning.

  2. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

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    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  3. Acute Consumption of an Energy Drink Does Not Improve Physical Performance of Female Volleyball Players.

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    Fernández-Campos, Catalina; Dengo, Ana L; Moncada-Jiménez, José

    2015-06-01

    To determine the acute effect of an energy drink (ED) on physical performance of professional female volleyball players. 19 females (age= 22.3 ± 4.9 yr.; height= 171.8 ± 9.4 cm; weight= 65.2 ± 10.1 kg) participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study to measure grip strength, vertical jump and anaerobic power in 3 different sessions (ED, placebo [PL] or no beverage [CTL]). For each session, participants arrived in a fasted state, consumed a standardized breakfast meal, and 1 hr later completed the 3 baseline performance tests without having ingested the beverage. After completing the premeasurements, the athletes drank 6 ml/kg of body weight of the ED or PL and in the CTL condition no beverage was consumed. Posttest measurements were taken 30 min after the ingestion of liquids. A 3 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant within-session and measurement time interactions for each performance test. Regardless of the measurement time, right hand grip strength was significantly higher in the ED condition (34.6 ± 0.9 kg) compared with PL (33.4 ± 1.1 kg) and CTL (33.6 ± 1.0 kg) (p performance of professional Costa Rican female volleyball players.

  4. Analysis of male volleyball players' motor activities during a top level match.

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    Mroczek, Dariusz; Januszkiewicz, Aleksander; Kawczyński, Adam S; Borysiuk, Zbigniew; Chmura, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims to assess motor activity of volleyball players using an original video recording method developed by the authors. Twenty-eight volleyball players taking part in 4 matches of the Polish Volleyball League were examined. The recorded data were analyzed in view of the mean total distance covered by volleyball players on different court positions during a match, set, and rally. The results showed that volleyball players cover the mean total distance of 1221 ± 327 m (mean ± SD) in a 3-set match, and 1757 ± 462 m in a 4-set match. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.005) was found between the distance covered by the middle blockers and setters, defenders, spikers, and libero players in a match and in a set. The study revealed a tendency to lengthen the distance by the players in the final sets, which is indicative of the extended time of individual rallies. The mean distance covered in a single rally amounted to 10.92 ± 0.9 m in 4 matches (between 9.12 and 12.56 m). Considering the limited size of the field of play, volleyball players cover relatively long distances during a match and individual sets, with the shortest distance covered by middle blockers, and the longest by setters. From a practical application point of view, detailed topographic analysis of a player's movements on the court as well as precise data on the time of activity and rest breaks provide the coach with valuable information on the ways of development of arrhythmic, changing and dynamic training loads.

  5. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

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    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.

  6. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

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    Linek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01 between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  7. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

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    Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine. PMID:28031760

  8. Association of anthropometric qualities with vertical jump performance in elite male volleyball players.

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    Aouadi, R; Jlid, M C; Khalifa, R; Hermassi, S; Chelly, M S; Van Den Tillaar, R; Gabbett, T

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between physical and anthropometric profiles and vertical jump performance in elite volleyball players. Thirty-three elite male volleyball players (21±1 y, 76.9±5.2 kg, 186.5±5 cm) were studied. Several anthropometric measurements (body mass, stature, body mass index, lower limb length and sitting height) together with jumping height anaerobic power of counter movement jump with arm swing (CMJarm) were obtained from all subjects. Forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine if any of the anthropometric parameters were predictive of CMJarm. Anaerobic power was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the tallest players relative to their shorter counterparts. A significant relationship was observed between CMJarm and lower limb length (r2=0.69; P0.05) predictors of CMJarm performance. This study demonstrates that lower limb length is correlated with CMJarm in elite male volleyball players. The players with longer lower limbs have the better vertical jump performances and their anaerobic power is higher. These results could be of importance for trained athletes in sports relying on jumping performance, such as basketball, handball or volleyball. Thus, the measurement of anthropometric characteristics, such as stature and lower limb length may assist coaches in the early phases of talent identification in volleyball.

  9. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

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    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  10. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

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    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  11. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System.

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    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  13. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  14. Modern way of training high-level volleyball players in a university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshin V.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The issues of improving the effectiveness of preparing volleyball players in a university were considered. The questionnaire date of coaches and student-sportsmen were used. The experience of sports training of several hundred volleyball players, athletes and swimmers, who successfully participated in international arenas was summarized. It is stated that high sport results effectively provide hard sport selection, motivation and mobilization of student-sportsmen, hard workloads, frequent, up to 30-40 times a year, participation in important competitions, system of recovering event, combining sport and study.

  15. Biomechanical Assessment of the Strength of Volleyball Players in Different Stages of the Training Macrocycle

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    Śliwa Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In order to help volleyball players achieve superior results, their coaches are constantly seeking new training methods. One of the methods used to improve the effectiveness of the training that is being implemented is conducting tests which make it possible to assess the player’s locomotor system in terms of its motor and biomechanical functions. The aim of the study was to determine the torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of volleyball players in three stages of the annual macrocycle.

  16. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

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    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  17. Isolated and painless (? atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle: left handed versus right handed volleyball players

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    Thiago D. Gonçalves Côelho

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The suprascapular nerve originates from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or less frequently from the root of C5. It runs a short way and crosses the suprascapular notch. It innervates the supraspinatus muscle and the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Then, it crosses the lateral edge of the spine of the scapula passing through the spinoglenoid notch, and innervates the infraspinatus muscle. These are potential sites of injury to the suprascapular nerve. Three cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment causing an isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy in volleyball players were studied. It is suggested the hypothesis that the nature of the smash, in which the athlete uses the arm violently, more than does in volleyball service or in the art of reception, is the key to the pathogenesis of the lesion in volleyball players.

  18. Correspondence between training load executed by volleyball players and the one observed by coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina, Javier; García-López, Juan; García-Tormo, José V; Foster, Carl

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the training load (TL) executed by volleyball players with that observed by coaches. Second, we analyzed the influence of the coaches' experience in the estimated TL. Twelve female volleyball players and 4 male coaches participated in this study. During a period of 15 weeks, physical (PT) and technical-tactical training sessions and matches were monitored. In each session, the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was recorded to analyze the players' exercise intensity and TL(RP)E. Coaches were present in all sessions and rated their estimate of sRPE at the same time as the players to calculate the coaches' TL(RPE). Both players' and coaches' mean sRPE (4.0 ± 1.1, 3.7 ± 1.1, and 3.8 ± 1.0 in players and expert and beginning coaches, respectively) and TLRPE (380.1 ± 106.8, 358.3 ± 110.5, and 359.7 ± 108.0 in players and expert and beginning coaches, respectively) were similar. However, a higher (p volleyball.

  19. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  20. Rehabilitation protocol for patellar tendinopathy applied among 16- to 19-year old volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Ryszard; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Trzaskoma, Lukasz; Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of rehabilitation protocol applied during competitive period for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A total of 28 male volleyball players were divided into two groups. Fifteen from experimental group (E) and 13 from control group (C) fulfilled the same tests 3 times: before the training program started (first measurement), after 12 weeks (second measurement) and after 24 weeks (third measurement). The above-mentioned protocol included the following: USG imagining with color Doppler function, clinical testing, pain intensity evaluation with VISA-P questionnaire, leg muscle strength and power and jumping ability measurements. The key element of the rehabilitation program was eccentric squat on decline board with additional unstable surface. The essential factor of the protocol was a set of preventive functional exercises, with focus on eccentric exercises of hamstrings. Patellar tendinopathy was observed in 18% of the tested young volleyball players. Implementation of the presented rehabilitation protocol with eccentric squat on decline board applied during sports season lowered the pain level of the young volleyball players. Presented rehabilitation protocol applied without interrupting the competitive period among young volleyball players together with functional exercises could be an effective method for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy.

  1. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players : design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  2. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  3. [Injured players candidates for professional volleyball team: sign them up or not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon

    2012-02-01

    Competitive volleyball teams master six basic skills: serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig. Each of these skills comprises a number of specific techniques, considered standard practice in high-level volleyball. Five professional volleyball players were candidates to join a first division team in Israel. Their medical dossier presented previous injuries that occurred during their sport's activity. Two of the players had a suprascapular nerve injury, one had a lesion in the hamstrings, another one had an operated ankle sprain and the fifth one had an operated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in both knees and a mallet fifth finger. The team physician had to make the decision as to whether they are able to continue playing volleyball at a high level, taking into consideration the different skills necessary in this sport. Players having suprascapular nerve injury might have difficulties to hit the serve, to hit and to block the ball. Those with unstable knee or ankle take a risk white landing. Lesions in the hamstrings cause local pain during jumping to attack or to block the ball and a mallet finger will disturb the player when attempting to set the ball, to handle it in attack or to block.

  4. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  6. Sport’s selection of volley-ball players: morphological and pedagogical criteria of definition of movement endowments: (information 1

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    Leonid Serhiyenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define methodology of initial sports selection of young volley-ball players. Material & Methods: methods of theoretical analysis and generalization, bibliographic method of search and study of scientific information, a systematic analysis are turned to account in this work. Results: the article deals with the theoretical model of the mast important factors, which define sports endowments of volley-ball players. It is shown the point estimation of body structure and composition, motor and psychomotor abilities, dynamic possibilities, psychophisiological indices in the prognosis of volley-ball players gifted for high sports results. Conclusions: criteria of high movement endowments of volley-ball players are defined; norms of estimation of motor abilities of valley-ball players on the initial steps of sports selection are given.

  7. The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Some Physical Fitness Factors of Adolescent Volleyball Players

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    Ehsan Zareian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the latest topics in the field of identifying mind’s ergonomics. Of all the performances with which biorhythm deals is the physical performance. The purpose of present research is to study the effect of physical cycle of biorhythm on the designated factors of physical fitness among teenage volleyball players in the city of Qom. In the present field research, 30 people were selected out of volleyball players aged 12 to 15 at random in the city of Qom. Biorhythm cycles were obtained with the biorhythm software. Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were used as tests associating with muscular power; pull-up and sit-up were used as tests associating with muscular endurance in two states of charged (the second position and discharged (the first position of biorhythm physical cycle. The statistical correlated t test with the significance level of p≤0.05 was used to analyze data. The findings indicated that the tests pertaining to power including Vertical jump and medicine ball throwing were well-correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.042; p=0.019. However, the muscular endurance tests (revised sit-up and pull-up did not show any significant difference between the two states and were not correlated with the physical cycle of biorhythm (p=0.75; p=0.73. The predictions by physical cycle of biorhythm on the muscular power of athletes are correct, but it was not possible with the muscular endurance of athletes. Of course, more researches should be conducted to increase the certainty of correctness predicted by the physical cycle of biorhythm. The prediction of this theory can be used to increase the performances of athletes in sports competitions if the biorhythm cycles prove right.

  8. Using a practical approach for determining the most effective stretching strategy in female college division I volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Barr, Marcus W; Gilders, Roger M; Kushnick, Michael R; Rana, Sharon R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects that a practical bout of static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) has on maximal countermovement jump (CMJ) height across a time spectrum of 25 minutes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity volleyball players. Eleven female varsity volleyball players (mean ± SD; age 20.00 ± 1.55 years; height 1.78 ± 0.08 m; mass 74.55 ± 12.18 kg) volunteered for this investigation. Three days of randomized experimental testing (SS, DS, control) were completed. The SS protocol consisted of stretching 7 muscle groups. The DS protocol consisted of the volleyball team's actual DS routine of equal duration (30 seconds) to SS. Poststretch performance measures of CMJ were determined at 1, 5, 15, and 25 minutes poststretch. Countermovement jump had an acute significant trial-by-time interaction, indicating that DS was found to produce significantly higher scores than the SS and control session at 1 and 5 minutes poststretch, but not at 15 and 25 minutes poststretch. Additionally, there was a timing interaction within trials where SS scores were significantly lower at 1 minute poststretch compared with 5 and 25 minutes poststretch, and DS scores were significantly higher at 1 and 5 minutes poststretch compared with 15 and 25 minutes poststretch. Athletes engaging in competitive power sports should continue to utilize their DS routine but may need to do so within 5 minutes before activity.

  9. Sensorimotor Control of the Shoulder in Professional Volleyball Players with Isolated Infraspinatus Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contemori, Samuele; Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Busti, Daniele; Panichi, Roberto; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2017-06-12

    Isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy (IIMA) only affects the hitting shoulder of overhead-activity athletes, and is caused by suprascapular nerve neuropathy. No study has assessed the static and dynamic stability of the shoulder in overhead professional athletes with IIMA to reveal possible shoulder sensorimotor alterations. To assess the shoulder static stability, dynamic stability, and strength in professional volleyball players with IIMA and in healthy control players. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Twenty-four male professional volleyball players (12 players with diagnosed IIMA and 12 healthy players) recruited from local volleyball teams. Static stability was evaluated with two independent force platforms and dynamic stability was assessed with the "Upper Quarter Y Balance Test". The static stability assessment was conducted in different support (single hand and both hand) and vision (open and closed eyes) conditions. Data from each test were analyzed with ANOVA and paired t-test models, to highlight statistical differences within and between groups. In addition to reduced abduction and external rotation strength, athletes with IIMA consistently demonstrated significant less static (P functional use of the shoulder and predispose it to acute or overuse injuries. The results of this study may help athletic trainers and physical/physiotherapists to prevent shoulder injuries and create specific proprioceptive and neuromuscular training programs.

  10. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball

  11. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  12. Influence of dorsiflexion shoes on neuromuscular fatigue of the plantar flexors after combined tapping-jumping exercises in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Gaillien, Benjamin; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2013-07-01

    Dorsiflexion shoes could be useful to increase jumping performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of wearing shoes inducing moderate dorsiflexion (2°) on neuromuscular fatigue induced by volleyball exercises involving multiple stretch-shortening cycles. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, and plantar flexors isometric voluntary and evoked contractile properties were assessed in 10 unfamiliarized trained volleyball players before and after a 10-minute intensive combined tapping-jumping volleyball exercise performed, in blinded randomized conditions, with neutral (0°) or moderate dorsiflexion (2°). No significant difference was observed on SJ performance in neutral and moderate dorsiflexion conditions. However, CMJ height was initially lower with 2° dorsiflexion compared with 0° (p volleyball exercise also induced a significant decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (p volleyball players.

  13. Risk factors associated with self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, D; Kuijer, P P F M; Langenhorst, T; Maas, M

    2014-08-01

    One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was performed among elite male volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and in the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire assessed the presence of symptoms and risk factors. Binary logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated - a response rate of 93%. Two sports-related risk factors were associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: 18-30 years playing volleyball [OR = 6.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-29.54] and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength (OR = 2.70; 95% CI 1.05-6.92). No significant other sports-, personal-, or work-related risk factors were found. Playing volleyball for more than 17 years and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength were independently associated with an increased risk on ischemia-related complaints of the dominant hand in elite male volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

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    Marszalek Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively, and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001. Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014, the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006, and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007. Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003, the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004, speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012 and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013. Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001, and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05. Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

  15. Comparison of concentric isokinetic dominant shoulder internal and external rotator torque between professional female volleyball and tennis players

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    S. Talebian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to measure isokinetic maximum and average peak torque of internal and external rotators of glenohumeral joint in volley ball and tennis players Methods: This study was performed on 17 professional female athletes (7 tennis players &10 volleyball players with age ranged 18-28 years. The subjects had played in a skilled team for more than 3 years. They were free from injury to their dominant shoulder in the past year. Subjects performed a five minute warm up by shoulder wheel and Maximum average Peak Torque (APT were obtained unilaterally by a Biodex System 3 with the arm of players in 90 degree abduction at 120,180 & 210 o/s. Players performed five trails of concentric movements with 30 second rest between them. Results: Maximum and average of maximum torques of shoulder rotator, in both groups, expect for internal rotators of tennis players, reduced by increase of movement speed (P<0.05. There are not significant difference between two groups in maximum, average of maximum torques and normalized data (ratio of maximum torque to weight. There is significant difference between two groups in percentage of APT of External rotator / Internal rotator ratio at 210 o/s (P<0.05. Conclusion: Volleyball and tennis have no effect on isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators. In high speed, ratio of External rotator / Internal rotator is reduced. This indicates that increase in movement speed increase internal rotator in comparison to external rotator in these professional female athletes.

  16. The effect of aquatic plyometric training with and without resistance on selected physical fitness variables among volleyball players

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    K. KAMALAKKANNAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of aquatic plyometric training with and without the use ofweights on selected physical fitness variables among volleyball players. To achieve the purpose of these study 36physically active undergraduate volleyball players between 18 and 20 years of age volunteered as participants.The participants were randomly categorized into three groups of 12 each: a control group (CG, an aquaticPlyometric training with weight group (APTWG, and an aquatic Plyometric training without weight group(APTWOG. The subjects of the control group were not exposed to any training. Both experimental groupsunderwent their respective experimental treatment for 12 weeks, 3 days per week and a single session on eachday. Speed, endurance, and explosive power were measured as the dependent variables for this study. 36 days ofexperimental treatment was conducted for all the groups and pre and post data was collected. The collected datawere analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and followed by a Scheffé’s post hoc test. The resultsrevealed significant differences between groups on all the selected dependent variables. This study demonstratedthat aquatic plyometric training can be one effective means for improving speed, endurance, and explosivepower in volley ball players

  17. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity for the evaluation of the infraspinatus muscle and the suprascapular nerve in professional beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtai, Georg; Wieser, Karl; Ofner, Michael; Raimann, Gustav; Aitzetmüller, Gernot; Jost, Bernhard

    2012-10-01

    Beach volleyball is an overhead sport with a high prevalence of infraspinatus muscle atrophy of the hitting shoulder. Infraspinatus muscle atrophy seems to be caused by a repetitive traction injury of the suprascapular nerve. Early pathological findings might be assessed with surface electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) measurements. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fully competitive professional beach volleyball players were assessed with a structured interview, shoulder examination, strength measurements (external rotation and elevation), and neurophysiological examination (surface EMG and NCV of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles and the suprascapular nerve, respectively) during the Beach Volleyball Grand Slam tournament 2010 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Thirty-five men with an average age of 28 years were examined. Visible infraspinatus atrophy was found in 12 players (34%), of which 8 (23%) had slight atrophy and 4 (11%) had severe atrophy. External rotation (90%; P volleyball players have a high frequency of infraspinatus atrophy (34%) and significantly reduced shoulder strength of the hitting shoulder. These findings are not associated with demographic factors. Electromyography and NCV measurements suggest a suprascapular nerve involvement caused by repetitive strain injuries of the nerve. External rotation strength measurements and NCV measurements can detect a side-to-side difference early, while EMG may show compensation mechanisms for progressive damaging of the suprascapular nerve and, as a result, loss of infraspinatus muscle strength.

  18. The jumping action's indices of female volleyball players and their relation at some somatic characteristics

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    Stech M.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of correlation analysis between of most significance jumping action's indices of high performance polish female volleyball players and their some somatic characteristics (stature, weight and body composition indices: BMI, FATkg, FAT%, FFMkg,FFM%, TBWkg and TBW% are presented. It has been found close correlation between of height of attack jump and stature (r=0,98, weight (r=0,76, FFMkg(r=0,88 and TBWkg (r=0,88. But correlation of height of attack jump with FFM% and TBW% was nonessential. Statistical essential correlation between basic indices of plyometric factor and FAT%, FFM% and TBW% indices (accordingly r = -0,65; 0,65 and 0,66 has been found. The results of the study may be taking into consideration in order to elaboration of effective jumping methods for volleyball players.

  19. The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with motivational climate of Iranian Elite Male Volleyball Players

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    Younis Mohammadzade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles of coaches with motivational climate of Iranian elite male Volleyball players. It was survey research and field study. Statistical population was all players in men's volleyball league in Iran. According to the Morgan sampling table, 150 samples were investigated. To collect information, we applied motivational climate Questionnaire (PMCSQ and leadership styles in sports (LSS.The data analysis methods were descriptive statistics, and multivariate regression was used to investigate the relationship between variables. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between the leadership styles of coaches and motivational climate (p<0.05 There was a significant relationship between the authoritative style of leadership styles with positive feedback and motivational climate. Overall, a leadership style of coaches is most important predictive factor of the motivational climate.

  20. Training volume and body composition as risk factors for developing jumper's knee among young elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnes, H; Bahr, R

    2013-10-01

    Training volume and body composition have been suggested as risk factors for jumper's knee among athletic youth, but research is lacking. The aim of this 4-year prospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between training and competition load, body composition, and risk for developing jumper's knee. Participants are elite volleyball players, aged 16-18 years. Training and competition load was recorded continuously and body composition semiannually. Jumper's knee was diagnosed on a standardized clinical examination. We recruited 141 healthy students (69 males and 72 females), and 28 developed jumper's knee (22 boys and six girls). In a multivariate analyses, boys had three to four times higher risk compared with girls. Volleyball training had an odds ratio (OR) 1.72 (1.18-2.53) for every extra hour trained, and match exposure was the strongest sports-related predictor for developing jumper's knee with an OR of 3.88 (1.80-8.40) for every extra set played per week. We did not detect any significant differences between the groups in body composition at the time of inclusion or in the change of body composition during the study period. Conclusion, male gender, a high volume of volleyball training and match exposure were risk factors for developing jumper's knee. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Anthropometric and physical characteristics allow differentiation of young female volleyball players according to playing position and level of expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, M; Grgantov, Z; Chamari, K; Bianco, A; Padulo, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the differences in some anthropometric and physical performance variables of young Croatian female volleyball players (aged 13 to 15) in relation to playing position (i.e., independent variable) and performance level within each position (i.e., independent variable). Players were categorized according to playing position (i.e., role) as middle blockers (n=28), opposite hitters (n=41), passer-hitters (n=54), setters (n=30), and liberos (n=28). Within each position, players were divided into a more successful group and a less successful group according to team ranking in the latest regional championship and player quality within the team. Height and body mass, somatotype by the Heath-Carter method, and four tests of lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power (i.e., dependent variables) were assessed. Players in different positions differed significantly in height and all three somatotype components, but no significant differences were found in body mass, body mass index or measured physical performance variables. Players of different performance level differed significantly in both anthropometric and physical performance variables. Generally, middle blockers were taller, more ectomorphic, less mesomorphic and endomorphic, whereas liberos were shorter, less ectomorphic, more mesomorphic and endomorphic than players in other positions. More successful players in all positions had a lower body mass index, were less mesomorphic and endomorphic, and more ectomorphic than less successful players. Furthermore, more successful players showed better lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power. The results of this study can potentially provide coaches with useful indications about the use of somatotype selection and physical performance assessment for talent identification and development. PMID:28416892

  2. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  3. Elastographic Findings of Achilles Tendons in Asymptomatic Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Mehtap; Idilman, Ilkay S; Ipek, Ali; Ikiz, Sinem Sigit; Bektaser, Bulent; Gumus, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Elastography is a new sonographic technique that evaluates the elasticity of different tissues such as the Achilles tendon. In this study, we aimed to investigate the elastographic findings of Achilles tendons in professional athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-one professional male volleyball players with no history of Achilles trauma were included in this study. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers with similar ages and body mass indices were selected as control participants. All participants underwent sonographic and elastographic evaluations of the Achilles tendons to evaluate Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness. We observed thickening in many of the thirds of the Achilles tendons (right proximal, right middle, left middle, and left distal thirds) of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. We did not detect any abnormalities according to the sonographic evaluations in both athletes and healthy volunteers. In the elastographic evaluations, we observed softening in the middle thirds of the Achilles tendons of athletes according to the main types (P < .001) and subtypes (P < .001 for right; and P = .002 for left middle third). There was no difference observed in the elastographic evaluations of the proximal and distal thirds. On sonography and elastography, we observed thickening and softening in Achilles tendons of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers who had similar ages and body mass indices. These changes could be associated with early tendon degeneration. Further longitudinal studies may support this consideration. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

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    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game.

  5. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

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    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  6. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players.

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    Lamontagne-Lacasse, Martin; Nadon, Raymond; Goulet E, D B

    2011-12-01

    Jump height is a critical aspect of volleyball players' blocking and attacking performance. Although previous studies demonstrated that creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrMS) improves jumping performance, none have yet evaluated its effect among volleyball players with proficient jumping skills. We examined the effect of 4 wk of CrMS on 1 RM spike jump (SJ) and repeated block jump (BJ) performance among 12 elite males of the Sherbrooke University volleyball team. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind protocol, participants were supplemented with a placebo or creatine solution for 28 d, at a dose of 20 g/d in days 1-4, 10 g/d on days 5-6, and 5 g/d on days 7-28. Pre- and postsupplementation, subjects performed the 1 RM SJ test, followed by the repeated BJ test (10 series of 10 BJs; 3 s interval between jumps; 2 min recovery between series). Due to injuries (N = 2) and outlier data (N = 2), results are reported for eight subjects. Following supplementation, both groups improved SJ and repeated BJ performance. The change in performance during the 1 RM SJ test and over the first two repeated BJ series was unclear between groups. For series 3-6 and 7-10, respectively, CrMS further improved repeated BJ performance by 2.8% (likely beneficial change) and 1.9% (possibly beneficial change), compared with the placebo. Percent repeated BJ decline in performance across the 10 series did not differ between groups pre- and postsupplementation. In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.

  7. Evaluation of knee joint proprioception and balance of young female volleyball players: a pilot study.

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    Şahin, Neşe; Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The main purpose of our study was the evaluation of the effects of long-term volleyball practice on knee joint proprioception and balance of young female athletes. [Subjects and Methods] An observational case-control study was performed. The study enrolled 19 female volleyball players in the experimental group and 19 sedentary counterparts as controls. A Biodex balance system and dynamometer were used for the evaluations. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the performance of athletes and controls. [Results] The knee proprioception analysis showed a significant difference at 60° joint position in active and passive tests. A similar trend, but without significance, was found for the 20° joint position. In the postural stability tests both groups showed similar results with no significant differences between them. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results indicate a significant influence on joint proprioception is elicited by long-term exposure to a team sport like volleyball. However, the postural stability indexes showed similar trends in both groups, highlighting the analogous ontogenesis of the subjects investigated and the low influence of volleyball practice on postural stability.

  8. Dominant vs. non-dominant shoulder morphology in volleyball players and associations with shoulder pain and spike speed.

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    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Artemiou, Andreas; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    The aims of our study were to compare the dominant (DOM) and non-dominant (NDOM) shoulders of high-level volleyball athletes and identify possible associations of shoulder adaptations with spike speed (SS) and shoulder pathology. A total of 22 male volleyball players from two teams participating in the first division of the Cypriot championship underwent clinical shoulder tests and simple measurements around their shoulder girdle joints bilaterally. SS was measured with the use of a sports speed radar. Compared with the NDOM side, the DOM scapula was more lateralised, the DOM dorsal capsule demonstrated greater laxity, the DOM dorsal muscles stretching ability was compromised, and the DOM pectoralis muscle was more lengthened. Players with present or past DOM shoulder pain demonstrated greater laxity in their DOM dorsal capsule, tightening of their DOM inferior capsule, and lower SS compared with those without shoulder pain. Dorsal capsule measurements bilaterally were significant predictors of SS. None of the shoulder measurements was associated with team roles or infraspinatus atrophy, while scapular lateralisation was more pronounced with increasing years of experience, and scapular antetilting was greater with increasing age. Adaptations of the DOM shoulder may be linked to pathology and performance. We describe simple shoulder measurements that may have the potential to predict chronic shoulder injury and become part of injury prevention programmes. Detailed biomechanical and large prospective studies are warranted to assess the validity of our findings and reach more definitive conclusions.

  9. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

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    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  10. Somatotype-variables related to muscle torque and power output in female volleyball players.

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    Buśko, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Joanna; Lipińska, Monika; Michalski, Radosław; Pastuszak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque, maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts in female volleyball players. Fourteen players participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torque was measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, SPJ and CMJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of volleyball players was: 4.9-3.5-2.5. The value of the sum of muscle torque of the left upper extremities was significantly correlated only with mesomorphic component. Mesomorphic and ectomorphic components correlated significantly with values of maximal power measured during ACMJ and CMJ. Power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of BW was significantly correlated with endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.

  11. Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation.

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    Setaro, Luciana; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Nunes, Newton; Greve, Júlia Maria; Colli, Célia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation influences the physical performance of volleyball players, as the efficacy of this approach remains questionable. Twenty-five professional male volleyball players were assigned randomly to experimental (350 mg Mg · d(-1), 4 weeks) and control groups (500 mg maltodextrin · d(-1), 4 weeks) maintaining inter-group homogeneity of urinary magnesium. Erythrocyte, plasma and urinary magnesium levels, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate production, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and plyometric (squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing) and isokinetic (peak torque, potency and total work) performances were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) supplementation. Levels of erythrocyte and urinary magnesium and creatine kinase activity and VO2 max remained within normal ranges in both groups. Plasma magnesium decreased significantly only within the experimental group. Significant decreases in lactate production and significant increases (of up to 3 cm) in countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing values were detected in the experimental group following magnesium supplementation, but not in the control group at T1. It is concluded that magnesium supplementation improved alactic anaerobic metabolism, even though the players were not magnesium-deficient.

  12. Iron supplementation prevents a decline in iron stores and enhances strength performance in elite female volleyball players during the competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 11 weeks of iron supplementation on hematological and strength markers in elite female volleyball players. Twenty-two volleyball players (aged 27.0 ± 5.6 years) from 2 Spanish First National League teams participated and were counterbalanced into 1 of 2 groups based upon iron status: (i) control group (CG, n = 11); or (ii) iron treatment group (ITG, n = 11), which received 325 mg/day of ferrous sulphate daily. Subjects performed their team's regimen of training or match play every day. Both groups were tested for hematological and strength levels at 2 points: (i) baseline (T0, before preseason) and (ii) 11 weeks later (T11, post-testing). Hematological parameters were serum iron (sFe), serum ferritin (FER), transferrin saturation index (TSI), and hemoglobin (Hb); strength assessments were bench press, military press, half-squat, power clean, clean and jerk, and pull-over. CG experienced a significant decrease (p 0.05). Consequently, in ITG all hematological parameters were significantly greater (p volleyball players during the competitive season.

  13. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.

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    Puttmann, Kathleen T; Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult.

  14. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

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    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  15. Discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack on the performance level of volleyball players. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p223

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    Victor Machado Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack-related variables on the performance level of under-17 female volleyball players. The sample consisted of young volleyball players (n=40 divided into two groups: players of the Brazilian national team (n=21 aged 15.86 ± 0.36 years, body weight of 68.11 ± 8.73 kg, and height of 181.61 ± 6.11 cm, and players of the state team of Rio Grande do Norte (n=19 aged 15.16 ± 0.88 years, body weight of 60.54 ± 7.60 kg, and height of 170.52 ± 7.97 cm. The somatotype was assessed using the Heath & Carter method. A modified Sargent test was used to assess vertical jump height and maximum attack height. The measures were compared between the two groups using the Student t-test for independent samples. Discriminant function analysis was applied to predict group allocation using the measures obtained as independent variables. The two groups differed significantly in terms of body weight, fat mass, height, maximum attack height, range of attack, and somatotype. Discriminant function analysis identified the somato-type measures (endomorphy, ectomorphy, and mesomorphy with correlation coefficients below 0.30. The canonical correlation coefficient obtained with this function was 0.856. In conclusion, somatotype or vertical jump ability does not seem to distinguish elite athletes from non-elite athletes in under-17 female volleyball players, and height is the main morphological determinant to achieve elite level performance.

  16. Collaboration with Sport Psychologists as Viewed by Female Volleyball Junior Teams

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    Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…

  17. Collaboration with Sport Psychologists as Viewed by Female Volleyball Junior Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…

  18. Analysis of Setting Efficacy in Young Male and Female Volleyball Players

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    González-Silva Jara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction, reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy and setting variables (a setter‘s position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set’s area and tempo of a set. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set’s area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages.

  19. Impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program for adolescent Brazilian volleyball players

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    Natália Vilela Silva DANIEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of an Interdisciplinary Food, Nutrition and Health Education Program on nutrition knowledge, intention to change eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction of adolescent volleyball players. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 female volleyball players from the juvenile category of the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, who participated in a program with eight monthly meetings (one discussion group followed by six educational activities and one final discussion group for evaluation. Results: Nutrition knowledge, body perception, intention to change eating behavior, eating attitudes and practices were investigated using questionnaires and discussion groups before and after the athletes' participation in ludic activities designed to address nutrition strategies for athletic performance and healthy eating, and how to deal with pressure for results and self-image. Nutrition knowledge improved from 57.0%±9.9 to 63.0%±11.8 (p=0.03 of correct answers. The mean body distortion score did not change (70.0±14.9 versus 76.5±22.4, p=0.235. Six athletes advanced in their intention to change eating behavior. Positive food practices were reported during the program and the identified discourses indicated the intention of changing the daily eating habits in the future. Conclusion: The program had a positive impact on nutrition knowledge and intention of changing eating behavior; however, for other issues, especially involving emotional aspects, further interventions should be planned.

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Group Environment Questionnaire in a Sample of Elite and Regional Level Greek Volleyball Players

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    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Aggelonidis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) adapted to the Greek language. The sample consisted of 586 male and female volleyball players of elite and regional level status. Data were analysed from three time points of a competitive season. For each time point, seven competing…

  1. Dynamic load indicators for take-off-landing sequence in blocks and attacks of elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaciński, Jarosław; Dworak, Lechosław Bogdan; Murawa, Michał; Rzepnicka, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic loads during landings determined by the ground reaction forces (GRFs) may elaborate internal loads and increase the risk of overload knee injuries as a result of performing volleyball jumps many times. The study dealt with a biomechanical assessment of dynamic load indicators in female volleyball players for the motion sequence of take-off-landing in blocks and attacks. Twelve professional female volleyball players participated in the study. Blocks and attacks were filmed by two cameras. GRFs vs. time graphs were recorded with the use of a force platform. Values of dynamic load indicators in terms of the relations of peak of vertical component of GRF, build-up index of this force (BIF), and power output (P) during landing to the vGRF, BIF and P during take-off (L/T) were calculated. The statistically significant ( p spikes: 2.4 (vGRF), 12.2 (BIF) and 3.1 (P). In the case of blocks, slide attack spikes and attack line spikes, results of these variables were in range: 1.8÷2.1, 5.9÷7.6 and 2.1÷2.9, respectively. The reduction of GRFs during landings contributes to decreasing the level of the load indicators L/T which should minimize the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon injuries in female volleyball players.

  2. Nutritional analysis of dietary intake of professional female volleyball players during the competitive phase of the regular season

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    Juan Mielgo-Ayuso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: nutritional aspects women’s volleyball has been little studied and more in a specific period of training as the competitive period. The aim is to assess and know the caloric and macronutrients intake by professional volleyball players of the Spanish Superliga for 16 weeks of training for the competition phase and compare with the references marked for athlete population.Material and methods: the study included 10 female volleyball players (JVF (26.6±5.9 years and height 178.05±8.7cm, for a total of 16 weeks of training and competition. They all gave written informed consent. They completed a food intake frequency questionary of the 16 week study, data corroborated by a dietary record (CFCA of 7 consecutive days in week 9 and 16. We were calculated daily nutritional intake from CFCA with the food composition table of CESNID by Easy Diet software, the Spanish Association of Dietitians-Nutritionists (AEDN.Results: the energy and nutritional analysis of the female professional volleyball players shows that the amount of energy and macronutrients does not meet to the recommendations for sports collective.Conclusions: it is observed low energy and carbohydrates intake and high intake of protein and lipids. Recommended practical aspects for improving nutrition education in this professional sports group.

  3. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; Fernández del Valle, M; Verde, Z; Díez-Vega, I; Santiago, C; Yvert, T; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Gómez-Gallego, F; Molina, J J; Lucia, A

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association of R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) in the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene with "explosive" leg muscle power performance in a group of male and female elite volleyball players (n=66, 31 men, 35 women) and in a group of non-athletic male and female young adults (n=334, 243 men, 91 women). We assessed power performance by means of the vertical squat and counter-movement jump tests. We also determined whether the genotypic frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X genotypes differed between groups. We did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in both groups, regardless of gender (all P>0.05). Genotype frequencies were similar between volleyball and control groups (P=0.095). Moreover, we did not find an association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite volleyball player using the dominant (RR vs RX+XX) and the recessive model (RR+RX vs XX). In summary, these findings suggest that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.

  4. Response Time, Visual Search Strategy, and Anticipatory Skills in Volleyball Players

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    Alessandro Piras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at comparing expert and novice volleyball players in a visuomotor task using realistic stimuli. Videos of a volleyball setter performing offensive action were presented to participants, while their eye movements were recorded by a head-mounted video based eye tracker. Participants were asked to foresee the direction (forward or backward of the setter’s toss by pressing one of two keys. Key-press response time, response accuracy, and gaze behaviour were measured from the first frame showing the setter’s hand-ball contact to the button pressed by the participants. Experts were faster and more accurate in predicting the direction of the setting than novices, showing accurate predictions when they used a search strategy involving fewer fixations of longer duration, as well as spending less time in fixating all display areas from which they extract critical information for the judgment. These results are consistent with the view that superior performance in experts is due to their ability to efficiently encode domain-specific information that is relevant to the task.

  5. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players.

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    Bayios, I A; Bergeles, N K; Apostolidis, N G; Noutsos, K S; Koskolou, M D

    2006-06-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to determine the anthropometric profile, body composition and somatotype of elite Greek female basketball (B), volleyball (V) and handball (H) players, b) to compare the mean scores among sports and c) to detect possible differences in relation to competition level. A total of 518 female athletes, all members of the Greek first National League (A1 and A2 division) in B, V and H sport teams participated in the present study. Twelve anthropometric measures required for the calculation of body composition indexes and somatotype components were obtained according to the established literature. V athletes were the tallest (Pathletes, had the lowest values of body fat (Psomatotype was characterized as balanced endomorph (3.4-2.7-2.9). B athletes were taller (Psomatotype characterized as mesomorph-endomorph (3.7-3.2-2.4). H athletes were the shortest of all (Psomatotype was mesomorph-endomorph (4.2-4.7-1.8). In comparison with their A2 counterparts the A1 division players were taller (Psomatotype characteristics (Psomatotype variables of Greek female elite teamball players varied among sports; selection criteria, hours of training and sport-specific physiological demands during the game could explain the observed differences. More data are certainly needed to define the anthropometric profile of B, V and H female athletes internationally.

  6. Factors effecting hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratio in volleyball players

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    Ayşegül Yapıcı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze of hamstring to quadriceps peak torque ratio (H:Q measured in isokinetic testing with respect to different angular velocities (60, 180, 300°/s, gender, dominant side and mode of contraction (concentric, eccentric in volleyball players. Twenty male and ten female healthy volleyball players participated in this study. An independent t-test was used to compare the differences between gender. One-way analysis of variance test was conducted to test for differences by effecting factors. There was a statistically significant difference between dominant and non-dominant side in H:Q ratio at 300°/s in males (p0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between at 60-180-300°/s velocities by Hconc:Qconc contractions and at 60°/s by Hconc:Qecc contractions for male and female’s peak torques in dominant side (p>0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between at 60°/s by Hconc:Qconc and Hconc:Qecc contractions for male and female’s peak torques in dominant side (p0.05. It was found in our study that H:Q ratio increases with increasing angular velocity. The findings of the present study indicated that angular velocity, type of contraction and leg dominance influence isokinetic strength profiles of male and female, consequently, muscular balance that is H:Q at the knee. This implies that isokinetic concentric knee strength plays more role in high intensity contractions and has more effect at high velocities of contraction in maximal performance.

  7. Acute effects of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) on hemorheological parameters in female volleyball players.

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    Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Yapici, Ayşegül; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Koklu, Yusuf; Tekin, Volkan; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek

    2015-07-16

    In the present study, we investigated possible alterations in red blood cell (RBC) deformability, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) and hematological parameters in response to Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) which is currently used to assess endurance performance, in female volleyball players. Eight volleyball player volunteers from Pamukkale University (mean age19,9 ± 2,2 years; mean body height 177.5 ± 1.99 cm; mean body mass index 21.66 ± 0.64 kg/m2) participated to the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after test. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by ektacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. Hematological parameters were determined using an electronic hematology analyzer. The Yo-YoIR1 applied, induced acute increments in WBV at native hematocrit (Hct) measured at a shear rate of 150 s-1 and 375 s-1, RBC deformability and WBC count. The results of the current study indicate that, the Yo-Yo IR1 test used to determine physical capacity of the player, by resulting in increments in RBC deformability contributes blood flow and thus, athletic performance of the individual.

  8. Changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness at volleyball players of 12–13 years old

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    Oleg Shevchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness of volleyball players of 12–13 years old. Material & Methods: the test exercises, which are recommended by the training program of CYSS on volleyball, were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players. 25 young volleyball players from the group of the previous basic preparation took part in the experiment. Sports experience of sportsmen is 3–4 years. The analysis of scientifically-methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics were carried out. Results: the analyzed level of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players. Conclusions: the results had reliable changes (t=2,2–2,4 at р<0,05 of the level of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players of 12–13years old in the experimental group at the end of the experiment, except run on 30 m that demonstrates a positive influence of application of special exercises in the educational-training process.

  9. Role of adolescent female volleyball players' psychophysiological properties and body build in performance of different elements of the game.

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    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Thomson, Kaivo

    2005-08-01

    Body-build peculiarities (49 body measurements) and psychophysiological properties (21 computerized tests) of 32 adolescent female volleyballers were studied to assess their significance in performance at competitions. Games were recorded by the original computer program Game, and an index of proficiency representative elements of the game was calculated for each player. Regression analysis was applied to predict the best psychophysiological and anthropometric models for serve, reception, block, feint, and attack. Seven tests of psychophysiological indices and 14 anthropometric variables explained 38-98% and 32-83% of skill performance, respectively. Consequently, to improve young volleyball players' performance, everyday coaching should be complemented by detailed assessment of their body build and psychophysiological characteristics.

  10. Comparison of the lower extremities' explosive muscular strength via jumping tests in different performance level and age groups of women volleyball players [Komparace explozivní odrazové síly dolních končetin u výkonnostně a věkově rozdílných skupin hráček volejbalu

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    Daniel Jandačka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sport performance in volleyball is significantly influenced by the quality of the player´s jumping abilities, above all on the height of the jump. Results in jumping tests indirectly indicate information about explosive muscle strength. Information about the quality of the results of jumping tests is the starting point for the monitoring of the athlete’s conditioning. OBJECTIVE: This work´s purpose consists in finding out whether there exist some differences between women volleyball players according to their age and their sport performance level and whether women volleyball players differ from women university students. A secondary aim of the study is to assess the suitability of using three jumping tests in volleyball. METHODS: For the set of women volleyball players (n = 273 divided into five different age and sport performance categories and for the set of university female students (n = 33, three jump tests were applied:the spike jump test SPJ, the counter movement jump test CMJ and the standing broad jump test SBJ. Statistical analysis was done using the Czech STATISTICA system, version 6 (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman coefficient correlation, paired t-test and ANOVA for independent samples. RESULTS: Relatively small and mostly statistically insignificant differences have been found between women volleyball players of various age and sport performance groups. All groups of volleyball players significantly exceeded the university students set in the level of their explosive muscle strength. Our research showed a lower level of jump performance, especially in what concerns the highest sport performance of women players. The initial hypotheses about the usefulness of applying three jumping tests in volleyball were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the results of jumping tests for different age and sport performance groups of women volleyball players are small. The relatively lower level of the jumping abilities of

  11. Reactive Strength Index Modified Is a Valid Measure of Explosiveness in Collegiate Female Volleyball Players.

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    Kipp, Kristof; Kiely, Michael T; Geiser, Christopher F

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the reactive strength index modified (RSImod) as a measure of lower body explosiveness. Fifteen female, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I volleyball players performed vertical countermovement jumps (CMJs) while standing on a force plate. Each player performed 3 CMJs. The vertical ground reaction forces collected during each jump were used to calculate jump height, time to take-off, time to peak force, peak force, peak rate of force development, and peak power; the latter 3 variables were all normalized to body mass. Reactive strength index modified was calculated as the ratio between jump height and time to take-off. All variables, except for jump height, were then entered a factor analysis, which reduced the input data into 2 factors: a force factor and a speed factor. Although RSImod loaded more strongly onto the force factor, further analysis showed that RSImod loaded positively onto both force and speed factors. Visual analysis of the Cartesian coordinates also showed that RSImod loaded into the quadrant of greater force and speed abilities. These results indicate that the construct of RSImod, as derived from CMJ force-time data, captures a combination of speed-force factors that can be interpreted as lower body explosiveness during the CMJ. Reactive strength index modified therefore seems to be a valid measure to study lower body explosiveness.

  12. Discriminatory power of game-related statistics in 14-15 year age group male volleyball, according to set.

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    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dávila-Romero, Carlos; Saavedra, Jose M

    2013-02-01

    This study compared volleyball game-related statistics by outcome (winners and losers of sets) and set number (total, initial, and last) to identify characteristics that discriminated game performance. Game-related statistics from 314 sets (44 matches) played by teams of male 14- to 15-year-olds in a regional volleyball championship were analysed (2011). Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) and "set number" (total, initial, and last) were assessed. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to outcome (winners and losers of sets) and "set number" (total, initial, and last). The results showed differences (winning or losing sets) in several variables of Complexes I (attack point and error reception) and II (serve and aces). Game-related statistics which discriminate performance in the sets index the serve, positive reception, and attack point. The predictors of performance at these ages when players are still learning could help coaches plan their training.

  13. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles.

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    Portal, Shawn; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Adler-Portal, Dana; Burstein, Ruty Pilz; Lahav, Yair; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2010-04-01

    Determination of body composition is an essential parameter in training athletes because low fat-muscle ratio might improve physical performance in many types of sports. Since training is often conducted in the field, it is important to determine whether simple field measurements of body composition assessment correlate with laboratory measurements. Examine the correlation of body fat content as measured using skinfold thicknesses (SF), air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI) age and gender adjusted percentiles. Body mass as measured by SF, BOD POD, BIA, and BMI percentiles were examined in 29 elite, national team level, male and female volleyball players (age range 13 to 18) at the beginning of the training season. Body fat percent measured by SF, BIA and BOD POD were highly positively correlated (r > 0.83). Measurements of body fat by SF, BIA and BOD POD were weakly correlated with BMI percentiles (r < 0.45). Results suggest that BMI percentile is not a good measure for body fat in adolescent elite male and female volleyball players. SF and measurements of body composition by BIA and BOD POD are essentially interchangeable.

  14. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

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    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (pvolleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

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    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  16. How players exploit variability and regularity of game actions in female volleyball teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana; Coutinho, Patrícia; Silva, Pedro; Davids, Keith; Mesquita, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    Variability analysis has been used to understand how competitive constraints shape different behaviours in team sports. In this study, we analysed and compared variability of tactical performance indices in players within complex I at two different competitive levels in volleyball. We also examined whether variability was influenced by set type and period. Eight matches from the 2012 Olympics competition and from the Portuguese national league in the 2014-2015 season were analysed (1496 rallies). Variability of setting conditions, attack zone, attack tempo and block opposition was assessed using Shannon entropy measures. Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyse the practical significance of compared values of selected variables. Results showed differences between elite and national teams for all variables, which were co-adapted to the competitive constraints of set type and set periods. Elite teams exploited system stability in setting conditions and block opposition, but greater unpredictability in zone and tempo of attack. These findings suggest that uncertainty in attacking actions was a key factor that could only be achieved with greater performance stability in other game actions. Data suggested how coaches could help setters develop the capacity to play at faster tempos, diversifying attack zones, especially at critical moments in competition.

  17. Mathematical modelling as a tool to assessment of loads in volleyball player's shoulder joint during spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkojć, Jacek; Michnik, Robert; Czapla, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with kinematic and kinetic conditions in volleyball attack and identifies loads in the shoulder joint. Joint angles and velocities of individual segments of upper limb were measured with the use of the motion capture system XSENS. Muscle forces and loads in skeletal system were calculated by means of mathematical model elaborated in AnyBody system. Spikes performed by players in the best and worst way were compared with each other. The relationships were found between reactions in shoulder joint and flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and rotation angles in the same joint and flexion/extension in the elbow joint. Reactions in shoulder joint varied from 591 N to 2001 N (in relation to body weight [BW] 83-328%). The analysis proved that hand velocity at the moment of the ball hit (which varied between 6.8 and 13.3 m s(-1)) influences on the value of reaction in joints, but positions of individual segments relative to each other are also crucial. It was also proved in objective way, that position of the upper limb during spike can be more or less harmful assuming that bigger reaction increases possibility of injury, what can be an indication for trainers and physiotherapists how to improve injury prevention.

  18. Effect of four different starting stances on sprint time in collegiate volleyball players.

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    Johnson, Trevor M; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Tran, Tai T; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Starting stance plays an important role in influencing short-distance sprint speed and, therefore, the ability to reach a ball during sport play. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 4 different starting stances on sprint time. Twenty-six male and female collegiate volleyball players volunteered to participate in 1 testing session. Each subject performed 3 15-ft sprint trials at each of 4 different starting stances (P-parallel, FS-false step, S-staggered, and SFS-staggered false step) in random order. Analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant interaction of sex by stance, but there were main effects for sex (men were faster than women) and stance. The FS (1.18 ± 0.10 seconds), S (1.16 ± 0.07 seconds), and SFS (1.14 ± 0.06 seconds) stances were faster than the P (1.25 ± 0.09 seconds) stance, and the SFS stance was faster than the FS stance. This indicates that starting with a staggered stance (regardless of stepping back) produced the greatest sprinting velocity over the initial 15 feet. Although taking a staggered stance seems counterproductive, the resultant stretch-shortening cycle action and forward body lean likely increase force production of the push-off phase and place the total body center of mass ahead of the contacting foot, thereby, decreasing sprint time.

  19. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players.

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    Moreira, Alexandre; Freitas, Camila G; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Drago, Gustavo; Drago, Murilo; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the session ratings of perceived exertion (Session-RPE) responses and the salivary cortisol (sC) and immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels between a regular season match (RM) and the final championship match (FM) in elite male volleyball players against the same opponent team. Higher importance was assumed for FM because this match would define the championship team. Session-RPE was obtained after 30 minutes of each match using the CR-10 scale. Saliva samples were collected before and after each match and during a rest day (baseline) at the same period of the matches. The SIgA and sC concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Greater Session-RPE was observed for FM as compared with RM (p cortisol concentration, and SIgA prelevel were affected by the match importance. These results indicate that monitoring session-RPE, sC, and SIgA responses, in conjunction, during training and competition, would provide valuable informations regarding how athletes cope with sports induced stress. This study provided knowledge about the effect of match importance on salivary markers related to stress that may help coaches to avoid excessive training loads reducing the likelihood to decrements on mucosal immunity and its consequent risk to upper respiratory tract infections, which in turn might affect the performance.

  20. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

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    D. Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, and biceps femoris (BF in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women’s superleague and eight in the Spanish men’s superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL and flexion (BF regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.

  1. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

  2. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC VERSUS PILATES EXERCISES ON THE MUSCULAR ABILITY AND COMPONENTS OF JUMPING TO VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Sandipkumar Parekh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to jump plays an effective and important role in volleyball, Because jump skills are greatly complicated that it is nearly the outcome of vertical force and horizontal speed besides harmony and synchronization of the work of arms and feet. There is also total harmony related to the skill and plan achievement during attack and block. The purpose of this study was to examine the Effect of Plyometric VS. Pilates Exercises on the Muscular Ability and Components of Jumping in Volleyball Players. Study Design: Experimental design. Methods: 30 subjects were selected randomly from the population using simple random sampling procedure and were divided into two equal groups. Group A was given plyomeric training and Group B was given Pilate training. Outcome measures were taken before and after the Program Schedule of 3 Sessions alternately in 1 week for 6week. Outcome measures: Vertical Jump height, Block jump, and the attack jump, Agility T test, Results: In Group-A (plyometric and Group-B (Pilate, all data was expressed as mean ± , SD and was statistically analyzed using paired ‘t’ test and independent ‘t’ test to determine the statistical difference among the parameters at 0.5% level of significance. Statistical data of agility t test, vertical jump height, the Block jump, and the attack jump in volley ball players showed that, there was no significantly difference between groups. And both were effective with p<0.05; i.e 95% of significance. Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that both groups (A & B were effective in agility t test, improving vertical jump height, the Block jump, and the attack jump in volley ball players. But we recommend use of plyomertic training in volleyball players.

  3. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ≥150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. The PCHA and DBA were identified in 100 % and 93 % (260/280) of cases, respectively. The prevalence of PCHA aneurysms was 4.6 % (13/280). All aneurysms were detected in proximal PCHA originating from the axillary artery (AA). The PCHA originated from the AA in 81 % of cases (228/280), and showed a curved course dorsally towards the humeral head in 93 % (211/228). The DBA originated from the AA in 73 % of cases (190/260), and showed a straight course parallel to the AA in 93 % (177/190). PCHA aneurysm prevalence in elite volleyball players is high and associated with a specific branching type: a PCHA that originates from the axillary artery. Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury. For the first time vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate ultrasound assessment. • Prevalence of PCHA aneurysms is 4.6 % among elite volleyball players. • All aneurysms are in proximal PCHA that originates directly from AA. • Vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate US assessment. • Mean PCHA and DBA diameters can be used as reference values. • Radiologists need a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury.

  4. A soft patellar tendon on ultrasound elastography is associated with pain and functional deficit in volleyball players.

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    Ooi, Chin Chin; Richards, Paula J; Maffulli, Nicola; Ede, David; Schneider, Michal E; Connell, David; Morrissey, Dylan; Malliaras, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of grey scale Ultrasound (US), power Doppler (PD) and US elastography for diagnosing painful patellar tendinopathy, and to establish their relationship with Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) scores in a group of volleyball players with and without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-five volleyball players (70 patellar tendons) were recruited during a national university volleyball competition. Players were imaged with conventional US followed by elastography. The clinical findings of painful patellar tendons were used as the reference standard for diagnosing patellar tendinopathy. In addition, all participants completed the VISA-P questionnaires. Of the 70 patellar tendons, 40 (57.1%) were clinically painful. The diagnostic accuracy of grey scale US, PD and elastography were 60%, 50%, 62.9%, respectively, with sensitivity/specificity of 72.5%/43.3%, 12.5%/100%, and 70%/53.3%, respectively. Combined US elastography and grey scale imaging achieved 82.5% sensitivity, 33.3% specificity and 61.4% accuracy while routine combination technique of PD and grey scale imaging revealed 72.5% sensitivity, 43.3% specificity and 60.0% accuracy. Tendons in players categorized as soft on elastography had statistically significantly greater AP thickness (p<0.001) and lower VISA-P scores (p=0.004) than those categorized as hard. There was no significant association between grey scale US abnormalities (hypoechogenicities and/or fusiform swelling) and VISA-P scores (p=0.098). Soft tendon properties depicted by US elastography may be more related to patellar tendon symptoms compared to grey scale US abnormalities. The supplementation of US elastography to conventional US may enhance the sensitivity for diagnosing patellar tendinopathy in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

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    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Comparison of the electromyographic activity, quadriceps: hamstring coactivation ratio and strength changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises

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    Tanzila Taj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary study was aimed to compare Electromyographic (EMG activity, Quadriceps: Hamstring coactivation (Q: H ratio and 1- Repetition maximum (RM squat changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises. Surface EMG analysis was carried out in 24 university level trained male players, football (n=12 and volleyball (n=12 while performing the following exercises: unilateral bridges, lunges, lateral step up to a 20.32 cm (8 inch platform, quadruped arm/ lower extremity lift in the first session. The EMG activities of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO and hamstrings muscles of dominant leg of the players of both groups were recorded using Power Lab EMG system (Lab Chart, AD instruments, ML-818, Australia. On the next session, 1-RM squat tests were also performed on the same players of both groups. In footballers, the lateral step-up, lunges and quadruped arm/ lower extremity lift and in volleyball players, only lunges produced EMG levels greater than 45% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC in the VMO, which suggests that they may be beneficial for strengthening that muscle. All the exercises produced EMG levels less than 45% MVIC in hamstrings in both groups of players, so they may be more beneficial for training endurance and stabilization. The study also revealed smallest Q: H coactivation ratio in all exercises in volleyball players suggesting more hamstring activity than quadriceps but in footballers, moderate Q:H coactivation ratios were obtained establishing the quadriceps dominant activation in all these exercises. The 1- RM squat testing also showed significantly greater value (p=0.00 in football players than volleyball players. The findings in this study may be used to select specific exercises to enhance a core training program depending on the individual needs of an athlete or as per the requirement of the specific sport.

  7. Determination of the functional state of the vestibular analyzer volleyball players 14–15 years under the influence of a specially-designed exercises

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    Olena Moiseyenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: indicators of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer and their changes under the influence of specially directed exercises at volleyball players of 14–15 years old are given in the article. Results: the carried-out analysis of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer, both before, and after rotary loadings to the pedagogical experiment testifies to insufficient development of a vestibular function of young volleyball players. Conclusions: the comparison of results of the studied groups after the introduction in the educational-training process of special exercises directed on the improvement of operation of the vestibular analyzer revealed considerable changes of indicators of volleyball players of the experimental group.

  8. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

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    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  9. Isolated and painless infraspinatus atrophy in top-level volleyball players: report of two cases and review of the literature

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    Célia Harumi Tengan

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolated and painless infraspinatus atrophy and weakness are described in two top-level volleyball players. EMG revealed isolated denervation of the infraspinatus muscle. One athlete continued playing and his clinical features have not changed. The other recovered her muscle bulk and strength after stopping playing. These findings were attributed to intense activity of the shoulder joint, without any direct trauma. On clinical grounds, we did not consider these cases as true examples of entrapment neuropathy. Pathogenesis was related to traction of the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve during the act of reception of the ball («Manchete».

  10. Kinesiology Taping does not Modify Electromyographic Activity or Muscle Flexibility of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Dymarek, Robert; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Małgorzata; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub

    2015-08-01

    Kinesiology taping (KT) is a popular method of supporting professional athletes during sports activities, traumatic injury prevention, and physiotherapeutic procedures after a wide range of musculoskeletal injuries. The effectiveness of KT in muscle strength and motor units recruitment is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of KT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and muscle flexibility of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles in healthy volleyball players. Twenty-two healthy volleyball players (8 men and 14 women) were included in the study and randomly assigned to 2 comparative groups: "kinesiology taping" (KT; n=12; age: 22.30 ± 1.88 years; BMI: 22.19 ± 4.00 kg/m(2)) in which KT application over the RF muscle was used, and "placebo taping" (PT; n=10; age: 21.50 ± 2.07 years; BMI: 22.74 ± 2.67 kg/m(2)) in which adhesive nonelastic tape over the same muscle was used. All subjects were analyzed for resting sEMG activity of the VL and VM muscles, resting and functional sEMG activity of RF muscle, and muscle flexibility of RF muscle. No significant differences in muscle flexibility of the RF muscle and sEMG activity of the RF, VL, and VM muscles were registered before and after interventions in both groups, and between the KT and PT groups (p>0.05). The results show that application of the KT to the RF muscle is not useful to improve sEMG activity.

  11. The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with self-determination and burn-out of the Iranian elite female Volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Zardoshtian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles of coaches with self-determination and burnout of the Iranian elite female Volleyball players .It was survey research and field study. The statistical population used in this study was all female volleyball players in Volleyball Iran League in 2010 including 144 players in 12 teams. The study sample was statistically equal to statistical population. The questionnaire included three scales measuring leadership in sports (LSS, self-determination questionnaire (SMS and burnout analysis of questionnaire (ABQ. In order to organize and summarize, and classify the raw scores, we used descriptive statistics and multivariate regression was used to investigate the relationship between variables. The research findings showed that leadership styles of coaches was significantly related to self-determination and burnout of the players (p<0.05. So the coaches of sports teams are recommended to prevent burnout and the negative impact of these factors on players' athletic performance and motivation through a proper communication and creating opportunities for players participating in the initiative development and the decision making processes.

  12. Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Under 19, Under 21 and Senior Male Beach Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros, Rui Marcelino, Isabel Mesquita, José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players’ role (blocker vs. defender specialist in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19, 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21, and 1480 rallies from senior (senior (Men’s Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011 were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams’ competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as “balanced”, “moderate balanced” and “unbalanced” games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player’s role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19 and U21; b moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players’ performances according to age group and players’ role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics.

  13. Changes induced by diet and nutritional intake in the lipid profile of female professional volleyball players after 11 weeks of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiovascular disease and lipid profile is well known. Apart from a heart-healthy diet, exercise is the primary factor that can modify this lipid-associated cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential changes in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc), as well as atherogenic indices (TC/HDLc and LDLc/HDLc), and also to analyse the diet over 11 weeks of training in female professional volleyball players. Methods The lipid profile of 22 female professional volleyball players was analysed on Day T0 (pre-preseason) and Day T11 (after 11 weeks of training). The consumption of fats by the players was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, confirmed by seven days of full dietary records. Results By the end of the study, the LDLc levels and both atherogenic indices of the players had decreased (p volleyball players during the first 11 weeks of training in the season was heart healthy, because their lipid profile improved, despite an inadequate intake of fats. PMID:24330488

  14. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Questionnaire to detect symptoms of digital ischemia in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Zacharian, Tigran; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-06-01

    The Shoulder posterior circumflex humeral artery Pathology and digital Ischemia - questionnaire (SPI-Q) has been developed to enable periodic surveillance of elite volleyball players, who are at risk for digital ischemia. Prior to implementation, assessing reliability is mandatory. Therefore, the test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Q were evaluated among the population at risk. A questionnaire survey was performed with a 2-week interval among 65 elite male volleyball players assessing symptoms of cold, pale and blue digits in the dominant hand during or after practice or competition using a 4-point Likert scale (never, sometimes, often and always). Kappa (κ) and percentage of agreement (POA) were calculated for individual symptoms, and to distinguish symptomatic and asymptomatic players. For the individual symptoms, κ ranged from "poor" (0.25) to "good" (0.63), and POA ranged from "moderate" (78%) to "good" (97%). To classify symptomatic players, the SPI-Q showed "good" reliability (κ = 0.83; 95%CI 0.69-0.97) and "good" agreement (POA = 92%). The current study has proven the SPI-Q to be reliable for detecting elite male indoor volleyball players with symptoms of digital ischemia.

  15. Research on Psychological Training of College Volleyball Players%大学生排球运动员心理训练的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀荣; 周媛

    2014-01-01

    大学生运动员平时多以业余训练和赛前集训的方式参加运动会的比赛。从运动心理学的角度,探讨大学生排球运动员的心理特征,提出临赛前的心理训练方法,使大学生排球运动员有效调节比赛心理。%College athletes usually in amateur training and the training way to participate in the games. In this paper,from the angle of sport psychology, to explore the psychological characteristics of college volleyball players,the psychological training method proposed before, the col-lege volleyball players effectively regulate thecompetition psychology.

  16. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  17. Shaping decisions in volleyball An ecological approach to decision-making in volleyball passing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; De Poel, Harjo J.; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    To extend research on decision-making in sport we addressed the choices volleyball-players are faced with in a simple volleyball pass-return task. We manipulated the distance that eight experienced volleyball players had to cover for successful ball passing, and mapped their passing technique (i.e.,

  18. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U; Rogers, Ryan A; Volek, Jeff S; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    Anecdotal and research evidence is that vertical jump performance declines over the competitive volleyball season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short period of ballistic resistance training would attenuate this loss. Fourteen collegiate women volleyball players were trained for 11 weeks with periodized traditional and ballistic resistance training. There was a 5.4% decrease (p ballistic training period (midseason to end of season), but values were not different from start to end of season. These changes in overall jump performance were reflective of changes in underlying neuromuscular performance variables: in particular, power output and peak velocity during loaded jump squats, countermovement jumps, and drop jumps. During the first 7 weeks of traditional heavy resistance training, it appears that the neuromuscular system is depressed, perhaps by the combination of training, game play, and skills practice precluding adequate recovery. Introduction of a novel training stimulus in the form of ballistic jump squats and reduction of heavy resistance training of the leg extensors stimulated a rebound in performance, in some cases to exceed the athlete's ability at the start of the season. Periodization of in-season training programs similar to that used in this study may provide volleyball players with good vertical jump performance for the crucial end-of-season games.

  19. Comparative Analysis on A Number of Non-technical Indexes of Chinese and World Elite Woman's Volleyball Players in 2012 London Olympic Games%伦敦奥运会中外优秀女排运动员若干非技术指标的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会敏; 徐成立; 周文君; 王金利; 程平

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to the certain non -technical indexes of all the volleyball players who participated in the 2012 London Olympic Games Women ’ s Volleyball tournament , this article used methods of document research , mathe-matical statistics and comparative analysis to make detailed statistical analysis of the certain non -technical indexes of all the 144 volleyball players .The results show that there is big difference in the data of age , spike height and block height between Chinese women ’ s volleyball players and the world elite women ’ s volleyball athletes while there’ s no big difference in the data of height , weight and spike high .%以参加2012年伦敦奥运会女子排球赛的全部队员的若干非技术指标为研究对象,采用文献资料法、数理统计法,对比分析法等研究方法,对144名参赛运动员的若干非技术性指标进行统计分析,以探索中国女排与国外优秀女排运动员在非技术指标上的差异。结果显示:中国女排与国外优秀女排运动员在年龄、扣球高度、拦网高度上有显著差异,在身高、体重、克托莱指数上,无差异。

  20. The effects of rope or weighted rope jump training on strength, coordination and proprioception in adolescent female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D; Duzgun, I; Baltaci, G; Karacan, S; Colakoglu, F

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of a 12-week "rope jumping" and "weighted rope jumping" training programs on functional parameters including multi-joint coordination and proprioception, strength, endurance in adolescent female volleyball players. Pretest posttest experimental design. Weighted Rope Training group (N.=9; 15±1 years), Rope Training group (N.=9; 14.1±1.3 years) and Controls (N.=7; 14.4±1.3 years). Motor coordination, proprioception, strength and endurance of the lower extremities with concentric and eccentric performances in closed kinetic chain on multi joint system assessed by the Monitorized Squat system. Absolute average error (cm) and the standard deviation for coordination and proprioception, Peak Force (N), Total Work (Nm), Average Power (Nm/s), Maximal Speed for strength and endurance tests were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U test were utilized. Weighted rope jump group had significant decrease for the deviation results of coordination on the concentric and eccentric phases for both legs (PRope jump and weighted rope jump groups had significantly lower results on non visible second movement deviation (PRope Training group in comparison to controls (PRope Training and control groups improved in concentric maximal speed (PRope Training group (Prope jump to training programs improves joint repositioning and coordination. Weighted Rope Training group got greater gains for coordination and eccentric endurance parameters for lower extremities in a closed kinetic chain.

  1. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball and basketball players: A survey-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, A J; van der Worp, H; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J

    2015-10-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury of the patellar tendon in jumping athletes. In a recent large cross-sectional study from 2008 several factors were identified that may be associated with the etiology of PT. However, because of the study design no conclusions could be drawn about causal relations. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate whether the factors identified in the previous 2008 study can also be prospectively recognized as predictors of symptomatic PT in 2011. Nine hundred twenty-six Dutch elite and non-elite basketball and volleyball players from the previous study were invited again to complete an online survey about knee complaints and risk factors for PT in 2011. The logistic regression included 385 athletes of which 51 (13%) developed PT since 2008. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.5] was found to be a risk factor for developing PT. No sports-related variables could be identified to increase the risk of developing PT, but some evidence was found for performing heavy physically demanding work, like being a nurse or a physical education teacher (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-6.3). These findings indicate that, when considering preventive measures, it is important to take into account the total tendon load.

  2. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  3. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  4. Dietary intake habits and controlled training on body composition and strength in elite female volleyball players during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake of elite female volleyball players (EFVPs, n = 22) during the first 11 weeks of the competitive season. Further, we compared findings for total energy intake and specific macronutrient distribution with the established recommendations for high-intensity athletes. Subjects also engaged in periodized training and we assessed changes in body composition (BC) and strength. Twenty-two EFVPs had dietary intake (7-day dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire), BC (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, fat mass, muscle mass), and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (bench press, military press, back squat, power clean, clean and jerk, pull-over) assessed at baseline (T0, before preseason) and 11 weeks later (T11). Athletes consumed less total kilocalories and carbohydrates (CHO) compared with established recommendations (total kilocalories: 40.7 ± 5.2 kcal/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 50-80 kcal/(kg · day)(-1); CHO: 4.3 ± 0.6 g/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 5-8 g/(kg · day)(-1)). Further, subjects consumed greater protein (2.1 ± 0.4 g/(kg · day)(-1)) compared with recommendations (1.6-1.8 g/(kg · day)(-1)) and greater fat (36.1 ± 4.6% of total kilocalories) than recommendations (20%-35% of total kilocalories). There were improvements (p 0.05) in BMI or military press and pull-over. Back squat (p = 0.054; +33.0% ± 83.7%) and power clean (p = 0.056; +26.2% ± 49.0%) increases approached significance. Our findings indicate that EFVPs improved BC and strength despite a dietary intake different from recommendations. This is possibly due to different substrate utilization during exercise in females versus males, thus new recommendations should be considered for high-intensity athletes, which are sex-specific.

  5. Dynamic load indicators for take-off-landing sequence in blocks and attacks of elite female volleyball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabaciński, Jarosław; Dworak, Lechosław Bogdan; Murawa, Michał; Rzepnicka, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic loads during landings determined by the ground reaction forces (GRFs) may elaborate internal loads and increase the risk of overload knee injuries as a result of performing volleyball jumps many times...

  6. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  7. Physiological and Psychological Basis for Training Top Volleyball Players from Childhood%优秀排球运动员“从小培养”的生理学及心理学依据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯; 梁健

    2001-01-01

    The present study combines the principles of exercise physiology and psychology with the rules of volleyball and leads to the conclusion that top volleyball players should be trained from childhood, and expounds the physiological and psychological basis for training top volleyball players from childhood.%将运动生理学及运动心理学原理,与排球运动规律紧密结合。研究认为,优秀排球运动员应“从小培养”,并论述了优秀排球运动员“从小培养”的生理学及心理学依据。

  8. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  9. A comparison of take-off dynamics during three different spikes, block and counter-movement jump in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacinski, Jaroslae; Dworak, Lecholslaw B; Murawa, Michal; Ostarello, John; Rzepnicka, Agata; Maczynski, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the take-off dynamics in counter-movement jump (CMJ), volleyball block and spikes. Twelve professional female players, representing the highest volleyball league in Poland, participated in the laboratory tests. A force platform was used to record ground reaction force (GRF) during take-off phase in CMJ test, block from a run-up and spikes: front row attack, slide attack, back row attack. Vertical (v) GRF (peak: Rmax and integral mean: ), impulse of vGRF (J) and mechanical power (peak: Pmax and integral mean: ) were analyzed. Significant differences (P, J, Pmax, and ) were found between CMJ, block from a run-up and three different technique spikes. The highest values were recorded during take-off in the back row attack: peak vGRF (2.93±0.05 BW), integral mean vGRF (1.90±0.08 BW), impulse of vGRF (354±40 Ns), peak power (5320±918 W) and integral mean power (3604±683 W). Peak power (2608±217 W) and integral mean power (1417±94 W) were determined in CMJ test to evaluate the force-velocity capabilities of the players. In terms of GRF and the mechanical power, high level of dynamics in take-off influences positively the jumping height and significantly increases the effectiveness of attacks during spike of the ball over the block of the opponent.

  10. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  11. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players. PMID:27942136

  12. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the changes in muscle strength, power, and somatic parameters in elite volleyball players after a specific pre-season training programme aimed at improving jumping and strength performance and injury prevention. Twelve junior female volleyball players participated in an 8-week training programme. Anthropometric characteristics, isokinetic peak torque (PT single-joint knee flexion (H and extension (Q at 60º/s and 180º/s, counter movement jump (CMJ, squat jump (SJ, and reactive strength index (RSI were measured before and after intervention. Significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180 º/s in the dominant leg (DL (18.3±15.1%, likely; 17.8±11.2%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (7.4%±7.8%, very likely in the DL. In the non-dominant leg (NL significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180º/s (13.7±11.3%, likely; 13.4±8.0%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (10.7±11.5%, very likely. Small to moderate changes were observed for H/QCONV in the DL at 60º/s and 180º/s (15.9±14.1%; 9.6±10.4%, both likely and in the NL at 60º/s (moderate change, 9.6±11.8%, likely, and small to moderate decreases were detected for H/QFUNC at 180º/s, in both the DL and NL (-7.0±8.3%, likely; -9.5±10.0%, likely. Training-induced changes in jumping performance were trivial (for RSI to small (for CMJ and SJ. The applied pre-season training programme induced a number of positive changes in physical performance and risk of injury, despite a lack of changes in body mass and composition. CITATION: Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(2:205-213.

  13. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  14. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  15. Plyometric type neuromuscular exercise is a treatment to postural control deficits of volleyball players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asadi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: It can be recommend that strength and conditioning professionals in the field of volleyball do not perform other type of landing exercise in plyometric training sessions because of postural control impaired and consequently the probability of lower extremity injuries will increase.

  16. 2011女排世界杯中外运动员非技术指标对比研究%The Contrastive Research of Players on the Non-technical Indexes of 2011 Women’s Volleyball World Cup Beteen Foreign Teams and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余容平

    2012-01-01

    以2011年女排世界杯所有女排运动员为研究对象,分别对中国女排、亚洲女排、欧美女排进行分析,通过数理统计法,对比其年龄、身高、体重、扣球高度、拦网高度和克托莱指数6项非技术指标,探讨中国女子排球队近年来在身体形态和网上高度等方面的发展情况、优势及差距。%Take all volleyball players of 2011 women’s volleyball World Cup as the research object,divided into Chinese team,the Asian team and the Europe team,through the mathematical statistics method,compared their athletes’ age,height,body weight,spiking height,blocking height and Quetlet index six non-technical indexes,to discusses the the development,advantages and the gap of Chinese women’s volleyball team in physique and height over nets recent years.

  17. Light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) before matches prevents increase in creatine kinase with a light dose response in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Dos Santos, Ricardo Vinicius; Marques, Guilherme; Zangrande, Marcelo; Leonaldo, Roberley; Hamblin, Michael R; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied over skeletal muscles before intense exercise (muscular pre-conditioning) in order to reduce fatigue and muscle damage (measured by creatine kinase, CK) in clinical trials. However, previous exercise protocols do not exactly simulate the real muscle demand required in sports. For this reason, the aim of this randomized and double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to investigate whether light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) applied over the quadriceps femoris muscles, hamstrings, and triceps surae of volleyball players before official matches could prevent muscle damage (CK) with a dose response, establishing a therapeutic window. A professional male volleyball team (12 athletes) was enrolled in this study, and LEDT was applied before 4 matches during a national championship. LEDT used an array of 200 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) arranged in 25 clusters of 4 infrared LEDs (850 ± 20 nm; 130 mW) and 25 clusters of 4 red LEDs (630 ± 10 nm; 80 mW). Athletes were randomized to receive one of four different total doses over each muscle group in a double-blind protocol: 105 J (20 s), 210 J (40 s), 315 J (60 s), and placebo (no light for 30 s). CK in blood was assessed 1 h before and 24 h after each match. LEDT at 210 J avoided significant increases in CK (+10 %; P = 0.993) as well as 315 J (+31 %, P = 0.407). Placebo (0 J) allowed a significant increase in CK (+53 %; P = 0.012) as well as LEDT at 105 J (+59 %; P = 0.001). LEDT prevented significant increases of CK in blood in athletes when applied before official matches with a light dose response of 210-315 J, suggesting athletes might consider applying LEDT before competition.

  18. The Effect of the Contrastive Training Using Weights and Plyometrics on the Development of the Vertical Jump Ability to Improve the Performance of the Smash for Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabchi Noreddine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering training as a purposeful educational process that implies scientific planning for the sake of preparing the players, with their different physical, psychological and skill levels, to achieve the highest possible levels, it acquired a special character and was implemented into different important domains to achieve athletic goals at various levels for the development of motor performance. Many methods are used commonly by most of the trainers, and this led us, as researchers, to suggest a training programme that is based on the use of a contrastive training method using weights and plyometrics to achieve the highest degrees of efficiency, through using strength in different and opposite ways within the training unit or within a set of exercises, while trying to contribute to the clarification of this way for all types, in general, and applying it with the volleyball students as a sample representing the research community. The research process is meant to be conducted through pre and post tests on two groups; one as the control group and the other pilot. The first sample group underwent a programme established under the supervion of the professor of the subject, while the second underwent the suggested programme. Ultimately we found out through the statistical analysis of the results the existence of significant statistical differences between the pre and post tests in favour of the pilot group on the account of the control one. Researchers attribute these results to the impact of the suggested contrastive training using weights and plyometrics, which leads to the improvement of the ability to jump through bridging the gap between strength training and speed, using the so-called reactive prolongation which facilitates and adapts the additional kinetic units in the muscles during the performance, and gains muscle elasticity, and thus the development of vertical jumping ability, which contributes to the improvement of the smash skill in

  19. 核心稳定性训练对青少年排球运动员专项运动能力的影响%Effect of Core Stability Training Program on Special Physical Ability in Youth Volleyball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 申喆

    2015-01-01

    核心稳定性训练已应用于大多数竞技运动项目,但其对运动员专项运动能力的影响依然没有定论。为验证核心稳定性训练对青少年排球运动员专项运动能力的影响,研究选取青少年女子排球运动员18名,分为实验组(9名)和对照组(9名)。实验组除常规专项训练外,增加核心稳定性训练。对照组只进行常规专项训练。通过对8周训练前、后运动员排球专项运动能力和核心稳定性指标的测试和比较发现,经过8周核心稳定性训练后,实验组排球专项运动能力指标中除了助跑摸高成绩没有明显变化外,其余指标均高于训练前,核心稳定性测试指标也显著高于训练前;对照组则都没有明显变化。进而推测核心稳定性训练的确能够提升青少年排球运动员专项运动能力及核心稳定性。因此,青少年排球运动员应重视核心稳定性训练。%Although core stability training has been used in many sports,little is known about the effect in volleyball;particularly in youth volleyball players.The aim of this study was to in-vestigate the effect of an eight-week core stability training program on the special physical abil-ity of female youth volleyball players.1 8 female youth volleyball players are selected,and di-vided into experimental group (n= 9 )and control group (n= 9 ).The experimental group fol-lowed the routine volleyball training program with the addition of an eight-week core stability training program while the control group only received the routine volleyball training program. The results showed that the core stability training group improved their volleyball special phys-ical ability test performance significantly except the run-up height.Their core stability test per-formance was also improved significantly.This indicates that core stability training enhanced the female youth volleyball players’special physical ability and core stability

  20. The Examination of Effect on Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Activities of Infrastructure Training at Volleyball

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    Özgür DİNÇER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The examination of changes at some anthropometric characteristics and motor activities of volleyball players placing 10 - 12 age categories by infrastructure trainings performed periodically. Method: The twenty - nine soccer players from soccer school of Ordu Telekom Sport Club at Altınordu district of Ordu province join ed to this study. The volleyball player s performed trainings half - weekly throughout thirty - sixweek. Pre - test and post - test values of height, weight, triceps, suprailiac, subscapula and abdomen fat, biceps flexion and extension, chest, abdomen, hip, thigh and calf circumstance, upper extremity, upperarm, forearm, inferior extremity, thigh and leg length were measured by anthropometric measure set and fat percentage of body (BF% and body mass index (BMI were calculated by Yuhaz formula. The 20 m. sprint, ball throwing, standing long and vertical jump and flexibility tests were done as motor activity tests by Newtest test system. The difference between pre - test and post - test values was determined by Wilcoxon test at SPSS package programme. Results: The significant differences between pre - test and post - test, biceps flex, biceps ext, chest, abdomen, leg, hip and calf circumstance, inferior extremity and leg length, fat percentage of body (BF%, body mass index (BMI, vertical jump, horizontal jump, 20 m. sprint, flexibility and ball throwing values w ere determined (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was determined that volleyball infrastructure trainings performed periodically at children volleyball players placing at 10 - 12 age categories developed anthropometric characteristics, basic motor activity and performance values of the m .

  1. Word play, ritual insult, and volleyball in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.

  2. Jump frequency may contribute to risk of jumper's knee: a study of interindividual and sex differences in a total of 11,943 jumps video recorded during training and matches in young elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Martin A; Bahr, Roald

    2014-09-01

    Male sex, total training volume (number of hours per week) and match exposure (number of sets played per week) are risk factors for jumper's knee among young elite volleyball players. However, it is not known whether jump frequency differs among players on the same squad. To examine interindividual and sex differences in jump frequency during training and matches in young elite volleyball players. Observational study. Norwegian elite volleyball boarding school training programme. Student-athletes (26 boys and 18 girls, 16-18 years). Individual jump counts were recorded based on visual analysis of video recordings obtained from 1 week of volleyball training (9 training sessions for boys and 10 for girls, 14.1 h and 17.8 h of training, respectively) and 10 matches (5.9 h for boys (16 sets) and 7.7 h for girls (21 sets). A total of 11,943 jumps were recorded, 4138 during matches and 7805 during training. As training attendance and jump frequency varied substantially between players, the total exposure in training ranged from 50 to 666 jumps/week among boys and from 11 to 251 jumps/week among girls. On average, this corresponded to 35.7 jumps/h for boys and 13.7 jumps/h for girls (Student t test, p=0.002). Total jump exposure during matches ranged between 1 and 339 jumps among boys and between 0 and 379 jumps among girls, corresponding to an average jump frequency of 62.2 jumps/h for boys and 41.9 jumps/h for girls (Student t test, pvolleyball players. Total jump volume may represent a more important risk factor for jumper's knee than total training volume, warranting further research attention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  4. [Analysis of knee joint injuries of competitive volleyball players in selected sports clubs of Poznan city--biomechanical context. Synthesis--proposal for the usage of physiotherapy methods in the prevention of the discussed injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Lechosław B; Rzepnicka, Agata; Wilkosz, Piotr; Szczesny, Łukasz

    2010-01-01

    Volleyball is a source of direct injuries and chronic overloads of the joints, which indirectly results in traumas and permanent dysfunctions. This applies particularly to: knee joints, ankle joints, shoulder joints and small joints of the hand, as well as the joints of the lower spine regions. Each league team should employ a physiotherapist who would be responsible for the implementation of an injury prevention program as well as for choosing the right training loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the frequency and the type of knee joint injuries occurring in people practicing Volleyball at competitive level as well as to propose the usage of elements of modern physiotherapy in order to prevent these injuries. The tests were performed over a group of 19 volleyball players from Poznan. In order to propose measures that would prevent injuries, the authors carried out a review of modern physiotherapy methods and suggested the implementation of certain therapeutic techniques for the region of the knee joint. RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: As much as 79% of the subjects reported having chronic pain and knee joint injuries in the past. All of them, due to their conditions, declared having used various forms of physiotherapy treatment. It seems that in a professional sports club not only the presence of a massage therapist but first of all a qualified physiotherapist is indispensable.

  5. erfiles decisionales de jugadores y jugadoras de voleibol de diferente nivel de pericia. (Decisional profiles of volleyball players of different expertise level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia García Coll

    2009-01-01

    of expertise: State, National and International. Results showed that the scales of this questionnaire had good reliability when it was applied to specific sport samples. Male and female volleyball players had a similar decisional profile (there were no significant differences, with a moderate selfperception of decisional competence, low level of anxiety and high commitment (V profile. As competence increased, moderately increased the level of commitment and selfperception of decisional competence, too, and decreased the level of anxiety. As a consequence, the decisional profile of the International Group was very different from the rest of the two groups of lower competence. Key words: anxiety; perceived competence; decision; team sport; sport expertise.

  6. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  7. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  8. Concepções de treinadores "experts" Brasileiros sobre o processo de formação desportiva do jogador de voleibol Expert coaches conceptions concerning the sport development of the volleyball player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Milistetd

    2010-03-01

    ção desportiva a longo prazo do jogador de Voleibol.The aim of the present study was to examine the conceptions of expert coaches concerning the volleyball player's long term sport development. The participants were 10 expert coaches. The sample presented 45 ± 13.8 years old and 24.8 ± 12.1 years of coaching experience in the Brazilian volleyball. Data collection was accomplished through structured open answer interviews based on Fernandes' protocol (2004. Its content adaptation to sociocultural and sportive Brazilian reality was accomplished through expert validation. The treatment of the information was accomplished through content analysis, with logic-semantic procedures of the prevalent ideas in the corpus of interviews. The reliability of codification was assured by percentage accord of the same encoder and the different encoders, registering values between 95% and 100%. The present study evidences that no participant knows about the existence of a national long term sport development model for a volleyball player. Moreover, coaches confirmed that the Volleyball is a sport of late specialization, being a widespread consensus that the age of initiation of systematic practice is in the beginning of adolescence, around the age of 13 years old. The components of sport development throughout the stages highlight the practice of the deliberate play in the first stage, where diversified motor experiences prevail. From the second stage, the deliberate practice increases with the acquisition of specific competences and commitment with the modality. The absence of specification of the training contents along the stages, as well as the scanty reference to the psychosocial competences along the stages, can be due, in great measure, to the inexistence of a national model of long term sport development.

  9. The determination of isokinetic performance values of knee joint and Hamstring (flexor/Quadriceps (extensor ratios differences in Volleyball players’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the values of isokinetic performance in knee joint and the ratios of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q between volleyball players and controls. 30 male volleyball players (age: 19,46±2,1 and 30 male controls (age: 19,66±2,0 were participated in this study. This study investigated hamstring and quadriceps muscles strength ratio obtained during concentric muscle contraction. The ratio of H/Q muscle strength which was an indicator of normal balance between the knee flexors and extensor and it is important to estimate of the capacity for stabilization of knee joint and the preventation of disability. Knee flexion and extension measurements were tested on biodex system–3 dynamometer in %60, %180 and %300 deg/sec test protocols. The range of motion of knee Joint was evaluated by biodex system–3 dynamometer. There was no statistical difference in the ROM of the knee joint between volleyball players and controls (p>0,05. The isokinetic values of volleyball players were significantly higher than controls (p<0,05. H/Q values must be determined to prevent disability. For the aim of get ready for the season and supply the continuity of performance level increases, preseason isokinetic testing of athletes may be helpful to test for strength imbalance and to determine the correct exercises which is suitable for remove the H/Q disproportion.

  10. Status, problems and future directions of research in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz Błażej

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . To analyse of publications on various aspects of volleyball and identify the most promising areas of research. Material and methods . As information sources were selected journals from different databases, full-text catalogs and libraries. Results . It is noted that the selection and training process of young volleyball players largely determines the level of club and national teams. In this case, the application of modern techniques, systems and approaches to research is a key component of the success of the team and the level of training of talented volleyball players. Found that the combination of sports orientation and quality of life of young people through passion volleyball helps educate conscious attitude towards their health and desire for high professional achievements. Conclusions . Promising areas should be recognized, such as: improving orientation sessions volleyball; biomechanical prerequisites of development and realization of motor actions, adaptation of existing technical facilities for volleyball.

  11. Volleyball training of people with hearing impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Poluhová, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Title: Volleyball training of people with hearing impairments. This thesis describes and characterizes volleyball training of people with hearing impairments. Options for active sports life of people with hearing impairments in the Czech Republic are under the umbrella of Association of the Deaf athletes. Sensory disability does not limit players in physicalperformance,howeverrenders a number of specific needs that must be respected during a training unit. The aim of this thesis is to describ...

  12. Upper Limb Biomechanics During the Volleyball Serve and Spike

    OpenAIRE

    Reeser, Jonathan C.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Bolt, Becky; Ruan, Mianfang

    2010-01-01

    Background: The shoulder is the third-most commonly injured body part in volleyball, with the majority of shoulder problems resulting from chronic overuse. Hypothesis: Significant kinetic differences exist among specific types of volleyball serves and spikes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen healthy female collegiate volleyball players performed 5 successful trials of 4 skills: 2 directional spikes, an off-speed roll shot, and the float serve. Volunteers who were c...

  13. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  14. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific ev

  15. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.

  16. Volleyball and emotional health of students of pedagogical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskharina Y.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of valueological pedagogical influence of volleyball lessons on the emotional state of pedagogical university students. In the experiment involved 96 students aged 18-20 years. It was found that 72% of students feel the satisfaction of most emotional needs during the game, 86.4% indicate a bright splash of feelings and a sense of mutual aid during the game, 24% of students met the best friends among the players section. 89.3% of students say that skill, sense of humor, energy, example and support of teacher (trainer during exercise can affect the emotional state of the team and each student. Professional and personal qualities of the coach, to encourage students to employment volleyball positive impact on the physical, mental performance, improve attention, ability to work in a team, to overcome emotional stress, feelings of fatigue, improves emotional state of students.

  17. Relationship between landing strategy and patellar tendinopathy in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zwerver, Johannes; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aetiology of patellar tendinopathy ( jumper's knee) remains unclear. To see whether landing strategy might be a risk factor for the development of this injury, this study examined whether landing dynamics from drop jumps differed among healthy volleyball players ( CON) and volleyball

  18. Relationship between landing strategy and patellar tendinopathy in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zwerver, Johannes; Mulder, Theo

    Objective: The aetiology of patellar tendinopathy ( jumper's knee) remains unclear. To see whether landing strategy might be a risk factor for the development of this injury, this study examined whether landing dynamics from drop jumps differed among healthy volleyball players ( CON) and volleyball

  19. Relationship between landing strategy and patellar tendinopathy in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zwerver, Johannes; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aetiology of patellar tendinopathy ( jumper's knee) remains unclear. To see whether landing strategy might be a risk factor for the development of this injury, this study examined whether landing dynamics from drop jumps differed among healthy volleyball players ( CON) and volleyball

  20. 大学生男子排球运动员阶段性无氧运动能力特征的研究%Analysis on the Characteristics of Periodic Anaerobic Exercise Performance of Male Volleyball Players in University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘印民; 王昶; 孔繁明

    2011-01-01

    运用Quebec 10s、Wingate 30s、katch 120s三种无氧运动能力的测试方法,对备战2010—2011赛季中国大学生排球联赛的25名优秀男子排球运动员的无氧能力进行测试分析。探讨不同位置高水平大学生男子排球运动员比赛前无氧运动能力的状态、特点与规律,揭示其在磷酸原代谢、混合代谢、糖酵解代谢无氧运动能力之间的基本并联。研究结果表明:磷酸原代谢无氧运动能力中副攻、自由人表现较强;磷酸原与糖酵解混合代谢无氧运动能力中对二传运动员要求较高;糖酵解代谢无氧运动能力中对接应、主攻运动员要求较高。建议未来训练中应了解不同位置运动员所需无氧能力合理安排训练方法。%Tests on anaerobic exercise capability, including Quebec 10s, Wingate30s and katch120s, have been carded out among 46 elite volleyball players. The states, features and regularity of pre-match anaerobic exercise performance of higher-level female volleyball players with different positions in the court are discussed and the basic connection among the anaerobic exercise capabilities of higher-level male volleyball players with different positions in the court, including phosphagen metabolism, anabolic metabolism and glycolysis metabolism, is revealed. The result shows that phosphagen metabolism means most to middle blockers and liberos; anabolic metabolism combined with glycolysis metabolism is most important to setters; and outside spikers and opposite setters require more attention to glycolysis metabolism. It is suggested that the dynamic relationship among the three kinds of anaerobic exercise capabilities should be valued in future physical training. Applying various training methods and grading the training by court position and intensity level could serve as an important guidance in improving anaerobic exercise capabilities of professional players.

  1. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  2. Neuropeptide Y: An Anti-Aging Player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a role in aging and lifespan determination. In this review, we critically discuss age-related changes in NPY levels in the brain, together with recent findings concerning the contribution of NPY to, and impact on, six hallmarks of aging, specifically: loss of proteostasis, stem cell exhaustion, altered intercellular communication, deregulated nutrient sensing, cellular senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Understanding how NPY contributes to, and counteracts, these hallmarks of aging will open new avenues of research on limiting damage related to aging.

  3. An experimental study of the jumping load characteristics of beach volleyball players%沙滩排球运动员弹跳素质负荷特征的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠洁

    2015-01-01

    运用多学科知识,对沙滩排球运动员弹跳素质负荷特征的有关问题进行了实验研究。结果表明:运动员在沙地纵跳时的运动负荷强度大于室内木质地纵跳;沙地上完成纵跳时肌肉更容易疲劳,且下肢肌肉功能状态的变化有特异性;运动员连续纵跳相对高度的变化特征进一步揭示了沙地对运动员起跳过程中神经肌肉兴奋性水平的影响程度。建议根据沙排的项目特点,采取全面而有针对性的训练,以利于运动员弹跳素质的提高。%This research is based on multi -discipline theories.The purpose is to examine the jumping characteristics of beach volleyball players on different grounds.The findings are as follows:the load of vertical jumping carried in sand was higher than that on wooden floor indoors,which indicates that it is easier to feel tired on the sand ground and the lower limb muscle performances are different with their own characteristics.The changes of relative height in repeated vertical jumps further proved how much the sand ground had influenced the nerve and muscle excitement of the players.It is suggested that we should implement comprehensive but targeted training based on the characteristics of beach volleyball to improve the players'jumping qualities.

  4. Efeito do Uso do Estabilizador Active Ankle System® na Altura do Salto Vertical em Jogadores de Voleibol Effect of the Use of the Active Ankle System Stabilizer in The Vertical Jump Height in Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Saldanha dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    performance or not. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the Active Ankle System® (AAS DAB on the vertical jump height in volleyball players. METHODS: The sample consisted of 14 female athletes aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample was told to jump, simulating the sportive gesture of attack and block (with and without DAB, over contact plates plugged to a notebook computer that calculated the height of the jump using a software. Previously, a pilot study was performed to establish the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient at the four testing conditions (n=4, and the outcomes were: attack with DAB 0.95; attack without DAB 0.76; block with DAB 0.92 and block without DAB 0.89. The height data from each sort of vertical jump with or without DAB were matched using paired Student's t test samples. RESULTS: To a significance level of α=0.05, no significant difference was found between the attack jumps with DAB (0.41 + 0.073m and without DAB (0.41 + 0.086m, p=0.517. In addition, no significant difference was found between the block jumps with DAB (0.31 + 0.048m and without DAB (0.32 + 0.050m, p=0.06. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the results of the present study point out that the use of the AAS DAB does not influence volleyball players' vertical jumping performance.

  5. Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2016-01-01

    Volleyball players performed numerous repetitions of spike actions, which uses and requires strong and explosive force, and control of the muscles of the shoulder, lower back, and legs. Muscle imbalance is one of the main causes of sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess isokinetic muscle functions in male volleyball players. We thus aim to accurately evaluate their muscle functions, and identify the best training strategy to achieve optimal muscle strength balance in future t...

  6. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Kulig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPatellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.

  7. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M.; Reischl, Stephen F.; Landel, Rob F.

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811

  8. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

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    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  9. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  10. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  11. Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2016-01-01

    Volleyball players performed numerous repetitions of spike actions, which uses and requires strong and explosive force, and control of the muscles of the shoulder, lower back, and legs. Muscle imbalance is one of the main causes of sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess isokinetic muscle functions in male volleyball players. We thus aim to accurately evaluate their muscle functions, and identify the best training strategy to achieve optimal muscle strength balance in future training programs. The participants in this study consisted of 14 male volleyball players. Muscle strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle strength was evaluated in terms of peak torque and average power, calculated from five repeated measurements at an angular speed of 60°/sec. Three players who were left attackers showed shoulder imbalance, four players showed trunk joint imbalance, nine players had knee joint of extension/flexion imbalance and four players showed left/right imbalance. The results showed that the number of volleyball players with differences between the strength of the bilateral knee muscles, and between the strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles was higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the shoulder internal and external rotation muscles, and higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the lower back extension and flexion muscles. PMID:27807521

  12. Physics of volleyball: Spiking with a purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    1998-05-01

    A few weeks ago our volleyball coach telephoned me with a problem: How high should a player jump to "spike" a "set" ball so it would clear the net and land at a known distance on the other side of the net?

  13. ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS AND INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES IN YOUTH VOLLEYBALL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felismina Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine accountability systems operating in youth volleyball training sessions and to understand how those systems vary according to the instructional tasks and the nature of the information provided by coaches. Additionally, the interactive effect of the players' age group on accountability systems and instructional tasks will be inspected. Twenty-eight youth volleyball coaches (for under 14s and under 18s were observed, one training session each. Systematic observation strategies were used to describe and analyse task presentation and task structure during practice. Results convey that the accountability systems implemented by coaches were mainly implicit and governed by opportunity rather than explicit performance criteria imparted in task presentation. Remarks on the quality of performance only occurred during ongoing practice. More often than not coaches showed no reaction when athletes did not accomplish the tasks, failing to convey consequential expectancy-demand-monitoring messages. The instructional approach was predominantly composed of informing tasks, of technical nature and general information, which can reflect a technique and generalist coach profile. These results indicate the presence of weak and ambiguous accountability system, also corroborated by positive correlations of extending tasks with the category without exigency task presentation as well as with no reaction to unaccomplished tasks. There were no notorious differences in accountability behaviours between players' age group

  14. Stars a nd Little Girls Volleyball Team Force Talon Comparison of Athletes

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    Özgür DİNÇER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Before and after the age of puberty the child's sporting events on a regular basis can provide a healthy development of the physical structure. In this study, by measuring the differences between the different categories determine the forces fighting claw infrastructure athletes, sports clubs who are struggling in different categories for the pursuit of physical development of infrastructure to benef it athletes, national and international athletes in the same age group, the other is intended to inform the people who study this issue by making a comparison. The research group, in the province of Kocaeli, Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality Sports Club St ars and Little Girls Volleyball Teams in the paper used average age of the athletes (15.1 ± 0.73 and the 10 star girl athletes (12.6 ± 0.69, 10 Little girl are a total of 20 people, including athletes. The data corresponding to the children's training co mputer days, and by informing the application of the test by showing collected. Measurement hand dynamometer (hand grip and realized. Subjects after a 15 - minute warm - up, while standing arm twist the measurement without contact with the body and the arm wa s measured during 15 degree angle to the body. This was again the dominant hand two times and the highest value was used. Data analysis, SPSS 19 package program has been analyzed by Mann - Whitney U test, the mean and standard deviation values are measured . As a reference value P <0.05 was used. Girls 'volleyball team volleyball star claw forces people participated in the study (10, the mean and standard deviation (26.70 ± 3.29, little girls' volleyball team, contact (10, the mean and standard deviation (21.43 ± 5.53 and the p - value (0.011, respectively. A significant difference between the two groups were measured grip strength (P <0,05. Participated in the study, star volleyball player volleyball girls little appears to have higher values than girl s. The reason for this, despite the

  15. Comparação de diferentes métodos de controle da carga interna em jogadores de voleibol Comparisson of different methods of internal load control in volleyball players

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    Maurício Gattás Bara Filho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de monitorar precisamente a carga de treinamento é um importante aspecto para a efetividade da periodização e para a prevenção de efeitos negativos, como a queda no rendimento. OBJETIVOS: Comparar e correlacionar diferentes métodos de controle de carga interna de treinamento em jogadores de voleibol. MÉTODOS: Quinze atletas profissionais de voleibol do sexo masculino, com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, que competiam em níveis estaduais e nacionais, participaram deste estudo. A carga de treino para cada sessão foi calculada utilizando três diferentes métodos: PSE da Sessão, Zonas de FC (TRIMP de Edwards e de Stagno. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que há correlação positiva e significativa entre o método proposto por Foster, Edwards e Stagno. No entanto, os valores das correlações individuais entre PSE e Edwards (0,451 a 0,670, em geral, foram ligeiramente maiores que os da correlação entre PSE e Stagno (0,206 a 0,597. CONCLUSÃO: O método proposto por Edwards, bem como o método proposto por Foster, melhor refletem as cargas de treino no voleibol, fazendo com que o monitoramento das cargas seja realizado de maneira mais fidedigna e confiável quando realizado por esses dois métodos.INTRODUCTION: The ability to accurately monitor training loads is an important aspect of athlete effectiveness and the prevention of negative effects, such as performance decrease. OBJECTIVES: Compare and correlate different methods for controlling internal training loads in volleyball players. METHODS: Fifteen male volleyball athletes between 18 and 30 years old who compete at state and national levels, participated in this study. Training load for each session was calculated using three different methods: RPE/Foster, HR zones (TRIMP Edwards and Stagno. RESULTS: It was observed that there is positive and significant correlation between the method proposed by Foster and Edwards and Stagno. However, the values of individual

  16. 排球运动员决策神经效率的fMRI研究%An fMRI Study for Decision-Making Neural Efficiency of Volleyball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国正

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用功能磁共振成像技术(fMRI),对优秀排球运动员和普通大学生运动决策过程中的神经机制进行研究,探讨多年的动作技能学习和运动训练对优秀排球运动员大脑神经机制产生的影响。方法:采用Siemens Magnetom Trio 3.0T 磁共振成像系统,对20名优秀排球运动员和20名普通大学生运动决策时进行全脑fMRI扫描,找出拦网决策任务时组间激活脑存在显著差异的区域。结果:行为数据中,运动员与普通人相比具有显著性差异,决策正确率高,反应速度快。在脑成像数据中,运动员激活的脑区与普通人相比具有显著性差异,普通人比运动员多激活了负责视觉加工的枕极和枕叶梭状回脑区。结论:普通人组在进行拦网决策任务时需要动用更多的脑功能活动去进行视觉信息处理加工,而运动员组则动用较少的脑功能活动进行视觉信息处理加工。由此推断,运动员的神经效率具有经济性。%Objectives :This paper analyzes the brain neural mechanism of the elite volleyball players and ordinary college students in the decision‐making task by using fMRI for the pur‐pose to illustrate the influence of motor skill learning and sports training on the brain neural mechanism of the players .Methods :20 elite volleyball players and 20 ordinary college students are scanned with fMRI when they are in the decision‐making task by Siements Magnetom Trio 3 .0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner ,to find the difference of activate encephalic re‐gion in the block decision‐making task .Results :Behavioral results showed that players were much better than college students in the decision‐making test .The results of fMRI showed that it was significant different between players and college students ,players activate much less than college students in Occipital Pole and Occipital Fusiform Gyrus that play important roles in vis

  17. THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS FROM SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009 as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE

  18. 浅谈排球运动员的心理技能训练%Analysis of Mental Skill Training of Volleyball Player

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔红新

    2011-01-01

    依据排球运动训练、比赛的实际,从心理学角度阐述运动员的心理技能对提高排球训练水平和比赛成绩的重要性,试图通过心理技能训练方法的介绍,来帮助运动员学会调整和控制自己的心理状态,以适应比赛的要求,并在竞争激烈的比赛中创造优异成绩。%According to the practical situation of volleyball training,this paper elaborates the importance about how mental skill improves the level of volleyball training in the psychological way.And it tries to help athletes adjust and control their own state of mind by the introduction of mental skill training in order to adapt to the requirements of the competition and make outstanding performance in the fierce contest.

  19. Overuse in volleyball training/practice: A review on shoulder and spine-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance.

  20. Jumping and Landing Techniques in Elite Women’s Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Mark D.; Hass, Chris J.; Brunt, Denis; Bennett, Gregg R.

    2004-01-01

    Volleyball has become one of the most widely played participant sports in the world. Participation requires expertise in many physical skills and performance is often dependent on an individual’s ability to jump and land. The incidence of injury in volleyball is similar to the rates reported for sports that are considered more physical contact sports. Though the most common source of injury in volleyball is the jump landing sequence, little research exists regarding the prevalence of jumping and landing techniques. The purpose of this study was to quantify the number of jumps performed by female volleyball players in competitive matches and to determine the relative frequency of different jump-landing techniques. Videotape recordings of two matches among four volleyball teams were analyzed for this study. Each activity was categorized by jump type (offensive spike or defensive block) and phase (jump or landing). Phase was subcategorized by foot use patterns (right, left, or both). Each of the players averaged nearly 22 jump-landings per game. Foot use patterns occurred in unequal amounts (p < 0.001) with over 50% of defensive landings occurring on one foot. Coaches, physical educators, and recreation providers may utilize the findings of this inquiry to help prevent injuries in volleyball. Key Points The incidence of injury in volleyball is nearly equivalent to injury rates reported for ice hockey and soccer. Most injuries in volleyball occur during the jump landing sequence, but few data exist regarding jump landing techniques for elite female players. Our data indicate that the vast majority of jumps utilize two feet, but approximately half of landings occur with only one foot. Coaches, physical educators, and recreation providers may utilize the findings of this inquiry to prevent possible injuries in athletes, students, or those who participate in volleyball for recreational purposes. PMID:24497818

  1. Volleyball. August 1975 - August 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvino, Geri, Ed.

    This guide is part of a series published by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport. It contains 16 articles written on various aspects of volleyball, such as (1) volleyball visual aids, (2) a volleyball bibliography, (3) training for volleyball, (4) key visual cues in volleyball, (5) basic agility for beginners, and (6) solving…

  2. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  4. Considerations on the constitutional type of the central hitter in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin GRĂDINARU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last major volleyball men competition was within the London 2012 Summer Olympics, which gathered 12 volleyball teams thoroughly selected during trial tournaments. On this occasion, they recorded the evolution of all participants and supplied volleyball methodologists and technicians with data on the various aspects of volleyball game (physical, technical, and tactical. We aimed at establishing the defining elements of a central hitter parameter dynamics in this competition. The subjects of our research were central hitters of all the participating volleyball teams. We also identified central hitters of the “Universitatea” Timişoara men volleyball team. The mean central hitter is, according to the data collected by the specialists of the London 2012 Summer Olympics, 27.93 years old and 203.8 cm tall, and weighs 94 kg. The central hitters of the volleyball team of Russia had particular values in all studied parameters: this position is relevant for the potential of the team and for the high level of the game. The mean values of the studied parameters are relevant in establishing the final hierarchy (Russia, Brazil, and Italy. We found obvious differences between the mean values of these parameters in the men volleyball players participating in the London 2012 Summer Olympics and the men volleyball players of the “Universitatea” Timişoara volleyball team.

  5. Design and validation of an observational instrument for technical and tactical actions in beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical and tactical actions determine performance in beach volleyball. This research develops and tests an instrument to monitor and evaluate the manner of execution and efficacy of the actions in beach volleyball. The purpose of this paper was to design and validate an observational instrument to analyze technical and tactical actions in beach volleyball. The instrument collects information regarding: a information about the match (context, b information about game situations, c information about technical situations (serve, reception, set, attack, block, and court defense in relation to player execution, role, manner of execution, execution zone, and efficacy, and d information about the result of the play (win-lose and way point is obtained. Instrument design and validation was done in seven stages: a review of literature and consultation of experts; b pilot observation and data analysis; c expert review of instrument (qualitative and quantitative evaluation; d observer training test; e expert review of instrument (content validity; f measurement of the ability of the instrument to discriminate the result of the set; and g measurement of the ability of the instrument to differentiate between competition age groups. The results show that the instrument allows for obtaining objective and valid information about the players and team from offensive and defensive technical and tactical actions, as well as indirectly from physical actions. The instrument can be used, in its entirety or partially, for researching and coaching purposes.

  6. Accountability systems and instructional approaches in youth volleyball training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felismina; Mesquita, Isabel; Graça, Amândio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine accountability systems operating in youth volleyball training sessions and to understand how those systems vary according to the instructional tasks and the nature of the information provided by coaches. Additionally, the interactive effect of the players' age group on accountability systems and instructional tasks will be inspected. Twenty-eight youth volleyball coaches (for under 14s and under 18s) were observed, one training session each. Systematic observation strategies were used to describe and analyse task presentation and task structure during practice. Results convey that the accountability systems implemented by coaches were mainly implicit and governed by opportunity rather than explicit performance criteria imparted in task presentation. Remarks on the quality of performance only occurred during ongoing practice. More often than not coaches showed no reaction when athletes did not accomplish the tasks, failing to convey consequential expectancy-demand-monitoring messages. The instructional approach was predominantly composed of informing tasks, of technical nature and general information, which can reflect a technique and generalist coach profile. These results indicate the presence of weak and ambiguous accountability system, also corroborated by positive correlations of extending tasks with the category without exigency task presentation as well as with no reaction to unaccomplished tasks. There were no notorious differences in accountability behaviours between players' age group. Key pointsAccountability systems implemented by coaches were mainly implicit and governed by opportunity rather than explicit performance criteria imparted in task presentation. Only during practice, coaches remark the performance quality, followed by participation/effort.The instructional approach was predominantly composed of informing tasks, of technical nature and general information, which can reflect a technique and generalist

  7. Dynamic Research on Non-technical Factors of the Top Eight Women’s Volleyball Teams Players in Last 3 Olympic Games%近3届奥运会女排前8名队伍运动员非技术指标的动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素琴

    2016-01-01

    Taking the top eight teams in the last 3 Olympic Games as research objects,this paper makes both vertical and horizontal comparison on non-technical factors of European,Asian and Chinese teams separately. The paper aims at investigating the future development trend of non -technical factors of women’s volleyball players worldwide,understanding advantages and disadvantages of Chinese women’s volleyball players compared with world top teams in terms of non-technical factors,and providing references for Chinese women’s volleyball team preparing for 2016 Olympic Games.%以近3届奥运会女排前8名队伍的运动员为研究对象,分别对欧美女排、亚洲女排、中国女排的非技术指标进行纵向、横向的比较分析,力图探讨世界女排运动员非技术指标未来的发展趋势,了解中国女排同世界女排强队在非技术指标方面存在的优劣势,为中国女排备战2016年奥运会提供一定的参考。

  8. Muscular imbalance and shoulder pain in volleyball attackers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, A.; Krüger-Franke, M; Reininger, S; Trouillier, H H; Rosemeyer, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In overhead sports such as volleyball, baseball, or tennis shoulder problems are very common. The aim of this study was to identify features which may correlate with shoulder problems in volleyball attackers. METHODS: 30 competitive volleyball attackers (mean age 25 years) were included in the study; 15 were suffering from shoulder pain and 15 had no history of shoulder pain. The results were compared with those of a control group of 15 recreational athletes without any overhead sp...

  9. Muscular imbalance and shoulder pain in volleyball attackers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, A.; Krüger-Franke, M; Reininger, S; Trouillier, H H; Rosemeyer, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In overhead sports such as volleyball, baseball, or tennis shoulder problems are very common. The aim of this study was to identify features which may correlate with shoulder problems in volleyball attackers. METHODS: 30 competitive volleyball attackers (mean age 25 years) were included in the study; 15 were suffering from shoulder pain and 15 had no history of shoulder pain. The results were compared with those of a control group of 15 recreational athletes without any overhead sp...

  10. 我国优秀女排运动员一攻技术运用效果研究%Analysis on the Effects of Using the First Attack Techniques of the Elite Chinese Volleyball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔涛

    2011-01-01

    采用录像统计、数理统计等研究方法,对第十一届全运会女子排球赛八强在决赛阶段12场比赛的一攻运用效果进行统计比较分析,探讨八强在接发球、二传、扣球和组织战术等环节存在的优势和不足,并提出相对应的建议,为进一步提高我国女排竞技水平提供参考。%With the method of video recording statistics and mathematical statistic,the paper makes a comparative analysis on the adoption of the first-attack techniques of the women players of the top eight teams in the last 12 finals of the 11th National Games,discusses the advantages and weakness of the return of service,setting,spiking and tactics and proposes relative suggestions so as to provide references for the improving of the competitiveness of the Chinese women's volleyball.

  11. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  12. Shoulder rotators electro-mechanical properties change with intensive volleyball practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, C; Nordez, A; Bideau, B

    2009-12-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the incidence of high-level volleyball practice on muscle strength production and muscle activation during internal and external shoulder rotations. Seven professional and seven French amateur league volleyball players performed maximal isometric at three forearm angles, concentric and eccentric isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotations. The torque production and muscle activation levels of PECTORALIS MAJOR and INFRASPINATUS were determined. Few significant differences were found for muscle activation and co-activation between amateur and professional volleyball players during both internal and external rotations. No significant difference in torque production was observed for shoulder internal rotation between professional and amateur volleyball players. Torque production was significantly higher during shoulder external rotation for amateur (46.58+/-2.62 N . m) compared to professional (35.35+/-1.17 N . m) volleyball players relative to isometric contractions, but it was not different during isokinetic efforts. The torque ratios for external/internal rotations were always significantly lower for professional (0.42+/-0.03 pooling isometric and concentric conditions) compared to amateur volleyball players (0.56+/-0.03 pooling isometric and concentric conditions). Those results emphasize that a high level of volleyball practice induces a strong external rotators deficit compared to sports such as swimming, baseball or tennis.

  13. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  14. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  15. Restore and Prevention of Sports Injury in Training and Competition for the Players of Volleyball Teams of Dongchangfu District High School%东昌府区高中排球队在训练比赛中的运动损伤、恢复及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彦秀; 朱盼娣; 张光富

    2014-01-01

    通过采用调查问卷法、文献资料、数理统计等方法对东昌府区五所高中排球运动员运动损伤情况的调查了解、认识导致排球运动损伤的原因,探索上排球运动损伤的对策,以期为今后的训练和比赛中指导预防运动创伤提供参考。%This paper , using methods of questionnaire , literature and mathematical statistics , investigates to the sports injury of players from 5 high school volleyball teams of Dongchangfu District , to grasp the characteristics and the reason of sports injury in volleyball games , explores the countermeasures to the prevention for sports injury , so as to provide reference for guiding preventing sports injuries in volleyball training and competition .

  16. Physical actions and work-rest time in men's beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, and rest ratio in male beach volleyball players in relation to their tactical roles. The sample of this study included 6970 rallies played by 91 beach volleyball players, which corresponded to 179 sets of the 2008 Men's Beach Volleyball World Tour (FIVB. We analyzed: ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, rest time, set (first, second or third, and player's tactical role (e.g., defense specialist, blocker, or no specialization. A significantly higher number of jumps were executed by blockers. No differences were found in the third set for any of the physical variables studied. This paper provides references about the physical demands (e.g., contacts, jumps, and hits for blockers and defense specialists and temporal patterns of the beach volleyball game (i.e., work and rest time for two-set matches and three-set matches.

  17. SPECIFIC SITES OF BONE EXPANSION DEPEND ON THE LEVEL OF VOLLEYBALL PRACTICE IN PREPUBESCENT BOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, M.; Zribi, A.; Bouajina, E.; Zaouali, M.; Tabka, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 18 months of high and low levels of volleyball practice on bone acquisition. 130 prepubescent boys (mean age 11.4 ± 0.7) were divided into a high-level training group (HLG), low-level training group (LLG), and controls. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area at the whole body, lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck of the dominant leg, and right and left radius were measured using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry. Enhanced BMC resulted from high-training volleyball activity in all measured sites except the third left and right distal radius, which is not modified by low-level training in prepubescent players but it was accompanied by a bone area expansion in radius and weight-bearing sites for the HLG, and in legs, whole right and left radius for the LLG. Significant improvement of skeletal tissues is associated with the intensity and duration of volleyball training. PMID:24744493

  18. SPECIFIC SITES OF BONE EXPANSION DEPEND ON THE LEVEL OF VOLLEYBALL PRACTICE IN PREPUBESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Chaari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 18 months of high and low levels of volleyball practice on bone acquisition. 130 prepubescent boys (mean age 11.4 ± 0.7 were divided into a high-level training group (HLG, low-level training group (LLG, and controls. Bone mineral content (BMC and bone area at the whole body, lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck of the dominant leg, and right and left radius were measured using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry. Enhanced BMC resulted from high-training volleyball activity in all measured sites except the third left and right distal radius, which is not modified by low-level training in prepubescent players but it was accompanied by a bone area expansion in radius and weight-bearing sites for the HLG, and in legs, whole right and left radius for the LLG. Significant improvement of skeletal tissues is associated with the intensity and duration of volleyball training.

  19. Study of attack in college volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Portela Pozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis work is done in order to analyze the positive and negative aspects that affected the performance of the auction action in volleyball players performing this action (in this case male in the Provincial University Games in 2012 in Havana , for which I take as a case study to the players of the University of Information Sciences and its opponents in those games, completing a total of 268 shares auctions in 7 games with a total of 15 September analyzed taking account of changes in the sport of Volleyball university in Cuba, data recorded by an observation sheet previously completed by the authors. The main results in this paper show that the greatest amount of shots that were done in these games were diagonal and a good percentage of positive linear auctions however were few and with very poor results. The primary role of the auction for the game's success is fully confirmed in this work because this action is achieved through many points in the game of volleyball and thus leads to a better result.

  20. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus

  1. DIFFERENCES IN TECHNICAL MOVEMENT PRECISION WITH BALL TO NEW AGES SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Sermaxhaj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this research is to compare the accuracy of the collision of the ball to players of both age groups U-17 and U-19. The research was conducted on a sample of 100 young soccer players Kosovo divided into two groups: the first group comprised of 50 young players U17 and second group comprised of 50 young soccer players U-19. To assess the precision of the attack on the ball all the players they have subjected technical demonstration testing in four tests: (T-JUGGL, T-PASI, T-KROS, T-SHOOT. Through T-test method are proven differences in favor of players U-19 to U-17 in all tests of precision technical movements with the ball, but statistically significant differences are shown in the collision test at the gateway (T-SHOOT and the test ball juggling (T-JUGGL . The results obtained show us that more experienced players U-19 have a better precision in demonstrating the technical movements with the ball, compared to U-17 players. Assuming that the training process is very important to voice learning, mastering demonstration, acquisition, and precise technical movements with the ball, because the precision peak levels is very significant.

  2. Are the take-off and landing phase dynamics of the volleyball spike jump related to patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.W.; Hof, A.L.; Bredeweg, S.W.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The causal mechanism of the chronic sports injury patellar tendinopathy is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to compare ankle and knee joint dynamics during the performance of the volleyball spike jump between healthy volleyball players (n = 8) and asymptomatic volleyb

  3. Are the take-off and landing phase dynamics of the volleyball spike jump related to patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.W.; Hof, A.L.; Bredeweg, S.W.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    Objective: The causal mechanism of the chronic sports injury patellar tendinopathy is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to compare ankle and knee joint dynamics during the performance of the volleyball spike jump between healthy volleyball players (n = 8) and asymptomatic

  4. Are the take-off and landing phase dynamics of the volleyball spike jump related to patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.W.; Hof, A.L.; Bredeweg, S.W.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The causal mechanism of the chronic sports injury patellar tendinopathy is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to compare ankle and knee joint dynamics during the performance of the volleyball spike jump between healthy volleyball players (n = 8) and asymptomatic volleyb

  5. Ingesta dietética de hierro y su deficiencia en las jugadoras de voleibol femenino de élite Dietary iron intake and deficiency in elite women volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mielgo-Ayuso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La práctica del voleibol requiere repetidos impactos en brazos y pies provocados por saltos verticales, caídas, remates, cambios bruscos y rápidos de dirección, por lo que se nos podría plantear problemas en el metabolismo del hierro (Fe y la ingesta recomendada de Fe de 18 mg/día (en el colectivo femenino a nivel general, no sea suficiente para cubrir las necesidades de Fe de las jugadoras de voleibol femenino (JVF. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado de los depósitos de Fe mediante los cambios producidos en la ferritina sérica (FS e índice de saturación de transferrina (IST y evaluar la ingesta de Fe tras 11 semanas de entrenamiento. Métodos: Se analizó la FS e IST de 10 JVF de un equipo de la Superliga española (26,6 ± 5,9 años y talla 178,05 ± 8,7 cm en dos momentos de la temporada: Semana 0 (previo al inicio de los entrenamientos de pretemporada y semana 11 (tras 11 semanas de entrenamiento y 6 partidos de la liga regular. Así mismo se calculó el consumo de Fe en este periodo a partir de cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos elaborados y comprobados a partir de registros dietéticos de 7 días. Resultados: Se observó que una ingesta de 25,8 mg/día de Fe dietario no es suficiente para prevenir que un 30% de las JVF sufran déficit de Fe pre-latente y el 20% déficit latente (pre-anemia. Conclusión: Sería recomendable la realización de analíticas periódicas y una educación alimentaria, enseñando que alimentos contienen un alto contenido en Fe de tipo hemo, así como los factores que pueden interferir en su absorción.Introduction: Volleyball practice requires repeated impacts on arms and feet caused by vertical jumps, falls, auctions, sudden and rapid changes of direction, which is why might raise us problems in the metabolism of iron (Fe and the recommended intake of 18 mg/day (in the women in general, is not sufficient to meet the needs of the players of volleyball female (JVF. Objective: We

  6. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  7. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  8. The volleyball athlete's shoulder: biomechanical adaptations and injury associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified. Assessment of study quality was performed using the STROBE statement. The reviewed literature supports the existence of a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and a possible (and less pronounced) external rotation gain in the dominant vs. the non-dominant shoulder of volleyball athletes. Unlike other overhead sports, the GIRD in volleyball athletes appears to be anatomical as a response to the repetitive overhead movements and not to be associated with shoulder pain/injury. Additionally, the dominant shoulder exhibits muscular imbalance, which appears to be a significant risk factor for shoulder pain. Strengthening of the external rotators should be used alongside shoulder stretching and joint mobilisations, core strengthening and optimisation of spike technique as part of injury management and prevention programmes.

  9. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  10. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  11. Mudanças no padrão temporal da EMG de músculos do tornozelo e pé pré e pós-aterrissagem em jogadores de voleibol com instabilidade funcional Changes in the EMG temporal pattern of pre and post-landing of ankle and foot muscles in volleyball players with functional instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Yuri Suda

    2008-08-01

    ômica.INTRODUCTION: The ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries in athletes, including volleyball. 90% of ankle injuries in volleyball occur during landing after a blocking maneuver. The most common complication following ankle sprains is functional instability (FI, a condition that affect about 52% of the patients that suffered an ankle sprains . Functional ankle instability (FI has been defined as a tendency for the foot to give way after an ankle sprain with no evidence of ligament injury. Hence, FI is an impairing condition for volleyball performance since it interferes in its basic skills. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compare the EMG activation patterns of tibialis anterior (TA, peroneus longus (PL and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL in volleyball players with and without FI during landing after the blocking movement. METHODS: EMG activity was acquired for 21 subjects (mean age 20 ± 4 yrs with FI (IG and 19 control ones (CG. Linear envelopes were calculated for both groups for the time period between 200 ms before and 200 ms after the instant of impact, and time and magnitude of peak occurrence were extracted from the envelopes. Groups were compared using T test (α < 0.05. RESULTS: IG subjects showed a later peak occurrence for TA (CG = -107.4 ± 29.6 ms; IG = -134.0 ± 26.0 ms and PL (CG = -11.0 ± 55.9 ms; IG = -41.7 ± 49.8 ms and a lower peak magnitude for TA (CG = 68.5 ± 17.2%; FIG = 81.2 ± 28.8% and PL (CG = 72.9 ± 27.3%; FIG = 59.1 ± 16.0%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that individuals with FI present a later and lower activation pattern of muscular activity and different activation magnitudes that predispose them to ankle sprains, even in the absence of an anatomical damage.

  12. Reference values for the sprint performance in male football players aged from 9–35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis Pantelis Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the present study was twofold: firstly, to examine the effect of age on a 20 m sprint performance; and secondly, to establish normative data for the 20 m sprint performance by age in football players.

  13. Different temporal bases for body and arm movements in volleyball serve reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benerink, N. H.; Bootsma, R. J.; Zaal, F. T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve

  14. The Use of Alcohol Among NCAA Division I Female College Basketball, Softball, and Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M

    1998-04-01

    To identify and describe alcohol use among NCAA Division I female college basketball, softball, and volleyball players and to determine to what extent the players have been exposed to alcohol or other drug education programs. Mailed self-reporting questionnaire, sample of convenience. The study was conducted in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina. NCAA Division I athletic trainers of ten female basketball teams, ten female softball teams, and eleven female volleyball teams received questionnaires. A total of 371 participants returned questionnaires: 106 basketball players, 138 softball players, and 127 volleyball players. After reviewing the related literature, I developed a questionnaire and pilot tested it with a group of female swimmers and track and field athletes. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic information, alcohol use, and alcohol education. I analyzed the questionnaires descriptively (frequencies, percentages, and means) and collectively, on the total population, and separately, on all teams. To validate and further understand information gained from the questionnaires, I conducted multiple face-to-face interviews with forty (11%) of the participants. Almost 79% of the subjects consumed alcohol, with light beers being the most popular beverage. Most started using alcohol before 18 years of age. More softball (89.1%) and volleyball (88.9%) athletes reported drinking than did basketball (63.2%) athletes. Quantity and frequency of alcohol use decreased during the competitive sport season but increased out of season. Almost 60% (55.9%) of the participants engaged in binge drinking (defined as four or more drinks per drinking episode) out of season and 35% in season. Female athletes who lived off campus drank more frequently than those who lived in residence halls, but athletes living in residence halls reported drinking in larger quantities. The most common reasons subjects chose not to use alcohol

  15. Relative age effect and its relationship with morphological characteristics and performance in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pedretti,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In soccer, the relative age effect (RAE was observed in both adult and young players. The RAE appears to be more pronounced in elite sports, probably by the need to select the best players to compete internationally. This study review: (1 the prevalence of RAE in soccer players, (a considering competitive level (b and specific position and (2 association between RAE (a and anthropometric characteristics, (b physical fitness components and technical skills. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria for this review. One trial (meta-analysis was included after the eligibility process. Overall, 77675 young soccer players were analysed. In all studies, significance level of 0.05 was set for the type I error. There is a consensus about the presence of an RAE in men’s soccer, and the percentage of players born in the first quarter in the selection year for professionals is high, with peak values found for elite young athletes, and a large decrease is evident throughout the regional and school representation. The relationship between RAE and the specific position is controversial, according to few studies. It is likely that players born in the first quarter differ in a variety of anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness components compared with peers born in the last quarter. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAE increase and decrease in order, to reduce and eliminate this social inequality that influence the experiences of athletes, especially in periods of development. Organizational and practical intervention is required.

  16. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  17. Comparison of technical and physiological characteristics of prepubescent soccer players of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; De Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Bresciani, Guilherme; García-López, David; Hernández-Murúa, José A; Jiménez-Jiménez, Rodrigo; De Paz, José A

    2010-07-01

    Although soccer is one of the most widely played sports around the world, studies about young players and the success factors in soccer are still scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to offer some insight into the factors contributing to success in this sport and to describe how physiological and technical performance evolves in young soccer players. Soccer technical skills during match play, maximum voluntary isometric contraction and power of lower limbs, jumping ability and endurance parameters were assessed in 30 prepubescent male soccer players with the same experience in soccer training. Subjects were divided into 2 groups of 15 children, a younger group (YG), aged 9.4 +/- 0.3 years, and an older group (OG), aged 11.8 +/- 0.2 years. Correlations between technical and physiological parameters were also described. Significant difference was set at p soccer, which can facilitate the development of more appropriate selection models and trainings.

  18. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botek Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.

  19. BASIC MOBILITY OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND NON-SPORTSMEN AT PREADOLESCENT AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Janković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to establish differences in basic mobility of football players and nonsportsmen at preadolescent age. The sample of examinees consisted of 75 students at age of 12 years ± 6 months. The group of football players consisted of 35 boys, attendants of several football schools from Niš, with football experience of at least year and a half. The group of nonsportsmen consisted of 40 students never active in sport. The assessment of basic mobility was carried out through eleven variables. By means of canonical discriminative analysis it is established that there are global differences between two subsamples in favor of football players, which can be variated by the positive transfer of trainings and oriented selection.

  20. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  1. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P fitness...

  2. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12-19 years : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Post, Wendy; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12-19 years (n=267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 year

  3. VALIDITY OF THE SITUATIONAL-MOTOR TESTS WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AT THE AGE OF 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gardašević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted on 120 young football players aged 15 from the following football clubs: FC Sutjeska, FC Čelik, FC Polet Stars i OFC Nikšić, all from town Nikšić. They were tested by 12 situational-motor tests for estimating 4 situationalmotor abilities, aiming to establish their validity. Using different types of factor analysis there has been evidenced that the tests for estimating the speed of ball control appear to be of the greatest validity especially for estimating the situational-motor abilities with the tested football players.

  4. Characterization of hip passive stiffness of volleyball, basketball and futsal young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Araújo, Vanessa; Otoni do Carmo Carvalhais, Viviane; Ribeiro Teles Dos Santos, Thiago; Gomes Pavan Gonçalves, Gabriela; Sales Prado, Luciano; Teixeira Fonseca, Sérgio

    2013-11-01

    (1) To establish the reference values of the test of 'Position of hip passive resistance against gravity' (PHPR) in young athletes; (2) To investigate differences between the values of PHPR test according to athlete's sex, age and sport practiced. Cross-sectional. Sports club. 282 Volleyball, basketball and futsal athletes aged between 10 and 18 years. Hip passive stiffness was measured through PHPR test, which provides indirect information regarding this tissue property; high stiffness means low corresponding test values. The mean values of PHPR test ranged from 0.41 to 1.06°/kg. The test results were different among all age categories and the values were lower in older athletes (pvolleyball athletes had higher values than the male ones (pvolleyball players showed lower values of this property compared with males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  6. Nutritional and anthropometric profile of adolescent volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Tania Abreu de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Women's participation in volleyball began in 1928. In 1944, the first Brazilian volleyball championship happened. Flexibility, strength, power, agility and aerobic fitness are all necessary to be a master in this sport. Women's participation in sport activity has increased. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil about nutrition assessment, especially amongst female volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the dietetic and anthropometric profiles of 25 female adolescent volleyball players of Rio de Janeiro (15-20 years old. Anthropometric assessment was obtained by body mass, stature, skinfold and circumference measurements. Prospective 3-day records, that include two weekdays and one weekend day were analyzed by a Brazilian nutrition software (CIS/EPM, 1993 to obtain the nutrient intake and the results were compared to the American recommendations. The results of anthropometric evaluation showed that athletes had body mass of 64.35 ± 6.12 kg, stature of 1.74 ± 0.06 m and fat mass of 20.51 ± 2.43%. Diets consisted of high energy and protein intake, and low carbohydrate intake. The consumption of calcium, folate and vitamin E was below the recommendations. Since these athletes are going through a period of intense growth and development associated with rigorous training, it becomes, therefore, necessary for them to receive individualized nutritional orientation to improve their performance and quality of life.

  7. "Yes, we can!": Perceptions of collective efficacy sources in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Berckmans, Daniel; Ceux, Tanja; De Backer, Maarten; Boen, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Collective efficacy can be defined as a group's shared confidence that they will successfully achieve their goal. We examined which behaviours and events are perceived as sources of collective efficacy beliefs in a volleyball context. In study 1, volleyball coaches from the highest volleyball leagues (n = 33) in Belgium indicated the most important sources of collective efficacy. This list was then adapted based on the literature and on feedback given by an expert focus group, resulting in a 40-item questionnaire. In Study 2, coaches and players from all levels of volleyball in Belgium (n = 2365) rated each of these sources on their predictive value for collective efficacy. A principal component analysis revealed that the 40 sources could be divided into eight internally consistent factors. Positive supportive communication (e.g., enthusiasm after making a point) was identified as the factor most predictive for positive collective efficacy beliefs. The factor referring to the negative emotional reactions of players (e.g., discouraging body language) was the most predictive for negative collective efficacy beliefs. These findings offer a starting point for the design of continuous measurements of collective efficacy through observation.

  8. TEN DAYS TRAINING EFECTIVITY ON MEASURED SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS 15 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Research took place in the basketball camp “Kikinda 07”. The sample consisted of 20 basketball players, 15 years of age (cadets, from Kikindas basketball clubs. On the inicial (9.VIII 2007. year and final (19.VIII 2007. year measurement, 9 tests spe- cific motor abilities (SMA were done: Player movement with the ball, Ball manipulation and Player movement without the ball. The aim was to prove 10 days training efektivity (15 trainings at 90 min. on specific motor abilities (SMA at cadets. Basketball players (cadets were trained under programme made by author of this research. The differences between two measurements (initial and final were proven using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Using this results the significant statistical difference appeared between two measuremeents (on .00 level. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA proved a statistical significant better results after training (in final measurement in 4 tests (variable: “Kamikaze” (shorted with driving (on .05 level; Driving the ball aro- und central circle (on .00 level (for SMA measurement movement player with a ball; and for SMA ball manipulation: Driblling with variations and Circling with ball around a body (on .00 level.

  9. Physical and physiological characteristics in male team handball players by playing position - Does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, P T; Ingebrigtsen, J; Póvoas, S C; Moss, S; Torres-Luque, G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult male team handball (TH) players. Adolescent (N.=57, aged 14.9±1.4 yr) and adult (N.=39, 26.6±5.7 yr) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, squat jump (SJ), countermovement vertical jump without (CMJ) and with arm-swing, and a 30-s Bosco test. Eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) was calculated as the ratio CMJ to SJ. In adult players, there were significant differences between wings and the other positions with regard to anthropometric and body composition parameters (body mass, -17.9% to -13.2%; height, -5.3% to -4.3%; and fat-free mass, -13.7% to -9.9%) and anaerobic power assessed by WAnT (peak power, -20.5% to -15.2%; and mean power, -20% to -14.8%); however, these characteristics did not differ significantly in adolescents, in which the only statistically significant difference was found between goalkeepers and the other positions in EUR (+8.1%). Therefore, the differences in physical and physiological characteristics between playing positions are age-dependent. As adult players in this study were taken from players competing in the top Greek league, findings could serve as a base for talent identification and development for future studies. Moreover, knowledge about positional differences might enhance the ability to make tailored position-specific training programs among adult and adolescent players in the future.

  10. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisse Maxime

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05. However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  11. Contact psychophysiological and neural functions with technical and tactical readiness volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazyrin I.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Set the level of neural development, psycho-physiological functions in highly skilled volleyball players. Defined technical and tactical preparedness highly skilled volleyball players in the competitive period of the annual cycle of training. The study involved six masters of sport and 8 candidates for the master of sports. That the quality of play activities and the successful execution of technical elements depend on functional mobility, strength and reactivity of nerve processes, associative thinking, memory and attention. The results, which may have a prognostic value. It is shown that the neurodynamic functions are genetically determined. It is recommended to use them for the initial recruitment and selection stages for sports improvement. The necessity influence the types of thinking, memory and attention in the training process of volleyball players.

  12. Variation in Age and Training on Selected Biochemical Variables of Indian Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Manna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to find out the variation of age and training on biochemical variables of Indian elite hockey players. A total of 120 hockey players who volunteered for the present study, were equally divided (n=30 into 4 groups: under 16 years (14-15 yrs; under 19 years (16-18 yrs; under 23 years (19-22 yrs; and senior (23-30 yrs. The training sessions were divided into 3 phases: Transition Phase (TP, Preparatory Phase (PP, and Competitive Phase (CP. The training programme consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill training; and completed 4 hours in morning and evening sessions, 5 days/week. Selected biochemical parameters were measured and data were analyzed by applying Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc test. The mean values of haemoglobin (Hb, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C have been increased significantly (P<0.05 with the advancement of age of players. A significant increase (P<0.05 in serum urea, uric acid and HDL-C and a significant decrease (P<0.05 in Hb, TC, TG and LDL-C have been noted in PP and CP when compared to that of TP. The present study would provide useful information for biochemical monitoring of training of hockey players.

  13. Features of physiological responses on organism of football players aged 10-12 years in exercise using different training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the effect of various special exercises football players’ organism in different modes. Material : The study involved 24 young players aged 10-12 years. Results : There is a large range of load parameters for elite athletes, which necessitates evaluation exercise intensity football for young players. Found that depending on the method chosen football special exercises have different effects on the body force young players. Conclusions : It was found that by using the method of competitive gaming and heart rate and energy increases with increasing number of players. The analysis shows the existence of significant differences in terms of heart rate for game and interval method.

  14. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for function

  15. Allometric Multilevel Modelling of Agility and Dribbling Speed by Skeletal Age and Playing Position in Youth Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Duarte, J.; Pereira, J.; Rebelo-Goncalves, R.; Figueiredo, A.; Mazzuco, M. A.; Sherar, L. B.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age, skeletal maturation, body size and composition, training and playing position to the development of agility and dribbling speed in young male soccer players (10-18 years) followed longitudinally. 83 players [defenders (n = 35), midfielders (n = 27), for

  16. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  17. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George

    2010-01-01

    Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA) on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100) with short (5-7 years), intermediate (8-10 years) and long (>11 years) PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L)/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023), knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042) and 180°/sec (p = 0.036), and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044). A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02) and 180°/sec (p = 0.03). Directional (R/L) asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04) and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03). These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain implications

  18. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  20. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  1. Upper limb biomechanics during the volleyball serve and spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Bolt, Becky; Ruan, Mianfang

    2010-09-01

    The shoulder is the third-most commonly injured body part in volleyball, with the majority of shoulder problems resulting from chronic overuse. Significant kinetic differences exist among specific types of volleyball serves and spikes. Controlled laboratory study. Fourteen healthy female collegiate volleyball players performed 5 successful trials of 4 skills: 2 directional spikes, an off-speed roll shot, and the float serve. Volunteers who were competent in jump serves (n, 5) performed 5 trials of that skill. A 240-Hz 3-dimensional automatic digitizing system captured each trial. Multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests were used to compare kinetic parameters for the shoulder and elbow across all the skills (except the jump serve). A similar statistical analysis was performed for upper extremity kinematics. Forces, torques, and angular velocities at the shoulder and elbow were lowest for the roll shot and second-lowest for the float serve. No differences were detected between the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Although there was an insufficient number of participants to statistically analyze the jump serve, the data for it appear similar to those of the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Shoulder abduction at the instant of ball contact was approximately 130° for all skills, which is substantially greater than that previously reported for female athletes performing tennis serves or baseball pitches. Because shoulder kinetics were greatest during spiking, the volleyball player with symptoms of shoulder overuse may wish to reduce the number of repetitions performed during practice. Limiting the number of jump serves may also reduce the athlete's risk of overuse-related shoulder dysfunction. Volleyball-specific overhead skills, such as the spike and serve, produce considerable upper extremity force and torque, which may contribute to the risk of shoulder injury.

  2. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  3. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  4. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  5. Efeito do uso de meia elástica sobre os níveis dos biomarcadores de lesão muscular em atletas de voleibol após atividade física Effect of elastic stockings on biomarkers levels of muscle soreness in volleyball players after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Figueiredo

    2011-12-01

    stockings. METHODS: Ten female volleyball players aged 18 to 25 years-old were assessed with and without below-knee 20 to 30 mmHg compression stockings (Sport Active®, Venosan, Abreu e Lima, Brazil. Biomarker levels were assessed at three different moments: M0, early in the morning, with the athletes at rest, not using elastic stockings; M1, early in the morning, following a bout of exercise using elastic stockings; M2, seven days later, following the same bout of exercise, however not using elastic stockings. The Borg scale was used after each series of exercise to evaluate the physical effort. RESULTS: The means values obtained for creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were, respectively, 117.7±40.2 and 134.2±11.3 U/L at M0; 138.2±47.2 and 157.9±10.1 U/L at M1; and 161.3±59.9 and 177.2±18.8 U/L at M2. The mean values obtained for myoglobin were 31.5±6.5; 34.9±5.6 and 38.6±12.6 µg/L at the moments M0, M1 and M2, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 (Tukey for creatine kinase (p=0.0007 and lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.000, but not for myoglobin (p=0.1135. Borg scale scores obtained at M1 and M2 were, respectively, 17.8 and 18.2, without statistically significant differences between them (Wilcoxon. CONCLUSION: The use of elastic stockings was associated with lower plasma levels of biomarkers of muscle injury after exercise.

  6. Predicting Volleyball Serve-reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver’s actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones – zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver’s head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver’s on-court positioning and movement. Receivers’ initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver’s initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver’s larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers’ positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball’s kinematics (with the exception of the ball’s lateral displacement, as well as in the receivers’ positioning (distances from the net and from the target. Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball’s rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain

  7. The Impact of Imagery on Self-efficacy and Volleyball Spike Performance: Mediating Role of Positive Self-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Majlesi Ardehjani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact of imagery on self-efficiency and spike implementation of girl volleyball players in Tafresh, considering the mediating role of positive self-talk. For this purpose, in a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design, 45 female football players aged 17-25 with sports record of 6 months to 2 years were selected out of high schools and universities in Tafresh. They were distributed in 3 groups on the basis of spike skill level, imagery ability and the level of Self-efficiency. The first group imagery and physical practices program, the second group imagery and positive self-talk and physical practices and the third group without any programs took part in an experimental course three days a week for 12 sessions. For data collection, sports imagery questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998, feeling of sufficiency scale (Bandura, 1994 and volleyball spike standardized test (AAHPERD were used. Data analysis was done at a meaningful level of 0.05 through variance analysis with repeated measurements and Tukey posthoc (HSD test. The results of the research showed that imagery along with physical practice leads to spike improvement and self-efficiency but if imagery is associated with positive self-talk, effectiveness rate of imagery will be increased.

  8. Age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability in highly trained youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Inigo; Spencer, Matt; Santisteban, Juanma; Goiriena, Juan Jose; Bishop, David

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability and blood lactate responses in 134 youth football players. Players from the development programme of a professional club were grouped according to their respective under-age team (U-11 to U-18). Following familiarization, the participants performed a repeated-sprint ability test [6 x 30-m sprints 30 s apart, with active recovery (2.0-2.2 m . s(-1)) between sprints]. The test variables were total time, percent sprint decrement, and post-test peak lactate concentration. Total time improved from the U-11 to U-15 age groups (range 33.15 +/- 1.84 vs. 27.25 +/- 0.82 s), whereas no further significant improvements were evident from U-15 to U-18. No significant differences in percent sprint decrement were reported among groups (range 4.0 +/- 1.0% to 5.5 +/- 2.1%). Post-test peak lactate increased from one age group to the next (range 7.3 +/- 1.8 to 12.6 +/- 1.6 mmol . l(-1)), but remained constant when adjusted for age-related difference in body mass. Peak lactate concentration was moderately correlated with sprint time (r = 0.70, P > 0.001). Our results suggest that performance in repeated-sprint ability improves during maturation of highly trained youth football players, although a plateau occurs from 15 years of age. In contrast to expectations based on previous suggestions, percent sprint decrement during repeated sprints did not deteriorate with age.

  9. Age of first exposure to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Martin, Brett M; McClean, Michael D; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-17

    To determine the relationship between exposure to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to age 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players ages 40-69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by age and divided into 2 groups based on their age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football: AFE NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and age at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to age 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Considerations regarding the optimisation of the spike in modern volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Eric REITMAYER

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse in detail the aspects regarding increased efficiency of the spike in the game of volleyball, given the requirements of a flawless technique that will maximize the potential of the players. Our intention was to verify whether the steps of approach are unfolding in a uniformly accelerated motion and are leading to a vertical leap in the desired parameters at the moment of take off. We also wanted to check if the range of upper body motion is a determinant in the efficiency of the spike consisting in a high striking point and a remakable hitting force. Material and methods: The video footage was obtained from 6 players of “U” Timisoara’s volleyball team and 6 international players. For the analysis and processing of the footage the program Kinovea was used and the following parameters were assessed: striking speed(m/s, range of motion (cm and °, flexion between arm and forearm, angle of arm with the vertical at contact, movement speed for the first, second and third approach steps. Results: The international subjects had a 12 cm longer path of the hand in striking motion. Given the shorter segments of “U” Timisoara’s players, they compensate by having a 2° larger range of motion, above the elite players. We recorded diferent angles of the spiking arm with the vertical for the 2 groups, namely a mean of 24.5° for the elite players and just 15° for the players of “U” Timisoara. These aspects lead to a striking speed 3m/s higher for the international spikers compared to ”U” Timisoara sportsmen. Having measured a uniformly accelerated approach for the international subjects, “U” Timisoara’s players don’t respond to the same requirement with close values of the second and third step of approach.

  11. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  12. Spike the PCHA! Overuse injury of the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery in elite volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, D.

    2016-01-01

    In 1993, professor Reekers of the Academic Medical Center (AMC) Radiology department was the first to describe a traumatic aneurysm of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) in a volleyball player, suggesting a causal relationship. Fifteen years later, between 2008 and 2010, several elite

  13. Cohesion and Trauma: An Examination of a Collegiate Women's Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa B.; Meyer, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Adventure Based Counseling (i.e., a low-element challenge program) on the cohesion of a collegiate women's volleyball team. Results suggest postintervention improvements in team cohesion. The support created in the challenge experience also transferred to the players helping one another to grieve the untimely…

  14. Spike the PCHA! Overuse injury of the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery in elite volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, D.

    2016-01-01

    In 1993, professor Reekers of the Academic Medical Center (AMC) Radiology department was the first to describe a traumatic aneurysm of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) in a volleyball player, suggesting a causal relationship. Fifteen years later, between 2008 and 2010, several elite ma

  15. Cohesion and Trauma: An Examination of a Collegiate Women's Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa B.; Meyer, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Adventure Based Counseling (i.e., a low-element challenge program) on the cohesion of a collegiate women's volleyball team. Results suggest postintervention improvements in team cohesion. The support created in the challenge experience also transferred to the players helping one another to grieve the untimely…

  16. Differences among Tennis Players Aged 12, 14 And 16 Years in Certain Morphological Characteristics: A Croatian Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Milanović, Dragan; Barbaros-Tudor, Petar

    2015-09-01

    A sample of young tennis players aged 12, 14 and 16 in Croatia. Sixty (60) tennis players ranked on the scale of the Croatian Tennis Association were analyzed through differences in morphological characteristics, as identified by a standard laboratory diagnostic procedure in Sports-diagnostic Centre of the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of Zagreb. Significant differences were obtained in most of the monitored measures for the assessment of the morphological characteristics but the most significant differences were reflected in the variables for assessment of longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass and voluminosity of the body. The statistical significance was defined at ptennis players playing style.

  17. Body Composition of Elite Female Players in Five Different Sports Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  18. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  19. The Evaluation of the Physical Characteristics of Football Players at the Age of 9 - 15 in Accordance With Age Variables

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    Emre ŞİMŞEK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted with the aim of evaluating the physical characteristics of children at the age group of 9 - 15, who play football at amateur level, in accordance with age. Th e domain of the study consists of amateur male football players(n=82 who play actively in Kayseri and have been selected with random sampling method. In order to investigate the effects of football training on physical parameters, some tests selected from Eurofit test battery such as hand grip strength, plate tapping, 30 seconds of sit - ups, flamingo, standing broad jump, sit and reach, 20 meters shuttle run, as well as 20 meters sprint and anthropometric measurements (height, weight and body mass index we re applied to the subjects. The statistical evaluation of data is based on 0.05 significance value; after the descriptive statistical and One - Way ANOVA tests have been applied, Duncan has been used as second level test in order to evaluate the differences between the groups. According to the results, some substantial differences(p0,05 have been found with respect to parameters such as BMI(%, sit - ups (30 sec/times, flamingo balance test(errors. It has been determined after the evaluation of the results that the differences associated with the physical properties of the footballers between 9 and 15 years old affect the development of the players in accordance with their ages and that sports contribute positively to the ir physical properties in terms of development level and time.

  20. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  1. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set......-up of the physical game platform changes the interaction and performance of the players....

  2. Structure and physical technical and tactical training handball players aged 10-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palagin A.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the structural and functional relationships, physical, technical and tactical training handball aged 10-11 years. Material : the study involved 20 handball players aged 10-11 years. Results : isolated and subjected to review 55 correlations between speed, speed-strength, coordination skills and basic technical and tactical methods of the game. Consider the correlation matrix structure level of physical, technical and tactical training to handball pedagogical experiment. Found that 55 of the 15 correlations calculated (27.3% positive and 12 (21.81 % of negative relationships were statistically significant. It is 49.08 % of the linkages (r = 0.54 to 0.85. Correlations allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the training process under the influence of specific funds targeted at individual components of motor abilities and techniques of the game. Conclusions : methodological recommendations, technology and program start-up phase of preparation of young handball players. The program aims at the development of the dual physical and technical and tactical training.

  3. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon.

  4. LOWER LIMB STRENGTH IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS: PROFILE, ASYMMETRY, AND TRAINING AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fousekis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100 with short (5-7 years, intermediate (8-10 years and long (>11 years PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023, knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042 and 180°/sec (p = 0.036, and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044. A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02 and 180°/sec (p = 0.03. Directional (R/L asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04 and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03. These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain

  5. Relative age effect in FIFA U17 Emirates 2013 World Cup: analysis of players who effectively participated in the matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Amorim Andrade-Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the date of birth is a decisive factor for the success of players selected by the coaches to participate in the FIFA U-17 World Cup Emirates 2013. The players' date of birth were classified into four quartiles of three months each (Q1 to Q4. In the qualifying round, 46.5% of the selected players born in Q1, while 12.5% in Q4. This significantly different distribution occurred until the semi-finals. However, in the final match, there were no significant differences between Q1 and Q4. A similar relative age effect also occurred when analyzed only players who actually participated to the matches. Interestingly, despite there was birth date effect on performance in all World Cup stages except in the final, other issues should take into consideration for a team became champion.

  6. Dupuytren disease is highly prevalent in male field hockey players aged over 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekstra, Dieuwke C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Lanting, Rosanne; Harder, Tom; Smits, Inge; Werker, Paul M N

    2016-09-22

    Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative hand condition. The role of exposure to vibration as a risk factor has been studied with contradictory results. Since field hockey is expected to be a strong source of hand-arm vibration, we hypothesised that long-term exposure to field hockey is associated with Dupuytren disease. In this cross-sectional cohort study, the hands of 169 male field hockey players (IQR: 65-71 years) and 156 male controls (IQR: 59-71 years) were examined for signs of Dupuytren disease. Details about their age, lifestyle factors, medical history, employment history and leisure activities were gathered. Prior to the analyses, the groups were balanced in risk factors using propensity score matching. The association between field hockey and Dupuytren disease was determined using a subject-specific generalised linear mixed model with a binomial distribution and logit link function (matched pairs analysis). Dupuytren disease was observed in 51.7% of the field hockey players, and in 13.8% of the controls. After propensity score matching, field hockey playing as dichotomous variable, was associated with Dupuytren disease (OR=9.42, 95% CI 3.01 to 29.53). A linear dose-response effect of field hockey (hours/week x years) within the field hockey players could not be demonstrated (OR=1.03, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.56). We found that field hockey playing has a strong association with the presence of Dupuytren disease. Clinicians in sports medicine should be alert to this less common diagnosis in this sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Relationship among Repeated Sprint Ability, Chronological Age and Puberty in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Pintus, Antonio; Frandino, Mattia; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to analyzed the relationship of Repeated Sprinting Ability (RSA) with chronological age and puberty in 100 young soccer players (Age: 13 ± 3 yr - 160 ± 33 month-; High: 159 ± 16 cm, Weight: 49.7 ± 14.1 kg; BMI 19.2 ± 2.5 kg/m) grouped on "Pulcini" (9 - 10 yrs), "Esordienti" (11 - 12 yrs), "Giovanissimi" (13 - 14 yrs), "Allievi" (15 - 16 yrs) and "Juniores" (> 17 yrs) categories. Anthropometric (Weight, Height, BMI), RSA (7x30 m sprint with 25s active rest: Total Time -TT, the lowest sprinting time (LST) and the fatigue index percentage -%IF), and Development (Self-Administered Rating Scale for pubertal development - PDS; Puberty) parameters were measured. ANOVA among categories was applied to asses differences (pinjury and overtraining during the different phases of growth and maturation.

  8. Sleep-apnea risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in early-middle-aged retired National Football League players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S; Dunn, Reginald E; Lauderdale, Diane S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Tucker, Andrew M; Vogel, Robert A; Lincoln, Andrew E; Knutson, Kristen L; Pellman, Elliot J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data from former National Football League (NFL) players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA) risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study), and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis. Materials and methods Retired NFL players (n=122) were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37–55 years), body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC) and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Results Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11.5%, P=0.002). Compared to the CARDIA Sleep participants, retired players were less likely to smoke, and had higher blood pressure, lower fasting glucose levels, and higher cholesterol levels. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (30% vs 30%, P=1). In both players and the community cohort, SA risk was not significantly associated with CAC after controlling for age, race, and body mass index. Conclusion Retired NFL players have a greater prevalence of high SA risk but similar prevalence of CAC compared with a well-matched community cohort. PMID:28260958

  9. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON DYNAMIC BALANCE, HOP DISTANCE AND HAMSTRING QUADRICEPS RATIO IN FEMALE VOLLEYBALL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan HARPUT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric training on dynamic balance, hop distance and hamstring quadriceps ratio in female volleyball athletes. Thirty-four adolescent asymptomatic female volleyball athletes were included in the study. The athletes were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group 1 received 6-week plyometric training and standard volleyball training. Group 2 received only standard volleyball training. Isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the hamstring quadriceps ratio (H:Q. Star excursion balance test was used for assessing the dynamic balance and one leg hop test was used for measuring the hop distance. Repeated measures of ANOVA was conducted for statistical analysis. Plyometric training increased balance performance in only non-dominant limb and increased one leg hop distance in both dominant and non-dominant limb in female volleyball players (p<0.05. On the other hand, H:Q ratio of dominant limb was found increased (p=0.04 but it was similar between groups (p=0.39. The plyometric training could be used to enhance atletic performance in female volleyball players.

  10. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  11. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  12. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years,

  13. Exploring Self-regulation of More or Less Expert College-Age Video Game Players: A Sequential Explanatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Bruning, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne's model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001) guided the study. The main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: (1) characteristics of expert video gamers, (2) conditions for playing a video game, (3) figuring out a game, (4) how gamers act and, (5) game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation. PMID:27729881

  14. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... tiles which can be used in both single-player and multi-player mode. We implemented simple adaptivity methods and tested these with different user groups including children and adults of both genders. The results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between children...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set...

  15. Radiographic findings of degeneration in cervical spines of middle-aged soccer players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Hideki; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. of Applied Electricity); Yamanoi, Takahiro (Hokkaigakuen Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Twelve amateur veteran soccer players (average age 40.1 {+-} 5.4 years), who began playing in their teens and who were admitted with symptoms most likely to be related to cervical spondylosis, were examined by cervical radiography. Abnormal radiographic findings included: calcification of anterior longitudinal ligament (25%), anterior (75%) and posterior vertebral spurs (75%), ossicle between spinous processes (75%), calcification of nuchal ligament (Barsony) (58%), ossicle on spinous process (25%), and bony spur of Luschka's joints (83%). It was shown in the stress distribution by finite element method analysis that the stress in heading the ball was applied mainly to the lower parts of the cervical spine. The results of this analysis also corresponded well with some of the radiographic findings. (orig.).

  16. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  17. Gut microbiota: A player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Koliada, Alexander K; Marotta, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance. Recently, a high effectiveness and safety of novel therapeutic application such as fecal microbiota transplantation in the prevention and treatment of age-related pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease has been demonstrated. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut micribiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in anti-aging medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  19. The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R; Carling, Christopher; Garces, Marco; Marques, Mauricio; Miguel, Carlos; Farrant, Andrew; Stenling, Andreas; Moreno, Jansen; Le Gall, Franck; Holmström, Stefan; Salmela, John H; Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s = 124.0 h · year(-¹), in soccer play for 186.0, s = 125.3 h · year(-¹), and in soccer competition for 37.1, s = 28.9 h · year(-¹). A mean value of 2.3, s = 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s = 184.3 h · year(-¹), in soccer play for 159.7, s = 195.0 h · year(-¹), and in soccer competition for 66.9, s = 48.8 h · year(-¹). A mean value of 2.5, s = 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  20. VARIATION IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS' SPRINT TEST PERFORMANCE ACROSS DIFFERENT AGES AND LEVELS OF COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare sprint test performance performed by football players of different ages and levels of competition. One hundred and forty six Portuguese players from different teams completed the test (seven maximal sprints interspersed with 25 s active recovery. A 6 (level of competition: 1st national division, 2nd national division, 1st regional division, sub 16, sub 14, sub 12 7 (sprint trial: sprint 1, sprint 2, sprint 3, sprint 4, sprint 5, sprint 6, sprint 7 repeated measures ANOVA was carried out on subjects sprint times. The main effect of level of competition was statistically significant, F(5, 140 = 106.28, p < 0.001. Subjects from 1st national division were significantly faster than subjects from 2nd national division; subjects from 1st regional division obtained similar performances when compared to sub 16 and sub 14 level; subjects from sub 12 level were the slowest. The main effect of sprint trial was also statistically significant, F (6, 840 = 7.37, p < 0.001. Mean sprint times from the first trial were significantly slower than mean sprint times from the second, third and fourth trial. Results from the fifth, sixth and seventh trials were slower, denoting a decrement in performance. The two main effects were qualified by a significant level of competition x sprint trial interaction, F (30, 840 = 9.47 p < 0.001, identifying markedly different performance profiles. Coaches should be aware that normative data regarding this test can play a very important role if used frequently and consistently during the whole season.

  1. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  2. Ankle sprain injuries in soccer players aged 7-15 years during a one-year season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOFOTOLIS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although ankle sprains are common in soccer, the role of various risk factors in soccer players aged 7-15 is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether incidence of ankle sprain injuries, associated time loss of participation, and injury risk factors are associated with chronological age in soccer players aged 7-15 years. A sample of 677 male soccer players was divided in three age groups: between 7 and 9 years (U9, between 9 and 12 years (U12 and between 12 and 15 years (U15. Ankle sprain injury incidence, participation time loss, injury mechanisms, ankle region injured, and other risk factors were recorded in games and practice sessions using questionnaires for one year. During the study 38 ankle injuries were recorded, of which 27 were ankle sprains. These led to 182.7 sessions lost (on average, 6.71 lost sessions per injury. There was an increased risk of ankle injury in U15 group compared with U12 (relative risk = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 5.02 while no injuries for the U9 were observed. Most incidents (66.7% were contact injuries with the highest injury risk displayed by goalkeepers. Injury rate was higher in games than in practice and increased in the second half of the match (p< .05. Multinomial logistic regression showed that history of previous injury was a significant predictor of ankle sprain in the U15 group (relative risk = 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.9. Age is an important factor for soccer training because many clubs use chronological age to separate their young players into teams. This study showed that children less than 9 years showed no injury risk while players older than 12 years showed a higher risk. Injury rate was, however, lower than that reported previously for adult players. Injury prevention strategies may be particularly useful for young adolescent soccer players

  3. Volleyball players training intensity monitoring through the use of spectral analysis of heart rate variability during a training microcycle [Kontrola zatížení hráčů volejbalu metodou spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence během týdenního tréninkového mikrocyklu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jakubec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Volleyball players in different specializations are required to meet specific demands in terms of movement behaviour and skills performance. These specific demands need to be individualized according to the training ability level (adaptability to sports training of particular players, which is mainly dependent on the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV gives us information on cardiac activity regulation, where the activity of ANS participates in a significant way. Longitudinal assessment of SA HRV within a certain part of a training period can help us to observe the dynamics of the ANS activity and adaptability (training ability changes of an observed player to training. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the work was to verify the possibility of volleyball players' training load optimalization during a one week training microcycle based on the longitudinal observation of dynamics of SA HRV complex indices. METHODS: The SA HRV method was used for the evaluation of autonomic cardiac regulation. The study group consisted of eight volleyball players who took part in 28 training sessions focused on conditioning and volleyball skills development. During the microcycle, there were 7 HRV examinations. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that notable and considerably varied changes in the activity of ANS in players were assessed owing to both training and extra-training stimuli. The results in two players show a high activity of ANS which enables them to increase their training intensity. Four players achieved average values of their ANS activity, which reflects a corresponding training load. In the last two players we found a very low level of their ANS activity and it refers to their reduced adaptability to the training load, which was too high for them. CONCLUSIONS: The presented results support the necessity of the individualization of, at least a part of, team training. Such an

  4. Does the adolescent patellar tendon respond to 5 days of cumulative load during a volleyball tournament?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L

    2016-02-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsop Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.

  6. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  7. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  8. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  9. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-

  10. Sleep-apnea risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in early-middle-aged retired National Football League players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyster FS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith S Luyster,1 Reginald E Dunn,2 Diane S Lauderdale,3 Mercedes R Carnethon,4 Andrew M Tucker,5 Robert A Vogel,6 Andrew E Lincoln,2 Kristen L Knutson,7 Elliot J Pellman,8–10 Patrick J Strollo Jr11 1School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 2Sports Medicine Research Center, MedStar Health Research Institute, Baltimore, MD, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 5MedStar Sports Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD, 6Cardiology Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, 7Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8ProHealth Care Associates, Lake Success, 9Department of Medicine, 10Department of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 11Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Purpose: Limited data from former National Football League (NFL players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study, and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis.Materials and methods: Retired NFL players (n=122 were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37–55 years, body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0.Results: Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11

  11. Are Tendinopathies really a common injury in volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Aldo; Locaso, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a description of tendinopathies as an injury in volleyball high performance. Methods: An observational and prospective study was conducted from 2014-2016 in the senior Argentinian volleyball team. The same was held by two observers. Moreover, 78 athletes were evaluated. We support Dvorak’s claims that an injury is determined by the loss of at least one training session or a match. Results: 78 players were exposed to 21812 hours of training and matches. As a result 37 injuries were evaluated in 31 players. Taking into account tendinopathies, it can be said that 34 players consulted 412 times, showing a prevalence of 43.5% of the whole enquires but when we refer to the same pathology as injury the average lowers, presenting 8 lesions in 6 players and showing a prevalence of 7.6% as injuries. Incidence of tendon injuries is 0.32 per 1000 hours of exposure Tendon Injuries: 5 were patellar, 2 supraspinatus, 1 aquiles. 5 Slight, 2 moderate, 1 severe. Conclusion: Clearly, tendinopathy is a common problem in this sport but it is not a common cause of injury. This is demonstrated in prevalence rates whereas 43.5 % just consulted and 7,6 % suffer from real injuries. We think this might be due to several factors such as, advances in medical therapy, preventive protocols and increase in thresholds of pain that high-performance athletes can bear. In our experience this pathology was shown to be the third leading cause of injuries. In 2016 we did not deal with any case of injury for tendinopathy.

  12. Interpersonal attraction as a measure of estimation of cohesiveness in elite volleyball teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeles, Nikolaos; Hatziharistos, Dimitris

    2003-02-01

    This study examined differences in interpersonal attraction between starters and nonstarters of elite male volleyball teams and the correlation between interpersonal attraction and teams' final place. 106 players from 10 teams of the A1 Greek National Volleyball League completed by a sociometric method an especially developed questionnaire. Subjects were classified as starters and nonstarters by means of a protocol of players' starting status administered to teams' coaches. Analysis showed that the task and the social dimension of interpersonal attraction differed significantly between starters and nonstarters. Starters scored higher than nonstarters on both dimensions of interpersonal attraction. Starters' task dimension of interpersonal attraction was positively correlated with the team's task dimension. Also, the teams' task dimension was positively correlated with teams' final placing, suggesting that, when starters are attracted to each other with regard to the common competitive goal, the team's performance is enhanced and leads to higher scoring.

  13. 中、外女子排球队运动员年龄动态变化特征的比较研究%Compare the dynamic Characteristics of Athletes’ Age between China and the Foreign Volleyball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽

    2012-01-01

    运用数理统计、比较分析等方法,对2002~2011年世界排坛三大赛事中国女排与前四名女排运动员的年龄动态变化特征比较研究,得出前四名球队年龄以奥运为中心呈周期变化,在奥运年年龄达到最大,运动员最佳竞技年龄增大,竞技年龄段延长;中国女排年龄在2002~2004年奥运周期与世界女排强队年龄变化特点相吻合,自2006年以来周期特点不明显,呈现了成才早、退役早、参赛年龄小的特点,说明中国运动员最佳竞技能力时间保持短,运动寿命短。%Use of mathematical statistics,comparative analysis,Compare the dynamic changes between China and the worlds top four women's volleyball’s age characteristics from 2002 to 2011 the world's three major events,the result show the four teams of the athletes age as the Olympics as the center into a cycle change,Age is the largest in Olympic year,the athletes' age increases,competitive age is extension;the age characteristics of china in 2002-2004 in line with the world women's volleyball,since 2006,the cycle characteristics is not obvious,Presents the characteristics to become a talent early,retired early and participate in the competition is small,indicating that China’s athletes' ability to maintain is short,competitive age is short.

  14. 厦门市气排球运动开展现状的调查与发展对策%Xiamen Air Volleyball s Present Situation and Developmental Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宝华

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of volleyball, the air volleyball which is simplified comes out in order to adapt to the characteristics of the elderly and amateurs. As the scale and number of gym club increase gradually, air volleyball has become more and more popular. To keep air volleyball�s exuberant vitality along with the development of modern society, this article u⁃ses documentary, questionnaire investigation, logic analysis and interview methods and so on to do a research. In the re⁃search, we choose the different age groups of air volleyball players as the interviewees by random, include amateurs and ath⁃letes. After we understand the development situation and the existing problems of the air volleyball of Xiamen city, we con⁃clude some opinions and suggestions to better promote the air volleyball sport.%随着时代发展由排球演变出了一种气排球运动,是为了适应老年人或者说业余爱好者的特点,而简化的一种排球运动。随着健身俱乐部的规模与数量的逐渐增多,气排球运动也慢慢崛起。为了使气排球运动随着社会的发展能够保持旺盛的生命力,以厦门市气排球的各阶层及各年龄段的群众为对象,采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、逻辑分析法和访谈法等,找出厦门市气排球运动开展现状存在的不足,进而为更好的推广气排球运动提出自己的看法和意见。

  15. Somatotype, Level of Competition, and Performance in Attack in Elite Male Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Nikiforos; Vagenas, George; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Barzouka, Karolina; Bergeles, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the relationship between somatotype, level of competition, and performance in attack in elite level male volleyball players. The objective was to test for the potential covariation of competition level (Division A1 vs. A2) and playing position (hitters vs. centers vs. opposites) considering performance in attack. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype variables were measured according to the Heath-Carter method. The attack actions of 144 players from 48 volleyball matches were analyzed and their performance was rated using a 5-point numerical scale. Results showed that players of Division A1 were taller, heavier, more muscular, and less endomorphic compared to those of Division A2. MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analysis revealed somatotype differences among playing positions with centers and opposites being endomorph-ectomorph and hitters being central. Centers performed constantly better than hitters and opposites regardless of the division and somatotype. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that variables defining ectomorph and endomorph players, centers, and players of Division A1 significantly determined the relative performance superiority and were able to explain the variation in performance by almost 25%. These results could be taken into account by coaches when assigning players to particular playing positions or when designing individualized position-specific training programs. PMID:28828084

  16. Romanian Volleyball in deadlock? Till when?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Grădinaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if it was the subject of some analysis which has to identify the degradation causes of volleyball in Romania, the most expected revival didn’t happened, the same drawbacks as 25 years ago being emphasized.We can’t put everything in the back of the after-December evolution of the Romanian society, but one thing is certain: from all the sportive games volleyball is in the most concerning situation, and the immediate perspective doesn’t seem to be on the will of those (as many as they still are who still care for volleyball. Romanian Volleyball in deadlock? Till when?

  17. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, which were divided into 5 areas: respecting of the current requirements of game performance in training, training efficiency, conditioning, coaching and psycho-social aspects. The survey was sent to 49 coaches, 24 of them replied (response rate 49 %. RESULTS: The research shows that coaches do not apply all important knowledge and trends for players' preparation (76 % of correct answers in total. Groups of coaches were further divided to subgroups according to gender of the trained teams, age categories, coaches work load and 1st and 2nd class coaches. The comparison of the answers in the subgroup of coaches with respect to segregated areas has only pointed at a difference between male and female teams in the area of psycho-social training aspects (Z = 1.756; p = 0.079; d = 0.717. The comparison of coaches' groups answers to individual questions show that: a coaches of male teams base their training sessions on real game situations and choose the content of the exercises with the ball more thoroughly (Z = 1.85; p = 0.07; d = 0.75 and require defensive game combinations at the net more often (Z = 1.81; p = 0.07; d = 0.74; b junior teams are behind (Z = 1.90; p = 0.06; d = 0.77 senior teams in the number of training hours with the ball a week and in making conditions for successful realization of offensive game combinations with fast set (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 0.86; c 1st class coaches within the scope of condition training pay more attention to core training

  18. Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis.

  19. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  20. Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents' attacking position in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.

  1. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position

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    Sedano Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035 of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively, and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.

  2. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010–2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  3. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

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    Hanna eGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using Deformation Field Morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed.Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout

  4. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, H; Minnerop, M; Pieperhoff, P; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Altenmüller, E; Amunts, K

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

  5. The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in soccer player children, ages 7 to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Yousefi, Azizollah; Movahedi, Massoud; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Noorian, Rohollah

    2007-03-01

    This study represents an attempt to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm among soccer player children. A total of 234 soccer player boys of all soccer schools from Shahr-Rey enrolled in this study. They did not have any history of a recent or chronic respiratory tract disease, a history of allergic diseases, and history of bronchodilator drugs consumption during the 24 hours prior to the study. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed for each participant before exercise and 6 and 15 minutes after playing soccer. The diagnosis of EIB was by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by at least 10% and in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) by at least 15% with exercise challenge. If there was reduction in one parameter alone, the participants were considered as prone to EIB. Considering both FEV1 and PEFR the prevalence of EIB was 2.1% and 18.4% were prone to EIB. If FEV1 or PEFR tests were used as criteria for diagnosis of airway obstruction, the prevalence of EIB would be 6% and 15.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the post of players, family history of allergic disease and EIB in soccer players. This study suggests that at least 2.1% of soccer players will develop bronchospasm even if they do not have any history of asthma and allergy.

  6. EFFECT OF USAGE OF PERSONAL MUSIC PLAYERS ON HEARING IN STUDENTS AGED 18-25 YRS

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    Archana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : PURPOSE: Personal music players are important part of our lives as a recreational tool. Teenagers use and then abuse the technology, but due to lack of adequate knowledge about the harmful effects, this population is under risk for early sensorineural hearing loss and morbidity. We, therefore, investigated the effects, the relationship between music players, usage patterns and outcome in our study population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 104 MBBS students were interviewed personally regarding their use of portable music players, including the time and type of player and the type of headphone used. Pure tone audiometry was performed in each subject. RESULTS: Out of 104 students, 13 (12.6% were found to be having sensorineural hearing loss with volume settings directly correlating with degree of hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Use of music players has a direct relationship with prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among the subject population. To prevent permanent effects, the duration and intensity of sound should be at minimum.

  7. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Supramaximal intermittent running performance in relation to age and locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine supramaximal intermittent running performance in highly-trained young soccer players, with regard to age and locomotor profile. Twenty-seven Under 14, 19 U16 and 16 U18 highly-trained soccer players performed an incremental intermittent running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) to assess supramaximal intermittent running performance (VIFT), an incremental running test to estimate maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) and a 40-m sprint to estimate maximal sprinting speed (MSS). U16 and U18 presented very likely greater VIFT (19.2 ± 0.9, 19.7 ± 1.0 vs. 17.4 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) and VVam-Eval (16.2 ± 0.9, 16.7 ± 1.0 vs. 14.6 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) than U14, while there was no clear difference between U16 and U18. MSS (25.1 ± 1.6, 29.3 ± 1.6 and 31.0 ± 1.1 km · h(-1) for U14, U16 and U18) was very likely different between all groups. When data were pooled together, VIFT was very largely correlated with VVam-Eval and MSS (overall r =0.89, partial r = 0.74 and 0.29, respectively). Within-age group correlations showed that the older the players, the greater the magnitude of the correlations between VIFT and VVam-Eval (r = 0.67, 0.73 and 0.87). In conclusion, the major predictors of VIFT were, in order of importance, VVam-Eval and MSS; however, the older the players, the greater the correlations with VVam-Eval.

  9. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in eli

  10. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in

  11. The Effects of Two Instructional Models--Tactical and Skill Teaching--On Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…

  12. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE ASSERTIVENESS AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    Ridvan EKMEKCI

    2016-01-01

    It is very important to determine sport officials’ problem solving skills and assertiveness as a manager on the court. The purpose of this study was to examine assertiveness and problem solving skills of basketball and volleyball referees. 214 basketball referees (186 males and 28 females) ranging in age from 21 to 48 years (M = 28.58. SD = 4.69) and 177 volleyball referees (112 males 65 females) ranging in age from 23 to 55 years (M = 39.21. SD = 6.36) participated to this study voluntarily ...

  14. Influência do voleibol na densidade mineral ossea de adolescentes do sexo feminino Influence of volleyball in the bone mineral density of female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisley Gontijo de Mesquita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que esportes com grandes cargas mecânicas e maior impacto do corpo com o solo resultam em maior massa óssea do que atividades em que o peso do corpo é pouco solicitado. Apesar de o voleibol estar entre os esportes considerados de alto impacto, existem poucos estudos que relacionam sua prática ao desenvolvimento da densidade mineral óssea (DMO. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a DMO entre garotas participantes de equipes de treinamento de voleibol e de garotas participantes de atividade física escolar. Foram avaliadas 60 voluntárias com idade entre 13 e 17 anos. Elas foram divididas em grupo voleibol (GV - composto pelas praticantes de voleibol - e grupo controle (GC. Foram mensurados massa corporal, estatura, consumo de cálcio, DMO do corpo inteiro, da cabeça, do colo do fêmur e do triângulo de Wards e estágio de maturação sexual. Foi utilizado o teste t para amostras independentes, para comparar a diferença entre as médias dos dois grupos (p Several studies have shown that high impact weight-bearing sports are more beneficial than non-weight-bearing ones. Despite being considered a high impact sport, few studies relate it with bone mineral density (BMD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare BMD between female volleyball players and 60 volunteer girls aged 13-17-y who participated in this study. They were classified in Volleyball Group (VG - who were practicing volleyball - and Control Group (CG. Body mass, height, calcium uptake, total body, head, femoral neck and Wards Triangle BMD and sexual maturation were measured. Differences between groups were analyzed by t-test for independent samples (p < 0.05. The VG was statistically higher in total body (1.174 ± 0.065, femoral neck (1.164 ± 0.096 and Wards triangle (1.111 ± 0.138 BMD than CG (total body: 1.083 ± 0.082; femoral neck: 0.998 ± 0.142; Wards triangle: 0.944 ± 0.178; however, head BMD was not different between

  15. The structure of physical fitness and its correlation analysis at young players aged 16-17 years at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOV A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The questions about the importance of physical fitness of young players to improve the management and correction of the training process. Material : In the research participated 40 players aged 16-17 years of specialized youth football school of FC "Obolon-Brewery". Data for the study of physical fitness were teacher observations and teacher testing carried out under the direct training of young players. Results : It is shown that the structure of physical fitness among all the studied parameters there is a close correlation relationship, except for a parameter that characterizes the start speed. It was found that the above regularities indicate the advisability of excluding the studied parameters in the structure of physical fitness of young players to improve the efficiency of the training process at the base of specialized training. Conclusions : It is recommended to improve the starting speed to use non-gaming and technical and tactical exercises.

  16. Can Emotionally Intelligent Volleyball Players Be More Prone to Sportspersonship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence concept has been examined by researchers in the field of education as well as field of sports. When emotional intelligence theory examined, it comes to mind that emotional intelligence can be related to moral behaviors in sport. In this regard, the question of "Can emotional intelligence predict sportspersonship…

  17. Assessment of somatotype in young voleyball players: Validity as criteria to select young sports talents

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    Luís Carrasco Páez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometric characteristics of athletes can determine their sporting performance. For this reason, we’ve defined the somatotype of young volleyball players in order to be able to control their sports training and to ensure their appropriate athletic development. In the present investigation 154 male and female volleyball players (aged from 12 to 14 years were analyzed. Data were collected according to the ISAK protocol. The results show an endomesomorphic profile for male and female volleyball players agreeing with the predominant profile at these ages. However, after comparing these data with results obtained in other studies, we observed a certain homogeneity in the male somatotype, invalidating the current trend of using this parameter as criteria to select young sports talent. However, somatotype could be a factor to take into account with female athletes, since their profile is much more heterogeneous. ResumoLas características antropométricas de los deportistas pueden determinar su rendimiento deportivo. Por esa razón se pretende conocer el somatotipo de jugadores infantiles de voleibol para poder así, controlar el entrenamiento y asegurar un adecuado desarrollo de los deportistas. En este estudio se analizaron 154 jugadores/as, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 14 años. Los datos se extrajeron según las técnicas recomendadas por la ISAK (2001. Los resultados mostraron um perfil endomesomorfo tanto en chicos como en chicas, lo que concuerda con el perfil predominante en estas edades. Por otra parte, al comparar el somatotipo de estos jugadores con el de otros estudios observamos una cierta homogeneidad en el caso de los chicos, lo que invalidaría la tendencia actual de usar este parámetro como criterio para la selección de jóvenes talentos deportivos. Sin embargo, si podría ser un elemento a tener en cuenta en el caso de las chicas, ya que su perfil es mucho más heterogéneo.

  18. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.

  19. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  20. A Comparison of Women's Collegiate and Girls' High School Volleyball Injury Data Collected Prospectively Over a 4-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Retrospective clinical review. Level 3. We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. The injury data suggest that important differences exist in the injury patterns of female high school compared with collegiate volleyball athletes

  1. NAGWS Volleyball Rulebook, 1992. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Volleyball Rules, are based on the United States Volleyball Rules, which in turn are adopted from the rules and interpretations of the International Volleyball Federation Rules. Following a foreword by Doris Hardy, NAGWS President, the publication is organized into five sections as…

  2. NAGWS Volleyball Rulebook, 1993. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993

    The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Volleyball Rules are based on the United States Volleyball Rules, which in turn are adopted from the rules and interpretations of the International Volleyball Federation Rules. Following a foreword by Robertha Abney, NAGWS President, the publication is organized into six sections as…

  3. Volleyball Guide with Official Rules. July 1971 - July 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Jackie, Ed.

    This guide for playing women's volleyball dated July 1971 - July 1973 details rules and standards as well as the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teamwork, basic fundamentals, suggestions for beginners, a volleyball mini unit, and volleyball visual aids are included. The booklet…

  4. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  5. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  6. 里约奥运会中国女排夺冠因素分析%Analysis of Chinese Women’s Volleyball Team Won the Olympic Games in Rio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常存强

    2016-01-01

    中国女排在里约奥运会上演“黑四”奇迹,历史上第三次摘得奥运会金牌。金牌的背后是中国女排拥有优秀的教练员团队与世界顶级教练郎平、稳定发挥的主攻手朱婷以及永不言弃,顽强拼搏的女排精神。%Chinese Women's Volleyball Team stage a "dark four"miracle Olympic Games in Rio.It’s the third gold medal in Olympic Games.The Gold Medal for Chinese Women’s Volleyball Team is attributed to the excellent coaches group,Lang Ping is the best Volleyball Coach in the world,the most valuable player Zhu Ting and spirit of never give up and indomitable in women's volleyball.

  7. The analysis on the prospect of Chinese women's volleyball team in London Olympic from its performance in 2011 Women's Volleyball World Cup%从2011年女排世界杯展望中国女排伦敦奥运前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法、数理统计法、比较分析法,对2011年女排世界杯中国队的总体表现进行综合分析并指出:中国女排队伍年轻,缺乏大赛经验和稳定的心理素质;中国女排身高、网上高度在世界排名前列;中国女排在进攻能力和防守能力上与世界强队仍有一定差距;伦敦奥运会上,中国女排夺取奖牌任务艰巨,国人应有足够的耐心,给予女排鼓励和关心。%The article synthetically analyses the performance of Chinese women's volleyball team in 2011 Women's Volleyball World Cup by using the methods of documents and materials, mathematical statistics, and comparative analysis. The author draws the following conclusions: Chinese women's volleyball players are young, and meanwhile lack experience of major tournaments and excellent psychological quality; Chinese women's volleyball players rank in the very front in their heights, and spike and block heights; In terms of attack ability and defenee ability, there's still a gap between Chinese women's volleyball team and other top women's volleyball teams; Chinese women's volleyball team has a tough task of winning a medal in London Olympiad, so the nation should have enough patience and offer the team encouragement and care.

  8. Análise da síndrome de "burnout" e das estratégias de "coping" em atletas brasileiros de vôlei de praia Analysis of burnout syndrome and coping strategies in Brazilian athletes beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Questionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instruments used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p < 0.05. There was a significant and negative correlation between the dimensions of burnout and coping strategies. For the dimensions of burnout, just ranking obtained significant difference, while for coping strategies, gender, category, ranking and practice time showed significant differences. It was concluded that the higher burnout, fewer beach volleyball athletes use coping strategies.

  9. BILATERAL VOLLEYBALL-RELATED DEFORMITY OF THE LITTLE FINGERS: MALLET FINGER AND CLINODACTYLY MIMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old male high school volleyball player was seen to evaluate right- and left-hand little-finger distal interphalangeal joint deformity and pain. His symptoms began during his second season of competitive play. The distal interphalangeal (DIP joints of the little fingers flexed 20-30°, and a 10-15° valgus deformity was seen at the same joints. Pain was relieved with rest but returned immediately after playing volleyball, so plain radiographs were obtained. The flexion and valgus deformity was obvious on plain radiographs and through a clinical examination. Thus, a bilateral little-finger distal phalanx base epiphysis injury was seen. This injury is characterized by a biplanar Salter Harris physeal injury; type 5 on anteroposterior radiographs and type 2 on lateral plain radiographs. The deformity occurred as a result of competitive volleyball play. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral biplanar physial injury of the base of distal phalanges of the little fingers. Flexion and valgus deformities of DIP joints are a result of repeated micro traumas around the physis.

  10. Which skills and factors better predict winning and losing in high-level men's volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Guerra, Jorge; Buscà, Bernat; Serra, Núria

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-11 Spanish men's first division volleyball championship. Matches were played by 12 teams composed of 148 players from 17 different nations from October 2010 to March 2011. The variables analyzed were the result of the game, team category, home/away court factors, points obtained in the break point phase, number of service errors, number of service aces, number of reception errors, percentage of positive receptions, percentage of perfect receptions, reception efficiency, number of attack errors, number of blocked attacks, attack points, percentage of attack points, attack efficiency, and number of blocks performed by both teams participating in the match. The results showed that the variables of team category, points obtained in the break point phase, number of reception errors, and number of blocked attacks by the opponent were significant predictors of winning or losing the matches. Odds ratios indicated that the odds of winning a volleyball match were 6.7 times greater for the teams belonging to higher rankings and that every additional point in Complex II increased the odds of winning a match by 1.5 times. Every reception and blocked ball error decreased the possibility of winning by 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively.

  11. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  12. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  13. Continuity, Change and Mature Musical Identity Construction: Using "Rivers of Musical Experience" to Trace the Musical Lives of Six Mature-Age Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Rivers of Musical Experience" were used as a research tool to explore the wide range of musical experiences and concomitant identity construction that six amateur keyboard players over the age of 55 brought to their learning as mature adults. It appears that significant changes in their lives acted as triggers for them to engage in musical…

  14. Continuity, Change and Mature Musical Identity Construction: Using "Rivers of Musical Experience" to Trace the Musical Lives of Six Mature-Age Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Rivers of Musical Experience" were used as a research tool to explore the wide range of musical experiences and concomitant identity construction that six amateur keyboard players over the age of 55 brought to their learning as mature adults. It appears that significant changes in their lives acted as triggers for them to engage in musical…

  15. Competitive activity analysis in play-off stage of 'Wiener Stadtische' Serbian volleyball league for men in 2012/2013 season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport is defined as an activity that involves competition, specific preparation for the competition, specific relationships and connections in that area of activity taken as a whole. Analysis of competitive activity is the basis for a rational approach to the planning, programming, implementation and evaluation of the effects of systematic training process. Subject to this study was to analyze competitive activities of volleyball players in the play-off stage of 'Wiener Statische' Serbian league in season 2012/2013. The aim of the research is to determine characteristics of the volleyball game structure in competitive activity, to determine the technical-tactical elements with a statistically significant contribution to the achievement of positive results in the competition and to perform certain conclusions, with the help of research results, regarding the design of the training process. Description of elements was performed in the research, the contents that describe competitive activity in men's volleyball were explored, and then comparative analysis of these elements was performed for different levels of team performance. We can conclude that, based on these results, there is a statistically significant difference between successful and less successful men volleyball teams in only three variables, namely: the efficiency coefficient of serve, efficiency coefficient of block, efficiency coefficient of attack. This data is absolutely correspond to considerations in practice, which is that these three elements directly bring a point in the field, and therefore by observing them we can determine the winner of the match, with the highest certainty. Other elements, though necessary may influence the final outcome in men's volleyball to a lesser extent. Data from this study should be used primarily for modeling volleyball players training, with the ultimate projection on training improvement and game efficiency increase.

  16. Inflamma-miRs in aging and breast cancer: Are they reliable players?

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    Cristina Sorina Cătană

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation known as inflammaging. Persistent low-level inflammation also plays a key role in all stages of breast cancer since inflammaging is the potential link between cancer and aging through NF-kB pathways highly influenced by specific miRs. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Inflamma-miRs have been implicated in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Their abnormal expression contributes to the chronic pro-inflammatory status documented in normal aging and major age-related diseases (ARDs, inflammaging being a significant mortality risk factor in both cases. Nevertheless, the correct diagnosis of inflammaging is difficult to make and its hidden contribution to negative health outcomes remains unknown. This methodological work flow was aimed at defining crucial unanswered questions about inflammaging that can be used to clarify aging-related miRNAs in serum and cell lines as well as their targets, thus confirming their role in aging and breast cancer tumorigenesis.Moreover, we aim to highlight the links between the pro-inflammatory mechanism underlying the cancer and aging processes and the precise function of certain miRNAs in cellular senescence (CS. In addition, miRNAs and cancer genes represent the basis for new therapeutic findings indicating that both cancer and ARDs genes are possible candidates involved in CS and vice versa. Our goal is to obtain a focused review which could facilitate future approaches in the investigation of the mechanisms by which miRNAs control the aging process by acting as efficient ARDs inflammatory biomarkers. An understanding of the sources and modulation of inflamma-miRs, along with the identification of their specific target genes could enhance their therapeutic potential.

  17. Rotational Angles and Velocities During Down the Line and Diagonal Across Court Volleyball Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The volleyball spike is an explosive movement that is frequently used to end a rally and earn a point. High velocity spikes are an important skill for a successful volleyball offense. Although the influence of vertical jump height and arm velocity on spiked ball velocity (SBV have been investigated, little is known about the relationship of shoulder and hip angular kinematics with SBV. Other sport skills, like the baseball pitch share similar movement patterns and suggest trunk rotation is important for such movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of both shoulder and hip angular kinematics with ball velocity during the volleyball spike. Methods: Fourteen Division I collegiate female volleyball players executed down the line (DL and diagonally across-court (DAC spikes in a laboratory setting to measure shoulder and hip angular kinematics and velocities. Each spike was analyzed using a 10 Camera Raptor-E Digital Real Time Camera System.  Results: DL SBV was significantly greater than for DAC, respectively (17.54±2.35 vs. 15.97±2.36 m/s, p<0.05.  The Shoulder Hip Separation Angle (S-HSA, Shoulder Angular Velocity (SAV, and Hip Angular Velocity (HAV were all significantly correlated with DAC SBV. S-HSA was the most significant predictor of DAC SBV as determined by regression analysis.  Conclusions: This study provides support for a relationship between a greater S-HSA and SBV. Future research should continue to 1 examine the influence of core training exercise and rotational skill drills on SBV and 2 examine trunk angular velocities during various types of spikes during play.

  18. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Cabral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter’s method to evaluate somatotype. The men’s team obtained the following mean results: Age = 16.71; height = 195.9cm; body weight = 87.7kg; endomorphy = 1.26; mesomorphy = 3.18 and ectomorphy = 3.8; while the women’s results were: Age = 15.9; height = 181.6cm; body weight = 67.4kg; endomorphy = 3.09; mesomorphy = 2.21 and ectomorphy = 3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  19. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  20. Melatonin and circadian oscillators in aging--a dynamic approach to the multiply connected players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of systems biology, melatonin is relevant to aging in multiple ways. As a highly pleiotropic agent, it acts as a modulator and protectant of mitochondrial electron flux, a potent antioxidant that supports the redox balance and prevents excessive free radical formation, a coregulator of metabolic sensing and antagonist of insulin resistance, an immune modulator, a physiological hypnotic and, importantly, an orchestrating chronobiotic. It entrains central and peripheral circadian clocks and is required for some high-amplitude rhythms. The circadian system, which controls countless functions, is composed of many cellular oscillators that involve various accessory clock proteins, some of which are modulated by melatonin, e.g. sirtuin 1, AMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase Cα. Aging and age-related diseases are associated with losses in melatonin secretion and rhythm amplitudes. The dynamic properties of aging processes deserve particular attention. This concerns especially two vicious cycles, one of peroxynitrite formation driven by inflammation or overexcitation, another one of inflammaging driven by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and additionally the loss of dynamics in a deteriorating circadian multioscillator system.

  1. ANTHROPOMETRIC AND MOTORIC COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE TWO VOLLEYBALL TEAMS IN PRISHTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malsor Gjonbalaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in sports results today not only identifies the quantity (volume and intensity of the work put in, but also the quality (changing the stereotypical notion of effort, eliminating redundant movements, rationalizing the sport in all elements etc. All of these circumstances and factors referred in this paper are stimulated through practical methods for processing positive results and aiming to present a realistic and factual reflection of the current condition, particularly emphasizing the evaluation of several anthropometric and motor characteristics of the players in both volleyball clubs from Prishtina. Methods: These methods are elaborated among arithmetic methods, variance, standard deviation and standard error of the arithmetic mean, the coefficient of variance, the maximum and minimum score test, the score in accordance to the Pearson correlation coefficient-whereas the instruments measured 14 variables such as anthropometric 8, 4 motors and 2 situational. The main purpose to which is addressed in this paper is verifying the situation and the differences between the players in two of the clubs by analyzing the results from the variables I have chosen. Results: The results show that there is a significant differentiation between one volleyball group to the other in terms of motor, anthropometric and situational. This is proven by the results of the data based on the parameters abovementioned. Discussion: Results acquired on in the research, verifies the hypotheses which sets forth previously, it helps to us to understand that the main goal in this research has largely been achieved. Statistical methods that have been processed results may explain the state of anthropometric and motor characteristics. Moreover, with the help of T-test we came to understand the valuable statistical differences between two clubs which have been subject to research. These results are best justified considering the fact that the first

  2. The Characteristic of Energy Metabolism and Nutritional Supplement of Volleyball Athletes

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    Liping Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial metabolism and energy metabolism is the base of the normal operation for every organ. Nutrition arrangement instructed by the knowledge about the regularities of metabolism is very significant. The purpose of the presented study was the examination of nutrition intake influence on energy metabolism in young volleyball players. The study was performed in twenty four 16-18 years old male volleyball players in the competition period. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, depending on the calcium intake: more than 1300 mg/day in the first group (13 athletes; and less than 1300 mg/day in the second group (11 athletes. The nutrition mode assessment was based on the 24-h dietary history using the recall method. In the blood serum concentrations of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (bALP, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (ICTP, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like-growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, growth hormone (hGH and ionized calcium and magnesium were determined. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between both groups investigated in respect to the calcium (p<0.01 and protein (p<0.05 intake and the bALP and (IGFBP-3 concentrations (p<0.05. The results of the study led us to conclude that low calcium and protein intake together with systematic sport activity negatively influenced the bone formation level. At last to improve the capacity of sports man we give some advice such as the methods of volleyball train and supplying some nutrient matter in the training.

  3. THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF AGE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING SPORTING POTENTIAL OF YOUNG PLAYERS

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    A. D. Dugbley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the various life-support systems of teenage body is so heterochronous that among peers by chronological age, there are often significant cognitive, physical and emotional differences, accompanied by a fairly significant differences in weight and growth rates, between children who was born in the early and late stage of the year. This fact can have a significant impact on the academic and athletic activities of children. It's necessary to define the relative influence of age characteristics for the selection procedure of young footballers.The experiment was participated by 82 pupils of government school №63 and 172 young footballers of various teams in Moscow.According to the results of the experiment was certain that during the long-term collaboration in football, the shift of attention in favor of children who was born earlier than others within one year, leads to the devaluation of the selection and rejection of the professional activities by a large percentage of talented footballers that have a negative impact on the level of youth football in the country.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  4. Different temporal bases for body and arm movements in volleyball serve reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benerink, N H; Bootsma, R J; Zaal, F T J M

    2015-10-01

    In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve reception. Video footage of five international matches of the Netherlands men's national volleyball team allowed the systematic coding and analysis of 347 different serve reception events. For each event, we identified the time of serve (TS) and time of contact (TC). Ball flight time (from TS to TC) varied between and within types of serve (power jump serves, n = 193, and jumping float serves, n = 154). Correlation analyses revealed that foot movement was initiated with respect to time from TS, while arm movement was initiated with respect to time until TC. These results suggest that whole-body and arm movements rely on different control processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A new technique for assessing ball speed and impact force in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Moghaddam, Morteza

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a description of a simple ballistic pendulum used for assessing ball speed and forces in volleyball. A seven-meter long pendulum with a wooden block of mass 10 kg was constructed and then used in conjunction with a specially designed timer with a precision of 10(-3)s to measure ball speed, pendulum speed and forces exerted to the ball and to the hand. Twelve volleyball players, ranging in ability from beginners to elite (National team) level were used as subjects, and separated into three groups; beginners, university and elite. All subjects performed five services of each kind. Subjects were instructed to jump to the height where the ball and pendulum were hung and hit it against the pendulum as hard as possible. A video camera, Panasonic M9000, was also used for the deviation angle measurement of pendulum. The results showed that highly skilled players receive larger forces and produce higher ball speeds than lower-level athletes.

  6. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-02

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career.

  7. Optimal temporal placement of the call in beach volleyball

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    Stefan Künzell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The call is a tactical component in beach volleyball attacks. Through the call, the setter indicates to his or her teammate an open spot in the opponent’s court. In two experimental conditions, we investigated the interval between the call and the ball-hand contact (“call shot interval”, CSI of top-level athletes. We show that the probability that a given call is followed is dependent on the duration of the CSI and the number of call options. Longer CSIs result in an increased probability that the given call will be followed, whilst increasing the call options results in a decrease in probability. On average, there is a 50% probability that the call will be followed if the call precedes the shot by 460 ms and if a single call option (“line” is expected. If the attacker has to choose between three call options (“line”, “cut”, “no-one” a 50% probability that the call will be followed is observed at an CSI of 542 ms. It did not appear that gender influenced the ability to follow a call. We recommend that in practice and in competition, players and coaches should consider the proper duration of the CSI for effective calling.

  8. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO VOLLEYBALL TEAMS IN SOME ANTHROPOMETERIC AND MOTOR ABILITIS

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    Bahri Gjinovci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research we are deal with two teams of the super league of Kosovo in volleyball. The goal of this study is to verify the differences between the two teams in volleyball in some anthropometric characteristics, basic motor skills and situational tests. Methods: For the realization of this research, there were included 12 volleyball player from the team KV “Prishtina" and 12 from the team KV "Universiteti AAB". There are applied 4 anthropometric variables (body weight, body height, arm length, forearm length, 5 basic motor variables (long jump from place, high jump from the place taping hand, taping feet, jogging with 20 meters with a fast start, and 7 situational tests (pass the ball with the fingers on target vertical expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in vertical target, passing the ball with the fingers in a horizontal target, the expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in horizontal target, pass the ball with fingers to jump in the horizontal target, tennis service in horizontal target, the target service with the horizontal jump. For processing the obtained results from the measurements and proving the difference between the teams in anthrop motored parameters, was used the discriminatory analysis using the t-test for independent variables. Results: The results obtained show that the players of the two volleyball teams, involved in research do not distinguish between them in anthropometric characteristics (p> 0:05. The team KV "Prishtina" has had better results in some explosive force motor variables and situational tests (p 1.97, at the statistical significance level of p < 0.05. Results from our sample showed that between VC. "Pristina" and VC. "AAB", important statistical changes were in those motoric tests. High jumping, foot taping, Passing the ball with hammer to the wall, Tactical accurate Service, Accuracy of service with jump and Standing long jump length. References: Strahonja A

  9. A Comparison of Women’s Collegiate and Girls’ High School Volleyball Injury Data Collected Prospectively Over a 4-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C.; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. Hypothesis: There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Study Design: Retrospective clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Results: The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). Conclusion: The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. Clinical Relevance: The injury data suggest that important

  10. New guidelines are needed to manage heat stress in elite sports--The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) Heat Stress Monitoring Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Roald; Reeser, Jonathan C

    2012-09-01

    There seems to be a discrepancy between the available heat stress guidelines and the actual risk of heat-related illness among professional beach volleyball players competing under hot and humid conditions. To monitor heat stress and record cases of heat-related medical forfeits on the Swatch FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour. The FIVB Heat Stress Monitoring Protocol covered events on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Championships during the 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons (51 events, most of these double gender). The protocol consisted of (1) measuring the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) on centre court prior to the start of every match, and (2) recording any heat-related medical forfeits during the tournament. Data were collected during 48 of 51 events. There were nine events where the peak WBGT exceeded the US Navy Black flag conditions of >32.3°C and an additional two events where the peak WBGT exceeded 31°C, (meeting Red flag conditions.) In two events, the average WBGT equalled at least 31°C. One case of a medical forfeit related to heat stress was recorded over the 3-year surveillance period: an athlete whose fluid balance was compromised from a 3-day bout of acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of significant heat illness among athletes competing on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour appears to be quite low, even though weather conditions frequently result in a WBGT index >32°C. Currently available guidelines appear to be inadequate to fully assess the risk of heat stress and too conservative to inform safety decisions in professional beach volleyball.

  11. ANÁLISIS DE LAS VARIABLES ANTROPOMÉTRICAS Y FÍSICO TÉCNICAS EN VOLEIBOL FEMENINO [Analysis of anthropometric and physical techniques in women´s volleyball

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    Natalia Valladares Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Volleyball has been considered a highly complex sport because of their technical, tactical, physical, psychological and anthropometric factors requirements. Over the years there has been an increase in the homogeneity of the characteristics of volleyball players in high performance due to talent acquisition with similar skills. The main interest of this study was to determine the performance of a sample of 53 volleyball players participating in different official women's volleyball competition. The variables studied are: category, anthropometric variables (body mass, height, endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy, upper body strength (throwing ball, measure the speed hitting without jump and with jump spike and lower body strength (CMJ, ABK, DJ and jump spike. Statistical analysis consisted of a Shapiro-Wilks test, to determine the normality of the sample. The comparative analysis between categories was performed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA a factor. The results showed a significant positive increase in physical, technical and anthropometric characteristics of the players with the increased level of competition, and a better use of technical gestures, reflecting an increase in performance thereof.

  12. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  13. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  14. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  15. Skilled players' and novices' difficulty anticipating left- vs. right-handed opponents' action intentions varies across different points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    A left-handers' performance advantage in interactive sports is assumed to result from their relative rarity compared to right-handers. Part of this advantage may be explained by athletes facing difficulties anticipating left-handers' action intentions, particularly when anticipation is based on kinematic cues available at an early stage of an opponent's movement. Here we tested whether the type of volleyball attack is predicted better against right- vs. left-handed opponents' movements and whether such handedness effects are evident at earlier time points in skilled players than novices. In a video-based experiment volleyball players and novices predicted the type of shot (i.e., smash vs. lob) of left- and right-handed volleyball attacks occluded at six different time points. Overall, right-handed attacks were better anticipated than left-handed attacks, volleyball players outperformed novices, and performance improved in later occlusion conditions. Moreover, in skilled players the handedness effect was most pronounced when attacks were occluded 480 ms prior to hand-ball-contact, whereas in novices it was most evident 240 ms prior to hand-ball-contact. Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of an opponent's handedness on action outcome anticipation and suggest that its occurrence in the course of an opponent's unfolding action likely depends on an observers' domain-specific skill.

  16. Efects of the physical training, based in ergospyrometric evaluation, in the aerobic capacity of volley players – physical training in volley players

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    Newton Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prescription of the exercise training intensity based on ventilatory thresholds, determined by ergoespirometric evaluations, has been very useful for athletes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of a short period of exercise training, based on the ventilatory thresholds on physical capacity of volleyball players. Six male volleyball players (25±4 years were studied during the competitive phase of the State Championship. The players were submitted to two maximal ergoespirometric evaluations on the treadmill with a three-month interval. In this period, the aerobic training was performed with an intensity between the anaerobic threshold and the respiratory compensation point, and the anaerobic training on an intensity above the respiratory compensation point. Exercise training caused a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake (48.6±3.0 vs. 51.0±3.0 ml.kg-1.min-1, p < 0.05, but without significant alteration in maximal power, maximal heart rate and maximal ventilation. The values of oxygen uptake and heart rate, in which the ventilatory thresholds were achieved, tended to be higher after exercise training. In conclusion, a short period of three months of exercise training based on the ventilatory thresholds is effective in increasing the maximal oxygen uptake in volleyball players and tends to increase the ventilatory thresholds.

  17. Development of a Valid Volleyball Skills Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jackie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of the North Carolina State University Volleyball Skills Test Battery which offers accurate measurement of three volleyball skills (serve, forearm pass, and set). When physical educators tested 313 students, the battery objectively measured their abilities, providing a gamelike means of teaching, testing, grouping, and…

  18. NAGWS Volleyball Guide, 1989. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This booklet contains the official rules and interpretations for officiating in volleyball competitions. Section 1 states the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) interscholastic and collegiate volleyball rules for 1989-90. Section 2 presents a summary and descriptions of officiating techniques and mechanics. Study questions…

  19. Development of a Valid Volleyball Skills Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jackie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of the North Carolina State University Volleyball Skills Test Battery which offers accurate measurement of three volleyball skills (serve, forearm pass, and set). When physical educators tested 313 students, the battery objectively measured their abilities, providing a gamelike means of teaching, testing, grouping, and…

  20. NAGWS Volleyball Guide 1990: Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This guide presents the 1990 update of the National Association for Girls & Women in Sport (NAGWS) interscholastic and collegiate volleyball rules. It includes the official U.S. volleyball rules and a summary of rule changes, definitions of skills and fouls, and a summary of penalties. Officiating techniques and mechanics are covered with a…

  1. Effects of Posthypnotic Suggestions on the Overhand Volleyball Serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Rose; Wynn, Mary Jo

    This study determines effects of posthypnotic suggestions in dealing with attitudinal impediments of students performing the overhand volleyball serve. Subjects were 54 male and female college students enrolled in beginning volleyball. Subjects were assigned either to a control or to an experimental group. After four class sessions, a 10-trial…

  2. THE PERCEPTUAL COGNITIVE PROCESSES UNDERPINNING SKILLED PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL: EVIDENCE FROM EYE-MOVEMENTS AND VERBAL REPORTS OF THINKING INVOLVING AN IN SITU REPRESENTATIVE TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive body of work has focused on the processes underpinning perceptual-cognitive expertise. The majority of researchers have used film-based simulations to capture superior performance. We combined eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a complex, dynamic, and externally paced representative volleyball task involving in situ data collection. Altogether, 27 female volleyball players performed as centre backcourt defenders in simulated sessions while wearing an eye-tracking device. After each sequence, athletes were questioned concerning their perception of the situation. The visual search strategies employed by the highly-skilled players were more exploratory than those used by skilled players, involving more fixations to a greater number of locations. Highly-skilled participants spent more time fixating on functional spaces between two or more display areas, while the skilled participants fixated on the ball trajectory and specific players. Moreover, highly-skilled players generated more condition concepts with higher levels of sophistication than their skilled counterparts. Findings highlight the value of using representative task designs to capture performance in situ

  3. Epidemiology of basketball, soccer, and volleyball injuries in middle-school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Greg D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer.

  4. DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR STATUS OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX IN SCHOOL VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Batez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 45 children (25 girls and 20 boys age of 9 to 11, who have been training volleyball (one to three years in the club "Sportisimo pajp" in Novi Sad, were applied four motor tests. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the motor status of children of different sex in the school volleyball. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA determined a statistically significant difference in the whole system of analyzed motor variables depending on the sex on studied sample of child¬ren. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that girls had better results in va¬riables of flexibility and agility. Boys are better in standing long jump, while sta¬tistically significant differences between means in the speed of alternative movements between girls and boys the not found.

  5. Shoulder-Rotator Strength, Range of Motion, and Acromiohumeral Distance in Asymptomatic Adolescent Volleyball Attackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Guney, Hande; Toprak, Ugur; Kaya, Tunca; Colakoglu, Fatma Filiz; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-09-01

    Sport-specific adaptations at the glenohumeral joint could occur in adolescent athletes because they start participating in high-performance sports in early childhood. To investigate shoulder-rotator strength, internal-rotation (IR) and external-rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM), and acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic adolescent volleyball attackers to determine if they have risk factors for injury. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Thirty-nine adolescent high school-aged volleyball attackers (22 boys, 17 girls; age = 16.0 ± 1.4 years, height = 179.2 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 67.1 ± 10.9 kg, body mass index = 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)). Shoulder IR and ER ROM, total-rotation ROM, glenohumeral IR deficit, AHD, and concentric and eccentric strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators were tested bilaterally. External-rotation ROM was greater (t38 = 4.92, P 18°). We observed greater concentric internal-rotator (t38 = 2.89, P = .006) and eccentric external-rotator (t38 = 2.65, P = .01) strength in the dominant than in the nondominant shoulder. The AHD was less in the dominant shoulder (t38 = -3.60, P volleyball attackers demonstrated decreased IR ROM, total ROM, and AHD and increased ER ROM in their dominant shoulder. Therefore, routine screening of adolescent athletes and designing training programs for hazardous adaptive changes could be important in preventing shoulder injuries.

  6. 2015-2016年中国女排联赛决赛江苏女排失利原因分析%Analysis on Reasons of Failure of Jiangsu Women's Volleyball Team in Final Match In China Women's Volleyball League of 2015 -2016

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士杰

    2016-01-01

    2016年1月30日,历时三个月的女排联赛落下帷幕。经过五场艰苦的比赛,天津女排战胜江苏女排夺得冠军。本文通过文献资料法、录像观察法、数据统计法、对比分析法等研究方法,对两队之间的五场比赛进行对比分析,找出江苏女排失利的原因。分析结果认为:江苏女排队员大赛经验、发挥的稳定性与天津女排具有一定的差距;江苏女排一传到位率低、发球稳定性差、进攻组织过于单调、副攻实力偏弱、进攻节奏偏慢,这些都是导致江苏女排失利的重要原因。%The three -month Women's Volleyball League just ends on January 30th,2016.Tianjin women's volleyball team defeats Jiangsu women's volleyball team after five tough games.This essay adapts literature study, video observation,data statistics and comparative analysis to analyze the five games and finds the reasons of failure of the Jiangsu women's volleyball team.The results show that big -match experience and stabilization of Jiangsu women's volleyball players are poorer than that of Tianjin women's volleyball team;meanwhile,the low rate of spot pass,the poor service stability,monotonous attacking forms,the weak strength of the assistant attacker and the slow attacking rhythm are all the important reasons which leads them a failure.

  7. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations noted potential importance of isokinetic strength in rapid muscular performances, such as jumping. This study aimed to identify the influence of isokinetic-knee-strength on specific jumping performance in volleyball. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the two volleyball-specific jumping tests. The sample comprised 67 female (21.96±3.79 years; 68.26±8.52 kg; 174.43±6.85 cm) and 99 male (23.62±5.27 years; 84.83±10.37 kg; 189.01±7.21 cm) high- volleyball players who competed in 1st and 2nd National Division. Subjects were randomly divided into validation (N.=55 and 33 for males and females, respectively) and cross-validation subsamples (N.=54 and 34 for males and females, respectively). Set of predictors included isokinetic tests, to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors, and flexors for dominant and non-dominant leg. The main outcome measure for the isokinetic testing was peak torque (PT) which was later normalized for body mass and expressed as PT/Kg. Block-jump and spike-jump performances were measured over three trials, and observed as criteria. Forward stepwise multiple regressions were calculated for validation subsamples and then cross-validated. Cross validation included correlations between and t-test differences between observed and predicted scores; and Bland Altman graphics. Jumping tests were found to be reliable (spike jump: ICC of 0.79 and 0.86; block-jump: ICC of 0.86 and 0.90; for males and females, respectively), and their validity was confirmed by significant t-test differences between 1st vs. 2nd division players. Isokinetic variables were found to be significant predictors of jumping performance in females, but not among males. In females, the isokinetic-knee measures were shown to be stronger and more valid predictors of the block-jump (42% and 64% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively

  8. Effectiveness of PETTLEP imager on performance of passing skill in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzeh, M; Sohrabi, E; Haghkhan, A; Rowshani, F; Goharrokhi, S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of PETTLEP-based imagery, and traditional imagery interventions, on performance of passing skill in volleyball. 36 beginners male volleyball players (Mage =13.5 years, SD=0.55 years) with 5-6 months practice experience were randomly assigned to one of three groups: physical practice + PETTLEP imagery (PP+PI) (N.=15), physical practice + traditional imagery (N.=15), and physical practice only (PP; N.=15). Subjects in the PP+PI group applied the seven components of PETTLEP imagery training; whereas subjects in the PP+TI engaged in a relaxation session before imagery and used response laden motor imagery scripts. The two groups completed 15 minutes of imagery training followed immediately by 13 minutes of "passing" practice three times per week. The PP group completed only 13 minutes of "passing" practice three times per week. Each group performed its respective tasks for 7 weeks. A pre-test took place during the first practice session in which "passing" was assessed. After the 7-week practice program, a post-test took place followed by a retention test, one "no-practice" week later. All groups improved significantly (Pvolleyball when combined with physical practice.

  9. Application of a tri-axial accelerometer to estimate jump frequency in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarning, Jon M; Mok, Kam-Ming; Hansen, Bjørge H; Bahr, Roald

    2015-03-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is prevalent among athletes, and most likely associated with a high jumping load. If methods for estimating jump frequency were available, this could potentially assist in understanding and preventing this condition. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of using peak vertical acceleration (PVA) or peak resultant acceleration (PRA) measured by an accelerometer to estimate jump frequency. Twelve male elite volleyball players (22.5 ± 1.6 yrs) performed a training protocol consisting of seven typical motion patterns, including jumping and non-jumping movements. Accelerometer data from the trial were obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer. In addition, we collected video data from the trial. Jump-float serving and spike jumping could not be distinguished from non-jumping movements using differences in PVA or PRA. Furthermore, there were substantial inter-participant differences in both the PVA and the PRA within and across movement types (p volleyball. A method for acquiring real-time estimates of jump frequency remains to be verified. However, there are several alternative approaches, and further investigations are needed.

  10. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms Have Protective Effect against the Development of Tendinopathy in Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Guimarães, João Matheus; Lopes, Lucas Rafael; Vilarinho Cardoso, Jessica; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Machado Neto, João Olyntho; Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Perini, Jamila Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variants in VEGF and KDR genes can be correlated with susceptibility of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes. This study was conducted at the Brazilian Volleyball Federation, and comprised 179 volleyball athletes: 88 had a confirmed diagnosis of tendinopathy (cases), whereas 91 had no evidence of the disease (controls). The VEGF (-2578C>A, -460T>C and +936C>T) and KDR (-604C>T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using an unconditional logistic regression model. The evaluation of demographic and clinical characteristics revealed the athlete age (P volleyball (P T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) haplotypes CGA and CAT were associated with decreased tendinopathy risk (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-0.99 and OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.76, respectively). With regards to pain, traumatic lesion and away from training due to injury, VEGF and KDR polymorphisms were not associated with clinical symptoms complaints. The present results provide evidence that the KDR polymorphisms were associated with development of tendinopathy, and can contribute to identify new therapeutic targets or personalized training programs to avoid tendinopathy development in athletes.

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms Have Protective Effect against the Development of Tendinopathy in Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Guimarães, João Matheus; Lopes, Lucas Rafael; Vilarinho Cardoso, Jessica; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Machado Neto, João Olyntho; Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Perini, Jamila Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variants in VEGF and KDR genes can be correlated with susceptibility of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes. This study was conducted at the Brazilian Volleyball Federation, and comprised 179 volleyball athletes: 88 had a confirmed diagnosis of tendinopathy (cases), whereas 91 had no evidence of the disease (controls). The VEGF (-2578C>A, -460T>C and +936C>T) and KDR (-604C>T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using an unconditional logistic regression model. The evaluation of demographic and clinical characteristics revealed the athlete age (P volleyball (P T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) haplotypes CGA and CAT were associated with decreased tendinopathy risk (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–0.99 and OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07–0.76, respectively). With regards to pain, traumatic lesion and away from training due to injury, VEGF and KDR polymorphisms were not associated with clinical symptoms complaints. The present results provide evidence that the KDR polymorphisms were associated with development of tendinopathy, and can contribute to identify new therapeutic targets or personalized training programs to avoid tendinopathy development in athletes. PMID:27930691

  13. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaka Prasanna Gamage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to competition using a computerized nutrition analysis software and local food database. Questionnaire was used to examine supplement intake and fluid intake strategies. The results were compared with current nutrition recommendations for these athletes. Mean daily energy intakes were 2309+365 kcal (30.9+5.7 kcal.kg-1.body weight in male and 1829+383 kcal (30.8+6.8 kcal.kg-1.body weight in female athletes. These intake values were 31% and 18% lower than recommended daily energy intake for active Sri Lankan male and female adults, respectively. Daily carbohydrate and protein intakes of all athletes were 5.6+1.0 g.kg-1.day-1 and 0.91+0.37 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively, lower than the recommendations. Total energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake of female athletes were significantly lower than those of males (p<0.05. Frequency of snack intake and calorie content of snacks and main meals in the pre-competition period was sub-optimal. Nutrient intake and dietary practices of national level volleyball players during competition days are sub-optimal and do not meet the current nutrition recommendations. According to the results, it is recommended that athletes use nutrition counselling and strategies for optimizing dietary practices during the competition days.

  14. Proxidant* antioxidant balance in supplemented elite female volleyball athletes during a six week training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, J; Dopsaj, V; Kotur-Stevuljević, J; Dopsaj, M; Vujović, A; Stefanović, A; Nesić, G

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) associations with the commonly measured parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidatve defence in elite female volleyball athletes; 2) to investigate changes in the parameters of oxidative stress during a period of intense training and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Twenty-seven female volleyball players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected the day before the pre-competitive mesocycle training period began. After the first blood sample donation and during the next six weeks fourteen players (supplemented group) received a cocktail of antioxidants while thirteen of them (control group) received no dietary supplementation. The following parameters were measured: reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), superoxide anion (O2-), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total sulphydryl group concentration (SH groups) and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Significant associations were observed between biomarkers of oxidative damage with PAB in multiple linear regression model in the supplemented and the control groups (82.3% vs. 83.1%) before training and in the control group (82.1%) after training. Significant associations between antioxidative defence parameters and PAB values were found in the supplemented group after six-weeks of training (57%). In the absence of antioxidant supplementation, PAB values were dependent on the association with biomarkers of oxidative damage before and after training. After a six-week training period and the applied antioxidant supplementation, PAB values were under the influence of non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defence.

  15. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  16. Evaluation of parents’ opinions about children’s orientation to volleyball

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAKOGLU, Filiz Fatma; UYGUR, Duran; SENEL, Ender

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate parents’ views in directing children to volleyball. Parents of students and athletes from Ankara - Keçiören - Tarhuncu Ahm et Paşa Junior High School volleyball school team, Ankara - Çankaya - Anıttepe Junior High School volleyball school team, Başkentgücü Sports Clup volleyball team, Batıkent Yıldızlar Sports Clup Volleyball school, Ankara DSİ Sports Clup volleyball team...

  17. Evaluation of parents’ opinions about children’s orientation to volleyball

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAKOGLU, Filiz Fatma; Duran UYGUR; SENEL, Ender

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate parents’ views in directing children to volleyball. Parents of students and athletes from Ankara - Keçiören - Tarhuncu Ahm et Paşa Junior High School volleyball school team, Ankara - Çankaya - Anıttepe Junior High School volleyball school team, Başkentgücü Sports Clup volleyball team, Batıkent Yıldızlar Sports Clup Volleyball school, Ankara DSİ Sports Clup volleyball team...

  18. A harmonic oscillator having “volleyball damping”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, R. E.; Oyedeji, K.; Rucker, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Volleyball damping corresponds to linear damping up to a certain critical velocity, with zero damping above this value. The dynamics of a linear harmonic oscillator is investigated with this damping mechanism.

  19. Evaluation of parents’ opinions about children’s orientation to volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Fatma ÇOLAKOGLU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate parents’ views in directing children to volleyball. Parents of students and athletes from Ankara - Keçiören - Tarhuncu Ahm et Paşa Junior High School volleyball school team, Ankara - Çankaya - Anıttepe Junior High School volleyball school team, Başkentgücü Sports Clup volleyball team, Batıkent Yıldızlar Sports Clup Volleyball school, Ankara DSİ Sports Clup volleyball team, Ank ara Gazi İhtisas Sports Clup volleyball team, KGM Sports Clup volleyball team, Gazi University Sport Clup volleyball team, TVF Fine Arts and Sport High School participated in the study (n=206. Data was collected by using an information form related to par ents’ opinions about children’s orientation to volleyball developed by Şimşek (2005. Data was analyzed in SPSS by using Frequency analysis. Results showed that parents directing their children to volleyball had enough information about the contributions o f sport to children’s development. Some factors effecting children’s orientation to volleyball such as knowledge level of parents about volleyball and a sportive branch, responsibilities, future expectations were revealed in this study.

  20. An analysis of the sports injuries occurred in competitions in Men’s Volleyball League during five year period (2011-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Uluöz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent injuries, reasons and risk factors should be known before injuries occur. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate sports injuries that have occurred in matches in the First Turkish Men’s Volleyball League during the period between 2011 and 2016. In this study, 250 matches played in the Turkish Men’s Volleyball League during the period between 2011 and 2016 have been analyzed. “A Sports Injuries Observation Form” developed by the researcher was used in the study. This form contains different variables related to sports injuries such as “number of injury”, “injury sites of body”, “severity of injury”, “techniques-related injury”, “injury reason” and “match duration”. In addition to the researcher, two independent expert observers in volleyball have analyzed the match recordings and filled out the forms. All forms were crosschecked closely. The matches analyzed included 121.680 player hours defined as active playing time. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the variables such as mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency. The Pearson coefficient was used to measure correlations between match durations and total number of injuries, number of temporary injuries, and number of serious injuries. In these matches, 83 injuries have occurred. However, 68.67% (57 of all injuries were temporary injuries where players continued to the play following the minor treatment and where 31.33% (26 were serious injuries which hindered players and were not able to continue to the play. In this context, there were 0.33 injuries per match. Upper extremity injury rate was 61.45% (51 whereas the lower extremity injury rate was 38.55% (32. While “block” was the most dangerous technique of the play with 65.06% (54 injury rate, “spike”, defense and other techniques had a slightly lower risk rate of 14.46% (12 and 20.48% (17, respectively. In other words, 79.51% (66 of the

  1. 溯源排球的历史%Tracing the history of Volleyball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腾达

    2014-01-01

    排球由于运动量适中,娱乐性强,易于接受,深受各阶层人士的喜爱,在其发展演变过程中又不断分化和繁衍,主要以竞技排球和娱乐排球两条主要的形式展开的。竞技性为主的排球运动主要有,6人制排球、沙滩排球、坐式排球。娱乐性为主的排球主要有软式排球、9人制排球、妈妈排球、盲人排球等。在21世纪第二个十年,排球的发展速度突飞猛进。通过文献法,追溯排球的发展历史,可以让人们更好的去了解排球,去发展排球。%Volleyball with moderate exercise,entertaining and easy to accept,and was deeply loved by people of different social classes, in the process of its development and increasing division and reproduction,mainly competitive volleyball and volleyball two major forms of entertainment.Athletics volleyball are mainly,six people volleyball,beach volleyball,volleyball sitting.Recreational volleyball mainly soft volleyball,nine people mom and volleyball volleyball,volleyball and so on for the blind.In the second decade of the 21st century, the development of volleyball speed by leaps and bounds.Through the literature method,traces the history of volleyball, can make people better to understand volleyball,volleyball to development.

  2. Using of competition approach in the women's beach volleyball sports team training%比赛教学法在体工队女子沙滩排球训练中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2014-01-01

    Beach volleyball is a very popular outdoor sports item. "Race pedagogy" in the sports team training in women's beach volleyball can effectively enhance the quality and effectiveness of women's beach volleyball sports team training. Enhancing women's physical and mental qualities of athletes to achieve better race results .This article on the role of "race pedagogy" applications in sports team women's beach volleyball training and specific measures were analyzed, designed to effectively enhance the quality and effectiveness of women's beach volleyball training, sports team, to optimize the standard of teaching, training and more much better women's beach volleyball player.%沙滩排球是一种十分受欢迎的户外体育运动项目。“比赛教学法”在体工队女子沙滩排球训练中的运用,能够有效提升体工队女子沙滩排球训练的质量和效果,增强女子运动员的体能和心理素质,取得更好的比赛成绩。文章对“比赛教学法”在体工队女子沙滩排球训练中应用的作用和具体措施进行分析,旨在有效提升体工队女子沙滩排球训练的质量和效果,达到教学的最优化标准,培养更多、更优秀的女子沙滩排球运动员。

  3. Bridging the Gap in Volleyball. From Basic Instruction to Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Linda; Polvino, Geri

    1982-01-01

    Using volleyball "mini games," which emphasize, one at a time, skills needed to play volleyball, helps students to develop skills needed to play. Mini games described are: (1) forearm pass; (2) overhand pass; (3) overhand pass; (4) overhand serve; (5) mini volleyball; and (6) alternate court set-up. (CJ)

  4. Evaluating the Relation between Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand Perimeters and Handgrip Strength of Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Handball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Defne Öcal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's aimed to evaluate the relation between dominant and non-dominant hand perimeters and handgrip strength of basketball, volleyball, badminton and handball athletes. Totally 101 active athletes (49 females, 52 male), of the average age in female 20±1.42 years, in male 21±1.99 years, joined to this study. Height, body weight, BMI…

  5. Psychological features of youths at a selection to beach volley-ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoday V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological features of young sportsmen are considered on the initial stage of sporting preparation. The dynamics of mental condition of youths is certain from beach volley-ball on the stage of sporting selection. 25 young sportsmen of groups of initial preparation took part in research. Middle age of young sportsmen made 12 years. On the indexes of self-appraisal of mental condition at swingeing majority of youths exposed a few the overextension of feel, activity and location of spirit. On the psychological indexes of concentration, the middle level of their development is set firmness and concentration of attention.

  6. BMP4 and FGF3 haplotypes increase the risk of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Amaral, Marcus Vinícius; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Lira, Daisy Anne; Quinelato, Valquiria; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Casado, Priscila Ladeira

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic variants can be correlated with tendinopathy in elite male volleyball athletes. Case-control study. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within BMP4, FGF3, FGF10, FGFR1 genes were investigated in 138 elite volleyball athletes, aged between 18 and 35 years, who undergo 4-5h of training per day: 52 with tendinopathy and 86 with no history of pain suggestive of tendinopathy in patellar, Achilles, shoulder, and hip abductors tendons. The clinical diagnostic criterion was progressive pain during training, confirmed by magnetic resonance image. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples. Genetic markers were genotyped using TaqMan real-time PCR. Chi-square test compared genotypes and haplotype differences between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the significance of covariates and incidence of tendinopathy. Statistical analysis revealed participant age (p=0.005) and years of practice (p=0.004) were risk factors for tendinopathy. A significant association between BMP4 rs2761884 (p=0.03) and tendinopathy was observed. Athletes with a polymorphic genotype have 2.4 times more susceptibility to tendinopathy (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.10-5.19). Also, association between disease and haplotype TTGGA in BMP4 (p=0.01) was observed. The FGF3 TGGTA haplotype showed a tendency of association with tendinopathy (p=0.05), and so did FGF10 rs900379. FGFR1 showed no association with disease. These findings indicate that haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF3 genes may contribute to the tendon disease process in elite volleyball athletes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of training proсess of tennis players aged 5-6 years, taking into account the specifics of the development and control of their coordination skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak A. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presented results of the research to determine the features of the construction of the training process for young tennis players aged 5-6 years, in particular the specific application of pedagogical testing to test the level of development of their coordination skills. Material: The survey was attended by 30 experts. Results: Established that bigger part of coaches build the training process at the initial stage of preparation on the basis of the game approach and apply a program of the International Tennis Federation "Play and stay". About two-thirds of the coaches do not carry out a selection of tennis players aged 5-6 or make it only in individual cases. To assess the level of development of motor abilities are equally important coaches define pedagogical supervision and pedagogical testing. A significant proportion of respondents (43% previously had experience in assessing motor abilities of tennis players 5-6 years by mean of pedagogical tests. Conclusions: Overwhelming majority of coaches support the idea of having to modify the tests in accordance with the age characterristics of tennis players aged 5-6 years and expediency of complex assessment of the level of development of their coordination skills.

  8. The effect of female volleyball players’ leg volume and mass on balance and reaction timeBayan voleybolcuların bacak hacim ve kütlesinin denge ve reaksiyon zamanına etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan İbiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between leg volume - mass and balance – reaction time of the third league female volleyball players. 20 volunteer third league volleyball players, who are still active, are participated in this study. The average age of participant female volleyball players is 23,20±3,42 years, average height 176,30±7,78 cm, average weight 65.11±8,22 kg. Participant female volleyball players’ leg volume by Frustum method, leg mass by Hanavan method, static and dynamic balance by Biodex Balance System and visual reaction time by MOART Lafayette Reaction Measuring Device were measured. In analyzing the relation among the measurements, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used. As a result of analysis of the obtained data; significant moderate correlation was found between the legs mass and dynamic balance (r=0.654, p<0,05. It was determined with a highly significant relationship between leg mass and foot volume (r=0.913, p<0,01 and foot mass (r=0.917, p<0,01. Also a significant relationship was found between leg volume and foot volume (r=0.800, p<0,01 and foot mass (r=0.644, p<0,05. Consequently; it can be said that there is a highly significant relationship between leg volume-mass and foot volume-mass, and there is a relationship between dynamic balance and leg mass of the third league female volleyball players.   Özet Bu çalışmada, üçüncü lig bayan voleybolcuların bacak hacimleri ile denge ve reaksiyon zamanları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmaya üçüncü ligde oynayan toplam 20 gönüllü bayan voleybolcu katılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan bayan voleybolcuların yaş ortalamaları 23,20±3,42 yıl, boy ortalamaları 176,30±7,78 cm, ağırlık ortalamaları 65.11±8,22 kg’dır. Çalışmada katılan bayan voleybolcuların bacak hacmi Frustum yöntemi, bacak kütlesi Hanavan yöntemi, statik-dinamik denge ölçümü Biodex Denge

  9. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Antti-Poika, I; Orava, S; Tuominen, R; Myllynen, P

    1995-12-02

    To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. Finland during 1987-91. 621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. 54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.

  10. Problem gambling and the circumstances facing older people : a study of gaming machine players aged 60+ in licensed clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Jenni; Boreham, Paul; Laffan, Warren

    2008-06-01

    Local gambling venues are an important contemporary context for older people's gambling in many parts of the world typically being more accessible to this segment of the population than traditional, centralised gambling venues, such as casinos. This study, undertaken in South East Queensland, analyses older people's electronic gaming machine (EGM) behaviour and motivations, specifically in the context of licensed social and recreational clubs-a popular local gambling venue in many parts of Australia. The study gathered data via a postal survey of 80 managers of licensed clubs, interviews with Gambling Help services and a survey of 414 people aged 60+ who regularly play EGMs, self-administered on site at local clubs. The analysis undertaken suggests that certain age-related circumstances of older people-such as being without a partner, having a disability that impacts on everyday activities, having a low annual income, and no longer participating in the workforce-are associated with higher overall levels of motivation for playing EGMs and greater reliance on EGMs to meet social, recreational and mental health needs. Over a quarter of the older people surveyed (27%) reported drawing on their savings to fund their EGM gambling. Certain categories of older people, including those who were without a partner and those with a disability, were more likely to report drawing on their savings to fund EGM play and betting more than they could afford to lose, pointing to age-related vulnerabilities older people may experience to the negative impacts of gambling given the greater likelihood of their dependency on smaller, fixed incomes. The explanatory contribution of a range of demographic and motivational variables on problem/moderate risk gambling status was computed via a logistic regression model. Younger age (60-69), male gender, single marital status and being motivated to play EGMs to experience excitement and to win money all emerged as significant predictors in the

  11. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  12. Physiological characteristics of international female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Sarah A; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological characteristics of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) eligible international female soccer players aged 14-36 years and to determine if measures were significantly different for players selected (i.e., starters) to the starting line up for an FIFA tournament as compared with those not selected (i.e., nonstarters). Fifty-one (N = 18 Under 17; N = 18 Under 20; N = 15 Senior) international female soccer players participated in this study. The subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height and body mass), lower body strength (isokinetic testing), sprint kinetics and kinematics (nonmotorized treadmill), leg power (unilateral jumping), and maximal aerobic velocity (30:15 intermittent fitness test) during the final preparatory stage for an FIFA event. Outcomes of the age group data indicate that differences in physiological capacities are evident for the Under 17 players as compared with those for the Under 20 and Senior capped international players, suggesting a plateau in the acquisition of physical qualities as players mature. Starters tended to be faster (effect size [ES] = 0.55-1.0, p velocity (ES = 0.78-2.45, p velocity (ES = 0.87, p players, where maximal aerobic velocity was the primary difference between starters and nonstarters (ES = 0.83-2.45, p players. Coaches should emphasize the development of speed, maximal aerobic velocity, and leg strength in developing female soccer players.

  13. Volleyball injuries in KwaZulu-Natal — epidemiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective. This study explored the incidence, nature and ... Natal participated by informed voluntary consent Data were gathered using a ... Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows and chi-square tests with a ... Volleyball is a popular recreational and professional sport code both locally .... the literature.

  14. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link

  15. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link be

  16. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  17. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  18. The Reason and Enlightenment of Chinese Women Volleyball Team Get Direct Tickets into London Olympics%中国女排直通伦敦奥运的原因与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虎生

    2012-01-01

    北京奥运之后中国女排遭遇到新一轮挑战。主帅的频频更换,新老队员的交替等等因素给中国女排带来了不小的冲击。中国女排在经历了一系列比赛的考验后于2011年女排世界杯挺进前三获得了直通伦敦奥运的入场券,这场胜利极大鼓舞了中国女排的斗志和信心。通过分析中国女排直通伦敦奥运的原因,希望有助于中国女排在伦敦奥运会上扬利弃弊,再创佳绩。%After Beijing Olympic Games, The Chinese Women's Volleyball Team encountered a new challenge. Coach to replace frequently, new and old players alternating gave the Chinese women's volleyball team more impact. After a series of matches, Chinese women's volleyball team ranks the top 3 in the 2011 world cup and gets to the London Olympics tickets. The victory greatly encouraged the Chinese women's volleyball team morale and confidence. Through analysis on reason of Chinese women' s volleyball team get direct ticket into London Olympics, this paper tries to carry forward the advantages and abandon disadvantages and make success once more.

  19. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  20. Desarrollo y validación de un cuestionario para la evaluación del conocimiento declarativo en voleibol The development and validation of the declarative knowledge questionnaire in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue desarrollar y validar un cuestionario para la evaluación del conocimiento declarativo en voleibol. Debido al interés por el estudio de algunas de las destrezas cognitivas, se han desarrollado distintos instrumentos para acceder al conocimiento de los jugadores (McPherson y Kernodle, 2007. La muestra estuvo compuesta por un total de 489 sujetos, de edades comprendidas entre los 13 y los 16 años, con diferente nivel de experiencia y género, a los que se accedió durante el Campeonato de España de Selecciones Autonómicas y en diversos centros escolares. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron valores adecuados en las pruebas de validez y de fiabilidad realizadas, estimando la eliminación de uno de los ítems del cuestionario, con lo que el instrumento quedó finalmente compuesto por 24 preguntas. Se obtuvieron coeficientes alpha de Cronbach de .77 en las pruebas de consistencia interna y de .76 en la fiabilidad temporal. El análisis de regresión efectuado determinó que la experiencia en voleibol federado predecía, en mayor medida que la edad, el conocimiento declarativo. Futuras investigaciones para el desarrollo de nuevos instrumentos son esenciales para el análisis de las diferentes variables cognitivas implicadas en las acciones deportivas.
    Palabras clave: Conocimiento declarativo, validez, fiabilidad, voleibol

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of declarative knowledge in volleyball. Due to interest in the cognitive skills study, differents tools to access knowledge players have developed (McPherson and Kernodle, 2007. The sample consisted of 489 subjects, aged between 13 and 16 years, with different experience levels and gender, which was accessed during the Spain Championship and various schools. The results showed appropriate values in tests of validity and reliability made, considering the elimination of one of the items

  1. Pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Katherine A; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments. Data for children younger than 18 years obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 through 2009 were analyzed. An estimated 692 024 volleyball-related injuries to children younger than 18 years occurred during the study period. The annual number of injuries declined significantly by 23% during the study period; however, the annual injury rate remained unchanged, and the number of volleyball-related concussions/closed head injuries increased significantly. Upper (48%) and lower (39%) extremity injuries occurred most frequently, as did strains/sprains (54%). Contact with the net/pole was associated with concussions/closed head injury our findings indicate opportunities for making volleyball an even safer sport for children. Protective padding, complying with US volleyball standards, should cover all volleyball poles and protruding hardware to prevent impact-related injuries.

  2. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  4. Investigation Between Japanese Women Volleyball Team And Chinese Women Volleyball Team In The Swiss Women's Volleyball Tournament%2011年瑞士女排精英赛中日两队对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任汝岗; 靳小雨; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    After winning the fifth place at World Grand Prix 2011,Japanese Women Volleyball Team appears with the trend of strong rise,while Chinese Women Volleyball Team has worse performance in many matches so that it's difficult to remain the status of Asia NO.1.Through comparison between two teams,the thesis focuses on main reasons why Japanese Women Volleyball Team improves gradually and Chinese Women Volleyball Team remains underperform.Based on video statistics and data analysis of Japanese Women Volleyball Team(Champion) and Chinese Women Volleyball Team(The third place) on The Swiss Women's Volleyball Tournament in 2011,it turned out that Japanese Women Volleyball Team has better performances on serve,receive,attack and offensive tempo than Chinese Women Volleyball Team.%自2011年世界女排大奖赛获得第5名起,日本女排显现出强势崛起之势,而中国女排则每况愈下,多次比赛战绩不佳,亚洲霸主地位不复存在。通过对2队比较,探索日本女排逐渐上升的原因和中国女排战绩不佳的根本。通过运用录像统计法、数据对比分析法对2011年瑞士女排精英赛冠军日本队与第3名中国队进行比较,结果表明:日本队在发球、接发球、扣球方面都优于中国队,进攻节奏上明显快于中国队。

  5. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  6. Individualization as one of the directions of optimization training process of hockey players at the age of 14-16 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugayevskiy S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material about the level of development of training process in hockey is resulted. Directions of construction of training process of hockey players, applications of different facilities and methods of preparation are considered. Opinions of specialists in this type of sport are studied. The ways of optimization of training process are resulted. It is expounded information about the changes of indexes of D&K-test of testing of hockey players at the individual construction of seasonal preparation and in transition on the command training program. Loadings given about different influence are confirmed with one orientation on the sportsmen of different biotpower groups of D&K-test.

  7. Acciones finales discriminantes de voleibol en categorías de formación masculina: importancia del saque en los partidos igualados. (Discriminatory volleyball final actions in male formative stages: importance .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dávila-Romero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue constatar la importancia del saque en categorías de formación en voleibol masculina y determinar qué otras acciones son relevantes para la victoria en el quinto set de los partidos igualados. Se recogieron un total de 218 partidos (102 en categoría infantil y 116 en categoría cadete, 755 sets (354 en categoría infantil y 401 en categoría cadete y 744 jugadores (360 en categoría infantil y 384 en categoría cadete de los Campeonatos de España de Voleibol de Valladolid 2008 y Huelva 2009 (España en edad escolar masculino (12-16 años. Finalmente se analizaron sólo el quinto set de los partidos igualados. Los resultados del análisis discriminante, mostraron como el saque positivo en ambas categorías, el error en categoría infantil y el ataque positivo en categoría cadete predicen la victoria y/o derrota en el quinto set. Estos sugieren que en momentos decisivos de set y en ambas categorías, el acierto en las acciones ofensivas y el control del patrón técnico del saque es fundamental en estos partidos igualados.AbstractThe aim of this study was to confirm the importance of the serve on formatives stages male volleyball and determine what actions are relevant to the victory in the fifth set on equal matches. We collected a total of 218 matches (102 and 116 in infantile and cadet categories, 755 sets (354 and 401 in infantile and cadet categories and 744 players (360 and 384 in infantile and cadet categories of the Spain Volleyball Championships held in Huelva and Valladolid in 2008 and 2009 (Spain at school-age (12-16 years. Finally were analyzed only the fifth set of equal matches. The results of the discriminant analysis showed how the positive serve in both categories, the error in infantile category and in cadet positive attack may predict victory and / or defeat in the fifth set. They suggest that, in both categories, the success in offensive actions and control of the

  8. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Tulder, van M.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  9. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Tulder, van M.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  10. Influence on Middle and Old Aged Women’s Body Composition, Bone Density and Muscle Strength in Balloon Volleyball Exercise%气排球运动对中老年女性身体成分及骨密度和肌肉力量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣娟; 张瑞; 陆碧琼; 覃林; 李锋

    2016-01-01

    探讨气排球运动对中老年女性身体成分、骨密度和肌肉力量的积极作用.经过6个月的气排球训练,测定受试者的体质指数(BMI)、体内脂肪率、骨骼肌含量和骨密度 SOS 值、T 值、Z 值,以及握力、背力和腿部力量.结果显示,与实验前相比,受试者体内脂肪率显著降低(P <0.05),骨骼肌肉量/体重及握力显著提高(P <0.05),其他指标没有显著性差异.气排球运动可保持身体骨骼肌肉量,降低身体脂肪率和体质指数,抑制骨质密度和强度下降,维持身体主要部位肌肉的力量,对提高中老年女性的身体素质有积极作用.%This study aims to investigate the balloon volleyball exercise may make a positive function on post-menopausal women’s body composition,bone density and muscle strength.The experiment use instruments measuring experimenters’ body composition,bone mineral density (BMD ) and muscle strength,including body mass index (BMI),body fat percentage,muscle mass,SOS,T,Z values to related to BMD and grip,back and legs strength after 6 months in progress balloon volleyball training.After 6 months balloon volleyball training,experimenters’body fat rate significantly reduced (P <0.05),skeletal muscle mass/weight and grip strength and significantly improve (P <0.05),and no significant differences in other indicators.The long-term balloon volleyball exercise could keep the body skeletal muscle mass, reduce body fat and body mass index,improve bone mineral density and muscle strength,therefore,the sport would maintain a positive effect on physical fitness.

  11. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  12. Transition I efficiency and victory in volleyball matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ugrinowitsch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the correlation between Transition Iwith victory in volleyball matches. The 2002 South-American Youth Men's Championship was recorded and the Transition I was analyzed and classified as negative, null or positive. Results of the efficiency in Transition I was calculated using t test for independent samples and compared to the efficiency between teams during each set and matches. Spearman correlation assessed the relationship between efficiency in each set and results of the matches with the final ranking in the championship. The results showed that the winning teams exhibited higher efficiency in Transition I, as well as a positive relationship of higher efficiency in Transition I with all of their results. The higher efficiency in Transition I is related to victory in volleyball matches.

  13. [Effect of phlebodium decumanum and coenzyme Q10 on sports performance in professional volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Verazaluce, Juan José; Vargas Corzo, María Del Carmen; Aguilar Cordero, María José; Ocaña Peinado, Francisco; Sarmiento Ramírez, Álvaro; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Los programas de entrenamiento físico, se basan en provocar estados de fatiga transitoria para inducir supercompensaciones de los sistemas biológicos implicados en la actividad, con el objeto mejorar el rendimiento del deportista a medio-largo plazo. La administración de suplementos nutricionales con propiedades antioxidantes e inmunomoduladoras, como Phlebodium decumanum y Coenzima Q10, constituyen medidas muy ventajosas para la recuperación de la inflamación y el daño tisular originados por el estrés del ejercicio intenso y mantenido. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un diseño experimental, longitudinal, a doble ciego, con tres grupos randomizados a partir de una muestra de 30 jugadores varones de voleibol (22-32 años) de la Universidad de Granada, con un nivel de entrenamiento alto (17 horas por semana en los 6 meses previos a la investigación). Se evaluaron los efectos de un programa de entrenamiento físico de un mes de duración, común a todos los grupos de estudio, asociado a la administración simultánea de suplementos nutricionales a base de Phlebodium decumanum (4 cápsulas de 400 mg/ cáp. al día) el Grupo Experimental 1, Phlebodium decumanum (la misma dosis y posología que el grupo 1) más Coenzima Q10 (4 cápsulas de 30 mg/cáp al día) el Grupo Experimental 2, y sustancia placebo, el Grupo Control. Las variables dependientes sanguíneas para valorar los efectos de dicha intervención sobre el perfil endocrinometabólico e inmunológico basales fueron: cortisol e interleuquina 6 relacionados ambos con el eje del estrés inducido por el ejercicio, y ácido láctico y amonio, vinculados esencialmente, al metabolismo energético anaeróbio. Resultados: Todos los grupos del estudio manifestaron cambios adaptativos favorables sobre el perfil endocri no- metabólico e inmunológico, que se objetivaron a través de un descenso significativo basal postest de las concentraciones de cortisol, interleuquina 6, ácido láctico y amoniaco, respecto a los valores previos a la intervención actividad física ± suplemención nutricional protocolizada. Los grupos que mostraron un perfil más favorable, fueron los que recibieron suplementación nutricional frente a placebo, y de entre los primeros, los sujetos que tomaron doble suplementación con Phlebodium decumanum más Coenzima Q10. Conclusiones: La ingesta de Phlebodium decumanum y de Coenzima Q10 durante 4 semanas, mostró efectos protectores sobre el perfil endocrino-metabólico e inmunológico basales, que atribuimos a las propiedades inmunomoduladoras y antioxidantes de ambas sustancias, lo que no sólo resulta altamente beneficioso para retrasar la fatiga y mejorar el rendimiento deportivo, sino también, para disminuir el riesgo de lesiones asociadas al ejercicio físico de alta intensidad.

  14. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P....87±0.97 to 18.44±1.06 s) and RST by 4.3% post-intervention in the HIT-group only. Baseline RST fatigue index (FI) was 7.0±2.9 and 6.2±5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (PYo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance...

  15. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Worp, H.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J.; Van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2012-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a larg

  16. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Worp, H.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J.; Van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2012-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a

  17. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Worp, H.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J.; Van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2012-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a larg

  18. On the advantage of being left-handed in volleyball: further evidence of the specificity of skilled visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Schorer, Jörg; Hagemann, Norbert; Baker, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    High ball speeds and close distances between competitors require athletes in interactive sports to correctly anticipate an opponent's intentions in order to render appropriate reactions. Although it is considered crucial for successful performance, such skill appears impaired when athletes are confronted with a left-handed opponent, possibly because of athletes' reduced perceptual familiarity with rarely encountered left-handed actions. To test this negative perceptual frequency effect hypothesis, we invited 18 skilled and 18 novice volleyball players to predict shot directions of left- and right-handed attacks in a video-based visual anticipation task. In accordance with our predictions, and with recent reports on laterality differences in visual perception, the outcome of left-handed actions was significantly less accurately predicted than the outcome of right-handed attacks. In addition, this left-right bias was most distinct when predictions had to be based on preimpact (i.e., before hand-ball contact) kinematic cues, and skilled players were generally more affected by the opponents' handedness than were novices. The study's findings corroborate the assumption that skilled visual perception is attuned to more frequently encountered actions.

  19. Muscle and Tendon Adaptation in Adolescence: Elite Volleyball Athletes Compared to Untrained Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Mersmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls. Twenty-one adolescent volleyball athletes (A; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys, 9 girls and 24 similar-aged controls (C; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys and girls, respectively performed maximum isometric contractions on a dynamometer for the assessment of muscle strength and, by integrating ultrasound imaging, patellar tendon mechanical properties. Respective joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach and an electromyography-based estimation of antagonistic contribution. Additionally, the VL pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle-thickness were determined in the inactive state by means of ultrasound. Adolescent athletes produced significantly greater knee extension moments (normalized to body mass compared to controls (A: 4.23 ± 0.80 Nm/kg, C: 3.57 ± 0.67 Nm/kg; p = 0.004, and showed greater VL thickness and pennation angle (+38% and +27%; p < 0.001. Tendon stiffness (normalized to rest length was also significantly higher in athletes (A: 86.0 ± 27.1 kN/strain, C: 70.2 ± 18.8 kN/strain; p = 0.04, yet less pronounced compared to tendon force (A: 5785 ± 1146 N, C: 4335 ± 1015 N; p < 0.001, which resulted in higher levels of tendon strain during maximum contractions in athletes (A: 8.0 ± 1.9%, C: 6.4 ± 1.8%; p = 0.008. We conclude that athletic volleyball training provides a more efficient stimulus for muscle

  20. Differences in rotations between the winning and losing teams at the youth European volleyball championships for girls [Změny v rotacích mezi vyhrávajícími a prohrávajícími týmy na juniorských mistrovstvích Evropy ve volejbalu dívek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zadražnik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers of the game of volleyball often study the differences that separate the winning and losing teams. Namely, the volleyball game runs in two complexes (K1 - game after receive of serve: serve - receipt of serve - setting the attack - attack; K2 - game after own serve: serve - block - defence - counter attack, in addition the players have to rotate in accordance with the rules of the game of volleyball. Playing situations in six rotations do not equally correlate to K1 and K2 in their tactical aspect, nor are they of the same difficulty. OBJECTIVES: The study examined whether there are statistically significant differences in the phases of a volleyball game between the winners and losers for each of the six volleyball rotations separately. Differences in individual rotations between winning and losing teams were examined. For rotations with statistically significant differences between the teams, the phases that determine those differences the most were also researched. METHODS: The study was carried out at the European youth volleyball championships for women. Twenty games were analysed, a five level scale was used to evaluate the successfulness of the game for 98 under 18 years old women players. Six phases of the volleyball game were analysed: serve, receipt of serve, attack in K1, attack in K2, block and defence (attack receipt. A criterion variable was represented with each individual rotation. Simple descriptive statistical parameters were calculated together with six canonical discriminant analyses, one for each of the volleyball rotations. RESULTS: The results of canonical discriminatory analysis revealed that four out of six volleyball rotations were statistically significant at the level of p < 0.05 (rotation 1 = 0.02; rotation 2 = 0.00; rotation 3 = 0.00; rotation 6 = 0.04. It is interesting to notice that different game phases show the largest projection of discriminatory function exactly in the rotations with

  1. Volley-ball in the soviet megaculture of 30-50th of ХХ century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermakov S.S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The period of mass distribution of physical culture and forming man-sportsman is considered. A role and value of volley-ball is shown in life of millions people. Positions of volley-ball are presented in making healthy society and increase of his standard of culture. Mentioned facts mass infatuation for volley-ball. Positions of the state in regard to support of mass character of volley-ball are distinguished as a folk game. High authority of volley-ball and his value is marked in physical development of the young generations.

  2. Vortex-induced dynamic loads on a non-spinning volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-ding, Wei; Rong-sheng, Lin; Zhi-jie, Liu

    1988-09-01

    An experiment on vortex-induced dynamic loads on a non-spinning Volleyball was conducted in a wind tunnel. The flow past the Volleyball was visualized, and the aerodynamic load was measured by use of a strain gauge balance. The separation on the Volleyball was measured with hot-film. The experimental results suggest that under the action of an unstable tail vortex system the separation region is changeable, and that the fluctuation of drag and lateral forces is the same order of magnitude as the mean drag, no matter whether the seam of the Volleyball is symmetric or asymmetric, with regard to the flow. Based on the experimental data a numerical simulation of Volleyball swerve motion was made.

  3. 对排球运动员反应时影响因素的探讨与分析%Discussion and Analysis on Influencing Factors of Volleyball Athletes Reaction Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳宗胜; 张唤

    2015-01-01

    研究目的:找出影响排球运动员反应时的因素、提出解决办法,为排球运动员的选拔、培养、训练提供参考依据。研究方法:文献资料法、数理统计法、访谈法等。研究结论:影响排球运动员反应时的主要因素包括疲劳、心理因素、赛场经验、主客场和运动水平。%Objective:to find out the factors those influence the reaction of volleyball athletes,to put forward the solution for the selection and development of volleyball players and training,and to provide a reference basis. Research methods: the literature material method, mathematical statistics method, interview method and so on. Research results and conclusions: the main factors influencing the volleyball athletes reaction: fatigue,psychological factors,the field experience,home and away,and activity levels.

  4. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Mayinger, Michael; Muehlmann, Marc; Kaufmann, David; Lin, Alexander P; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Immler, Stefanie; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian R; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Soccer players are at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impact when heading the ball. Whether this leads to long-term alterations of the brain's structure associated with cognitive decline remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cortical thickness in former professional soccer players using high-resolution structural MR imaging. Fifteen former male professional soccer players (mean age 49.3 [SD 5.1] years) underwent high-resolution structural 3 T MR imaging, as well as cognitive testing. Fifteen male, age-matched former professional non-contact sport athletes (mean age 49.6 [SD 6.4] years) served as controls. Group analyses of cortical thickness were performed using voxel-based statistics. Soccer players demonstrated greater cortical thinning with increasing age compared to controls in the right inferolateral-parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Cortical thinning was associated with lower cognitive performance as well as with estimated exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed decreased memory performance in the soccer players compared to controls. The association of cortical thinning and decreased cognitive performance, as well as exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact, further supports the hypothesis that repetitive subconcussive head impact may play a role in early cognitive decline in soccer players. Future studies are needed to elucidate the time course of changes in cortical thickness as well as their association with impaired cognitive function and possible underlying neurodegenerative process.

  5. The efficacy of the verbal behaviour of volleyball coaches during competition La eficacia de la eficacia de la conducta verbal del entrenador de voleibol durante la competici��n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del Villar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The study we present here, which concentrates on analysing the efficacy of the verbal behaviour of coaches, aims to define an intervention protocol for volleyball coaches during competition. The research was carried out by means of a questionnaire given to 25 volleyball experts (university volleyball teachers and volleyball coaches with experience at top national level. The variables analysed consist of the study of the content of the information transmitted by the coaches, in accordance with each moment of the game in which communication with the players occurs. As for the results obtained, and taking into account that there are differences between the different moments of the game, it should be stressed that the overall information must be mainly tactical and refer to both the opponents and one’s own team in equal measure. It must be positive and should not include more than three pieces of information.
    KEY WORDS: information to the player, team management, coach training, volleyball.

    El estudio que presentamos, centrado en el análisis de la eficacia del comportamiento verbal de los entrenadores, pretende definir un protocolo de intervención de los entrenadores de voleibol durante la competición. La investigaci