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Sample records for volgograd region russia

  1. A Declining Region: Provincial Renaissance Revisited (Case of Volgograd Region

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    Drozdova Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes findings yielded by the empirical study performed in the framework of an RGNF grant entitled “Image of a region as a communicative strategy for the authorities and mass media”. The methods of study included expert survey and formal survey (N=1000, July-September 2013, studying the opinion of respondents who were either internal experts residing in the Volgograd region (N=20; May-September 2013 or external experts who reside outside the region but maintain stable ties with the representatives of state and municipal authorities, regional mass media and business. The findings indicate that the Volgograd region has fallen behind other modernized Russian regions, that young people tend to leave it, that a negative image of the region as a declining territory persists. Answers to the open question “What is unacceptable for you in the existing image of the Volgograd region?” revealed major problems determining the local context of a declining region, and those were issues associated with inefficient regional/municipal administration: “the condition of the roads”, “constant replacement of people in the administration”, “politics as a whole”, “a destitute region without a good manager”, “unemployment”, “countryside is dying off”, “indifference of the authorities”, “roads, housing and public utilities and the administration”, “the authorities are not responsible for the people”, “the authorities do not solve the problems of the city or its people”, “thieving”, “dishonest authorities”, “the region goes to rack and ruin, no kindergartens or jobs”, “one cannot even walk in the streets”, “corruption”, “a stagnant region with low pay”, “no perspectives in the future”, “the region is stagnating due to corruption among officials”. According to the local Census Bureau, the Volgograd region can be classified as a declining territory where the population decline

  2. Regional Authorities and Population of the Volgograd Region: Vectors of Political Identity and Communication Strategy

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    Morozov Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are various instances of local identity in modern Russia. However, vying with it, regional features of national identity must not contradict. At the same time, ethnic, confessional, symbolic, historical markers are being structured in local regional communities in a number of ways. The main actors who are totally legitimate for building local identities in political discourse are regional political elites. By the identity politics of political actors, social space is structured and “typified”, and own strategies are legitimized. “Leader - electorate” relationship still remains as the key factor which can be used to manipulate public opinion. The article raises the issue of the current state of the political identity of the population of Volgograd Region. The results of the empirical analysis of the political identity structure are also presented. The authors conclude that the nature of the political identity of Volgograd Region population is determined mostly by its syntagmatic qualities being developed through the mismatch of ideological, electorate and personified levels of the political identity. Furthermore, key features of the political consciousness are inactivity and supineness of the people. Inhabitants prefer not to take part in policy decisions and take no responsibility. The achievements and the problems on the way of seeking regional political identity originated from the peculiarities of the regional dynamics are also analyzed in the work. Despite the domination of the negative ideologemes in the regional political development, sense and images of historic victories of the country are still the main unifying forces for the separate ways of thinking of Volgograd population.

  3. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

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    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC MODEL OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEPRESSED REGION (EVIDENCE FROM VOLGOGRAD OBLAST

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    I. I. Kolpakov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Goal It is important to determine the main socioeconomic problems of the industrial region of Russia and suggest the set of measures to overcome negative tendencies evidence from Volgograd oblast.Method and methodology of the research Systematic approach for the evaluation of the socioeconomic situation in the region was used as well as multifactorial approach was used to reveal the main problems of the research.Outcome Systematic evaluation of the causes of the negative socioeconomic state of the Volgograd oblast was made; the set of measures for the optimization, revealing of the socioeconomic reserves, activation of the regional development were formulated. The suggested set of measures is urgent for the regions with similar socioeconomic structure.Application of the outcomes              National economy, regional economics.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-1

  5. 3rd International Scientific Conference “Military History of Russia: Problems, Searches, Solutions” Dedicated to the 160th Anniversary of the End of the Crimean War of 1853-1856 (September 23-24, 2016, Volgograd

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    Sergey G. Sidorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about the 3rd International Scientific Conference “Military History of Russia: problems, searches, solutions”, dedicated to the 160th anniversary of the Crimean War of 1853-1856. This conference was held in Volgograd on September 23-24, 2016. The conference was held at the Volgograd State University. Conference was organized by Volgograd State University, Centre for collective use “Military History of Russia”, Centre for the Study of the Battle of Stalingrad, The State Historical and Memorial Museum “Battle of Stalingrad”, State Archive of Volgograd Region, the Volgograd regional Division of the Academy of Military Sciences, the Volgograd Regional Branch of the Russian Military-Historical Society. The conference was informative and representative in its composition: more than 100 representatives of scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences, universities, archives, museums and libraries from 20 cities of Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Ukraine. 22 doctors of sciences and 40 candidates of sciences were among the participants. Together with respected professors and lecturers the conference was attended by young scientists: assistants, postgraduate students, master students and students. The article analyzes the work of the plenary sessions and 10 sections, the central section of which was “The Crimean War: Russia and the World”. The permanent sections were presented by the reports: on Military History in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages, in New and Recent History; on social protection of the population in wartime; on the military-political conflicts as a threat to the security of society and state; on the international aspects of military conflicts; on the art of war in the methodology of the international “wargame” research; on the results of work of the Centre for the Study of the Battle of Stalingrad.

  6. SPIDERS (ARANEI OF VOLGOGRAD SITY AND ITS ENVIRONS

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    A. V. Ponomarev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Fauna of spiders of Volgograd Region is researched uncompletely. Only 149 species of 19 families were listed in previous references. Complete listing of spiders of this large region was the aim of our investigation.Location. Volgograd Region, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in Volgograd City with environs and Volga-Don area in 2009–2013. Areas with minimum of anthropogenic influence within the city, artificial ecosystem of park type, plots of native vegetation along the Varvarovskoe water reservoir and natural steppe on banks of Don River were investigated. The main method of spiders’ collection were pitfall traps, which exposed from April to October.Results and main conclusions. As a result 235 species of spiders from 26 families (including 195 species from 23 families within the city were found. One hundred fifty five species are new for Volgograd Region. Spiders of families Atypidae, Corinnidae, Dysderidae, Eresidae, Liocranidae, Sparassidae, Zodariidae were not found in Volgograd Region earier. Trichoncus villius Tanasevitch et Piterkina, 2007 is the first record for Russia. Totally 304 species of spiders are known from Volgograd Region after our study including literature data. New data about fauna of spiders with summarized check-list are very significant for future faunistic and biogeographic investigations. Study of river islands with minimum anthropogenic influence inside Volgograd City allow to develop measures for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Epidemiology of West Nile infection in Volgograd, Russia, in relation to climate change and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bionomics.

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    Platonov, Alexander E; Fedorova, Marina V; Karan, Ludmila S; Shopenskaya, Tatyana A; Platonova, Olga V; Zhuravlev, Vitaly I

    2008-12-01

    In 1999, there was the large outbreak of West Nile fever (WNF) in Southern Russia (>500 cases in the Volgograd Province). In 2000-2004, the WNF incidence rate decreased steadily to zero, but a new outbreak occurred in 2007 (64 cases). The analysis of historical climate data for Volgograd from 1900 to present showed that the years 1999 and 2007 were the hottest ones due to a very mild "winter" (Dec.-Mar.) and a hot "summer" (June-Sep.). There are up to 15 potential WNF vectors in Volgograd, but only Culex pipiens and Culex modestus are abundant in late summer, both in urban and rural settings. Only these species are naturally attracted to and feed on both humans and birds. The RNA of pathogenic WN virus genovariant was found by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction only in Culex mosquitoes at the infection rate of about 0.04%. So these species may be considered as potential WNF "bridge vectors" between birds and humans as well as main vectors in sylvatic avain cycle. Their abundance in an epidemic season was higher in the years with a mild winter and a hot summer, so this phenomenon may serve as a connecting link between a climate and WNF epidemiology. These findings give some hints on the predisposing factors for WNF epidemic as well as the possibility to predict WNF outbreaks in the temperate climate zones.

  8. The Features of Forming and Using the Finansial and Material Resources of Socially Oriented Non-Profit Organizations of Volgograd Region

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    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.

  9. Methodical Approaches to Assessing Tax Potential of a Region on the Example of the Volgograd and Rostov Regions

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    Natalya Valeryevna Gorshkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the methods of assessing fiscal potential. The purpose of research is analysis, comparison and determination of the most optimal method for calculating the indicator potential of the region. Based on the method of objective, economic and statistical analysis of the study, the authors suggests their own method of calculating the tax potential, and compare the obtained results of existing and proposed assessment methods. The methods of system analysis, structuring, modeling and graphic comparisons allowed to identify the factors that affect the tax potential and its dependence on the socio-economic status of a subject of the Russian Federation. Each region of the Russian Federation, including the Volgograd and Rostov regions represents an isolated unit of the national economy, which solves its main task – managing the regional budget. Federal and regional budget is based on the interaction of the system of inter-budgetary relations. At the same time, all Russian regions are heterogeneous in terms of economic development, climatic conditions, the level of resourcesufficiency and financial resources. For uniform development of all regions of Russia made equalization of budgetary security of subjects of the Russian Federation due to transfers, subsidies and gratuitous receipts is carried out. The study proposes to use the indicator of tax capacity as an objective indicator for the allocation of financial resources. The urgency of the problem is determined by to the lack of uniform methods of calculating index tax potential in Russian regions and, as a consequence, large financial gaps in the distribution of the proceeds of grants from the federal budget to the budgets of regions. The result of the study is to confirm the effectiveness of using the potential of the method of calculation proposed by the authors, as well as comparative analysis of the methods of calculation proposed measures to optimize the calculation of this

  10. Experience of cooperation between RAO Gazprom (Russia) and Geostock (France) in the project for underground storage of natural gas in salt caverns at Volgograd

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    Bely, N.I.; Smirnov, V.I.; Parfenov, V.I. [RAO Gazprom (Russian Federation); Marchand, R. Le; Laguerie, P. de; Yoy, T. [Geostock (France)

    1997-11-01

    A new natural gas storage facility in salt is planned to meet daily and seasonal load fluctuations and provide regional security of supply of the Volgograd region. The design and field work for this new facility was carried out under a cooperation agreement between RAO Gazprom, Podzemgazprom, Volgograd Transgaz and Geostock. Mining the cavities will be made difficult by the complex geology where the salt formation consists of alternating beds of halite, anhydrite and the magnesium and potassium salts bischofite, carnalite and sylvinite which are more soluble and subject to high creep. The results of the laboratory testing and geotechnical modelling on alternative cavern models performed by Podzemgazprom and Geostock are described and compared. (au)

  11. Problems of development and ecological construction in terms of design and construction activities in the Volgograd region

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    Taranova Anna Valer'evna; Borisova Natal'ja Ivanovna

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of existing problems and the further development of ecological construction in the Volgograd region. Discusses the problem of socio-environmental plan in terms of project construction activities. The necessity of identifying the sources of negative impact on the construction of residential properties, define solutions for their further elimination, the authors show the necessity of using environmental innovation techniques in modern construction industry.

  12. [Assessment of epidemic manifestations of the West Nile fever in the Volgograd region depending on the climatic conditions].

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    Safronov, V A; Smolenskij, V Ju; Smeljanskij, V P; Savchenko, S T; Razdorskij, A S; Toporkov, V P

    2014-01-01

    Results of the analysis of the increase in the incidence of epidemic of the West Nile fever and climate conditions in the Volgograd region were presented. Certain seasonal periods and threshold values of temperature and humidity statistically associated with the epidemic rise were identified. The discussion of the probable mechanisms of indirect effects of atmospheric heat on the elements of the epidemic process was carried out.

  13. Volgograd and vicinity: a Landsat view

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    Dando, William A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1981-01-01

    Many diverse features can be discerned on the Landsat image of Volgograd and vicinity. Some of these features have resulted directly from man's alteration of the land surface in accordance with Stalin's and Khrushchev's plans for control of climate and for development in Volgograd and the surrounding area. Landsat images such as the one in this example provide the opportunity to inventory and assess man's imprint upon the land on a regional basis from a unique perspective.

  14. METHODOLOGY FOR SELECTING PRIORITY REGIONAL CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT (the Volgograd region as the example

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    L. V. Dmitrieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting priority of the creation of clusters is a highly relevant task at the present time, in the context of limited resources for regional development. This article discusses the complex methodology takes into account the macroand microeconomic approach, the specific structure of regional economy, the competitiveness of enterprises and products, and the potential of the investments projects, taking into account both the progress of the regional economic system and its potential for development through existing investment projects.

  15. The Possibilities of Studying the Population of Municipal Districts of the Volgograd Region (on the Example of Ilovlinsky District

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    Detochenko L.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The place of the municipal district on the number of the living population among the municipal districts of the Volgograd region is defined. The rating of urban and rural settlements of Ilovlinsky municipal district of the resident population is compiled by. The features of the natural movement of the population (for example, births, deaths and marriages are considered. The analysis shows that Ilovlinsky municipal district is among the districts with the simple subtype of reproduction of the population (with an index of natural increase + 0,4 %. The intensity of the marriage union-related with increasing the number of marriages in the study area is revealed. The main reasons for increasing the number of marriages are defined. Forecast for further change of marriage is done. The family structure of the population of Ilovlinsky municipal district is studied. The average family size, family type is determined. The reasons that determine the change in the average size of the family, simplifying the type of family (nuclearization are defined. Some of which include: the marriage rate and fertility; trends in mortality; changes in family traditions:housing. Households of Ilovlinsky municipal area in size and structure are studied. Tendencies of development of the households are defined: the simplification of their structure (nuclearization and reduced size. The peculiarities of national (ethnic composition of the population, based on comparing the results of the National Population Census in 2002 and 2010 are considered. Two ethnic groups, depending on the characteristics of reproduction are identified: group 1 increased its share in the total population of the district; group 2 reduced its share in the total population of the district. The reasons that determined the change of number of people living in the area are noted.

  16. Demonstration project in Volgograd on transfer of know-how from the district heating sector in Denmark to Russia. Final report

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    NONE

    1998-08-01

    A demonstration project on district heating know-how has been financed by the Danish Technical Assistance Programme administrated by the Danish Energy Agency. A demonstration project in Volgograd was approved, with a budget of only 200.000 DKK (180.000 Rbl). The administration of the project, from fact finding to the final report, has been very efficient in particular to other technical assistance programmes. Although the total budget is low only around 15% of the manpower has been used on administration. The transfer of specific technical experience can be summarized in the following: Installation of small decentralized heat exchanger units for preparation of hot water; Construction of low-cost decentralized heat exchanger installations for preparation of hot water; Installation of thermostatic valves; Installation of small substations for heating and hot water; Use of drain pumps for draining under constructions of district heating pipes to prevent outside corrosion; Design principles for construction and rehabilitation of concrete duct systems with internal and outside draining; Design principles for preinsulated pipes; Principles for monitoring the quality of supply in a local district heating network at the lowest costs by monitoring the critical differential pressure. (EG)

  17. Ecological and floristic characteristics of higher aquatic plants in Volgograd reservoir

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    Kochetkova Anna Igorevna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the long-term gydro-botanical studies of Volgograd reservoir were analyzed. Flora in different parts of the reservoir, located in Volgograd and Saratov regions was compared. In the floristic investigations, several species of flora, rare in Volgograd region and previously not noted were revealed. The regularities in the floristic composition changes depending on the amplification of climate aridity and features of the hydrological regime of the Volgograd reservoir were determined. Unstable hydrological conditions in the reservoir contribute to the emergence of new free habitats, which are so necessary for the spread and establishment of different plants, including new invasive ones and formed hybrids.

  18. Does Russia Need Sex Education? The Views of Stakeholders in Three Russian Regions

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    Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Schmidt, Elena; Wall, Martin; Garnett, Geoffrey; Atun, Rifat; Maksimova, Svetlana; Davidenko, Ludmila; Renton, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the attitudes of the main stakeholders towards the introduction of sex education in schools in Russia. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Setting: Altai Krai, Volgograd Oblast, Moscow, Russian Federation. Participants: One hundred and fifty-three interviews with Intersectoral HIV/AIDS Committee members,…

  19. Climate change regional review: Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmina, Maria; Anderson, Kevin; Bows-Larkin, Alice

    2013-01-01

    With climate change, an increasingly important focus of scientific and policy discourse, the Russian government has aimed to position the country as one of the leaders of the global process for addressing climate change. This article reviews a breadth of literature to analyze the politico-economic situation in Russia with regard to international climate change negotiations, related domestic policies, societal attitudes, and climatic change impacts on Russia's territory. The analysis demonstra...

  20. The Generalizing Work on History and Culture of the Cossacks (Book Review: Essays on the History and Culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia: Collective Monograph [Text] / ed. by G. G. Matishov, I. O. Tyumentsev ; Southern Scientic Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Volgograd Branch of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration”. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANKhiGS, 2014. – 624 p.

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    Bugay Nikolay F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a review of the collective monograph “Essays on the history and culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia”, published in 2014 under the auspices of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Volgograd branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The review provides a critical analysis of the material in the collective monograph on the problems of studying the history and culture of the Cossacks. The author notes that the revival of Cossacks that began in the 1990s, not only drew attention to the Cossack problem in modern Russia, but also stimulated scientific and public interest in the history and culture of the Cossacks. Russian Cossacks have rich past and its culture is colorful and specific, its role in the history of Russia is significant. Issues of origin and development of the Cossacks, their place among the peoples of Russia, the specificity of cultural practices are constantly causing great interest for researchers. All this has led scientistsspecialists in the history and culture of the Cossacks to the idea of the creation of this scientific work, which has become a generalization of accumulated research experience on the most important issues of the Cossacks’ historical existence. The authors of the monograph limited their research by Southern Russia because of the complexity of creating general work on all Cossack troops which have historically existed in the Russian state and had sometimes very great cultural differences and special historical destiny. The authors made a very successful attempt to highlight the main problematic aspects of the history and culture of the Cossacks. The genre of essay chosen for creating a collective monograph, has allowed not only to identify the most relevant topics of the Cossack history and culture, but also to consider them in relation and development. Each essay contains material that allows to

  1. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd: pharmaco-epidemilological investigation

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    Magnitskaya O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents results of pharmacoepidemiological research of H.pylori eradication treatment of adults and children in Volgograd. The aim was to determine H. pylori pharmacotherapy stereotypes and compare with international experts' recommendations. Material and Methods. There were analyzed CRFs of 94 adults and 132 children with H.pylori associated diseases in Volgograd region. Results. There were identified mistakes of treatment regimes and eradication control principles. Conclusion. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd does not match to international experts' recommendations.

  2. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

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    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  3. MALT BARLEY PRODUCTION ON THE CHESTNUT SOILS AREA OF VOLGOGRAD REGION Производство ячменя, пригодного для пивоварения в зоне каштановых почв Волгоградской области

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    Sinitsyna E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a short review of malt barley cultivation and its improvement ways on chestnut soils in Volgograd region. It includes the results of home brewing with the use of the experimental crop

  4. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

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    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  5. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  6. Regional aspects of electricity sector regulations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pobochy Serguey; Yudashkina Galina

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates regional features of the electricity sector regulation in Russia. We use panel data for 77 Russian regions during 1998–2003. Our analysis is based on the interest-group theory of regulation. The objective of the project is to estimate the influence of regional energy company, consumers, and governor on regulation policy in the region. Empirical analysis shows that governors' elections are accompanied by tariffs' decrease. We found that during 1999–2001 there was a gap bet...

  7. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

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    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB.

  8. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

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    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  9. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

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    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  10. Russia's contribution to regional geologic mapping of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. A.; Bobina, N. N.; Shashkina, V. P.

    1993-01-01

    Geologic maps in Magellan C1-format were produced by six geologists and three cartographer in Russia during 1992. More sheets are in progress. The work is coordinated by Vernadsky Institute. The Magellan SRR images in form of C1-format photomaps were used as a base for geologic-geomorphic regional mapping of Venus at approximately 1:8,000,000 scale. This work took place in Russia at Vernadsky Institute and at the Department of Geology, Lomonosov Moscow University. The aim is to produce a preliminary geologic survey of Venus with the new high resolution images obtained by Magellan. It took place at the cartographic division, Laboratory of Comparative Planetology and Meteoritics, Vernadsky Institute, Russsia's Academy of Sciences.

  11. Functioning of police in Volgograd oblast in the estimations of the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Alekseyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the reliability and objectivity of information to the population on the functioning of police in Volgograd oblast. Methods sociological absentee polling in the form of a questionnaire statistical logical documentary graphic method of systemic analysis. Results the opinions of the population on police are extremely controversial. It is connected mostly with the sources of information which mostly are not reliable and objective. The article shows that despite the growth of victimization the level of anxiety of the population about the criminal attacks is gradually reduced and the sense of security in citizens is strengthened though often due to their personal efforts to protect their life health and property. Only every fifth citizen relies on the participation of law enforcers in ensuring security and public order. The survey revealed that about half of the citizens who are potentially interested in the reaction of law enforcement officers to the crime actually agree to leave the offender unpunished due to the mistrust of the police. A third of claimants were unsatisfied with the police action on their application which does not correlate with the declared numbers. The opinion of Volgograd citizens on the frequency of bribery among police officers remains unchanged whereas other malfeasances received a significant increase. And despite this the attitude of the respondents towards the police in general has improved. Mostly it was the result of media activities that inform the public about successful police work using TV shows documentaries and feature films. The successful work of the police is also confirmed by statistic that shows the rapid decline in recorded crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of a combination of various methods the reliability and objectivity of information to the population is investigated on the police of Volgograd oblast. Practical significance the main provisions and

  12. Species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Russia (western region of European Russia) with molecular characteristics of Paramecium novaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Potekhin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    The presence of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, and P. novaurelia of the P. aurelia complex was revealed in the studied region of Russia. RAPD-PCR fingerprints (band patterns) of newly identified P. novaurelia strains from Russia were compared to those characteristic for the other chosen European strains of the species. The strains revealed intraspecific polymorphism as several groups of genotypes confirming the existence of polymorphism within P. novaurelia.

  13. New Regionalism in Russia: Is the Western European Experience Applicable?

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    Elena Albina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to explore Western approaches to regionalism in order to analyze how the Russian experience of regionalism can fit into the existing paradigm. After having examined Western European theoretical approaches to regionalism (‘old’ and ‘new’ regionalism are compared and experience in regional policy, the article examines the obstacles and opportunities for the rise of new regionalism in Russia. The primary statement of the article is that the political mobilization of Russian regions is dependent not only on external pressures (be it globalization and Europeanization, national pressures (dominance of the state-centred approach, but also on internal regional factors, such as the style of regional leadership, economic potential and proximity to the border which can shape the strength of regional ‘actorness’. To show the validity of the proposed hypothesis, the regions endowed with such factors are studied through the prism of the analytical framework of ‘opportunity structures’.

  14. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia

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    Vladimir Kartashev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3% and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%, while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009 revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region.

  15. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  16. What causes the regional disparity of FDI in Russia? a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kayam, Saime S.; Hisarciklilar, Mehtap; Yabrukov, Alexandr

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of the regional disparity of FDI inflows to Russia. The spatial distribution of FDI is attributed to regional and/or trans-regional factors. Region specific characteristics such as wage, education level, transportation as well as gross regional product, which accounts for market size, in host and alternative regions are considered to analyze the spatial interaction between regions employing spatial econometrics. We find that shocks to FDI levels in proximate region...

  17. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  18. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  19. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  20. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  1. ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL INTEGRATION PROCESSES: SOUTH AFRICA, ASIA-PACIFIC REGION AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova, Natalia Alexandrovna Vorobeva

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the problem of global integration processes in regions of Africa, Asia and Russia. Based on migration flows, estimation of integration indexes, we investigate the historical integration development of these regions and identify the important features for future international cooperation and integration. This article presents the preliminary results of the gravity model that we constructed using the features of Asia-Pacific region. We concluded that differences and similarit...

  2. What explains regional variation in election fraud? Evidence from Russia: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Max; van Ham, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    The December 2011 legislative election was among the most fraudulent national elections in Russia since the communist period. The fraud, however, was not evenly spread across the country. Precinct-level election returns from the 83 regions of the Russian Federation suggest that the level of fraud

  3. Immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus Region: Differential Drug Use, Infectious Disease, and Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Rawson, Richard A.; Hasson, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined drug use patterns, HIV/AIDS, and related outcomes among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus mountain region in Israel who reported heroin use. A total of 253 FSU heroin users were interviewed from 2002 to 2007 as part of a large drug use surveillance study in Israel. Individuals were…

  4. Regional and Historical Minerageny of the Gemstone Complexes in Russia (Quantitative Aspects

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    Polyanin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approximate quantitative estimation of the mineragenic potentials of gems in the paleogeodynamic systems, complexes, and geological formations of Russia, which are characterized by different age and regional distribution. General trends of the changes in the scale and intensity of formation processes of the same gem deposits over geologic time were identified.

  5. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  6. Economic development strategies of regions of Russia: system crisis and new economic space

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    Aleksandr Borisovich Gusev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the strength of internal economic space of Russia and the positiveness of the interregional economic relations, the paper investigates the types of economic interaction of federal districts by means of “predator-prey” models. The strategic economic breaks between the European and East parts of the country are revealed. The accelerated economic growth of East part of the country is predicted that will allow to reach about the same volume of Gross Regional Product (GRP as GRP in the European part of Russia by 2020. With the help of model constructions the typology of integration crises of federal districts with each other is revealed: back-to-back paralyzing of economic activity (A crisis; mutual destruction (B crisis; economic indifference (C crisis; transition of a role of «predator» to the economically weak territories (D crisis. Macroeconomic threat and challenge to the territorial integrity of Russia is proved due to the state support of regions of the North Caucasus Federal District without involvement of intro regional sources of economic growth, and due to the accelerated economic development of the Far East Federal District. The limited opportunities of the Ural Federal District to support the national economy during a crisis at the expense of export of energy carriers is concluded. The thesis about the low sensitivity of the economy of Russia to the increase of the oil world prices, and about sensitivity to the negative external economic conditions are reasonable. Estimates of the GRP decrease in Russia at the various levels of decrease in the world prices for oil (up to 50 US dollars for barrel are received and given. The package of measures on response to the threats revealing to the internal economic space and territorial integrity of the country is presented.Keywords: regional economy, regional economic integration, federal districts, “predator-prey” model

  7. Structural Transformations of the Economy in the Pacific Region of Russia and Efficiency Trends

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    Peter Yakovlevich Baklanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Russia is considered as an aqua-territorial macro-region entering the Far Eastern Federal Okrug and its adjacent water area within a 200-mile sea economic zone. The macro-region has the richest nature-resource potential of a dry land and the sea, the possibilities to use the sea transport for communications of Russia and Europe with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region. In Pacific Russia, two latitudinal zones are allocated: the northern and southern ones, consisting of the territories of the Far Eastern Federal Okrug of Russia. Combinations of activities by the subjects and by the latitudinal zones are considered as the territorial structures of economy. The distinctions of these latitudinal zones by their socio-economic potential and the level of development are shown. By the changes of homogeneous activities in the subjects and their ratios, measured in the shares of the added cost, the assessment of the structural transformation of economy was carried out in the latitudinal zones from 2004 to 2013. The tendencies of the transformation of the territorial structures of economy were revealed in the latitudinal zones. The greatest changes of the structures of economy occurred in the northern zone for this period. In the southern zone, the structural transformations of economy were a little less, except for Sakhalin. In this case, in both latitudinal zones, a share of processing manufactures reduced and that of the extracting industries increased. The generalized assessment of the changes in social and economic efficiency (by increased personal income, labor productivity, profits in correlation with the structural changes in the economy of the regions of Pacific Russia has been made. The authors note that an important premise for building a sufficiently sustainable system of interregional division of labor in Pacific Russia is the location of extractive industries and initial stages of the manufacturing industry activities in the

  8. First data on the composition of atmospheric dust responsible for yellow snow in Northern European Russia in March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Korobov, V. B.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Aleshinskaya, A. S.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Goryunova, N. V.; Grishchenko, I. V.; Dara, O. M.; Zavernina, N. N.; Kurteeva, E. I.; Novichkova, E. A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.

    2010-04-01

    The descent of a large quantity of dust responsible for bright colors of atmospheric precipitation in the temperate, subpolar, and polar zones of the northern hemisphere is rarely observed [1-5]. In the twentieth century and in the beginning of the twenty-first century in the northern part of European Russia, such events had not been registered right up to March 25-26, 2008. At that time in some parts of the Arkhangelsk region, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Area, atmospheric precipitation as moist snow and rain responsible for sand and saffron colors of ice crust formation on the snow surface was observed. Thus, due to detailed mineralogical, geochemical, pollen, diatom, and meteorological investigations, it was established that the main source of the yellow dust is the semidesert and steppe regions of the Northwest Kazakhstan, and the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions, Kalmykia.

  9. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  10. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  11. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  12. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  13. Female employment in regions of the North of Russia: problems and decision ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Eduardovna Toskunina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of condition of female employment in regions of North of Russia. The research hypothesis is an assumption that the possibilities of female employment in northern regions of Russia are considerably reduced because of branch structure of economy with its raw trend. It increase a problem of female unemployment and causes necessity to take the additional measures for its adjustment by the executive authority The authors allocated the major factors influencing on the possibilities of women’s employment in a region. The tools are proved, and recommendations about decreasing the existing problems in the field of female employment in subjects of the Northern part of the Russian Federation are given on the basis of the analysis of statistical data, standard regulation, and policy documents.

  14. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

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    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  15. Phytoremediation of disturbed lands in Polar Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinova, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In the Northern regions the problem of restoration of disturbed lands as a result of anthropogenic activities is particularly acut. A large role for the success of native plants to take hold and re-establish themselves is to allow the natural process to work without human intervention. However observation shows that low reserves of available moisture, poor soil nutrients, exposure to wind and water erosion make impossible of a complete restoration of lands due to natural revegetation. One of the methods used to minimize the effect of these factors is the phytoremediation. Research on the Pelyatinskom gas condensate field in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal district revealed the efficacy of biological remediation of awnless brome, wildrye siberian, red fescue and kentucky bluegrass. Geobotanical studies of the tailings fields in Yakutia showed that for the phytoremediation of tailings of alluvial deposits of diamonds slough grass can be successfully used, and on the dumps of coal deposits with a high degree of survival of the willow, poplar, larch, alder stand and pine. Development of technology for remediation of placer gold deposits of the Komsomol mine and Bilibino in Chukotka has shown the effectiveness of sowing common oat, wildrye and larch. The study of the experience of recultivation on objects of the "Transneft-Baltic" in the North-Western Federal district allowed us to select as the recommended mixtures of species: meadow fescue, cocksfoot, timothy grass, white and alsike clover and alfalfa. The multicomponent mixture of red fescue, awnless brome, meadow fescue, timothy grass, couch grass, kentucky bluegrass, beckman's grass were successfully used at the mine of the Bovanenkovo oil and gas condensate field. On the technological grounds of the complex pumping station in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous area willows were planted. Pine and willow trees were planted on quarry workings in the Northern taiga of Western Siberia land .Planting of pines has shown

  16. Modeling the HIV epidemic in Novgorod region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azovtseva OV

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is designed for predicting the epidemic process and to improve preventive measures, clinical examination and treatment of HIV-infected patients at both the regional and national level. Morbidity indicators for the last 25 years were studied; prevailing ways of transmission, age pattern, and main causes of death among HIV-infected persons. A comparative analysis of morbidity was carried out. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to analyse obtained data statistically. The significance of “clinical outcomes” was assessed by analysing confidence indexes of frequency distribution by the χ2 test with Fisher’s angular transformation or the Mantel-Haenszel test. The sequential recognition procedure by Bayes’ method was used as the basis for mathematical modelling. There are observed the declining role of transmission through injection and the increasing role of sexual transmission. HIV is diagnosed most frequently in young people aged 15–30. However, an increased morbidity rate of older people has been discovered during the last 2-3 years. The mathematical modelling of the epidemiological situation discovered that this infection spreading among the socially safe population against the backdrop of intensifying sexual transmission, accompanied by a rising female morbidity rate and the percentage of children born by HIV-infected mothers. Obtained results substantiate the need for a unified personalized registration system for HIV-infected individuals, which would include information about the scope and effectiveness of treatment, diagnostic, preventive, and rehabilitation measures that were taken when providing medical and social assistance to this category of patients.

  17. The Role of Research Centres in Studying and Preserving the Cultural Heritage of the Cossacks of Southern Russia (1970-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva Yuliya Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of research centres for studying and preservation of historical and cultural heritage of the Cossacks of southern Russia. The author determines the role of metropolitan and regional (Rostov, Krasnodar and Volgograd research centres in the preservation of ethnic heritage of the Cossacks of Southern Russia in the period from the 1970s to the 2000s. The studies of the traditional culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia were almost terminated in Soviet times, but the Cossack folklore and dialects (mostly Don dialect have been studied for almost the entire 20th century. The investigations were started by A.M. Listopadov, A.V. Myrtov in the first half of the 20th century, by F.V. Tumilevich in the middle of the 20th century, as well as by Moscow folklorists in the second half of the century and were continued in 1970-1990s by members of Rostov State Conservatory and Rostov State University. The interest in the folk tradition of the Don Cossacks is also demonstrated by metropolitan research centres. Since the beginning of the 1990s, folklore Cossack traditions have been researched in regular fieldwork by members of Russian folklore department of Lomonosov Moscow State University, by Gnessin State Musical College, by Moscow State Conservatory named after P.I. Tchaikovsky. The research of the original languages of the Cossacks in 1970-90s has been carried out by scientists of Rostov and Taganrog Pedagogical Institute, by Rostov State University at the general and comparative linguistics department, by Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University, by Volgograd State University. In the last decade, the main research centres of traditional culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia include Southern Scientific Centre (Rostov-on-Don, Centre for Popular Culture of Kuban (Krasnodar , State Scientific and Artistic Institution “Kuban Cossack Choir”. The studies that have been done by metropolitan and local research centres

  18. RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL HERBS IN SOME GOMEL REGION DISTRICTS BORDERING ON THE TERRITORY OF BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA

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    L. M. Sapegin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study results of radioactive contamination of medicinal herbs with 137 Cs in some Gomel region districts bordering on the territory of Bryansk region of Russia are given.168 plants of 88 species belonging to 76 genuses and 37 families and 16 soil samples have been analyzed. The most contaminated with 137 Cs medicinal herbs were found out in Chechersk and Vetka districts. Local contamination with radionuclide is typical for Dobrush and Korma districts of Gomel region.Safe use of medicinal herbs by the population is possible only under radiological control.

  19. [The influence of weather conditions on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases by the example of West Nile fever in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E

    2006-01-01

    Climate changes must influence the incidence of vector-borne infections, but their effects cannot be revealed due to lack of long-term observations. The impact of short-term weather changes may be used as a model. In Russia the biggest numbers of clinical cases of mosquito-borne West Nile infection were registered in 1999 in Volgograd and Astrakhan regions. The analysis of climatic dataset since 1900 shows that 1999 was the hottest year in Volgograd in the 20th century due to a very mild winter (December-March) and a rather hot summer (June-September). The author of the article puts forward a hypothesis that high winter temperatures favored the survival of over-wintering mosquito vectors, and high summer temperature facilitated the growth of the virus in the mosquitoes, as well as propagation of the mosquitoes themselves. The author assumes that conventional threshold temperatures for "beneficial for WNF conditions" in Russia are > or = 3 degrees C in winter, and > or = 22 degrees C in summer. These conditions coincided only in 1948 and 1999. In Astrakhan the "beneficial for WNF conditions" were registered in 30 out of 147 years of observation, and in 12 years between 1964 and 2003. This is not surprising that Astrakhan region is endemic for WNF in accordance with clinical and epidemiological data collected since the sixties. These findings give some hints on the WNF predisposing factors, as well as possibility of weather surveillance and prediction of WNF outbreaks in temperate climatic zones such as Southern Russia.

  20. Pollution of bogs in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia as an indicator of sustainable development

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    A.M Mezhibor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in the climatic balance of our planet. Thus, their protection from anthropogenic pollution is an important target for sustainable development of environment. Wetlands have a special significance for the Siberian region of Russia where they take great territories. Peat bogs, being unique ecosystems among wetlands, have properties to save the history of atmospheric pollution. The particularity of peat bogs is determined by their nutrition - they receive chemical elements mostly from the atmosphere. Some peat bogs in Siberia (Tomsk region, Russia were studied to determine the degree of environment pollution during the last century and the change of geochemical composition of peat in time. These studies determined the increase of pollution in the region from the middle of 20th century because of the sharp industrial development. The data on the pollution of peat bogs allow concluding that the geochemical peculiarities of different parts of Tomsk region influenced by different types of industry: nuclear facility, coal-burning power stations and oil refineries. This method can be used together with other methods implemented for the detection of anthropogenic pollution and the results can be used as indicative parameters in environmental change. The results of the studies can be used for the development of recommendations in the decrease of the industry influence for the sustainable development of Siberian region.Keywords: upland peat, air pollution, Tomsk region, indicators of sustainable development

  1. Overview of Celiac Disease in Russia: Regional Data and Estimated Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdes, Svetlana I.; Antishin, Anton S.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten from some cereals mainly in individuals carrying the HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. As an autoimmune disease, CD is manifested in the small intestine in the form of a progressive and reversible inflammatory lesion due to immune response to self-antigens. Indeed, CD is one of the most challenging medicosocial problems in current gastroenterology. At present, the global CD prevalence is estimated at approximately 1% based on data sent from different locations and available CD screening strategies used. However, it is impossible to estimate global CD prevalence without all the data from the world, including Russia. In this review, we summarize the data on the incidence and prevalence of CD across geographically distinct regions of Russia, which are mostly present in local Russian scientific sources. Our conclusion is that the situation of CD prevalence in Russia is higher than is commonly believed and follows global tendencies that correspond to the epidemiologic situation in Europe, America, and Southwest Asia. PMID:28316996

  2. HISTORIOGRAPHY GENERAL, REGIONAL AND SPECIAL STUDIES OF JUDICIAL REFORM IN RUSSIA 1864

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    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - through analysis and synthesis of existing studies of the judiciary and judicial reforms.The purpose of this study - to explore the historiography of general, special and regional studies of judicial reform of1864 inRussia, to classify research on history and on the subject of the study.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the significant weight of the studies of the judicial reform of 1864 and classified by facilitating orientation interested in individuals in the study subjects.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the historiography of general, special and regional studies of the judicial reform of1864 inRussia, introducing a classification of such studies in chronological order (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages and subject matter (common - affecting all aspects of judicial reform, special - dedicated to a particular aspect (legal agencies, prosecutors, legal, etc. and regional - dedicated to judicial reform, or some aspects of it in some regions of Russia.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in industry disciplines "judiciary", "advocacy", "notary public", "public prosecutor's supervision" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland" ; in science - by picking up information about the historiography of the judicial reform, and in practice - said work can serve as a guide to research judicial reform, which may be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, as well as - prosecutors

  3. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

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    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  4. The second complete skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis (Elephantidae, Proboscidea) from the Stavropol Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschenko, E. N.; Schvyreva, A. K.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-08-01

    The skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis ( Nesti, 1825) from the Rodionovo locality (Stavropol Administrative Region, Russia) is described in detail. It represents the second discovery of an almost complete skeleton of a fossil elephant in the Northern Caucasus. The age of the fossil is estimated as Early Pleistocene (upper Apsheronian, late Middle Villafranchian). Attribution of the skeleton to this species, widely distributed in Eurasia during the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, is based on the tooth characters (M3/m3 enamel thickness and lamellar frequency). Validity of the genus Archidiskodon Pohlig, 1888 is discussed.

  5. [Collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of several regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybil, V B; Malyshkina, L P; Ageeva, O T; Kosolapova, E I; Mnozhina, E G; Groshenkova, E V; Krivtsov, N V; Gurianova, N I; Daltsaeva, M K; Fomina, N S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to estimate the collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of 8 regions and republics of Russia. The rates of the collective immunity against poliomyelitis allow the polio vaccination quality to be estimated and the population protection rate to be simultaneously demonstrated. A total of 8 regions (2138 people) were tested. The antibodies to the polioviruses of 1-3 types were determined against the vaccine Sabin strains in the neutralization test in the RD cell line. As a result, we found that vaccination against poliomyelitis in all observed regions was maintained at the required high level. Thus, the number of people with antibodies to the polio in most regions and age groups approximates or reaches 100%, while GMT is also high. This work demonstrated the necessity of the continuation of vaccination against poliomyelitis and control over collective immunity.

  6. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  7. Empirical Analysis of the Integration Activity of Business Structures in the Regions of Russia

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    Maria Gennadyevna Karelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. A wide variety of approaches to the study of the problems and prospects of economic integration and the current dispute on the role of integration processes in the regional economic development have determined the complexity of the concepts “integration” and “integration activities” in order to develop the objective conditions to analyse the integration activity of business structures in the Russian regions. The monitoring of the current legal system of the Russian Federation carried out in the area of statistics and compiling statistical databases on mergers and acquisitions has showed the absence of the formal executive authority dealing with the compiling and collections of information on the integration activity at the regional level. In this connection, the data of Russian information and analytical agencies are made from the information and analytical base. As the research tools, the methods of analysis of structural changes, methods of analysis of economic differentiation and concentration, methods of non-parametric statistics are used. The article shows the close relationship between the social and economic development of the subjects of Russia and the integrated business structures functioning on its territory. An investigation of the integration activity structure and dynamics in the subjects of the Russian Federation based on the statistical data for the period from 2003 to 2012 has revealed the increasing heterogeneity of the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The hypothesis of a substantial divergence of mergers and acquisitions of corporate structures in the Russian regions was confirmed by the high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index, and the decile coefficient of differentiation. The research results are of practical importance since they can be used to improve the existing

  8. Evaluation of Foreign Direct Investment Contribution in the Economic Development of Sverdlovsk Region and Russia

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    Larisa Mikhailovna Kapustina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the economy of receiving region and country on the example of the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. The positive and negative effects of foreign capital in national and regional economies are marked. A set of indicators to assess the impact of foreign direct investment in the host region economy is offered to determine the trends of attracting foreign capital in the last decade and the role of foreign direct investment in the economic development of the Sverdlovsk region and the Russian Federation. The examples of investment projects with the participation of foreign companies which were successfully implemented in the Sverdlovsk region have been considered. The conclusion about higher rates of the transnationalization of economic activity in Russia in comparison with similar processes in the Sverdlovsk region is made. In the paper, a comparative statistical analysis of the development of the economy of the country and Sverdlovsk region by attracting internal or investment resources is provided. The comparative analysis shows that the country and region economy does not depend much on the foreign direct investment inflows. With the help of the econometric analysis, we have confirmed the hypothesis about a weak impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sverdlovsk region and the Russian Federation. The results of the calculations for the Sverdlovsk Region and the Russian Federation show that domestic investment in fixed assets is the key factor for the growth of the gross regional product and the gross domestic product.

  9. Problems of Formation and Funding of Tourist Clusters in the Regions of Russia

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    Igor Nikolaevich Molchanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the urgent issues of the formation of clusters of tourism in the national economy of Russia. The attention is drawn to the need to develop domestic tourism at the regional level of governance in a rapidly changing geopolitical situation. The importance of tourism as one of the important areas of economic activity, affecting the pace of economic growth in the service industries is described. The advantages of the regional tourism clusters as a means of promoting the growth of productivity, efficiency and competitiveness of business entities of the tourism sector of the regional economy are revealed. The distinctive characteristics of regional tourism clusters are systematized; the definitions of tourist potential are structured; the cultural and historical heritage and tourist infrastructure are described. The author gives definition of the regional tourism cluster and explains its difference from the other definitions. The factors affecting the change in the situation in the sphere of tourism in Russia are described. The organizational prerequisites aimed at ensuring a coordinated interaction of all participants in the cluster and the establishment of the possible vectors of the coordinated development of economic and financial activity are formulated. There exist the possibility of organizational and economic measures aimed at development of the tourism sector of the regional economy. The potential sources of funding organizations participating in the cluster structures are investigated. The Russian experience in financing innovation clusters is described. The recommendations to improve the financial base of the emerging regional tourism clusters through the maximum use of budgetary and extra-budgetary resources are formulated. The use of public-private partnership is necessary. The attention is focused on the issues of financial security training, including specialists for newly established and functioning regional

  10. Eastern regions of Russia: latest gas projects; Russie orientale: les derniers projets gaziers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N. [Oil and Gas Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Convenient geographical position of the Russian Federation, immense reserves of natural gas, abundant experience in super-long reliable gas transportation trunk pipeline construction make it possible for Russia in the 21. century to supply natural gas both to traditional partners in Europe and to new buyers in the Asian-Pacific region. Gas reserves of the northern regions in West Siberia, gas fields in East Siberia, Sakha Republic and the Sakhalin shelf can be regarded as the raw material base for the implementation of these projects. The explored gas reserves of the fields in Yamal Peninsula are over 10.2 TCM, of East Siberia - over 4.2 TCM, of the Sakhalin shelf- over 850 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. While implementing eastern projects, it is intended to use gas reserves both to settle energy problems confronting the eastern regions in Russia and to supply significant volumes of gas for export. Experts consider possibilities for supply of gas to China - from the Tambei group of fields in Yamal Peninsula and from the Kovykta field, to China and Korea - from the gas fields of the Sakha Republic, to Japan and other ATR countries - from gas fields of the Sakhalin Island shelf. (author)

  11. Reproductive strategies of field Phytophthora infestans populations on potato and tomato in some regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of zoosporangia and oospores is analyzed for 88 field populations of Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary in Moscow region and other regions of Russia from 1997 to 2006. For estimation of zoosporangia and oospore frequencies in the populations, the indexes IZ (for zoosporangia and IO (for oospores are suggested. The combinations of these indexes enabled a reveal of 4 strategies for P. infestans reproduction, which were found in the field populations of the pathogen. These strategies were more numerous in P. infestans field populations on tomato than on potato (4 versus 2 in spite of the fact that potato populations in Moscow region strongly predominated. It was connected with rareness or absence of oospores in potato and their presence in tomato, especially in fruit of many populations. The knowledge about strategies of reproduction can be applied for verification of efficiency of new methods for crop protection against late blight, and for investigations of P. infestans populations.

  12. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

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    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  13. Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, V. A.; Gudkov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    The paper discusses problems associated with the existing crisis of water scarcity in the modern conditions of the global water use. Available alternative sources of fresh water may be underground and surface waters of the North and the Arctic. Investigated the current situation and condition of fresh water resources in the technological and industrial development of the North and Arctic. The necessity of developing and using green technologies and measures to prevent pollution of surface and ground water from industrial sectors of the Northern regions is shown. Studied modern technologies and techniques for monitoring groundwater and determination of their age in order to avoid and prevent the effects of environmental contaminants. The ways of use of innovative production technologies of fresh and clean water of north Russia for sustainable development, and delivery of water in the needy regions of the world are investigated.

  14. Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication (Volgograd State University: Scientific and Research Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta S. Molchanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes different scientific innovations, applied in the course of study at the Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication of Volgograd State University. Special attention is attached to technological component and personnel developments, aimed at the education process improvement and optimization.

  15. Middle School Students’ Delegation from Russia’s Volgograd Visits Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Chengdu Education Bureau, a middle school students’ delegation from Russia’s Volgograd City paid a visit to the capital of Sichuan Province April 7-13 to implement the plan of exchanges in education between the two cities.

  16. Using DMSP-OLS Night Light Data for Proxying and Comparing Regional Development in Russia and China, 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    To date, no studies have examined the transition from communism to capitalism in Russia or China with night light (NTL) data despite the availability of DMSP-OLS satellite imagery dating back to 1992, one year after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This paper uses the DMSP-OLS Version 4 stable lights annual image composites for every year from 1992-2012 to reveal the complex and sometimes divergent trajectories of regional development in Russia and China. We first characterize the spatial patterns and characteristics of NTL intensity and extensivity in Russia versus China at national and regional scales across this 21-year period. Although GDP rises in both countries during this time, NTL tells a different story: total night light (tNTL) in Russia in 2012 is slightly lower than in 1992, while tNTL in China is significantly higher. Next, we generate regional-level tNTL from each annual composite and examine their relationships with population, GDP, and fixed capital investment data from the Russian Federal State Statistics Service and the National Bureau of Statistics of China using a fixed effects model. We determine that while the fixed effects "between" model explains more of the differences in tNTL between Russia's federal subjects, the "within" model better explains differences over time within China's provinces. This suggests that on the one hand, Russia's regions are more heterogeneous than China's. On the other hand, whereas change over time in population and GRP explains change over time in tNTL in China's regions, they hardly do so at all for Russia's. Finally, we attempt to combine these socioeconomic variables with NTL data to build an NTL-based typology of regional development, representing a step beyond existing research. The preliminary creation of a regional development typology allows us to begin identifying emerging resource frontiers (places with increases in NTL but decreases in population) along with areas experiencing a reversal of

  17. ENLARGEMENT OF THE REGIONS AS A MODEL OF THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY OF RUSSIA

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    Aleko Alexandrovich Adamesku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At a meeting of the Council of legislators dedicated to addressing the priorities, including designated in the Message of the President of the Federal Assembly December 13, 2012 Russian President Vladimir Putin on the issue of integration of Russian regions he noted that "coarsen" should be "based on the need to better address the social-economic problems combined into larger entities. " April 27, 2016 Speaker of the Federation Council V. Matviyenko said that "it is necessary to enlarge the regions, and not just on someone's will, but having by this economic, investment and other studies." However, today, against the background of political decisions on enlargement areas necessary methodological study of issues of their eff ectiveness, the formation of methodological tools allowing to carry out a preliminary assessment and to give reasonable suggestions to relevant federal authorities on the issue of integration of regions. The article presents the historical experience of integration of regions and methodological approaches that have been put in its basis SOPS. The authors also put forward the aspects on which we must focus in continuing the policy of integration of regions at the present stage of economic development and regional policy in Russia.

  18. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS WITHIN FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of social and economic development of regions has to be a basis for formation budgetary and tax and a monetary policy. Formation of strategic plans have to provide an exit to the new level of innovative economic and social development of Russia. Adaptation of the current legislation is necessary for the solution of the set major problems regarding budgetary and tax and a monetary policy in the Russian Federation. The important direction of development of social and economic development of territories is the clustering and formation of projects of the public-private partnership (PPP. Within integration of the countries into the world economy the organizations as systems in the form of clusters and the PPP projects can only be the competitive. Within formation of the organizations as systems it is necessary to provide formation of standards of a sustainable development (SEU for social protection of the population and increase of the human capital.

  20. Regional clarkes of chemical elements in soils of southern European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'yachenko, V. V.; Matasova, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Distribution patterns of 19 elements in soils of the southern part of European Russian were estimated on the basis of the analysis of more than 9000 soil samples; regional clarkes of the elements were compared with their global clarkes, The obtained data attest to the fact that southern Russia is characterized by increased concentrations of most of the microelements with a tendency for their rise in the recent decades. The great role of the aerial migration and deposition of elements results in the enrichment of the soils with technophilic elements, so that the geochemical convergence of the soils is observed. It can be concluded that natural element abundances in soils are subjected to the technogenic transformation reflecting the high rate of contamination of the biosphere.

  1. The magnetic properties of the Lake Bolshoe Yarovoe (Altai Region, Russia) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriia; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Kuzina, Diliara; Antonenko, Vadim; Akhmerov, Rinaz; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Vorob'ev, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic minerals of modern lake sediments provide unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally as environmental variations are recorded by them with high resolution. Here we report results of magnetic analysis of the endorheic bitter-salty lake Bolshoe Yarovoe located in the Altai Region, Russia. The lake is the deepest one in the Kulunda Steppe with the average depth 4 m and with the catchment area about 560 km2. Five cores were drileld during field research conducted by the Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (Kazan Federal University, Russia) in 2008. Average length of cores is 4 m. The samples were studied using radiocarbon dating, magnetic susceptibility, NRM measurements, coercivity spectrometry, thermomagnetic analysis, TEM and SEM microscopy. The main components of the sediments magnetization, their variability, defined features of sedimentation processes, also the contribution of the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic components are identified. Data variability of the paramagnetic component revealed that the lower part of the section is characterized by a gradual increase in revenues of the clay material. The presence of erosion was detected around of 7500 years ago marking occurrence of a fall of the lake level during this period. After this the flow of clay particles was steady with small fluctuations only, indicating the stabilization of sedimentation processes. Ferromagnetic fraction is mainly represented by magnitofossils of different forms, sizes and grain preservation. Such changes may be related to many factors, such as climate, nutrient availability, and environmental variability. Possible relationships between magnitofossil morphology, their magnetic signal and the depositional environment changes are proposed. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  2. Ionospheric disturbances in Asian region of Russia during sudden stratospheric warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, Vladimir; Chernigovskaya, Marina; Medvedeva, Irina; Orlov, Igor

    This paper presents an investigation of the subauroral and mid-latitude ionosphere variations in the Asian region of Russia during stratospheric warmings in 2008, 2009 and 2010. We used the data from network of vertical and oblique-incidence sounding ionosounders of ISTP SB RAS. Irkutsk chirp-sounder (vertical incidence sounding) run every 1 minute on 24-hour basis for 30 days in winter of 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study small-scale and medium-scale distur-bances. The experiments on the radio paths Magadan-Irkutsk, Khabarovsk-Irkutsk and Norilsk -Irkutsk were conducted in order to study large-scale ionospheric disturbances. The frequency range was from 4 to 30 MHz, the sweep rate used 500 kHz/sec. To identify the stratospheric warming events the Berlin Meteorological University data (http://strat-www.met.fu-berlin.de) on stratospheric warming at standard isobaric levels and the atmospheric temperature height profiles measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the EOS Aura spacecraft were used. The increase of wave activity in upper ionosphere over Asian region of Russia has recorded during stratospheric warmings. Spectrums of multi-scale variations were derived from the data obtained during the prolonged experiments. The analysis of experimental data has revealed the amplitudes of planetary waves in ionosphere during stratospheric warmings in 2008 and 2010 larger than ones in winter 2009 as opposed to amplitude variations of temperature in stratosphere. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 08-05-00658).

  3. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  4. The incidence of West Nile disease in Russia in relation to climatic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Alexander E; Tolpin, Vladimir A; Gridneva, Kristina A; Titkov, Anton V; Platonova, Olga V; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-23

    Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 2010-2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence.

  5. The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Platonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces, yet in 2010–2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model. WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence.

  6. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  7. The Policy of Regional Convergence in Russia-Belarus integration: Prospects for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygin Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a number of cases, integration of a large international region or an interstate union can only be promoted by political means. The policy of regional economic convergence prevails in many sectors. The single economic market and membership in economic and monetary unions give a new impetus to consolidation. The study aims to identify and explore the problems of political governance, which the Union State of Russia-Belarus faces due to their asymmetric and not completely compatible economies. The author analyzes the process of interstate convergence, considering it as an essential part of integration and explores a number of specific characteristics underlying the Russian-Belarusian economic integration. The author offers a set of criteria of convergence/not convergence of the states, describes the principles of their economic and political rapprochement and offers models of convergence as well as prerequisites for them. The article examines the principles that determine the participation of a country in international integration as well as prospects for the further development of the regional economic and political mechanisms, which are being formed

  8. Madrasahs as Vocational Educational Institutions in the Regions of Pre-Revolutionary Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Aminov, Takhir M.; Yesnazarova, Ulzhalgas A.

    2016-01-01

    The importance is determined by insufficient knowledge of the problem while undergoing serious changes in the system of Muslim education not only in Russia but all over the world. Hence, the purpose of this article is to identify the experience of madrasahs--professional Muslim educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia, as its…

  9. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  10. Mortality and economic burden of Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, caused by regular tobacco usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyukhov IP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivan P Artyukhov,1 Irina L Arshukova,2 Elena A Dobretsova,2 Andrey V Shulmin2 1Department of Health Care Management, 2Department of Public Health and Health Care, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: This study assesses mortality and economic burden due to the regular tobacco usage among the population of the Krasnoyarsk region of the Russian Federation. This territory was chosen for the analysis because of two factors: high smoking prevalence in the Krasnoyarsk region (46% among the adult population and premature mortality of the working-age population, which leads to a significant burden to the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Data sources: In our work, three main causes of smoking-related deaths were considered: cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and COPD. The working-age population was investigated (20–72 years old. The databases of mortality and population size of the territorial body of state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk region (data for 2013 were used as the information sources. Methods: Joint application of population-attributable risk and disability-adjusted life years method allowed us to estimate medico-demographic and economic burden due to the tobacco-attributable premature mortality in the investigated population. Results: We found that tobacco use-related economic burden is at least equal to 2% of the gross regional product of the Krasnoyarsk region in 2013. Conclusion: An assessment of economic tobacco use-related burden is important for determining the volume of necessary funding for development of smoking prevention programs, proper estimation of tobacco companies’ taxation, and other measures for controlling tobacco use. Smoking cessation is a priority for prevention of the tobacco-related diseases and reduction of their burden on local economy. Keywords: lung cancer, COPD, cardiovascular disease, disability-adjusted life years, population-attributable risk, smoking

  11. Extrapolational Look at the Current State of Territorial Strategic Planning in Russia

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    Bogomolova Irina Viktorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 90s, the ideas on territorial strategic planning have been progressively disseminated in Russia. A growing number of cities, regions and macroregions recognized the urgency of finding their individual path of development which would ensure the successful implementation of strategic plans. The author of the article distinguishes four stages of formation and development of territorial strategic planning in modern Russia on the basis of retrospective analysis. The special attention is paid to the contemporary period which started after the adoption of the Federal Law of June 28, 2014 no. 172 “On strategic planning in the Russian Federation” regulating the activity of federal, regional and municipal authorities in the field of strategic planning and management. For the first time in more than 20 years the common requirements to the system of strategic planning were established in Russia at the level of the legislative act. The strategic planning is officially recognized as the most important element in the system of strategic management contributing to the creation of conditions for sustainable territorial development. The author grounds the expediency and proves the necessity of legislative adoption of norms and principles of the strategic planning. The municipal level as an equal member of the strategic planning process is included in the system of strategic planning. In accordance with the adopted law, the strategies for socioeconomic development of the territory of the RF subject can be worked out in the region (for example, for several municipalities. It is necessary to develop specific goals, objectives and directions of development for each territory. This creates the conditions for planning the development of metropolitan areas as the territories of advanced development, as well as large intermunicipal investment projects and programs. On the basis of experience of strategic planning in Volgograd, the author makes constructive

  12. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  13. Marketing Analysis of Public Catering Market in Russia: District, Regional, and Segment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The market of public catering is an important element of the national economy which has been dynamically developing. As in any other country, Russian citizens spend some part of their income on eating out, however, this part is rather small (for example, according to official statistics as of 2005, the average resident of Russia spent 9.5 times less money on catering than the resident of the US, and 4 times less than the German resident. This gap as well as significant differences in the degree of individual business development in different regions, testify to the enormous prospects of this market both in quantitative and geographic, and qualitative aspect. According to the expert opinion, the current macroeconomic situation unfavorable for many sectors of the economy can become a driver for the growth of the catering market, to be exact – for the fast food segment, which in the previous crisis of 2008-2009 showed a positive dynamics and opened up new opportunities for business. In this article we investigated the dynamics of the catering market development, and evaluated the contribution of the industry to Russian GDP. We studied the regional market conditions in the context of districts, regions and socio-economic indicators, such as the turnover of catering, the number of enterprises, the number of seats, and the area of cafes. The article describes the method of classifying the catering enterprises, highlights the specific features of the Russian market and the structure of the largest network companies. We studied the expert opinions regarding the medium-term development of the industry, the market trend of eating out and the possible fundamental changes associated with an increase in the quality of business processes, service and marketing communications.

  14. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  15. Geological structure, composition of ores and age of the Bamsk gold deposit, Amur region, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vitaly A. Stepanov

    2004-01-01

    The Bamsk gold-ore deposit is located in the Amur region, the Far East of Russia. It is confined to the Early Cretaceous volcanic-plutonic uplift of central type, located in the Stanov folded-clumpy Pre-Cambrian system. The deposit is presented by a series of gold-bearing quartz and carbonate-quartz vein-stringer zones. They are confined to the super-intrusive zone of the Nevachansk subvolcanic intrusion of sienite-porphyric composition. The mineralization is being controlled by zone of fractures developed in the autochthone ofthe Bamsk fault. Quartz, carbonates and sericite prevail in the composition of ores. The quantity of ore minerals doesn't exceed 1%~5%. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and native gold are widely spread. Sheelite, gold and silver tellurides, sulphobismuthites, acanthite, sphalerite and cinnabar are less developed. Four stages of mineralization have been distinguished. Gold-sulphide-sulphosalt ore with tellurides of gold and silver is productive for gold. The following set of elements is typomorphic for the ores of the deposit: Au, Ag, Cu, Bi,Mo, Pb and Sb (W1, Pb1, Mo) -Cu- (Ag, Bi, Sb, Mn, W1, Pb2) form the vertical series of zoning. Rocks, enclosing the mineralization are exposed to the processes of listvenitization-beresitization. The processes of gumbeization and argillization are less manifested. The age of the gold mineralization, determined by Rb-Sr method on ore-accompanying minerals, is 130.6 Ma.

  16. Humus and Humic Acids of Luvisol and Cambisol of Jiguli Ridges, Samara Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Abakumov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Luvisols and Cambisols are two types of sub-boreal soils, which are known as continental and humid-ocean types of soils in deciduous forests respectively. Morphological features of soil, which are frequently used as the main argument in solum diagnostics, are subjective and do not give final decision that continental Cambisols are a specific type of soils different from Luvisols. These soils were studied in a mountain massive—Jiguli ridges of Samara region, Russia, East European part. Humid climate of northern slopes leads to formation of brown type of humic acids (HA, while the conditions of eastern slopes assist to formation of gray HA. These HAs of different soils are different in elemental composition (C and N are higher in Cambisols, O is higher in Luvisols, carbon species according to 13-C NMR (aromaticity is higher in Luvisols, while the aliphatic, carbonylic and carboxylic compounds are higher in Cambisols. Cambisols are characterized by dominance of fulvic acids (FAs on HAs, while the ratio of HA to FA groups in Luvisols is about 1,0. Essential differences in humus composition and humic acids properties confirm that local humid climate in continental forest-steppe leads to formation of Cambisols instead of zonal Luvisols.

  17. Contributions of Tourism to the Development of Regions in Russia and Germany. Bashkortostan and Saxony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Wiesmeth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the growth of the tourism industry in Russia has slowed down, and its lack of competitiveness has been the topic of various publications. Similarly, the touristic potential of the Republic of Bashkortostan is not exhausted with tourism still making an unsatisfactory contribution to the GRP of the region. Bashkortostan and Saxony are of the same size — in terms of population. Population density, however, is much higher in Saxony. In addition, differing historic roots affect any efforts to develop the touristic potential of Bashkortostan. It is then the goal of this paper to provide recommendations for sustainable tourism with a long-term perspective by analyzing consequences of these facts on the touristic infrastructure, on competitive forces, on the tasks of a tourism-marketing bureau, among others — always in comparison to the situation in Saxony (the case study method. Thus, this comparative analysis helps to restructure tourism in Bashkortostan in a situation with insufficient reliable touristic data. In the conditions of deceleration of global economic growth, depletion of natural resources, it is highly important to secure proper functioning of economic systems by means of using the available potential possibilities and searching for new reserves of economic growth. Tourism has a huge potential of development and can be an additional source of economic growth in Bashkortostan.

  18. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  19. The geosystem approach to the problems of social and economic development of regions of the North of Russia

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    Vitalii Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The position of the North of Russia in various geographical dimensions: circumpolar, zonal (latitudinal, meridional, structural and territorial, is consid-ered. On the basis of the primary data of district and regional municipalities the author has carried out estimation of number and dynamics of the population in three zones of the North of Russia and executed typological groupings with reference to the systems of resettlement of the population and economic specialization of territories. The analysis of "anatomy" of the North has shown that the basic part of problems of social and economic policy should be considered at regional and local levels with reference to those territorial and economic systems which have already been formed, but require modernization on the basis of the technologies adapted for extreme and difficult climatic conditions. The applied part of studying the problems of the North is co-ordinated to the theory of the territorial (geosystem organization of economy

  20. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems play one of the key roles in the Global Change challenges responses. The soil carbon stocks are principal regulators of their environmental functions. Boreal forest soil cover is characterized by mutually increased spatial variability in soil organic matter content (SOMC) that one need to take into attention in its current and future environmental functions state assessment including the potential of regional soil organic matter stocks changes due to Global Change and inverse ones. Knowledge of the regional regularities in SOMC profile vertical distribution allows improving their soil environmental functions prediction land quality evaluation. More than 900 profiles of SOMC distribution were studied using the database Boreal that contains data on Russian boreal soils developed in drained conditions on loamy soil forming rocks. These soil profiles belong to seven main types of forest soils of Russian classification and six major regions of Russia. The predomination of accumulation profile type was observed for all cases. Thus the vertical distribution of OMC in the profiles of boreal soils can be described as follow: the layer of maximum OMC is replaced by the layer of dramatic OMC reduction; then the layer of minimal OMC extends up to 2.5 m. The layer of maximal OMC accumulation has the low depth of 5-15 cm. It carried out in different genetic horizons: A1, A1A2, A2, B, AB; sometimes it captures the A2B horizon or the upper part of the illuvial horizon. The OMC in this layer increases from the northern taiga to the southern taiga and from the European part of Russia to Siberia. The second layer is characterized by its depth and by the gradient of OMC decreasing. A great variety of the both parameters is observed. The layer of the sharp OMC fall most often fits with the eluvial horizons A2 or А2В or even the upper part of the Вt (textural) or Bm (metamorphic) horizons. The layer of permanently small OMC may begin in any genetic horizon

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  2. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN THE URAL REGION, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Umpeleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Overall 178 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered in 2009–2011 from newly diagnosed epidemiologically unlinked to TB patients in the Ural region of Russia have been studied. The absolute concentration method was used for drug susceptibility testing. Mutations katG, inhA and rpoB associated with resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were detected by microchip technology («TB-Biochip». The isolates were genotyped by real-time PCR for the detection of Beijing/non-Beijing genotypes and 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing according to «MIRU-VNTRplus» (http://www.miru-vntrplus.org. More than half (55.1% of 178 isolates belonged to the Beijing family, 58.7% of them were multiple drug resistant (MDR mostly due to rpoBSer531→Leu and katGSer315→Thr1 substitutions. Fifty VNTR profiles were found in 98 Beijing isolates; 57 of them grouped into 9 clusters. The largest VNTR cluster included 23 (23.5% Beijing isolates and 21 of them were MDR. The 80 non-Beijing isolates showed 64 distinct VNTR patterns which belonged to 6 genetic families: LAM, Ural, Haarlem, etc. Among LAM and Ural isolates 30.4% and 28.6% were MDR, respectively. The 5 of 7 MDR LAM isolates had specific mutation profile:  rpoBAsp516→Val substitution and mutations katGSer315→Thr1 and inhA_T15. The MDR Ural isolates showed the heterogeneity of mutations in rpoB gene compared to other genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the emergence and spread of MDR-TB in the Ural region which is characterized by circulation of MDR strains of different genotypes with the Beijing family genotype to be predominant.

  3. State — Region — Field — Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleiner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as the subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of "extension" of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative

  4. State — Region — Field— Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleyner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of «extension» of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative hierarchy

  5. New arheomagnetic results of pottery from Neolithic settlement Sakhtysh-I (Teykovsky District, Ivanovo Region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Olga; Nachasova, Inga; Markov, Gennadiy; Tsetlin, Yuriy

    2017-04-01

    This work is devoted to the arheomagnetic study of fired ceramic samples from the Neolithic settlement Sakhtysh -I with the goal to obtain new data of geomagnetic field intensity in the past. The settlement Sakhtysh-I was found in Teykovsky district of Ivanovo region of Russia. Archeological excavations of ancient ceramics were carried out by professor of the Institute of Archeology RAS Yu. Tsetlin in 1978. The studied collection of pottery fragments belongs to six Neolithic cultures: Volga-and-Oka, Upper Volga, Pit-and-Comb, Rare-Pit, Thin-Rare-Pit, and Volosovo. The composition of the ferromagnetic fraction presented in the studied archaeological samples from Sakhtysh-I settlement was studied by the complex methods of rock magnetism. The thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) in dependence of the saturation magnetization and magnetic susceptibility on temperature and determination of the Curie points, and the powder method X-ray diffraction were carry out. Thus based on TMA one can conclude that the main carrier of the magnetization of the samples is relatively resistant to heat maghemite. The size of grains lies in a pseudo single domain area. The determination of the ancient magnetic field induction was carried out by modified Thellier method. Based on the carbon-isotope dating the age of pottery fragments corresponds to the 5000-3000 years BC, and we can construct a curve of paleointensity variations of the geomagnetic field from the age. Determinations of geomagnetic field intensity are in the range of 0.034 to 0.052 mT. The comparison of paleointensity variations of the studied ceramics from Sakhtysh - I settlement with arheomagnetic data from the Iberian Peninsula and Siberia was fulfilled. This work was supported by RFBR, project № 16-05-00378.

  6. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  7. High prevalence of Trichinella nativa infection in wolf (Canis lupus populations of Tvier and Smoliensk regions of European Russia

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    Casulli A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have frequently been documented in European regions of Russia, with the highest prevalence reported in wolves (Canis lupus. From 1998 to 2000, 75 carcasses of wolves shot by hunters were tested for Trichinella larvae, and 73 (97.3 % of them were found to be positive. This very high prevalence of infection, the highest ever detected in a natural population of carnivores, could be explained by the human impact on the natural ecosystem. In fact, the diet of wolves living in the region under study mainly consists of carcasses of dogs and wolves, which are left in the forest or used as bait by hunters.

  8. Public health in the regions of Russia at the beginning of the twenty-first century: Medical-geographical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, S. M.; Pestina, P. V.; Shartova, N. V.

    2017-07-01

    The level of public health in the regions of Russia in the years 2002-2012 is characterized based on the indices of life expectancy of men and women, as well as infant mortality. The tendencies toward change as compared to 1990-2001 are determined. Five groups of regions with various levels of public health are identified and analyzed. The practical importance of this work is shown including its inclusion in the social policy and during the development of medico-geographical forecasts.

  9. Soil microbial respiration (CO2) of natural and anthropogenically-transformed ecosystems in Moscow region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Rogovaya, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 concentration in modern atmosphere is increasing and one of the most reasons of it is land use changing. It is related not only with soil plowing, but also with growing urbanization and, thereby, forming the urban ecosystems. Such conversion of soil cover might be affected by efflux CO2 from soil into atmosphere. The soil CO2 efflux mainly supplies by soil microorganisms respiration (contribution around 70-90%) and plant roots respiration. Soil microbial respiration (MR) is determined in the field (in situ) and laboratory (in vitro) conditions. The measurement of soil MR in situ is labour-consuming, and for district, region and country areas it is difficult carried. We suggest to define the MR of the upper highest active 10 cm mineral soil layer (in vitro) followed by the accounting of area for different ecosystems in large region of Russia. Soils were sampled (autumn, 2011) in natural (forest, meadow) and anthropogenically-transformed (arable, urban) ecosystems of Sergiev-Posad, Taldom, Voskresenk, Shatura, Serpukhov and Serbryanye Prudy districts in Moscow region. In soil samples (total 156) the soil MR (24 h, 22°C, 60% WHC) were measured after preincubation procedure (7 d., 22°C, 55% WHC). The soil MR ranged from 0.13 (urban) to 5.41 μg CO2-C g-1 h-1 (meadow), the difference between these values was 42 times. Then, the soil MR values (per unit soil weight) were calculated per unit soil area (1 m2), the layer thickness of which was 0.1 m (soil volume weight was equaled 1 g cm-3). The high MR values were noted for forests soil (832-1410 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1) of studied districts, and the low MR values were for arable and urban soils (by 1.6-3.2 and 1.3-2.7 times less compared to forests, respectively). The MR rate of urban soil in Voskresenk district was comparable to that of corresponding meadows and it was even higher (in average by 2.3 times) in Serpukhov district. The soil MR rate of studied cities was higher by 20%, than in corresponding arable soils

  10. Profile distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of drained peatlands after wildfires (Moscow region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibart, Anna; Gennadiev, Alexander; Koshovskii, Timur; Kovach, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are formed in different natural and anthropogenic processes and could be found in many landscape components. These compounds are carcinogenic and belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The anthropogenic sources of PAHs are well-studied, but insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in natural processes. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAHs sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are on this topic. The soils of drained peatlands affected by catastrophic wildfires of 2010 and 2002 were studied in the Eastern part of Moscow Region (Russia). A total of 14 profiles of histosols and histic podsols were investigated. These series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities and age, as well as soils of the background plots. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 14 prevailing individual compounds: fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, anthracene, tetraphene, benz[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[e]pyrene, coronene, dibenztiophene, triphenilene, benz(k)fluorantene. Morfological properties of soils after wildfires on drained peatlands were changed dramatically, the horizons of ash and char instead of organic layers were formed. These new horizons differ in the capability of PAHs accumulation. The char horizons have the highest concentrations of PAHs - up to 300 ng/g because of incomplete burning of organic matter in this sites, and the ash horizons, where the complete burning occured, contain only 10 ng/g PAHs. The highest concentrations of PAHs in soil profiles were detected after recent fires, and in cases of thick peat layers. After the combustion of peat chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, benz[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benz(k)fluorantene and tetraphene accumulated in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-6-nuclear compounds. The formation of

  11. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    results of analyzing water stress during growing season of 2012 and yielded biomass of crops three types of crops alfalfa, corn and soya irrigated by sprinkling machines at left bank of Volga River at Saratov Region of Russia are presented and analyzed. For that a combination of data received from satellite, local meteorological station and farmers as well as SWAP model was used. Analyze of data sets of monitored water deficit of each crop averaged for irrigation period was done by linear regression with yielded biomass values. Following analyze of effectiveness of irrigation water application was done by SWAP agrohydrological model.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of Cs-137 soil contamination at the landscape scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Anton; Linnik, Vitaly

    2016-04-01

    The passage of the Chernobyl plume over the Bryansk region (Russia) in the end of April 1986 led to the deposition of radionuclides on the ground by wet and dry deposition processes. According to the results of the Cs-137 air gamma survey (AGS, grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was conducted in summer 1993, it was shown that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly a fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope as compared to the upper part of the slope during a seven-year period after the Chernobyl accident. The variability patterns of Cs-137 could be described by a stochastic or a deterministic function of the measurement location. The patterns variations could be associated with the nonlinear response of many interacting variables within the landscape system. In the test area located at a distance of about 280 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cs-137 surface activity typically ranges from below 7 kBq/m2 to approximately 50-60 kBq/m2 reflecting the combination of deposition due to global fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and the relatively low levels of Chernobyl deposition to the area. To model the Cs-137 distribution depending on complex landscape attributes the following information layers were used: 1) the soil map at the scale of 1:50,000; 2) SRTM elevation data acquired from the Global Land Cover Facility at a 3 arc second resolution. Fundamental difficulties in distributed erosion modelling arise from the natural complexity of landscape systems and Cs-137 spatial heterogeneity. The SRTM DEM of the test site has a grid size about 90 m, which is not sufficient for distributed hydrological modelling at the landscape scale. The scaling problem arises because of the mismatch between SRTM DEM pixel dimensions and the size of erosion network (width about 10-50 m) that concentrates Cs-137 run-off from the overlying slopes and watershed areas. To build a hydrologically correct local drain direction (LDD) with

  13. Environmental impact of copper mining and metallurgy during the Bronze Age at Kargaly (Orenburg region, Russia

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    Vicent García, Juan Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly (Orenburg, Russia is a copper-producing region in which two main phases of mining activity have taken place: the 4th-2nd millennia BC and the 18th-20th centuries AD. This article is a comparative study on the impact of those mining episodes in the distribution of the forest resources in the region, aimed to estimate the scale of prehistoric mining and metallurgical works. For that purpose two paleopalinological sequences obtained from natural deposits located in Kargaly are analysed by inferential Statistics and Multivariate Methods. The results are compared both with a regional sampling of recent pollen rain supported by an analytical model of the present day landscape, and with the anthracological data coming from the Late Bronze Age settlement of Gorny 1. Analysis confirm the large scale of the prehistoric mining impact on the forest cover from the beginnings, as well as the strong effect of husbandry once mining works ended. These results allow us to dismiss a climatic change as main explanation for the detected diachronic variability in the palinological record. They also prove the viability of the proposed approach as a means of integrating the paleoenvironmental disciplines in Landscape Archaeology.

    Kargaly (región de Orenburgo, Rusia es una región cuprífera explotada entre los milenios IV y II cal BC y los siglos XVIII y XX d.C. El objetivo del artículo es estudiar comparativamente el impacto de estos episodios mineros en la distribución de los recursos forestales de la región, para aproximar la escala de las operaciones minero-metalúrgicas prehistóricas. Para ello se analizan con métodos estadísticos inferenciales y multivariantes dos secuencias paleopalinológicas procedentes de depósitos naturales de la región y se comparan con un muestreo regional de la lluvia polínica reciente apoyado por un modelo analítico del paisaje actual y con los datos antracol

  14. Activities of the Volgograd Branch of All-Russian Society for Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments on the Protection of Labour Glory Monuments of the Soviet People in the 1970s

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    Filatov Dmitriy N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the causes and origins of the all-Russian society for protection of monuments of history and culture. On the basis of archival documents the author shows the appearance of the Volgograd branch of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The author describes its activities on studying, preserving and promoting the monuments of history and culture of the Volgograd region in the 1970s. The author discusses the causes of establishing in 1974 the section of the regional Department for the protection and promotion of monuments of labour glory of the Soviet people. He indicates that its appearance in the structure of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture was associated with an increased conducted by the then government work on military-Patriotic education of youth. Under this policy, the section has been considered from the point of view of propaganda of Soviet history and focused on the identification, promotion and protection of monuments of history of Soviet society. The article studies its activities related to the identification, research, description, and preservation of monuments of labour achievements of the Soviet period. The author indicates the difficulties encountered after the adoption in 1976 of the USSR Law “On the protection and use of monuments of history and culture”, where the monuments of labour glory in a separate category werenot distinguished and were classified as historical monuments. The author describes the closure of the section of monuments to the labour of fame in 1979 and evaluates the results of the section, its contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Volgograd region.

  15. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula region in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural region, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular region. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is

  16. NOAA Satellite Based Real Time Forest Fire Monitoring System for Russia and North Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpoma,Kazi A. / Kawano,Koichi / Kudoh,Jun-ichi; / カワノ,コウイチ / クドウ,ジュンイチ

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires cause severe damages to natural resources and human lives all over the world. Though a lot of forest fires occur in Russia and North Asia every year, there is no system available that monitors forest fire in real time processing. However the MODIS Land Rapid Response System provides near-real time fire observations globally, currently forest fire monitoring techniques are not efficient enough to optimally monitor this disaster. For a real-time forest fire monitor system an effici...

  17. Overview of contemporary issues of sustainable rural development in Russia in terms of existing differences between regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivolga Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper includes analysis of current state in the sphere of sustainable rural development in the regions of Russia. Analysis included the set of indicators such as number of rural people, number of rural settlements, rates of births and mortalities, natural and migration increases and declines of population, rates of employment and unemployment, average monthly nominal per capita wages, and level of the subsistence minimum. Indicators have been measured separately for rural and urban areas; regions have been grouped in relation to the particular indicator. As a result, 82 regions have been grouped into aggregations according to their common characteristics and values of studied indicators. Such classification let to compare derived levels of rural development in particular regions, to analyze gaps between rural and urban areas, to discover common threats to sustainable development, and to elaborate local oriented rural policies.

  18. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

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    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  19. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  20. Prevention of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users in Russia: opportunities and barriers to scaling-up of harm reduction programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatchenko-Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian; Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Davydenko, Ludmila; Atun, Rifat

    2008-02-01

    to examine attitudes of Russian policy-makers and HIV stakeholders towards harm reduction (HR) scale up, focusing on the factors constraining the scale-up process. Semi-structured interviews with representatives of 58 government and non-governmental organisations involved in HIV policies and programmes in Volgograd Region, Russian Federation. We found a considerable diversity of opinion on HR scale-up and suggest that Russia is experiencing the situation of power parity between HR supporters and opponents with many stakeholders being indecisive or cautious to express their views. We identified six main factors which constrain policy decisions in favour of HR scale-up: insufficient financial resources; lack of information on HR effectiveness; perception of HR as being culturally unacceptable; reluctance of IDUs to use the services; opposition from law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and unclear legal regulations. We demonstrate a complex interplay between these factors, policy-makers' attitudes and their choices on HR scale-up. A number of actions are needed to achieve a successful scale-up of HR programmes in Russia and similar political contexts: (i) a strategic approach to HR advocacy, targeting neutral and indecisive stakeholders; (ii) more systematic evidence on HR effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the local context; (iii) HR advocacy targeting law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and (iv) aligning best international HR practices with the objectives of local policy-makers, practitioners and service-users.

  1. Value system of students in Russia and China: the regional dimension (exemplified by Guangzhou and Maikop, Republic of Adygeya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article helms the reader to the results of the second stage of the joint Russian-Chinese research project devoted to the comparative analysis of the value system of students in both countries. The comparative analysis of the representative questionnaire survey of Beijing and Moscow students prompted the authors to address the problems of regional differences at home. As a result the researchers turned their attention to value priorities of students of metropolitan and regional institutions of higher education. In Russia the survey was conducted in Maikop (the capital of Adygeya. It has been demonstrated that although value systems of young people in both cities bear enough similarities in their structure and appropriate dominants on the whole, one can observe significant and pronounced differences determined by socio-cultural features of the region as well as by institutional limitations on youth opportunities.

  2. Causes and consequences of the hydrological droughts in the south region of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Maria; Ilich, Vladislav; Kharlamov, Maksim; Frolova, Natalia; Goncharov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade the number of extreme low-flow periods on Russian rivers has increased significantly. The most severe water shortage currently observed in the Don and Volga basin. Also suffers from lack of water of Lake Baikal region, left-bank tributaries of the Lena. The most acute problem of water shortage is in the basin of the Don river. It is located in the south od European part of Russia and has an area of 422 ths km2, which is very densely populated (more than 29 million inhabitants). The river and its tributaries are the main sources of fresh water for the population. In addition, they play a key role in industries such as fisheries, recreation, shipping, hydropower (HPP Tsimlyanskaya). Don anciently was very famous for its biodiversity and the number of organisms of the floodplain ecosystems. However, at the present time due to anthropogenic stress and climate change, these figures dropped down. This study is devoted to the complex analysis arising in the district. Don water shortage. As part of the research was carried out the spatial distribution of runoff, revealing its meteorological reasons of water shortage, the impact of water scarcity on the ecosystem in general and fish fauna in particular. Hydrological drought is clearly manifested in the annual runoff only in the lower part of the basin. From 2007 the annual runoff probability here are higher than 80%. It was found that the longest (during record from 1930ths) duration of the event associated with rotation of water shortages on the left and right-bank tributaries of the river. In addition, the analysis of the spatial distribution of seasonal runoff probability showed that in the upper catchment hydrological drought is hardly observed: the rate accounts for 60% and lower. Drought has led to the transformation of the aquatic ecosystem of the Don river and its transition from oligotrophic to eutrophic state. The concentration of phytoplankton in the August - September during low flow period

  3. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  4. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  5. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  6. Peculiarities of Innovative and Investment Policy of Russia and its Regions in the Conditions of Crisis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA ALEKSEEVNA IZMAILOVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative analysis of conceptual approaches to understanding the nature and objectives of the national and regional innovation systems in which the prospects for socio-economic development of the country based on innovation and investment decisions are examined. The triumvirate of factors affecting the state of innovation area of Russia is allocated – a series of financial and economic crises, turbulence of the economic environment, geopolitical instability with the consequences of anti-Russian sanctions – and their impact on the economy is interpreted. It is stressed that the speed and scale of the economic transformations indicate the need to adapt the model of innovative development of Russia to the requirements of a sovereign development of the country and its transition to a new technological order. A description of the problems of investment of innovative processes is provided, and new approaches to their solution are opened up, including the implementation of new investment instruments. The necessity, possibility and urgency of an innovative breakthrough of the country is substantiated in compliance with a set of conditions, with the priority given to the formation of a system of strategic management of development of innovative economy that contributes to the identification and implementation of promising directions of economic development.

  7. Inflation in Modern Russia: Theoretical Foundations, Specific Features of Manifestation and Regional Dimension

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    Vladimir Vladimirovich Ilyashenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to characterize the development and specific features of inflation in Russia on the basis of its theoretical justification and practical analysis. The article discusses the monetarist and Keynesian approaches to the characterization of inflation. The paper shows that the equation of exchange from the quantity theory of money, which is the basis of the monetarist theory of inflation, does not allow to make an unambiguous conclusion about the direct relationship between money supply and price level in the economy. The authors give the theoretical substantiation of cost-push inflation from the position of microeconomic theory, which is denied by the representatives of the monetarist school. We characterize the specific features of inflation in the period of market transformations in Russia. The article shows the considerable role of the cost factors of cost-push inflation: the monopolization of the economy, rise in the prices of energy and raw materials. There is an absence of the direct relationship between inflation and money supply growth in large part of the period of the 2000. The authors determine the dependence between the exchange rate and inflation in the Russian economy, which is most evident during periods of significant devaluation of the national currency, as a rule, associated with a significant increase in world oil prices. The paper notes that the significant decline in aggregate demand that occurred in Russia in recent years have reduced the level of inflation in 2016. Despite this, the reduction of inflation and its transformation to slow cost-push inflation was combined with negative consequences for the economy: the decrease of investments and production development, reduction of the living standards of the population. The authors conducted the analysis of inflation on the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation, which has confirmed the significant role of causes of cost-push inflation in

  8. Cranial Endocast of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid Amurosaurus riabinini from the Amur region, Russia.

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    Pascaline Lauters

    Full Text Available Information on the structure of the brain of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Late Maastrichtian of Blagoveschensk, Far Eastern Russia, is presented based on endocranial casts. The endocasts are compared with physical and digital endocasts of other dinosaurs. The olfactory tract was large. The cerebral hemispheres are enlarged and round, illustrating the important development of this part of the brain in hadrosaurids. The pituitary body is enlarged as well, perhaps prefiguring the large size attained by hadrosaurids. The EQ of Amurosaurus was similar to that of the lambeosaurine dinosaur Hypacrosaurus altispinus and was relatively larger than in most extant non-avian reptiles, including sauropod and ceratopsian dinosaurs. However, it was apparently relatively smaller than those of most theropod dinosaurs. The relatively large size of the cerebrum is consistent with the range and complexity of social behaviors inferred for lambeosaurine dinosaurs.

  9. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...... sea level rise was curbed by isostatic rebound and accompanying regression and constriction of marine passages to the White Sea. Local, low-saline, stratified basins developed and characterised the next 5-6 millennia.......Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...

  10. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature on the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and radiative and heat balances components is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP reanalysis data and observational data for the period of current global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that since the beginning of 90s of XX century the increase of back earth-atmosphere short-wave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover dynamics and downward short-wave radiation at the surface. Annual averaged radiative balance values at the top are negative; it is consistent with negative annual averaged air temperature, averaged over territory. The downward trend of radiative balance is the most obvious after the beginning of 90s of XX century.

  11. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature over the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and heat balance elements is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and observational data for the period of global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that temperature trend over the territory is 1.4 °C for the period under study according to reanalysis data. Since the beginning of 90s of 20th century the increase of back earth-atmosphere shortwave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover distribution and downward shortwave radiation at the surface. Regression model describing temperature variability with variability of heat balance elements was presented. We conclude that possible applications for the model include the convenient estimate of temperature variability according to reanalysis data.

  12. Ecoreconstruction of city space of Volgograd basing on suburbanization principles of city territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature is subject to severe antropogenous impacts and dramatically changes its quality. Urban development is a process of environmental intervention, a process of its artificial change in such a speed, which doesn’t correspons to the speed of biospheric evolutions and natural selection. By improving our life quality, a human destroys the usual interrelation of living organisms with natural environment. The concepts of urban development and suburbanization of territories existing nowadays have their advantages and disadvantages from ecological point of view. The paper considers the reasons and major problems of ecological reconstruction of the urban space. Preconditions of the integrated ecological approach to the town evolution are shown in the work, as well as some generalizing conclusions concerning security assurance of the environment of the city of Volgograd. The priority trend for the urban areas suburbanization is presented.

  13. Defining Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lijiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Russia is a state stretching over the Eurasian land mass and with a mixture of both East and West cultures. During the historical process of its shaping, particularly sea changes took place, Russian leaders and the elites as well have always asked the following questions about the definition and orientation of their country: "Who am I?" "How to do?" and "Where to?" At present, Russia finds itself in a critical stage of social transition and adjustment of international status. "What country is Russia like?" "What image should Russia show on the international arena?" "What is its strategic trend?" These questions would directly affect the development of Russia.

  14. Influence of natural and technological emergency situations on tourism and sustainable development in St.Petersburg and Leningrad region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Petrova, E. G.; Vashchalova, T. V.; Gavrilova, S. A.; Danilina, A. V.; Gryaznova, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    St.Petersburg and Leningrad region belong to the most populated and tourist-active regions in the European part of Russia. St.Petersburg is a second important transportation connection point in Russia, there are many industrial and infrastructure facilities in Leningrad region such as chemical plants, mechanic engineering, power stations including a nuclear power station, etc. That is why a lot of technical objects and people can be influenced or damaged by natural hazards and various types of technological accidents can be triggered by natural phenomena that have place in the region. According to the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situation, Leningrad region has a medium level of frequency of emergency situations caused by natural triggers (two to four cases a year). The climatic and orographic conditions of the area contribute to the development of many different types of dangerous natural processes such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena are the most often among all natural triggers of emergency situations in the region; about 50% of them are caused by storms and strong winds and 25% by floods. The biggest number of natural emergency situations happens in St.Petersburg. Storms make the marine navigation more difficult and even block the port sometimes. In Leningrad region, 5-10 villages and cities (including St.Petersburg) are at risk to be flooded. In November 1999, the work of Leningradskaya nuclear power station was partly blocked due to the increasing in water level. The federal road Moscow-St.Petersburg is often under influence of heavy snowfalls that cause many problems for transport system of the region during the winter. The majority of technological emergency situations are caused by fires in industrial facilities and residential sector, trafic accidents and shipcrashes. Sometimes natural phenomena can also trigger technological accidents. However, their frequency is

  15. The “New Great Game” Over the Caspian Region: Russia, the USA, and China in the Same Melting Pot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkhal Abilov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Caspian region has been transformed into the battleground and the power confrontations of the world major leading countries not only because of its geo-strategic position in the map of the Eurasia, but also because of its immense hydrocarbon resources. The geographical location of the Caspian region and possessing vast amount of oil and gas resources led it to play a significant role in world energy security and drew the attention of the regional and global players in order to increase their stocks in exploitation and transportation of Caspian hydrocarbon. The discovery of big amount of oil and gas in the Caspian led the Western politicians to project the Caspian region as a ―New Middle East‖. Therefore, the scope of this research paper is to evaluate the geo-strategic significance of the Caspian region and its role as a crucial link between East and West, as well as examine the geopolitical rivalry over the vast Caspian region hydrocarbons and the transportation routes (pipeline politics between the three global powers; Russia, the United States, and China. Lately, it will analyze what policies do these big states pursue in order to impose their political influence and ensuring economic benefits.

  16. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  17. Metabolic Disturbances in Obese Pregnant Residents of an Industrial Region (The Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Liudmila Akhmetovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to investigate the presence of metabolic disturbances in obese pregnant women living in an industrial city in Russia. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the ambulatory cards of 96 pregnant women with alimentary obesity (aged 23–34, their birth history, and their newborn development history (anamnesis. Results: Sixty-two percent of women had obstetric and gynecological complications. Pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes, risk of pregnancy interruption, toxicosis in the first half gestation, gestosis were experienced in 36% of women. Increased glucose in the blood was accompanied by higher concentrations of atherogenic components (i.e., triglycerides and low density lipoproteins (LDL. The imbalance of metabolic processes in the homeostatic system of pregnant obese women (total protein: 50.4 g/L, cholesterol: 6.1 mmol/L, LDL: 4.1 mmol//L, high density lipoproteins (HDL: 0.85 mmol/L, triglycerides: 3.5 mmol/L, glucose: 7.0 mmol/L formed a pathogenic link in the development of obesity. Conclusions: Increased glucose and atherogenic lipid profile and decreased protein levels in the blood promote the processes of the adiposity in women and aggravate the pathological processes of gestation and the postnatal period. Pregnant obese women of reproductive age form a group at high risk of developing complications during gestation and parturition. Obesity is not a contraindication for pregnancy, although the risk of complications is great.

  18. SPECIFICITY OF INTER-ELITE COMPETITION AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander SOKOLOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the approaches to understanding the concept of ‘competition’. There are three approaches to understanding the concept: as a competition in the market, as a behavioral element of the market mechanism and as a market mechanism criterion to resist monopolization. Conditions for the existence of competition are also considered. The first condition for the competition to emerge is a presence of a great number of items of any particular product or resource in the market. The second condition for the emergence of competition is freedom of choice of producers’ economic activities. The third condition for the competition to emerge is correspondence between what determines the demand and what determines the supply. The forth condition for the emergence of competition is the presence of the market of means of production. The essence of the competition in the political field is analyzed as well. Specific conditions for the political competition in modern Russia are distinguished and common features of the political competition in subjects of the Russian Federation are also determined. An example of the conditions and essence of the political competition in Yaroslavl is considered in detail. Changes of the area of political competition for the last four years of the Russian Federation are also considered.

  19. Background concentrations of heavy metals in benthos from transboundary rivers of the Transbaikalia region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Aleksei Petrovich; Matafonov, Petr Viktorovich

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were measured in benthic macroalgae and invertebrates collected in the upper transboundary tributaries of the Onon River, Transbaikalia, Russia. The background concentration ranges in Cladophora fracta, Ulothrix zonata and Zygnemataceae were: 6.4-9.1 for Cu, 27.2-73.1 for Zn, 0.4-0.9 for Cd, 6.7-35.3 for As, 0.01-0.02 for Hg, and 1.9-4.3 for Pb. In Brachycentrus americanus and Lymnaea media the concentration ranges were: 9.0-25.5 for Cu, 21.4-96.0 for Zn, 0.1-0.3 for Cd, 1.7-5.6 for As, 0.004-0.02 for Hg, and 0.4-2.2 for Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg were consistent with data for uncontaminated areas. Under contamination conditions the concentrations in C. fracta were: 938 for Zn, 513 for Pb, and 9.5 for Cd; in Lymnaea media were: 46.8 for Cu, 176 for Zn, 52.3 for Pb, and 3.0 for Cd. All the organisms showed a common response to contamination, and consequently can be used as biomonitors of contamination by heavy metals.

  20. Modernization of the Autism Research Ideas and Development of Support Services for People with Autism in Russia: From a Regional Initiative to Globalization of Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chereneva E.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the development of ideas of regional initia- tives, autism research, and the formation and development of the academic system aiming to help people with autism in Russia and abroad. The authors propose a model of autism research and the formation of a professional training system for specialists working with children and adults with autism.

  1. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400,000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m(3). Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m(3). The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m(3).

  2. COMPARATIVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDY OF YOUTH PRO-NATALIST POLICY IN THE REGIONS OF GERMANY, FRANCE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Gokova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the results of three empirical studies conducted in Russia, Germany and France, which reveal value orientations of contemporary young people of these countries, the nature of their social behavior in the demographic context, as well as economic factors influencing it. The objectives of the study are the need to identify and systematize the factors that influence the reproductive behavior of today’s youth from typical regions of these countries, as well as the evaluation of the experience of the organization and implementation of the pro-natalist policy accumulated by these three states. In the process of the questionnaire survey of young people in three countries, we formed an information database for the comparative analysis of young respondents’ views on the issues of identifying their behaviour and value orientations in family life. We also use materials of the state statistics of these countries and the secondary analysis of the materials of sociological studies. On the basis of the conducted research and experience of implementation of pro-natalist policy in Germany and France, we have developed a number of measures of the Russian youth pro-natalist policy. The development of the labor market has a strong influence on the formation of the family value system of today’s youth in Germany, France and Russia. It specifies the need to achieve a balance between creating a family, birth of children and the desire to create oneself as a professional. The possibility of achieving such life harmony must be ensured and supported by government measures in the framework of the effective pro-natalist policy.

  3. Regulation of the electricity sector in Russia: regional aspects (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Yudashkina; Sergey Pobochy

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of interests of regional energy companies, consumers and governors on electricity regulation policy in Russian regions. We use panel data on electricity tariffs and electricity consumption in 77 regions during 1998-2003. We find evidence that governors tended to "freeze" the tariffs during governor elections, and that energy-intensive enterprises prefer buying electricity at the federal wholesale market to bargaining over lower tariffs with regional regulators. We co...

  4. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  5. Modeling Employment on Regional Labor Markets(Through the Example of the Khabarovsk Territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valerievna Zikunova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The disbalance of demand and supply on the labor market acquires special sense for remote and underpopulated settled lands. The lack of perspective estimations of the regional labor markets development leads to the outflow of human capital assets from regions, and their high concentration in central regions of the country. It results in the loss of competition effects on the labor market, aggravation of the mismatch of the demand and supply for labor resources according to the types of economic activity. Ultimately, the inertia policy in the area of planning regional employment can lead to the loss of skilled personnel and loss of effects related to regional specialization. The aim of this article is to substantiate the model to predict the number of the employed in the region. Firstly, the article generalizes regional and national tendencies of the labor market development. Secondly, based on the analysis of demographic and economic characteristics of the region, the model related to predicting the employment in the region is offered. Its quality is proved by subsequent approbation on the basis of real statistic data. The article displays the perspectives of applying such models in other regional economic systems taking into account their industry specialization.

  6. Future Development Of Migration Processes And Labour Market In The Regions Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasilyeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s reasons for the continuing need of the foreign labor influx were researched. Forecast of the interdependent labor market development and migration processes in the regions of Russian is proposed as a scientific basis for better regulation of the international labor migration. The genesis of approaches to migration modeling, revealing the lack of tools for the simultaneous prediction of migration processes and the labor market was studied. A developed model complex allows to predict: 1 migration flows, determined by the wages level difference and the distance between the country of origin and the destination regions, number of potential migrants in countries of origin and the number of migrants who arrived earlier in the regions of destination; 2 migrants’ employment in the region, considering changes in the job availability as a result of the migrants influx to the regional labor markets, characterized by search tensions; 3 the level of wages in the region, considering the bargaining power of the worker. The application of the model complex to the statistical data resulted in obtaining of the forecast flows of migrants in the Russian regions from the CIS and their influence on the regional labor markets development up to 2020. Based on this forecast, the recommendations to improve the management of the international labor migration in the Russian regions were developed

  7. THE CORPUS OF REGIONAL RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Savchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the corpus of regional and foreign press as a new module within the RNC. Unlike newspaper corpus including only materials of the national press, the new corpus focuses on texts from regional publications. The corpus presently consists of the following subcorpora: 1 newspapers of the Grodno region (7 editions, 1.9 million tokens in total, prepared jointly with the specialists of the Grodno University, 2 Russian regional press of 2010s (13 newspapers, about 2 million tokens, 3 Russian regional press of 1990-2000 (40 newspapers, 2.6 million tokens, 4 regional releases of the national newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" (6.5 million tokens. Our approach to selecting texts, the standards and software for word processing, organization of the corpus inter face are described in the article as well as the prospects of the development of corpus composition and searching instruments.The texts of the regional corpus are provided with morphological, semantic and detailed metatextual annotation. The corpus is freely available at the address http://www.ruscorpora.ru/search-regional.html. The main purpose of this corpus as we see it is to provide researchers with a tool of studying the regional variation of the Russian language.

  8. On the Problems of Strategic Development of Tourism in the Regions of Russia (Case of the Krasnodar Region and the Resort City of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of strategic development of tourism in the economy of the Russian regions. These problems arise in the period of transition from regulatory functions of the market to the management of long-term development based on the strategic objectives and flagship projects that can achieve these goals in practice. In such a case, the tourism sector of the regional economy is suggested to be considered not within the narrow framework of the tour operator and hotel business activity as it takes place in Russia, but on the much broader scale involving 50 branches of the modern economy as it is increasingly used worldwide. The authors’ hypothesis comes from the fact that in modern conditions, the development and implementation of the strategies of the recreation and tourism industries in the Russian regions can only be effective through the creation and promotion of large diversified knowledge-based competitive regional tourism products at new technological level. The paper clearly demonstrates the group methods of regional strategic planning such as brainstorming and foresight (forecasting and future shaping. The results of the research substantiate not only the need to amend the legislative framework and the current management system of the Russian tourism, to actively elaborate and implement the regional development strategies, to carry out tourism development studies aimed at its commercial success but also the importance of convincing representation of the civilizational advantages of the Russian world and Russian civilization through the tourism.

  9. Problems of Economic Grown in Modern Russia: General Characteristics and Regional Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyze the problem to find the optimal policy options to stimulate economic growth in modern conditions. They point out three possible options for such policy according to the different structural priorities. This point causes the question of the extent to which the proposed policy approaches to stimulate economic growth correspond to real economic trends. The solution of this problem is possible only on the basis of the empirical study analysis results. Also it is necessary to take into account the regional dimension related to the fact that the various sectors of the economy linked to the various regions. According to this fact one may point out Russian regions with the predominance of the mining industry, manufacturing industry and services. Authors exploit panel dataset on 80 Russian regions for the period 2005-2014 to analyze the relationship between annual shares of sectors in output and employment and per capita gross regional growth. Results indicate that regions with a higher share of manufacturing and mining both in terms of output and employment grow slower during the reporting period. The impact of services on growth is somewhat paradoxical: regions with bigger shares of healthcare and education in output growth faster, but a bigger share of this sector in employment, as much as expanding of the labor share of these sectors impede growth. Possible reason for this paradox is that the high proportion of services in the regions-leaders (especially the share of total employment reflects not the degree of their development, but the development of the public sector in relatively poor regions. The results show that neither manufacturing nor mining and services are not the engines of economic growth that can ensure sustainable development of the whole economy. Authors point out that it is necessary to conduct multivariate policies to stimulate economic growth, which is based on the various configurations of developmental actors

  10. Perspektivy setevogo sotrudnichestva Rossii i stran ES v innovacionnoj sfere na Baltike [Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  11. DRUG ADDICTION SOCIAL COST IN RUSSIA REGIONS: METHODICAL APPROACH AND ESTIMATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kalina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodical approach to drug addiction social cost estimation in Russian regions is suggested in the article. It is presented by cost estimation of socio-economical consequences of drug addiction spread on the territory. The main approaches to latency characteristics of drug addiction situation estimation are shown. The results of drug addiction and its separate parts social cost estimation are given for federal regions and subjects of Russian Federation for the period of 2001 − 2005.

  12. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  13. GENERATION OF RATES FOR ELECTRIC POWER IN REGIONAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS OF RUSSIA: PROBLEMS OF CHOICE REGARDING AN OPTIMUM MODEL OF RATE-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Botkin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available At present contradictions are being intensified and difficulties arise due to insufficiently profound scientific study of the major issues concerned with economic development of Russia. First of all, this is referred to the issues of conceptual and methodological approaches to formation of economic relations in regional power systems in order to stabilize the parameters of the energy market, to reduce risks, to increase efficiency and competitive ability of power-producing companies in the context of the transformational economy. The authors note the fact that a challenging situation has occurred in the regional power systems of Russia in terms of generation of optimal electricity rates. A number of possible solutions to the problem of electric energy loss, optimization of fuel and energy balance throughout the processing line «producers-transmitters-energy consumers» and building up a system of rate-making in the regional energy sector on this basis has been offered.

  14. Impact of Clinical Factors on the Achievement of Target Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients from Ivanovo Region of Russia: Data of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A R; Posnenkova, O M; Belova, O A; Romanchuk, S V; Popova, Y V; Prokhorov, M D; Gridnev, V I

    2017-08-30

    In Russia, blood pressure (BP) control is below the optimal. The little is known about regional features and barriers to adequate BP control in Russian primary care. To evaluate the impact of clinical factors on achieving the target BP in hypertensive patients in one region of Russia. Retrospective medical data of 2015 on 11,129 patients (31.4% male) with hypertension (Htn) from Ivanovo region of Russia were examined. Achievement of target BP was assessed in all patients. We study association between BP control and clinical factors. 45.9% of studied patients with Htn had controlled BP. The frequency of achieving the target BP in subsets of hypertensive patients was 37.8% in patients with diabetes, 39.5% in patients with coronary artery disease, and 29.9% in patients with chronic heart failure. The main clinical factors associated with achieving the target BP in studied hypertensive patients were the advice on alcohol consumption, advice on smoking cessation, and advice on weight reduction. Therapy with main antihypertensive drugs (in particular, beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics) were also factors of optimal BP control in these patients. Comorbidities (chronic heart failure and cardiovascular diseases requiring the prescription of aspirin and statins) and family history of coronary artery disease were associated with inadequate BP control. A negative effect of some antihypertensive drugs (potassium sparing diuretics, ARBs, ACE-Is, and dihydropyridine CCBs) on BP control that was found out in our study requires further investigation. Other studied factors had no influence on BP control in patients with Htn from Ivanovo region. We identified regional factors of BP control in hypertensive patients from Ivanovo region of Russia. It is shown that individual medical education (in particular, medical advices) is the most important factor of optimal BP control. The intervention with antihypertensive therapy (beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics) facilitates the

  15. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  16. Modernization and Traditionalism through the Prism of the Events of the 1916 Rebellion in Central Asian Border Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article within the framework of modernization theory presents an analysis of ethno-social processes in the period of the rebellion of the peoples of the Steppe Region and Turkestan in 1916. The content of this ethno-region of the Russian Empire and its modernization meant the introduction of outside institutions and values of European culture, however a short time impact of modernization trends on the traditional society (the second half of XIX – the beginning of the XX century could not give a high positive effect in the short historical perspective. Therefore a certain part of the population of Steppes and Turkestan was an active recipient of modernization, integrated into the imperial political and economic space. However, most of the traditional society perceived modernization as a form of coloniality, aimed at suppressing the cultural identity, the transformation of traditional tribal and clan ties and social relations. The analysis of the impact of modernization on the traditional society of the Central Asian border regions of Russia allowed the authors of the article to claim that contradictory of social processes of transition period was fully manifested in the course of the popular uprising in 1916. On the one hand, there were tendencies of the ethno-consolidation processes which gave to that movement a powerful impulse and scale. On the other hand, the events of 1916 demonstrated a certain division of Central Asian society, expressed in the ambiguous position of the intellectuals to the decree of Nicholas II on the mobilization of foreigners working in the rear, intra- and inter-ethnic clashes in the uprising, the restoration of archaic (from the point of view of the theory of modernization and political institutions social norms, the revival of "ethno-psychological stereotypes" of the previous era.

  17. Stable isotope (C, O, H) characteristics and genesis of the Tazheran brucite marbles and skarns, Olkhon region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, Anna; Sklyarov, Eugene; Starikova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Vladimir; Ripp, German; Izbrodin, Ivan; Posokhov, Viktor

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope compositions are examined for brucite marble and Mg-skarn that occur in the southern part of the Tazheran massif, Olkhon region, Russia. Brucite marble exhibits a narrow range in δ18O of +23.3 to +26.2 ‰ and shows carbon isotope depletion of -1.9 to -4.4 ‰) as compared with the country dolomite isotope compositions (+2.0 to +2.4 ‰) which is explained by both decarbonation processes and participation of fluids depleted in 13C. The emplacement of brucite marble was accompanied by the formation of endo- and exoskarn at the contact between syenite and brucite marble. δ18O profiles across the contact show a typical decrease towards the syenite side interpreted as the result of fluid/rock interaction and influx of magmatic fluids. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms of brucite marble emplacement and consider three possible ways of producing these rocks: (1) injection of dolomite with subsequent transformation to periclase marble and then to brucite marble; (2) injection of periclase marble with a following replacement of periclase by brucite or injection of brucite marble; (3) crustal water-rich carbonate melt. We favor models 2 and 3 and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  18. Diurnal variations in integrated water vapor derived from a GPS ground network in the Volga-Ural region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinnikov, Vladislav V.; Khutorova, Olga G.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we present estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics of variations in integrated water vapor content (IWV) according to data from 16 GPS stations in the Volga-Ural region of Russia during 2013-2015. Amplitudes of diurnal harmonics are maximal in summer and reach values from 0.37 to 1.01 mm. Time at the maximum of diurnal harmonic is typically in the period from 14:00 to 17:00. Semidiurnal harmonics have the largest amplitudes in spring and autumn, but they do not exceed 0.19 mm. A comparison of the diurnal cycle from GPS data and ERA-Interim reanalysis has revealed significant differences in the phase. It is established that, as a result of evaporation from the underlying surface and convective lifting of moist air, the summer diurnal variations in IWV and surface density of water vapor are in antiphase. The diurnal cycle of IWV is determined by surface air temperature to be 88 % in summer and less than at 35 % in other seasons. It is noted that maximal amplitudes of diurnal harmonic of IWV are observed at stations located on the windward side of mountains.

  19. Thyroid ultrasound findings 7 years after the Chernobyl accident. A comparative epidemiological study in the Bryansk region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpusalo, L. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Kumpusalo, E. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice; Soimakallio, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Salomaa, S. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Paile, W. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Kolmakow, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Oral Pathology, Roentgenology and Forensic Odontology; Zhukowsky, G. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilchenko, I. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nissinen, A. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice

    1996-11-01

    Aims: The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station occurred in April 1986. We report on a comparative epidemiological study on thyroid abnormalities in the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of the Bryansk region, South-West Russia, in 1993, 7 years after the accident. Material and Methods: The study material consisted of all inhabitants aged 3-34 years in the contaminated village of Mirnyi and in the uncontaminated village of Krasnyi Rog, excluding those who had moved to be villages after the accident. The total material comprised 302 inhabitants in Mirnyi and 200 in Krasnyi Rog. Results: No pathological US findings in either village were found in children born after the accident. In the age group 0-9 years old at the time of the accident, the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was 8.1% in the contaminated village compared to 1.6% in the uncontaminated village. In the age group 10-27 years the corresponding figures were 18.8% and 17.7%. Only 55% of the pathological US findings were detected by physical palpation. Conclusion: The total prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was higher among children in the contaminated village. We recommend an active screening of young contaminated subjects with US, supplemented with fine needle biopsy. (orig.).

  20. Results of lichenometric dating of masonry in the outskirts of Kandalaksha city (Russia, Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekhin Alexey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lichenometric dating of masonry in the area of Kandalaksha city was carried out. For more accurate dating, the reference sites with known age (70 years were laid in Pechenga district (Murmansk region. According to our calculations, the age of masonry was in the range of 60 to 80 years, that is consistent with dendrochronology data (75 years.

  1. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Umbozero in Murmansk Region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernström, Jussi; Lehto, J.; Dauvalter, A.;

    2010-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from different locations of Lake Umbozero were studied with respect to concentration and mobility of trace and heavy metals Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. Lake Umbozero is the second largest lake in the Murmansk Region and subjected to contamination by air-borne emiss...

  2. Infectiousness of Ixodes Persulcatus Ticks with Pathogens of Various Diseases in Endemic Regions of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Lyubeznova

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion. Kirov region is an active natural focus of transmissible infections. Quite often tick contains two or three pathogens. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of the natural foci to develop more adequate preventive measures against tick-borne infections.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Mutations Spectrum in Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions of Western Siberia, Russia

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    Olga A. Baturina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH locus molecular genotyping for 115 phenylketonuria (PKU patients and their family members from Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions of Western Siberia are presented. The direct exons and adjacent introns regions sequencing was used to identify PKU-associated mutations. Mutations typical for Europe (p.R158Q, p.R252W, p.P281L, IVS10-11G>A, p.R408W, IVS12+1G>A and typical for South-Eastern Asia and Turkey (p.R261Q и p.R243Q were identified as well as a bunch of rare mutations (IVS2+5G>A, p.R155H, p.Y168H, p.W187R, E221_D222>Efs, p.A342T, p.Y386C, IVS11+1G>C. The p.R408W mutation was prevailing. Mutations spectrum for Novosibirsk region appeared to be more diverse than one for Kemerovo region.

  4. The Scenario Approach to the Development of Regional Waste Management Systems (Implementation Experience in the Regions of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Eugene P.; Alekseev, Audrey A.; Fomina, Natalia E.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    The article illustrates a theoretical approach to scenario modeling of economic indicators of regional waste management system. The method includes a three-iterative algorithm that allows the executive authorities and investors to take a decision on logistics, bulk, technological and economic parameters of the formation of the regional long-term…

  5. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  6. Regional interests of Russia in the concept of development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachev V. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current state and prospects of development of the Arctic in the context of its growing value in connection with expansion of demand for strategic types of raw materials, increased interest in the region of the concerned states and transnational consortia, as well as with the development of the international transport corridors and new technologies facilitating access to sources of raw materials

  7. The Protective Properties of Common Reed Plantations on Shores of the Lower Volga Region

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    Solodovnikov Denis Anatolyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abrasion processing of shores is a pressing problem of large water basins of the Lower Volga region and other Russian regions. About 3 km2 of shoreland is annually lost in the zone of the Volgograd water basin as a result of this process. The existing methods of shores protection are connected with the creation of concrete structures having a high level of erosion resistance. They are extremely expensive and in most cases they are not affordable for rural municipalities suffering from abrasion. The authors offer cheap and environmentally friendly way of protecting the shores of large water basins from abrasion. The method is based on the plantation of a common reed strip on a water basin’s shallow. The biological characteristics of common reed as the main component of shore protection structures are described. The terms and milestones of the work in the conditions of the Volgograd water basin are developed. The main result of applying our methodology is the complete cessation of abrasion processing of the shore at the corresponding piece of land. The authors overview the positive qualities of reed plantations, their biocenotic, barrier and waterproof role in on-shore ecosystems. The application of the described method will allow saving for the national economy dozens of hectares of valuable shore lands annually, in particular, irrigated cropland, settlement lands, infrastructure. In addition to the direct benefits associated with the conservation of land resources, the intensity of adverse processes associated with erosion of shores (water basin muddying, deterioration of sanitary qualities of water will decrease. Due to the wide geographic spread of common reed described in the present work, the technology of shores stabilization can be applied at almost all lowland water basins of Russia.

  8. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral

  9. D2: major subgenotype of hepatitis B virus in Russia and the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Tatjana; Tefanova, Valentina; Priimägi, Ljudmilla; Schmidt, Jelena; Katargina, Olga; Michailov, Michail; Mukomolov, Sergey; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Heléne

    2008-08-01

    Complete or almost complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes were sequenced for 13 genotype A and 42 genotype D strains from the former USSR. The strains were classifiable within subgenotypes A2, D1, D2 and D3. Comparison of the deduced gene products for the four ORFs of 89 genotype D strains revealed 27 subgenotype-specific residues, and a region spanning residues 58-128 in the spacer region of the P gene could be used to distinguish between D1 and D4. This enabled the allocation to subgenotype of strains with partially sequenced genomes. D2 was dominating, while D3 was found in low frequency in the whole region. D1 was most prevalent in the Middle Asian Republics. Mean inter-subgenotype divergences between D1 and D2, D1 and D3 and D2 and D3 were 2.7, 3.4 and 3.4 %, respectively. The intra-subgenotype divergence was 0.4, 1.1, 1.0 and 1.8 % for A2, D1, D2 and D3, respectively. All D1 and D3 strains encoded subtype ayw2, whereas most D2 strains encoded ayw3. Two D2 strains encoded ayw4. Strains with identical S genes were closely related at the level of complete genomes and formed geographically specific clades with low intraclade divergences, possibly indicating past iatrogenic spread. It is not clear whether the finding of four subgenotypes in the area corresponds to separate introductions of the virus or to previous population migrations into the area. An earlier introduction of D3 compared with D2 was supported by its higher intra-subgenotype divergence, while the lower divergence within D1 is probably due to a more recent emergence.

  10. Moscow, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  11. Mineral-organic formations in Berezitovy deposit (the Amur region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakh, E. A.; Vakh, A. S.; Petukhov, V. I.; Nikulina, T. V.; Tarasenko, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    The article examines the structure and composition of mineral-organic formations within the hypergenesis zone of Berezitovy deposit (the Amur region). The detailed study has shown that these recent formations are represented by algae identified as Trentepohlia jolithus (Linnaeus) Wallroth. The process of macro and micro element accumulation in these formations is likely to have a complex sediment-chemogenic-organogenic nature and results from the flow of the suspended and dissolved substances formed within the hypergenesis zone of sulphide ores. It is also assumed that some elements accumulated in the formations were previously absorbed by algae from the mineralized water environment.

  12. Redescription of larva, pupa and imago male of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer from the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Russia), its karyotype and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel Zorina, Oksana V; Istomina, Albina G; Kiknadze, Iya I; Zinchenko, Tatiana D; Golovatyuk, Larisa V

    2014-07-29

    Cytology and ecology of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer, 1915 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Volgograd region, Russia). Larvae of salinarius-type were identified as C. salinarius on the basis of their karyotype. The species is redescribed on the basis of all metamorphic stages. The reared imago and karyotype were obtained from larvae of the same population. The karyotype of C. salinarius, detailed mapping of the 5 chromosome arms A, C, D, E, F and characteristics of chromosome polymorphism are provided. Information on distribution and ecology of C. salinarius from the saline rivers (total mineralization 6.8-31.6 g l-1) of the Lake Elton basin is also given. Chironomus salinarius is a common in the saline rivers and occurs in sediments with high silt content. On the basis of recent samplings C. salinarius appears to be very abundant in saline, mesotrophic as well as in eutrophic rivers. Chironomus salinarius accounted for 49-66% of total abundance of zoobenthos in water with salinity up to 13-31.6 g l-1.

  13. The methodological bases of comparative evaluation of sci¬entific and technological potential of Russia and the EU: regional and international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses approaches to the definition of such categories as “scientific and technological potential” and “innovative potential” in view of their resource, structural, procedural and resultant components. The author gives a more accurate definition of the scientific and technological potential through identifying its resources and orientation towards transforming abilities. On the basis of the existing methods of comparative analysis used in Russia and abroad, the author proposes a methodology for evaluating scientific and technological potential in the context of regional and international comparison. The integral index is calculated on the basis of a customised information and statistical database of normalised indicators through the identification and convolution of subindices that characterise individual components of potential. These subindices include pecific indicators applied in different statistical systems, in particular, those used in Russia and the EU, which made it possible to compar the data. The article presents the result of the application of this methodology based on a comparative evaluation of the scientific and technological potential of Russia (Northwestern federal district and EU states of the Baltic region. The experimental check suggests that the methodology be further improved for future clustering of Russian and EU regions according to the level of their innovative development.

  14. Chalcophile elements Hg, Cd, Pb, As in Lake Umbozero, Murmansk Region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvalter, V.A.; Kashulin, N.A.; Lehto, J.;

    2009-01-01

    to higher concentrations of heavy metals in upper layers of sediments as compared to deeper layers. Among heavy metals, the highest factors of contamination were found for Cd and Pb. Pollution of the lake by chalcophile elements has also resulted in their accumulation in organs and tissues of whitefish...... is affected by emissions and effluents from mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Murmansk Region, as well as air pollution of a global character. Surface and near-bottom maxima were found in the distributions of Pb and Cd in the water column. These two maxima appear to be associated with the cyclical...... growth of phytoplankton in surface water layers and with sedimentation of lifeless organisms and suspended particles in near-bottom layers. Average concentrations of Pb and Cd in the water column were more than the average value for water of lakes of the taiga zone. Pollution of Lake Umbozero led...

  15. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...... years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce...

  16. Granitoids of different geodynamic settings of Baikal region (Russia) their geochemical evolution and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, Viktor; Sheptyakova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    In the southern folded framing of the Siberian craton the granitoid magmatism of different ages involves batholiths, small low-depth intrusions and intrusion-dyke belts with diverse mineral and geochemical characteristics of rocks. Granitoid formation could be related to the Early Paleozoic collision stage and intra-plate magmatism of the Late Paleozoic age of the geologic development of Baikal area. The Early Paleozoic granitoids of Khamar-Daban Ridge and Olkhon region revealed their closeness in age and composition. They were referred to syncollision S-type formations derived from gneiss-schistose substratum of metamorphic sequences. The magmatic rocks were classified into various geochemical types comprising formations of normal Na-alkalinity (migmatites and plagiogranites), calc-alkaline and subalkaline (K-Na granitoids, granosyenites and quartz syenites) series. It is significant, that plagiomigmatites and plagiogranites in all elements repeat the shape of the chart of normalized contents marked for trend of K-Na granitoids, but at considerably lower level of concentrations of all elements. This general pattern of element distribution might indicate similar anatectic origin of both granitoid types, but from crustal substrata distinguished by composition and geochemical features. Comparative geochemical analysis pointed out that the source of melts of the Early Paleozoic granitoids of the Olkhon (505-477 Ma) and Khamar-Daban (516-490 Ma) complexes of the Baikal region could be the crustal substratum, which is obviously the criterion for their formation in the collisional geodynamic setting. Using the Late Paleozoic subalkaline magmatism proceeding at the Khamar-Daban Range (Khonzurtay pluton, 331 Ma) as an example, it was found that the formation of monzodiorite-syenite-leucogranite series was considerably contributed by the processes of hybridism and assimilation through mixing of the upper mantle basaltoid magma derived melts of granitic composition. The

  17. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  18. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  19. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  20. Assesment of hydroeconomic environment in the cut of the basins of the main surface water bodies in the territory of the Volgograd region / Оценка водохозяйственной обстановки в разрезе бассейнов основных поверхностных водных объектов на территории Волгоградской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov A.Yu. / Комаров Андрей Юрьевич

    Full Text Available The authors cited analysis and assesment of the current state of the main surface water bodies were cited, which are located in the territory of the Volgograd region. The dynamics of changes of hydrological properties of Volga river was considered. / Приведены анализ и оценка современного состояния основных поверхностных водных объектов, расположенных на территории Волгоградской области. Рассмотрена динамика изменения гидрологических характеристик р. Волги.

  1. TECTONOPHYSICAL EVIDENCES OF GEODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF THE PRIKOLYMA TERRAIN (NORTH-EASTERN REGIONS OF RUSSIA

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    Anton N. Glukhov

    2015-10-01

    distinguished in the history of geological development of the Prikolyma terrain. The earliest stage was characterized by the N-E compression resulting in formation of the N-W-oriented thrusts and folds and zones of greenschiest dynamo-metamorphism. During the second stage, the axis of compression gained the E–NE orientation, and the axis of extension was oriented to the N–NW, which influenced the formation of the submeridional reverse faults and thrusts. During the third stage, the axis of compression was N-W oriented, and the axis of extension gained the N-E orientation. Thereat, the sublatitudinal and submeridional structures were activated as strike-slip faults, the N-W structures as normal faults, and the N-E structures as reverse faults. The above resulted in the formation of structures of volume extension, which are favorable for localization of magmatic bodies and ore streaky-veined structures. At the final stage, compression in the meridional direction lead to the formation of thrusts and reverse faults along the sublatitudinal displacements, normal faults along the submeridional displacements, and strike-slips along the N-E and NW displacements.The first deformation stage was contemporaneous with the long-term period of compression in the Riphean and Early Paleozoic, when the dynamo-metamorphic complex of the Prikolyma terrain was developed. In the second stage, the Prikolyma terrain was detached from the margin of the North-Asian craton. In the Early Cretaceous, the third stage took place, when rearrangements of the field of tectonic stresses and transition to conditions of general extension caused emplacement of granitoids and quartz veining. The N-W orientation of the compression vector suggests that the third stage was related to the regional tangential compression due to the asymmetrical collision of the Prikolyma terrain and the Omolon microcraton. In the final stage, rotation of the vector of compression, associated with development of

  2. MAPS OF IMPACT ZONES OF REGION OF THE KURSK MAGNETIC ANOMALY FOR THE ECOLOGICAL ATLAS OF RUSSIA

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    O. I. Markova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of several impact zones of the Russian Federation are included in the Ecological Atlas of Russia. These zones are characterized by the high degree of the development of the mining industry and respectively by high level of the anthropogenic impact on the environment. One of these regions is the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (КМА, where the extractive industry is most developed in separate areas of Kursk and Belgorod regions. During a long time the iron ore is mined here both open and closed methods. The general map of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly lets to see in complex all iron ore regions and deposits and to reveal most environmentally dangerous of them as well as to evaluate the significance of deposits. Large-scale maps let to consider diverse anthropogenic changes of the environment caused by the extractive industry as well as by related industries. In regions of the intensive development of the mining industry with great areas included in the process of the industrial production and the storage of wastes take place the movement of huge masses of ground, the destruction and the degradation of the vegetation cover, the destruction of the traditional structure of settlements and the disappearance of most settlements. In example of areas of impact zones processes of the disappearance of rural settlements, of the urban sprawl and of displacement of the agriculture by the extractive industry can be seen firsthand. A registration of the development of this process is very important in the planning of the development of territories, all the more so the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly has fertile chernozem soils which are not very abundant in the territory of the Russian Federation. Mining complexes are surrounded by a range of related companies serving the production and livelihoods of the population. These companies also have an impact on the environment, sometimes significantly changing it. Serious changes

  3. A Social Portrait of the Young People of Russia: General Features and Regional Specifics of Property Status

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    Pasovets, Iu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Survey data on young people in Russia show that there is a weak relationship between their assessment of where they are in the system of stratification and their position according to material indicators. Young people are in general optimistic about improving their position and see upward mobility as possible for those willing to work hard.…

  4. Regional Media Education Centers (For Non-Professionals in the Media Fields) in the European Part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitskaya, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    In the European parts of Russia (Archangelsk, Belgorod, Vladimir, Voronezh, Kazan, Krasnodar, Penza, Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Smolensk, Taganrog, Tambov, Tver, Tolyatti and so on.) there is a lot of pedagogues, who strive to develop media competence among different age groups with different social status. More and more media…

  5. Russia report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  6. Opportunities and risks of cross-border cooperation of regions of the southern macroregion of Russia and regions of the South-East of Ukraine in the conditions of uncertainty

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    Inna Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the political and economic innovations connected with the transformation of the region "Donbass" in the context of decrease of the risks caused by a military-political and economic conflict in Ukraine are investigated. On the basis of creative synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches of studying the evolution of nonlinear economic systems and the formation of megaregions, and also the analysis of the geopolitical situation developing on the world scene between Russia, the USA and China provisions are developed according to which the region "Donbass" can be considered as "a critical point" of the European regionalization. Authors believe that the important strategic prospect of border cooperation of Russia and Ukraine is connected with the formation of a cross-border agglomeration "Nizhnedonbassky" and "Verkhnedonbassky" the creation of which consists in realization of the linking function between Nizhnedonbassky, Volga region, Moscow and Petersburg transport corridors. One of the condition of social and economic stabilization in the subjects of the foreign Caspian and the Black Sea zones is the realization of geotransit capacity of the region "Donbass" with the formation of a geotransit architecture of its economy. Strategically realization of the processes of an international city formation is possible either on the basis of federal principles or by a geopolitical split of the territory of the region “Donbass” on the line Kharkov – Donetsk – Lugansk with a bent to Russia.

  7. Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature southern taiga ecosystems mutual for them the

  8. Rapid isolation of microsatellite DNAs and identification of polymorphic mitochondrial DNA regions in the fish rotan (Perccottus glenii) invading European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Eackles, Michael S.; Reshetnikov, Andrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Human-mediated translocations and subsequent large-scale colonization by the invasive fish rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877; Perciformes, Odontobutidae), also known as Amur or Chinese sleeper, has resulted in dramatic transformations of small lentic ecosystems. However, no detailed genetic information exists on population structure, levels of effective movement, or relatedness among geographic populations of P. glenii within the European part of the range. We used massively parallel genomic DNA shotgun sequencing on the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing platform to identify nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequences in P. glenii from European Russia. Here we describe the characterization of nine nuclear microsatellite loci, ascertain levels of allelic diversity, heterozygosity, and demographic status of P. glenii collected from Ilev, Russia, one of several initial introduction points in European Russia. In addition, we mapped sequence reads to the complete P. glenii mitochondrial DNA sequence to identify polymorphic regions. Nuclear microsatellite markers developed for P. glenii yielded sufficient genetic diversity to: (1) produce unique multilocus genotypes; (2) elucidate structure among geographic populations; and (3) provide unique perspectives for analysis of population sizes and historical demographics. Among 4.9 million filtered P. glenii Ion Torrent PGM sequence reads, 11,304 mapped to the mitochondrial genome (NC_020350). This resulted in 100 % coverage of this genome to a mean coverage depth of 102X. A total of 130 variable sites were observed between the publicly available genome from China and the studied composite mitochondrial genome. Among these, 82 were diagnostic and monomorphic between the mitochondrial genomes and distributed among 15 genome regions. The polymorphic sites (N = 48) were distributed among 11 mitochondrial genome regions. Our results also indicate that sequence reads generated

  9. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  10. Impacts of pollution on freshwater communities in the border region between Russia and Norway. Results of the 1990-96 monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noest, Terje; Lukin, Anatoli; Schartau, Ann Kristin Lien; Kashulin, Nikolai; Berger, Hans Mack; Yakovlev, Valeri; Sharov, Andrey; Dauvalter, Vladimir

    1997-05-01

    This report summarises the results and conclusions of the investigations in the border region between Russia and Norway, primary in selected monitoring lakes during 1990-96. The results of the 1996 investigations are given a more thorough presentation. Results on species composition, abundances and biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish communities, as well as population parameters (length and age distribution) for different fish species are presented. Pathological state and trace metal accumulation in fish are analysed. The biological results are related to analyses of chemical parameters in lake sediments and water. 46 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. DV isolated from the sediments of a Pb-Zn mine tailings dam in the Chita region, Russia

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    Anastasiia Kovaliova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the draft genome sequence of the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. DV isolated from the sediments of a Pb-Zn mine tailings dam in the Chita region, Russia. The draft genome has a size of 4.9 Mb and encodes multiple K+-transporters and proton-consuming decarboxylases. The phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated ribosomal proteins revealed that strain DV clusters together with the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. TomC and Desulfovibrio magneticus. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MLBG00000000.

  12. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  13. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE “THE CASPIAN REGION: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE” OCTOBER 14–16, 2010, MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY, RUSSIA

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    Tamara Yanina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On October 14–16, 2010, the Faculty of Geography organized the International Conference on “The Caspian Region: Environmental Consequences of the Climate Change”. Scientists from all countries of the Caspian region—Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan, along with Great Britain, Canada, the Netherlands and Ukraine, participated. Specialists on different areas of expertise—climatologists, hydrologists, oceanographers, marine geologists, geomorphologists, cartographers, paleogeographers, geochemists, biologists and others—addressed fundamental and applied questions associated with sustainable development of the Caspian region. As a whole, approx. 180 participants presented 102 reports. By the beginning of the conference the volume of abstracts “The Caspian Region: Environmental Consequences of the Climate Change” was published. (http://media.geogr.msu.ru/Caspian_2010/caspian_conference_2010.pdf

  14. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

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    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  15. The study of filaggrin gene mutations and copy number variation in atopic dermatitis patients from Volga-Ural region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimalova, Galiya F; Karunas, Alexandra S; Fedorova, Yuliya Y; Khusnutdinova, Elza K

    2016-10-10

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by age-specific localization, dryness, itch and hypersensitivity to allergens. In our study, we investigated FLG gene mutations and CNVs in AD patients and control subjects of different ethnic origin from Volga-Ural region. AD group included 303 patients (177 Russians, 126 Tatars). Control group consisted of 261 healthy individuals (152 Russians, 109 Tatars). The study revealed 66 FLG mutation carriers and demonstrated an association between c.2282del4 deletion and AD development in Russians and Tatars of Volga-Ural region of Russia. In the analysis of the FLG gene CNVs, the most common was 10-repeat allele in both Russian and Tatar patients and controls. We were unable to find any significant difference in CNV repeats count between AD patients and control individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton alpinus Balb. from Iset' river, Ural region, Russia differ in adaptive strategies to heavy metals exposure--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezhda; Maleva, Maria; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    We examined the uptake of five heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Mn) in Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort) and Potamogeton alpinus Balb. (pondweed) from Iset' river, Ural region, Russia. This study was conducted in a territory that is highly urbanized where the surface waters are contaminated by a wide spectrum of pollutants. The environmental situation in this territory drastically deteriorated due to anthropogenic activity. The water quality in most of the water bodies in the Ural region is rather poor. In a comparative study of C. demersum and P. alpinus, differential accumulation pattern was noted for heavy metals (HMs). Higher amounts of HMs accumulated in C. demersum compared to P. alpinus. Also it was shown that in leaves of C. demersum there were high amount of total phosphorus, nitrogen, organics acids and ash; high activity of guaiacol peroxidase; high content of nonenzymatic antioxidants viz., flavonoids, ascorbate, glutathione and proline; high amount of thiols (soluble and membrane bound) compared to P. alpinus.

  17. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIPLE-LOCUS VARIABLE NUMBER OF TANDEM REPEAT ANALYSIS (MLVA FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND ITS APPLICATION TO HELICOBACTER PYLORI ISOLATES FROM ROSTOV REGION,RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokin VM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the second most common infectious disease of humans. The severe pathological consequences of this infection include gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, the development of gastric mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, and, more rarely, malignant tumors of the lymphoma. H. pylori infections cause very high morbidity and mortality and are of particular concern in developing countries, where H. pylori prevalences as high as 90% have been reported. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-Locus of Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori isolates in Russia. MLVA of 4 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 10 candidates were performed on a collection of 22 strains of H. pylori which originated from Rostov region of Russia. This method provides a starting point on which improvements to the method and comparisons to other techniques can be made.

  19. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  20. Predominance of multi-drug-resistant LAM and Beijing family strains among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from prison inmates in Tula Region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Anna; Dubiley, Svetlana; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2006-10-01

    The genotypic characteristics and drug susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from prison hospital patients in the Tula region (central Russia) during 2001 and 2002 are reported. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a major health risk to the population, with economic implications for TB control. Prisons serve as a continuous source of TB transmission. The results showed that members of the LAM and Beijing families are major contributors to the epidemiological picture of TB in the population studied. The two families of strains accounted for most of the drug-resistant TB in the population. The genotypic characteristics of the M. tuberculosis predominant LAM strain that was responsible for 31 % of TB cases in this setting are presented.

  1. Forecasting the Development of the Tourism Industry in the Regions of Russia in Light of Global Climate Change and Environmental Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evreinov, O. B.; Maksimova, E. M.; Bakanova, A. A.; Yakovleva, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the development of the tourism industry is a strategic planning for periods ranging from 20 to 50 years. Basis for the development of tourism in the region is the presence of the necessary infrastructure - roads, communications, accommodation facilities and hospitality. Thus, all investments in the tourism industry are very long-term. Current approaches to long-term planning in tourism based on the most efficient use of the region's resources - natural, cultural, etc. But what will happen to these resources in 20-30 years? Global warming and climate change, a change in environmental conditions - all this gives the real impact today. Summer 2010 in Moscow and in the whole of Europe, warm snowless winters in St. Petersburg, monthly temperature records, permafrost thawing in Siberia - all this can affect the characteristics of the tourist regions in the future. In the presentation, the authors have tried to reflect the basic principles of strategic planning with regard to global and regional changes and to show the possible impact of such changes on Tourism industry in specific regions of Russia for the next 30-50 years.

  2. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  3. Occurrence of exotic carriers arbovirus fevers – new insufficiently estimated biological threat to southern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Sergiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of originators of infectious and parasitic illnesses on new territories can pass by means of mosquitoes which in modern conditions extend quickly. Getting on new territories they take roots and provide transfer of this or that originator. Or they provide initial case rate, and then viruses start to circulate among mosquitoes – natural representatives of local fauna. As it was with virus Denge delivered to Greece with mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. This kind of a mosquito by 1950 has been destroyed at the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. In the beginning of 21 centuries this kind again began to be found out in earlier free territories. Occurrence after 50-years absence of an effective carrier in the south of Russia is serious biological threat to epidemic well-being of the country in case of delivery of originators arbovirus infections.

  4. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . . .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  5. Professor M. M. Zagorulko’s school of economic and military history of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkina Olga Yurievna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxim Matveyevich Zagorulko is the first rector of Volgograd State University, the veteran of the Great Patriotic War, the Honorable Citizen of Volgograd. He is the founder and the head of the scientific school studying various aspects of the Fatherland’s history. In the 1960s, M.M. Zagorulko united researches in the field of an economic history of Russia and the Great Patriotic War history. He had chosen as a subject of his doctoral dissertation a history of operation of economy of temporarily occupied territories of the USSR by fascists. In 1970, M.M. Zagorulko in a co-authorship with the Moscow scholar, the active participant of guerrilla movement A.F. Yudenkov published the monograph “Crash of Economic Plans of Fascist Germany on Temporarily Occupied Territory of the USSR”. Soon it was translated into the Czech language. In 1974, there was the second, added and modified edition of the book by M.M. Zagorulko and A.F. Yudenkov – “Crash of the «Oldenburg» Plan”. The third edition of this book was issued in 1980 in the Russian and Czech languages in Moscow and Bratislava. In 1975, Maxim M. Zagorulko defended his doctoral dissertation in the Dissertation Council of Leningrad State University on the subject “Economic Policy of Fascist Germany in the Occupied Territory of the USSR and Its Crash”. M.M. Zagorulko, his pupils and adherents conduct scientific researches in the field of an Economic History of Russia, History of military captivity in the USSR, History of the Battle of Stalingrad and so forth. Under his management multivolume collections of documents were published, monographs were written and dissertations were defended. The fundamental Encyclopedia of the Battle of Stalingrad created by him was declared in 2010 as “The best book of Russia”. In all these projects, theses and monographs M.M. Zagorulko is the organizer and inspirer of scientific researches.

  6. Impact of recent land use and climate changes on sediment and pollutant redistribution in small catchments within the Seim River Basin (Kursk Region, European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Ivanova, Nadezda; Ivanov, Maxim; Bondarev, Valery; Lugovoy, Nikolay; Aseeva, Elena; Malyutina, Alisa

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted that changes of land use or climatic conditions can exert profound impacts on river basin sediment budgets and associated particle-bound pollutant redistribution patterns at different temporal and spatial scales. It can be especially difficult to distinguish relative importance of particular factors when the changes occur more or less within the same time frame. Such situation is typical for most parts of the agricultural belt of Russia, as period of economic downfall associated with collapse of the former Soviet Union and later gradual recovery practically coincides with period of the most significant climate changes observed in the late 20th - early 21st Centuries. Therefore it seems interesting and important to consider possible changes of fluvial systems responses within the period from 1980s to the present under different spatial scales. Here we plan to present results of the almost 10-year period of investigations of sediment and associated pollutant redistribution spatial and temporal patterns in several small catchments within the Seim River Basin (Kursk Region, European Russia). Studies dealt with small catchments and small river basins in scales from 1-2 km2 to 200 km2 located in different parts of the main basin. Works carried out included detailed geomorphic surveys, soil and sediment sections and cores description and sampling in different locations (undisturbed, erosion, transit, deposition), remote sensing data and morphometric analysis, soil erosion modeling. Integration of the results allowed constructing sediment budgets, in most cases, for two time intervals (approximately - pre-1986 and post-1986, as the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has been an important time mark at all the case study sites). It has been found out that combination of several major tendencies including abandonment and recultivation of arable fields, notable decrease of winter-frozen topsoil layer thickness and increase of heavy summer rainstorms magnitude and

  7. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roslycky, Lada L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the Russia

  8. The Holocene paleoenvironmental history of central European Russia reconstructed from pollen, plant macrofossil, and testate amoeba analyses of the Klukva peatland, Tula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena Yu.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Volkova, Elena M.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; Lavrentiev, Nikita V.; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri A.

    2015-05-01

    Holocene climatic variability and human impact on vegetation are reconstructed from a region in central European Russia, which lies at an important ecotone between broadleaf forest and steppe. For the first time in this region we adopt a multi-proxy approach that combines analysis of local mire conditions from plant macrofossil and testate amoeba analyses with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction. The proxies indicate a long-term warming trend from 9700 to 7500 cal yr BP, interrupted by a series of short-term cold events. From 7500 to 5000 cal yr BP the results imply a relatively stable climate, warmer and drier than present, spanning the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Since 5000 cal yr BP the data suggest a change to cooler climate, but with centennial-scale variability. This shift at around 5000 cal yr BP is supported by extensive evidence from other sites. In the early Holocene, the region was occupied mainly by pine and birch forests. Broad-leafed forests of oak, lime and elm expanded after 7800 cal yr BP and remained dominant until the last few centuries. During the historical period, vegetation changes have been driven mainly by human activities.

  9. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  10. Distribution, densities, and ecology of Siberian cranes in the Khroma River region of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bysykatova, Inga P.; Krapu, Gary L.; Germogenov, Nicolai I.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Aborn, David

    2014-01-01

    The Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) is the third rarest crane species in the world with a breeding range now centered on 3 core areas and a buffer zone in the arctic of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia. During 16 July-2 August 2009, we undertook ground surveys within the Khroma River core breeding area, surrounding buffer zone, and lands lying to the west of the known rbeeding range to estimate densities and determine habitat use and social status of Siberian cranes. A total of 142 Siberian cranes were sighted (including 55 pairs) at 54 locations with 32 cranes (including 13 pairs) sighted outside the currently known breeding range in the lower drainages of the Syalakh and Syuryuktyakh Rivers. After adjusting for a probability of detection of 0.484 (95% CI = 0.281-0.833), Siberian crane densities in the Khroma core area and the buffer zone averaged 0.0921 cranes/km2 and 0.0363 cranes/km2, respectively. A majority of cranes (n = 93 [65%]) occurred in complexes of large basin wetlands, with use centered in those having extensive beds of pendant grass (Arctophila fulva). Of the 142 cranes seen, 110 (77%) were paired, 21 (15%) were singles, and 11 (8%) were in groups of 3-5. The Khroma core supports 1 of 2 large concentrations of breeding Siberian cranes remaining in the wild; therefore, we recommend that consideration be given to designating a nature reserve that would encompass the Khroma core, adjacent buffer zone, and lands to the west (including coastal tundra areas along the lower drainages of the Syalah and Syuryuktyah Rivers). Further research is needed to gain additional insight into Siberian crane distribution and numbers on lands beyond the currently delineated western boundary of the Siberian crane breeding range in the Ust-Yana District of northern Yakutia. Important gaps remain in information needed to effectively guide conservation efforts for the Eastern Population, and recent advances in remote tracking technology offer potential

  11. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  12. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  13. Relations Between Russia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Russia and Syria are closely allied with historical, spiritual, and cultural ties. Of all the great powers, Russia has had the strongest influence on Serbia. This paper will deal with the history of Serbian-Russian relations, starting with 16th century and Ivan the Terrible’s interests in Balkans. Since the 18th century, the opinion has emerged that Russia is a protector of Serbia. First, the Serbian Uprising was a great opportunity for Russia’s “entry” into the Balkan regions. After the October Revolution, relations tensed since the monarchy was opposed to communism. After World War II, relations improved, but only until 1948 when Tito and Stalin came into the direct conflict that lasted until Stalin’s death. The second half of the 20th century was marked by better relations between these two countries.

  14. Analysis of genetic variants of class II cytokine and their receptor genes in psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups from the Volga-Ural region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, Elvira; Akhmetova, Vita; Latipov, Boris; Kingo, Külli; Rätsep, Ranno; Traks, Tanel; Kõks, Sulev; Khusnutdinova, Elza

    2012-10-01

    The molecular basis of pathogenesis of psoriasis remains unclear, but one unifying hypothesis of disease aetiology is the cytokine network model. The class II cytokines (CF2) and their receptors (CRF2) are all involved in the inflammatory processes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respective genes have been associated with psoriasis in a previous study of the Estonian population. We performed a replication study of 47 SNPs in CF2 and CRF2 genes in independent cohorts of psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups (Russians and Bashkirs) from the Volga-Ural region of Russia. DNA was obtained from 395 psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups from the Volga-Ural region of Russia and 476 ethnically matched controls. 47 SNPs in the loci of the genes encoding Class II cytokines and their receptors were selected by SNPbrowser version 3.5. Genotyping was performed using the SNPlex™ (Applied Biosystems) platform. The genetic variant rs30461 previously associated in original case-control study in Estonians, was also associated in Russians (corrected P-value (Pc=0.008, OR=0.44), but did not reach statistical significance in the Bashkir population. Additionally, the haplotype analysis provided that CC haplotype formed by the SNPs rs30461 and rs955155 had a protective effect in Russians (Pc=0.0024, OR=0.44), supporting the involvement of this locus in the protection against psoriasis. Combined meta-analysis of three populations, including 943 psoriasis patients and 812 healthy controls, showed that the IL29 rs30461 C-allele was not associated with decreased risk of psoriasis (P=0.165, OR=0.68). Moreover, stratification of studies by ethnicity revealed a significant association in the European cohort (P=9.506E-006, OR=0.53). Therefore, there is no overall evidence of association between psoriasis and SNP rs30461 of the IL29 gene, but there is some evidence to suggest that an association exists in Europeans. However, this current concept should be considered as

  15. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  16. The use of geoinformation technologies for renewable energy and regional aspects of developing renewable energy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikova Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of development of the geoinformation system “Renewable Energy Sources of Russia”. Regional maps of installations and resources are presented. The problem of determination of small hydropower potential connected with the shortage of hydrological data is stated. Assessment of efficiency of techno-economic analysis of simulation-based autonomous solar lighting systems is described. Overview of regional experience, policies and targets is included.

  17. The use of geoinformation technologies for renewable energy and regional aspects of developing renewable energy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafikova Y.Y.; Kiseleva S.V.; Nefedova L.V.; Frid S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of development of the geoinformation system “Renewable Energy Sources of Russia”. Regional maps of installations and resources are presented. The problem of determination of small hydropower potential connected with the shortage of hydrological data is stated. Assessment of efficiency of techno-economic analysis of simulation-based autonomous solar lighting systems is described. Overview of regional experience, policies and targets is included.

  18. Features of formation of «developmental institutions» in Russia: a case of the Siberian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Sergeyevich Sablin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions. The importance of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections affect its formation is articulated. The research is carried out according to the methodological base of public choice theory, especially — economics of bureaucracy, and the concept of D. North. Functional roles, which “developmental institutions” are performed in the Siberian regions, are disclosed: “affiliate” of the regional administration under its full organizational and financial control; “independent agent”, which expresses the interests of academic science and small innovative business; “subdivision” of federal innovative structure that promotes commercialization of innovations in the region; “conductor” of the federal level big business interests that favor large-scale projects realization in the region. As a result, different combinations of the elements of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections between subjects, who are involved in the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions, determine further success or “failure” of these organizational-economic structures.

  19. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Vasil'evich Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background.Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia.Aim.Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults.Materials and methods.Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk.Results.Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk.Conclusions.Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  20. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  2. THE ROLE OF UNIVERSITIES IN SHAPING THE INNOVATION ECONOMY OF REGIONS (THE U.S. EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Kochetkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of the USA in creation of technical parks and business parks around leading US universities and examples of such parks are discussed. Basic components that influence efficiency of such structures and innovative development of regions are determined.

  3. Estimation of elaboration of strategic and program policy documents regulating questions of tourism development in northern regions of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vladimirovna Smirennikova; Anna Vyacheslavovna Karmakulova

    2014-01-01

    The authors performed critical analysis of 26 strategic and program documents of federal and regional significance, governing the development of tourism, to allocate problems and targets of the development of tourism and risks of realization of the tourism development programs. The authors used scoring and expert evaluation methods to develop the technique, which estimates the elaboration of strategic and policy documents governing the development of tourism. The developed technique is used f...

  4. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone.

  5. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  6. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  7. Energy and Economic Efficiency of Gas Turbine Units and Heat Pumps in Power-supply Systems in the Arctic Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov D.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in publications, there is some controversy about the efficiency of various power-supply systems operating in extreme climatic conditions. The need to dispel this controversy explains this study's relevance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the use of cogeneration gas turbine and microturbine units as the heat-and-power source for a camp-like residential facility in the Arctic regions of Russia. A boiler plant and a heat pump system are analyzed as heat sources for the afore-mentioned camp. The authors used their own mathematical models of the units to do the study. The estimates were based on the annual facility-specific power and heat consumption data, additionally climatic conditions and fuel kind (natural gas were taken into consideration. The study resulted in defining the plants' limits of equal fuel consumption, depending on the substituted power output efficiency and the power/heat production cost to the price of gas correlation. Another result was the evaluation of the power efficiency (by the natural gas consumption and economic feasibility, as well as the payback term. We concluded that in case the natural gas was the only fuel available the ground source vapor-compressing heat pump systems were power-wise and economically unsound, provided they were operated under environmental conditions typical for the Russian North and according to the region-specific heat-supply schedule. The outcome of this study can be used when planning/designing the power-supply facilities in extreme climatic conditions, as well as in evaluating/estimating the power-supply systems' efficiency.

  8. Seasonal Variations of Stable Isotope Composition of River Flow in Permafrost Regions of Yenisei and Kolyma Rivers (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Opel, T.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskaya, I. D.; Tananaev, N.; Tokarev, I.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost plays an important role in the hydrology of the northern regions. To investigate the role of climate change on permafrost degradation and hydrology, extensive field work was conducted in a series of small watersheds located in the discontinuous permafrost zone of the lower Yenisei River near Igarka, and in the continuous permafrost zone of the Kolyma River near Cherskii. Climatic, hydrologic and permafrost characteristics were monitored at both locations over a three year period and extended using historical data. Stable isotope composition of rain, snow, water from lakes and rivers, and various types of ground ice was used to determine various inputs and runoff pathways to a river flow in several watersheds. The study found that water flow of smaller creeks follows precipitation closely, while flow of larger rivers is affected by evaporation effects related to water storage in thermokarst lakes. Ground ice of the epigenetic permafrost near Igarka has a similar isotopic composition as that of Holocene permafrost and contemporary late summer precipitation. Ground ice of the syngenetic Pleistocene permafrost (Ice Complex) near Cherskii has a significantly lighter isotopic composition than pore water of the active and transient layers. Increases in air temperature resulted in thickening of the active-layer and melting of ice that reach the transient layer in continuous permafrost. In areas where the transient layer severely reduced as a result of intense forest fires and other landscape disturbances, ground ice from permafrost is also involved in hydrological processes. Progressive decrease in the seasonal freezing layer thickness and a lower permafrost table promoted more groundwater storage and redistribution of summer precipitation towards winter baseflow in discontinuous permafrost region. The major contribution of permafrost at both locations is not through the melting of ground ice, but through changes in soil properties affecting the water flow.

  9. Numerical simulation of the process of geothermal low-potential ground energy extraction in Perm region (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the interaction of energy foundations with the ground mass and to develop methods for their construction on the example of the city of Perm. Field studies of ground were carried out in a specially chosen pilot site to determine temperature distribution in the ground mass, change of ground-water level and physical-mechanical and thermal-physical characteristics of the ground mass. The diagrams of depth temperature distribution in the ground and its seasonal variations were obtained on the results of monitoring, and also the average groundwater level. To carry out numerical simulation, software-complex “GeoStudio” was selected. Its basic differential equation is the fundamental heat conduction equation with an internal heat source. The purpose of the numerical simulation was quantitative evaluation of the thermal energy extracted from different energy foundations under soil conditions in the city of Perm. By results of the spent numerical experiments the equations of regress and nomographs dependences of size of received thermal energy on geometrical parameters of the projected power bases to hydro-geological and climatic conditions of the Perm region are constructed.

  10. Influence of forest stands on soil and ecosystem carbon stocks in the conditions of the European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Forest stands are one of the most important components of ecosystems, both in Russia and around the world and at the same time forest vegetation is able to provide environment-modifying effect on the occupied landscape and, in particular, on the soil cover. Currently, due to the large interest in the carbon cycle, there is a question about the influence of forest vegetation on carbon stocks in ecosystems and in particular in the soil cover. To perform the study we selected 9 objects located in the European part of Russia from the area of the southern taiga to the semi-desert zone: Novgorod region, Kostroma region, Moscow region (2 objects), Penza region, Voronezh region, Volgograd region (2 objects) and Astrakhan region. For studying the influence of forest vegetation on the soil`s carbon, we organized the following experiment scheme: in each of the objects two key sites were selected, so that they originally were in the same soil conditions and the difference between them was only in a course development of vegetation - forest or grass. One part of the experimental sites, presenting forest vegetation, were the restored forests on abandoned lands with the age of 70-200 years. The second part of the experimental sites were artificial forest plantations aged from 60 to 112 years planted on the originally treeless forest-steppe or steppe landscapes. Perennial hayfields, perennial abandoned agricultural landscapes and virgin steppe areas were used as reference sites with grass vegetation. For each forest site we estimated the major carbon pools: phytomass, mortmass (dead wood, dry grass), debris, litter and soil. All data were recalculated using the conversion factors in carbon stocks in t C ha-1. We collected soil samples every 10 cm until the depth of 50 cm, and then at 50-75 and 75-100 cm soil layers. Bulk density and total organic carbon were determined by CHN analyzer. As a result, the soil`s carbon was also calculated into t C ha-1. We found out that the total

  11. The Reproduction Trajectories of Institutions of Social Isolation of Individual Population Groups in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yuryevich Berzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.

  12. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E.; Olchev, A.; Desherevskaya, O.; Zuganova, I.

    2009-10-01

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 14C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 °C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 °C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr-1). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 °C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 °C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  13. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

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    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  14. Analysis of the Adequacy of Cadastral Value of Real Estate Market Conditions (on the Example of the Volgograd Region

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    Oleg Vladimirovich Likhomanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of the relationship of local authorities with owners and tenants of real estate taxation and rents. The conclusion is made about the negative impact of exclusion of independent appraisers from the process of cadastral valuation of real estate. The proposed amendment to the draft law “On state cadastral evaluation” changes in the structure of the Commission on dispute resolution, which in addition to representatives of administrations of municipalities should include representatives of the business community and independent evaluators in equal proportions. It is recommended to develop less longlasting mechanism for dealing with disputes about the size of the cadastral value of real estate in the commissions and courts, returning powers from the courts of common use in arbitration courts, as well as to make decision which would make the processes more transparent and objective. For the calculation of the taxable base of real estate it is proposed to use two different systems of determining the cadastral value of real estate: for objects of taxation on which there is a civil turnover on the real estate market (residential, trading and business centers, offices, commercial facilities and catering facilities based on the market value of real estate; for objects of taxation on which there is no civil, there is no market data about similar transactions (industrial buildings and structures, objects of incomplete construction, agricultural, and other buildings, through the establishment of cadastral value of the normative legal acts of bodies of state and municipal authorities.

  15. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    steppe. Answering both questions require us to go beyond conventional palaeoenvironmental practice, since they require very specific information about the past spatial distribution of vegetation on both local and regional scales. We propose a methodological perspective that places the practice of palynology in archaeology within the goals, theoretical premisses, and methods of Landscape Archaeology. Using this framework we evaluate and identify the limitation of conventional palaeoenvironmental practice (particularly the use of pollen analysis in archaeology and we develop an intensive application of model-based approach to palynology, one that combines study of the pollen rain with mathematical modelling of the landscape. To put it into practice we used modern methods of terrestrial observation, such as satellite imagery, grounded in the use of Geo graphical Information Systems (GIS and global positioning (GPS technology.

    Kargaly es uno de los centros de minería y metalurgia del cobre más significativos de la Gran Estepa Euroasiática. El Dr. E.N. Chernyj y su equipo (Instituto de Arqueología, Academia Rusa de Ciencias, Moscú y varios investigadores del CSIC y de otras instituciones españolas desarrollan allí un proyecto conjunto para el estudio integral de sus dos fases de explotación: la Edad del Bronce (II milenio AC y la primera industrialización rusa (1745-1900 AD. Los miembros rusos del equipo están a cargo de la investigación arqueológica de este proyecto coordinado y los miembros españoles del estudio de los aspectos tecnológicos y productivos de la minería y la metalurgia, por un lado, y del contexto ambiental de ambas actividades, así como de su impacto sobre el territorio por otro. El propósito de este artículo es presentar los planteamientos y primeros resultados del programa de estudios paleoambientales, que consta de dos fases. La primera dio lugar a uno de los registros paleoambientales más completos de esta región mediante

  16. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    . , Romanovsky, V. , Cable, W. and Kholodov, A. (2015) Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 through 2014. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (1), 12-41. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61002.

  17. Russia' s Regional Economic Integration:Process,Problems and Prospects%俄罗斯区域经济一体化:进程、问题及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳; 崔日明

    2016-01-01

    俄罗斯作为中国 "一带一路" 战略的重要沿线国家, 其区域经济一体化的发展对丝绸之路经济带建设和欧亚经济联盟建设的对接合作具有重要的意义与影响. 欧亚经济联盟的建立标志着俄罗斯区域经济一体化发展达到了新的高度. 但伴随着俄罗斯区域经济一体化不断深化发展的同时, 发展进程中存在的问题也越来越突出. 如, 成员国地理位置过于集中, 经济总量小; 成员国间贸易发展缓慢, 分歧较大等问题. 因此, 俄罗斯致力于通过加快区域经济一体化建设来重振俄罗斯的大国地位仍面临诸多困境.%Russia is an important country along the route of China' s"Belt and Road" strategy,and its regional economic integration development has an important significance and influence on the connection and cooperation of the Silk Road economic belt construction and the Eurasian economic union construction.The establishment of the Eurasian economic union means that Russia' s regional economic integration development has reached a new high level.However,the problems existing in the development process become more and more prominent with Russia' s regional economic integration development deepening.For instance:the geographical location of member states is too concentrated with its low economic aggregate;the trade has developed slowly between member states;there are great difference between member states.Therefore,Russia is still confronted with many difficulties in being committed to reviving Russia' s great-power status by the construction of the regional economic integration.

  18. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPOSING A REFERENCE BOOK OF REGIONAL TOPONYMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Dmitriy Yuryevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic issues of composing a reference book of regional toponyms – a genre that requires special consideration in national lexicography. The assortment of these issues gave the possibility to carry out complex description of regional toponyms on the basis of semantic, functional, and orpthologuos criteria that let unify the names of Volgograd region settlements that are registered in various documents. The significance of the composed reference book is determined by several factors – the presence of local subsystems of geographical names in Russian toponymy; the inconsistency of current orthography norms on using capital letter in compound proprius names and fused-with-hyphen spelling of toponyms and off-toponym derivations; the lack of linguistically justified explanation of peculiarities of grammatical norms in the field of proper names use. The reference book of regional toponyms is based on the object description (toponymic vocabulary, principles of lexical units selection (description of spelling and grammatical properties of toponyms, encyclopedic information, the glossary (full list of toponyms of Volgograd region, typical article. The articles in the reference book are arranged in lexicographical zones with grammatical and semantic markers, lexicographical illustrations, other lexicographical labels, word etymology including. The reference book on Volgograd region toponymy is addressed to executive and administration authorities, journalists, regional ethnographers.

  19. The Impact of a Line Probe Assay Based Diagnostic Algorithm on Time to Treatment Initiation and Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, Platon; Balantcev, Grigory; Nikishova, Elena; Gaida, Anastasia; Bogdanova, Elena; Enarson, Donald; Ornstein, Tara; Detjen, Anne; Dacombe, Russell; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Mann, Gillian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Mariandyshev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Arkhangelsk region of Northern Russia, multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) rates in new cases are amongst the highest in the world. In 2014, MDR-TB rates reached 31.7% among new cases and 56.9% among retreatment cases. The development of new diagnostic tools allows for faster detection of both TB and MDR-TB and should lead to reduced transmission by earlier initiation of anti-TB therapy. Study Aim The PROVE-IT (Policy Relevant Outcomes from Validating Evidence on Impact) Russia study aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of line probe assay (LPA) as part of an LPA-based diagnostic algorithm for patients with presumptive MDR-TB focusing on time to treatment initiation with time from first-care seeking visit to the initiation of MDR-TB treatment rather than diagnostic accuracy as the primary outcome, and to assess treatment outcomes. We hypothesized that the implementation of LPA would result in faster time to treatment initiation and better treatment outcomes. Methods A culture-based diagnostic algorithm used prior to LPA implementation was compared to an LPA-based algorithm that replaced BacTAlert and Löwenstein Jensen (LJ) for drug sensitivity testing. A total of 295 MDR-TB patients were included in the study, 163 diagnosed with the culture-based algorithm, 132 with the LPA-based algorithm. Results Among smear positive patients, the implementation of the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 50 and 66 days compared to the culture-based algorithm (BacTAlert and LJ respectively, p<0.001). In smear negative patients, the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 78 days when compared to the culture-based algorithm (LJ, p<0.001). However, several weeks were still needed for treatment initiation in LPA-based algorithm, 24 days in smear positive, and 62 days in smear negative patients. Overall treatment outcomes

  20. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek

    2015-04-01

    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  1. Preliminary health cancer risk assessment for arsenic exposure in a contaminated area close to a fertilizer plant in Moscow region (Russia); Valutazione preliminare del rischio sanitario cancerogeno per esposizione ad arsenico in un'area contaminata da un'industria di fertilizzanti nella regione di Mosca (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharova, T. [Moscow Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry, Lab. of Industrial Safety, Div. of Chemical Technology; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ., Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2001-09-01

    At present, fertilizer plants are considered as one of the main sources of potentially contaminated areas in Russia. In this paper, an interesting experimental case-study area located in Moscow Region has been considered for the preliminary health cancer risk assessment for arsenic exposure. Arsenic has been selected as the individual contaminant indicator, according to a specific, original selection procedure presented in the paper. For estimating the human exposure to arsenic through multiple pathways, the original McKone and Daniels 91 model has been used. As a result of this preliminary assessment step for the case-study area, the calculated individual cancer risk levels for arsenic exposure through (in risk ranking order) consumption of agricultural products - consumption of drinking water - dermal contact - direct soil ingestion - ingestion of dairy products are significant. The present paper could be assumed too as a contribution (for comparison and stimulus) to the actual, Italian situation of soil quality criteria, especially regarding the agricultural land use. [Italian] Le aree interessate dalla presenza di impianti di produzione di fertilizzanti, rappresentano attualmente una rilevante sorgenti di siti potenzialmente contaminati in Russia. Nel presente lavoro, viene affrontato un interessante caso sperimentale di studio localizzato nella Regione di Mosca, per il quale viene condotta la valutazione preliminare del rischio sanitario cancerogeno per esposizione ad arsenico (contaminante selezionato come indicatore, mediante apposita procedura descritta nel lavoro). Allo scopo, e' stato implementato l'originale modello multiplo di valutazione dell'esposizione umana cosiddetto McKone and Daniels 91. Per l'area in studio, i livelli massimi possibili risultanti di rischio cancerogeno per l'arsenico connessi alle vie di migrazione (nell'ordine) ingestione di prodotti agricoli - assunzione di acqua di falda - contatto dermico

  2. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  3. Functionally ecological assessment of C dominant pools and fluxes in field agroecosystems with sod-podzoluvosols at the Central Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vizirskaya, Mariya; Epikhina, Anna; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo; Meshalkina, Julia

    2014-05-01

    The Global Change problem has obvious interaction with greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. The principal GHG is carbon dioxide. There is a lot of data on its fluxes but the Central Region of Russia is still one of less investigated area especially in case of agroecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by chambers and eddy covariance methods combined application. Our research has been at the representative key plots of cultivated sod-podzoluvosols located at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow) in 2012-2013 in frame of RF Government grant 11.G34.31.0079 and RFBR grant 11-04-01376 activities. The research include the detailed soil cover patterns morphogenetic investigation, soil C pools dynamic analysis, soil CO2 flux decade-based monitoring by method of exposition chambers with IRGA (infra red gas analyzer) and agroecosystem CO2 flux seasonal monitoring by two eddy covariance stations in frame of 4 ha experimental plot. There were two crop versions (barley and grass mixture), and in case of chamber analysis - also two agrotecnology versions (traditional and no-till ones) with soil temperature and moisture analysis too. The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of soil and agroecosystem CO2 emission. The beginning of vegetation period (until plant height of 10-12 cm) is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time. The adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately two times higher than emissions at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. In 2012 data have shown for barley the small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption. The daily dynamics of soil CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature dynamics with the correlation coefficient changes from 0.86 at the beginning of the season to 0.52 and 0.38 at the middle and at the end of one. Soil moisture

  4. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident: Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Charlotte

    From 1990 to 1998, estimations of the effective dose due to irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia. The villages, situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant received deposition of 137Cs in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq m-2 due to the accident in 1986. The body burden of 137,134Cs was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of caesium radionuclides, together with in vivo measurements using a portable detector. The external effective dose was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent (TL)-dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms grown in the area. During pregnancy the biological half-time of caesium was 54% of that before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq L-1) to that in the mother's body (Bq kg-1) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from urine samples showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the caesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion introduced systematic differences and a larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation. The yearly effective dose to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was 30-50% of the total effective dose. The external effective dose decreased on average 15% per year, while the internal effective dose varied, depending to a great extent on the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be 100 m

  5. Where Has All the Foreign Investment Gone in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Broadman, Harry G.; Recanatini, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    Since its transition to a market economy began, Russia has not attracted much foreign direct investment (FDI). Inflows of FDI into Russia are much lower than those into other transition countries in the region, adjusted for population size and similar measures. Clearly, if Russia is to grow it must increase the level of FDI inflows, which is why a good deal of policy attention has focused ...

  6. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  7. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  8. Lithosphere structure of the Donbas Fodbelt and Karpinsky Swell region (the southern margin of the East-European Craton), Ukraine and Russia, from seismic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Baranova, E.; Starostenko, V.

    2003-04-01

    LITHOSPHERE STRUCTURE OF THE DONBAS FOLDBELT AND KARPINSKI SWELL REGION (THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OF THE EAST-EUROPEAN CRATON), UKRAINE AND RUSSIA, FROM SEISMIC AND GRAVITY DATA T.Yegorova (1), E.Baranova (1), V.Starostenko (1) (1) Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine egorova@igph.kiev.ua Along the southern margin of the East-European platform (EEC) super deep Late Devonian rift basins Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) and Peri-Caspian Basin (PCB) are located. The structures are adjacent to a zone along which crust was reworked and/or accreted to the EEC during Late Palaeozoic-Triassic times. The objective of the present study is deriving constraints from available geological and geophysical data for understanding the tectonic setting and processes controlling the evolution of the southern margin of the EEC. The study area includes the inverted southernmost part of the intracratonic DDB Donbas Foldbelt (DF), its south-eastern prolongation along the margin of the EEC the sedimentary succession of the Karpinsky Swell (KS), the south-western part of the Peri-Caspian Basin (PCB) and the Scythian Plate. According to the structure of the sedimentary basin, the DF and the KS form a single linear structure, represented by the uplift of Palaeozoic rocks, with the exposure of Carboniferous coal-bearing rocks in the DF, and by deep trough (down to the depth of 20 km and more) on the top of the crystalline Precambrian basement. The 3D gravity back-stripping analysis, implemented to test the sediment structure, reveals a distinct elongate zone of positive sediment corrected anomalies along the axis of the DF-KS and strong positive anomaly in the PCB. This is caused by heterogeneous lithosphere structure below the basin: Moho topography and/or the existence of a high density material in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. Our previous investigations have supported the existence of high-density body in the crystalline crust along the DDB axis. The

  9. Tick-borne borrelioses pathogen identification in Ixodes ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae) collected in St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad Baltic regions of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, A N; Dubinina, H V; Antykova, L P; Dzhivanyan, T I; Rijpkema, S G; Kruif, N V; Cinco, M

    1998-03-01

    Two isolated Baltic seashore populations of Ixodes ticks were studied as vectors of different Borrelia genospecies in Russia by using darkfield microscopy and modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the Kalinigrad region (Kurish Spit, forests near the settlements of Lesnoye and Rybachy), 788 Ixodes ricinus (L.) adults and nymphs were collected by flagging and studied by darkfield microscopy during 1995-1996. There were 88 darkfield microscopy positive specimens (11.2%) of which 69 were also analyzed by PCR. Borrelia afzelii and B. garinii were found individually and together in ticks. In this region, on the Kurish Spit, 7 patients with tick borrelioses were observed: 2 in the Russian part of Spit and 5 in the Lithuanian part. A significant difference was found between Borrelia prevalence during the spring and fall peaks of tick abundance. Specimens that were darkfield microscopy positive prevailed in the fall (25.15%) in comparison with the spring peak (7.3%). The number of specimens with identified genospecies prevailed in the spring: 22 out of 35 versus 4 out of 31 in the fall. Among 29 PCR positive I. ricinus, 21 contained B. afzelii, 3 had B. garinii, and 2 had dual infection. In 1995, only B. afzelii infected specimens were observed. In the vicinity of St. Petersburg (the seashore of the northern Gulf of Finland, in forests near Lisy Nos, Morskaja) during 1992-1996, 31 patients with a tick-borne borrelioses were registered. We collected 487 Ixodes persulcatus Schulze by flagging and studied them by darkfield microscopy in 1995-1996 of which 144 ticks (29.6%) were darkfield microscopy positive. Sixty darkfield-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR, and in 88.3% of cases genospecies were identified. B. afzelii and B. garinii were identified individually and together in ticks. In 1995, I. persulcatus with dual infection prevailed with 11 out of 21 (52.4% positive), whereas in 1996, most I. persulcatus ticks contained B. garinii (81.2%). Dual infection was

  10. Dollarization Hysteresis in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkevich Andrey

    2002-01-01

    This project aims to (1) explain the forces that lead to dollarization in Russia, (2) analyze the cost and benefits of dollarization, (3) design a policy aimed at reducing dollarization, and (4) predict the consequences of making dollarization official.

  11. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak® for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzhesky VV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free

  12. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  13. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roslycky, Lada L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the

  14. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  15. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  16. Organisation of the state supervision and regulation of storage facilities for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Northwest region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, Sergey

    1999-07-01

    The North-European Interregional Territorial District of Gosatomnadzor of Russia was established in 1992. It supervises the fulfilment of the legislative requirements of the Russian Federation on nuclear and radiation safety in production, management and use of nuclear energy, and nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Among the subjects supervised are four nuclear power plants operating RBMK type of reactors. Gosatomnazdor also issues licences for working with radioactive materials. This presentation discusses some of the issues in waste treatment and management in the District.

  17. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  18. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  19. Metodicheskie osnovy sravnitel'noj ocenki nauchno-tehnicheskogo potenciala Rossii i ES: regional'nyj i mezhdunarodnyj aspekty [The methodological bases of comparative evaluation of sci¬entific and technological potential of Russia and the EU: regional and international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses approaches to the definition of such categories as “scientific and technological potential” and “innovative potential” in view of their resource, structural, procedural and resultant components. The author gives a more accurate definition of the scientific and technological potential through identifying its resources and orientation towards transforming abilities. On the basis of the existing methods of comparative analysis used in Russia and abroad, the author proposes a methodology for evaluating scientific and technological potential in the context of regional and international comparison. The integral index is calculated on the basis of a customised information and statistical database of normalised indicators through the identification and convolution of subindices that characterise individual components of potential. These subindices include pecific indicators applied in different statistical systems, in particular, those used in Russia and the EU, which made it possible to compar the data. The article presents the result of the application of this methodology based on a comparative evaluation of the scientific and technological potential of Russia (Northwestern federal district and EU states of the Baltic region. The experimental check suggests that the methodology be further improved for future clustering of Russian and EU regions according to the level of their innovative development.

  20. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  1. Russia and the Future Expansion of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    warned it could deploy its missiles in Kaliningrad to target intended missile defense sites.26 Recently, NATO expressed that it “will actively seek...lng=en&id=38752 (accessed January 21, 2011). 26 Vladimir Socor, “Russia Warns of Forward Missile Deployment in Kaliningrad Region,” Eurasia Daily

  2. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  3. Towards a New Russia Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Daryl Press about U.S. strategic capabilities that generated so much heat in Russia,130 The reason why hardliners in Russia pay so much at- tention...No. 1, January, 2007, pp. 1-2; Angela Stent , “Berlin’s Russia Challenge,” The National Interest, No. 88, March-April 2007, pp. 46-51. 253

  4. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  5. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  6. Singing Praise for Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  7. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  8. Terrorism Mounts in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The new year starts ominously with Moscow airport attack The year 2011 did not begin happily for Russia. On January 24,a bomb attack at Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport-the city’s largest-killed at least 35 people and injured more than 130. This tragedy shed light

  9. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  10. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  11. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  12. Studying Summer Season Drought in Western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010 summer, a severe drought impacted Western Russia, including regions surrounding Moscow and Belgorod (about 700 km south of Moscow. The drought was accompanied by high temperatures. Moscow recorded 37.8°C (100°F for the first time in over 130 years of record keeping. The record heat, high humidity, dry weather, and smoke from forest fires caused increased human mortality rates in the Moscow region during the summer. The excessive heat and humidity in Western Russia were the result of atmospheric blocking from June through mid-August. The NCAR-NCEP reanalyses were used to examine blocking in the Eastern European and Western Russia sector during the spring and summer seasons from 1970 to 2012. We found that drier years were correlated with stronger and more persistent blocking during the spring and summer seasons. During these years, the Moscow region was drier in the summer and Belgorod during the spring seasons. In the Moscow region, the drier summers were correlated with transitions from El Niño to La Niña, but the opposite was true in the Belgorod region. Synoptic flow regimes were then analyzed and support the contention that dry years are associated with more blocking and El Niño transitions.

  13. Analysis of the contribution of forest pathways to the radiation exposure of different population groups in the Bryansk region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S V; Voigt, G; Spiridonov, S I; Sanzharova, N I; Gontarenko, I A; Belli, M; Sansone, U

    2000-12-01

    The experience gained in the aftermath of serious radiation accidents shows that forests are an important source of external and internal exposure of the affected population. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the major radiological consequences for forests of Russia, most heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Illustrated in the Novozybkovsky district of the Russian Federation, the significance of different forest exposure pathways is estimated and the doses resulting from forest pathways are compared with the doses from agricultural products. It has been found that the contribution of mushrooms and berries to the internal doses of the population, relative to the doses from agricultural products, varied from 10-15% in 1987 to 40-45% in 1996. The results indicate large differences in internal exposure of members of the "critical groups" and "normal population", increasing with time after deposition. Data are presented that give information on the contribution of forests to the collective doses of inhabitants of the area under consideration. It has been shown that for 10 years after the accident (1987-1996), the contribution of forest products to the collective dose of the rural population living in contaminated forests of the Novozybkovsky district, amounts to about 20% (213 person Sv) of the total collective dose of internal and external exposures. However, a potential impact of these products including the dose from exported products is much higher and might reach 659 person Sv. It has been found that in the long-term after the ChNPP accident, serious attention should be given to forest countermeasures, and restoration strategies should be selected on the basis of a combined analysis of the effectiveness of forest and agricultural countermeasures.

  14. Russia's Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Acomplex process characterizes the evolvement of Russia's development strategy from general and ambiguous to specific and clear. In the immediate post-independence days, former President Boris Yeltsin's zeal for wholesale leaning to and meshing with the West only ended up in the loss of initiative and national assertiveness. Since his assumption of office, President Vladimir Putin came up with a "national resurgence strategy" aimed at economic rejuvenation for recovery of the country's status as a big power by proceeding from its current post-Soviet weakened conditions. This pragmatic popular approach is generally believed to have a rosy future ahead.Even so it would still be a bumpy, uphill path, replete with challenges due to trammels of domestic opposition and resentment or obstruction from the West. In addressing these issues under international limelight, after briefly reviewing Russia's post-independence trajectory, this article will focus on President Putin's "strong national strategy" and do some crystal ball gazing for its future.

  15. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  16. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  17. Russia: Background and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 (Spring 2014), http://search.proquest.com/docview/1532990139?accountid=12702. 24 Ibid. 25 Lukas Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea...Parameters 44, no. 2 (Summer 2014), http://search.proquest.com/docview/1565829795?accountid=12702. 26 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in...changed 126 Ibid. 127 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea.” 128 Ibid. 35 with Russia

  18. Double Win for China and Russia in Oil & Gas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum industry plays an important role in both the Chinese and Russian economy.Petroleum cooperation between the two countries continue to accelerate since China opening wider to the outside world, and Chinese oil companies have increased their presence in Russia. Sino–Russia joint-ventures, oil& gas trade has progressed smoothly, there is a better future for cooperation in oil& gas development in Russian Far Eastern region. Chinese and Russian companies will continue to benefit from collaboration in petroleum industry.

  19. Research on Petrologic Character of Nephrite Jade From Baikal Lake Region in Russia%俄罗斯贝加尔湖地区软玉的岩石学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 吴瑞华; 王乐燕

    2001-01-01

    通过对俄罗斯贝加尔湖地区软玉的化学成分、矿物组成、结构构造等方面的 研究 ,对其成因机制进行了初步探讨,较系统地总结了俄罗斯贝加尔湖地区软玉的岩石学特征 , 并将其与中国新疆的和田玉进行了初步对比。%The chemical composition, m ineral component, texture and structure type of nephrite from Baikal Lake region in Russia are studied, and the genesis of nephrite jade is discussed. The petrolo gical characteristics of nephrite jade from Baikal Lake region in R ussian are introduced systematically, and compared with Hetian jade from Xinjiang, which will be useful to the exploi tation of nephrite and for the development of the nephrite market.

  20. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  1. Russia and the European Union: Wasteful Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofei Bordachev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ince the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s potential to contribute politically and economically to the stability of the Russia–European Union Shared Neighbourhood has been systematically undervalued. The regional integration initiated by the governments of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia has created a new institutional and ideological reality. However, the increased risk of political and economic competition with the European Union threatens to split the region into separate competing blocs, potentially limiting further regional development. One of the negative factors is the long-term decline of the institutional tools that the EU can apply to sustain its presence in the region. As a consequence of previously used unilateral mechanisms, current European regional policy is ineffective. Because no prospects of membership can be offered to the countries in the Shared Neighbourhood, regulatory convergence with the EU depends increasingly on individual political regimes. This principle prevents a multilateral regional framework from emerging. The process is aggravated further by the increased role of irrational factors in EU regional policy, as opposed to security interests, since the mid 2000s. However, since the beginning of Eurasian integration, the Shared Neighbourhood has entered a new phase of political and economic development, where irrational competition can only jeopardize the strategic goals of Russia and the EU. In the long term, both actors are interested in creating a coherent regional subsystem, based on multilateral formats of regional cooperation.

  2. Plume-derived rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites from the Kola region (Russia) and the argon isotopic composition in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Bernard; Tolstikhin, Igor; Kamensky, Igor L.; Nivin, Valentin; Balaganskaya, Elena; Zimmermann, Jean-Louis

    1998-12-01

    In an effort to document the source of the parental melts to carbonatites, we have measured rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites and associated mineral assemblages from the Kola Peninsula, eastern part of the Baltic shield in Russia. These series were emplaced during widespread Devonian magmatism when several large ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite massifs were formed. 4He/ 3He ratios vary from 1×10 6 to 1×10 7 in the bulk He extracted by melting of samples from three localities, including the large Kovdor massif. A comparison of measured abundances of 3He and 4He with those expected from in-situ production revealed a large (up to 10 5 times) excess of 3He, implying a significant contribution from a mantle-derived 3He-bearing fluid. Crushing of these samples allowed extraction of fluids with 4He/ 3He ratios down to 38,000, lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts and in the range of 4He/ 3He observed in 3He-rich ocean island basalts (OIBs) related to mantle plumes. 20Ne/ 22Ne up to 12.1±0.2 are higher than the atmospheric value of 9.80, implying the occurrence of primordial (solar-type) neon in the carbonatite source. 20Ne/ 22Ne and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios display a good correlation, with the regression line close to (slightly to the right of) the Loihi Seamount correlation. Extrapolation of the regression to solar 20Ne/ 22Ne of 13.8 gives a 21Ne/ 22Ne of 0.045 for the plume end-member, well below the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source (upper mantle) end-member of 0.07. The measured 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios up to 2790 correlate very well with the Ne isotopic ratios, and the best estimate of the 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio of the plume source is within 5000±1000. Although the 3He/ 22Ne ratio in the plume source appears to be comparable to the solar value within a factor of 2, the 22Ne/ 36Ar ratio, computed from Ne-Ar isotope correlation, is two orders of magnitude lower than the solar value. Such difference is unlikely to be due to magmatic fractionation since the observed 4He/ 40Ar

  3. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  4. Biosensor development in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetilov, Anatoly N

    2007-07-01

    The review summarizes the current Russian research in the field of biological sensors for detection of carbohydrates, alcohols, medicines, enzyme inhibitors, toxicants, heavy metal ions, as well as viruses and microbial cells. Some of the presented works describe the analytical parameters of biosensors; other publications provide a basis for their development. The review covers mainly publications that have appeared over the past 10 years. As a whole, the collected material gives an idea of the main tendencies of biosensor development in Russia. The review is not meant to be comprehensive but highlights the major trends in this field in the last decade.

  5. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...... the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we...

  6. Syphilis soars in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M

    1995-07-08

    The number of adults with syphilis in Russia has increased 15-fold since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The rate in children is 20 times higher than it was 4 years ago. 126,500 cases were registered with the health ministry over the past year, while 7900 were in 1990. The number of cases in children increased from 38 in 1991 to 761 this year; most of these cases were acquired via sexual transmission. Lilia Tikhonova, the health ministry's chief specialist on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), blamed the increases on "the complete perversion of our society's morals," the rapid growth of child prostitution, the influx of homeless people and refugees into the cities, and miracle cures that are used in place of seeing a specialist. In communist Russia, patients were required to register passport details and previous sexual contacts, and future sexual contact was forbidden for a period; anyone breaking these rules faced 5 years in jail. Current law only punishes those who knowingly infect their sexual partners. Health officials in the Ukraine, where a similar increase in the number of STDs has been noted, blame black market condoms. Over the past 5 years, cheap foreign condoms have flooded the market.

  7. 高加索酸奶中乳酸菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of Lactic acid bacteria (LAC) from yogurt of Russia's Caucasus region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨郁荭; 邵景海; 李亮; 韩迪; 赵霞; 方曙光

    2012-01-01

    从自然发酵的5份酸奶样品中,通过平板划线等方法分离筛选乳酸菌.经形态特征,生理生化特性及糖发酵试验等,筛选到12株乳酸菌,分别为:乳杆菌7株,其中:3株德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus),3株瑞士乳杆菌(Lactobacillus helveticus),1株罗伊氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus reuteri;乳酸球菌5株,包括3株嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophilus),2株乳酸乳球菌乳脂亚种(Lactococcus lactis subsp.Cremoris.%12 strains of Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 5 traditional fermented yogurt samples of Russia's Caucasus region. According to the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics, and the sugar-fermentation testing, among 12 strains, 7 strain were identified as lactobacillus, which include 3 strains of Lactobadllus detbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus, 3 strains of Lactobacillus helveticus, and 1 strain of Lactobacillus reuteri; 5 strains were identified as lactococcus, which include 3 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis spp. Cremoris.

  8. GIS-mapping of environmental assessment of the territories in the region of intense activity for the oil and gas complex for achievement the goals of the Sustainable Development (on the example of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The uniform system of complex scientific-reference ecological-geographical should act as a base for the maintenance of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept in the territories of the Russian Federation subjects or certain regions. In this case, the assessment of the ecological situation in the regions can be solved by the conjugation of the two interrelated system - the mapping and the geoinformational. The report discusses the methodological aspects of the Atlas-mapping for the purposes of SD in the regions of Russia. The Republic of Tatarstan viewed as a model territory where a large-scale oil-gas complex "Tatneft" PLC works. The company functions for more than 60 years. Oil fields occupy an area of more than 38 000 km2; placed in its territory about 40 000 oil wells, more than 55 000 km of pipelines; more than 3 billion tons of oil was extracted. Methods for to the structure and requirements for the Atlas's content were outlined. The approaches to mapping of "an ecological dominant" of SD conceptually substantiated following the pattern of a large region of Russia. Several trends of thematically mapping were suggested to be distinguished in the Atlas's structure: • The background history of oil-fields mine working; • The nature preservation technologies while oil extracting; • The assessment of natural conditions of a humans vital activity; • Unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and phenomena; • The anthropogenic effect and environmental surroundings change; • The social-economical processes and phenomena. • The medical-ecological and geochemical processes and phenomena; Within these groups the other numerous groups can distinguished. The maps of unfavorable and dangerous processes and phenomena subdivided in accordance with the types of processes - of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among the maps of the anthropogenic effects on the natural surroundings one can differentiate the maps of the influence on different nature's spheres

  9. Land Change in Russia since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

  10. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites.

  11. MAPPING OF ECOLOGICALLY VULNERABLE ZONES AND REGIONS OF WATER AREAS AND SHORELINES WITH PRIORITY PROTECTION AGAINST SPILLS OF OIL AND OIL PRODUCTS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Knizhnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Map development for ecologically vulnerable zones and regions of water areas and shorelines with priority protection against spills of oil and oil products is important because of (1 the population’s concern about the growing technological load on nature, and (2 the need to comply with the existing state legislation. At present there is no general methodology for development of vulnerability maps in Russian Federation. The integral maps to be used in prevention and control of oil spills should represent data about ecological vulnerability to oil of both coastal and water ecosystems and information about legally protected objects, zones and regions. A set of maps showing absolute and relative integral vulnerability of particular water areas allows analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of this indicator. The most vulnerable areas (regions of the water area could be selected, as well as the most dangerous seasons. Recommendations are elaborated in order to organize the most effective protection of the environment against any possible emergency spills of oil and oil products.

  12. Climatic warming above the Arctic Circle: are there trends in timing and length of the thermal growing season in Murmansk Region (Russia) between 1951 and 2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Ilona; Chmielewski, Frank-Michael

    2015-06-01

    Anomalies in the timing of the thermal growing season have become obvious in the NE part of Fennoscandia since 2000. They are in accordance with climatic changes reported for Europe and Fennoscandia. The actual length of the growing season reached 120 days on average, onset on 30 May and ending on 27 September (1981-2010). Shifts in the timing of the growing season and its mean prolongation by 18.5 days/62a are demonstrated for Murmansk Region (1951-2012). In this period, the onset of the growing season advanced by 7.1 days/62a, while the end was extended by 11.4 days/62a. The delay in the end of the growing season is similar to the entire Fennoscandian pattern but it has not been detected in the rest of Europe. The regional pattern of climatic regimes in Murmansk Region remained stable in comparison with earlier climatic maps (1971). However, the actual shifts in the timing of the growing season were more pronounced in colder (oceanic and mountainous) parts. Recent climatic trends could influence the retreat of the tundra zone and changes in the forest line. Losses of tundra biodiversity and enrichment of the northern taiga by southern species could be expected from present climatic trends.

  13. Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation in the gypsum karst of the fore-Ural region, Russia (from observations in the Kungurskaja cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fore-Ural is a classical region of intrastratal gypsum karst. The intensive development of karst in the Permian gypsums and anhydrites causes numerous practical problems, the subsidence hazard being the most severe. Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation were studied in detail in the Kunguskaya Cave area. The cave and its setting are characteristic to the region and, being a site of detalied stationary studies for many years, the cave represents a convenient location for various karst and speleological investigations. Breakdown structures related to cavities of the Kungurskaya Cave type develop by two mechanisms: gravitational (sagging and fall-in of the ceilings of cavities and filtrational/gravitational (crumbling and fall-in of the ceilings of vertical solution pipes, facilitated by percolation. The former implies upward stoping of the breakout roof and cessation of the process at some height above the floor of the cave due to complete infilling by fallen clasts. This mechanism cannot generate surface deformation where the overburden thickness exceeds a certain value. The latter mechanism implies that breakdown will almost inevitably express itself at the surface, most commonly as a sudden collapse, even where the thickness of the overburden is large. These mechanisms resuit in different appearance, distribution and further evolution of the respective surface forms, so that subsidence hazard assessment should be performed differently for these types of breakdown. The conclusions reached by this study are representative for the region, although some of them bear more general validity for intrastratal karst conditions. This study underlines the ultimate importance of speleological investigations to the understanding of karst breakdown mechanisms.

  14. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  15. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  16. Research of the Effectiveness of Using Air and Ground Low-grade Heat for Buildings Heating in Different Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on zoning of the Russian Federation based on efficiency of utilization of the low-grade heat of ground and air as well as combinations thereof for heating buildings. When modeling thermal behavior of geothermal HHS in the climatic conditions of various regions of the Russian Federation we considered the effect of long-term recovery of geothermal heat on the thermal behavior of the ground, as well as the effect of the ground pore water phase transitions on the operational efficiency of geothermal heat pump heating systems. The zoning took into account temperature drop of the ground mass caused by many years of heat recovery from the ground. Ground temperatures expected for the 5th year of geothermal HHS operation were used as design ground mass temperatures.

  17. THE PROBLEMS OF THE INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVITY OF POLICE ORGANS OF ECONOMICAL SAFETY PROVISION IN THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Panteleyev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available At the article the problems of provision economical safety of the consumer market sphere are discussed. The author defines of legal relations of consumer market sphere as legal regulation of sphere of production and trade goods (works, services, provision of protection rights, interests, life, health, safety of material and spiritual consumption of population and also economic, ecological, product, other kinds of national safety of Russian Federations. He analyses the condition of economical crimes of Sverdlovsk region and the Ural Federal District and its influence on shadow economy. He offers the measures increasing interaction between government bodies of Russian Federation and subjects RF, the measures altering legislation and application the innovation technologies for counteraction economical crimes. In the author’s opinion these measures have to foresee the development of state programmes of support of small business in consumer market sphere.

  18. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  19. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques Used to Study the Anthropogenic Impact on the Sister River in the Vicinity of the Town of Klin (Moscow Region, Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Morzhukhina, S V; Chermnykh, L P; Khodakovsky, L P; Frontasyeva, M V; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The ecological fate of small rivers, tributaries of the Volga River, is of great concern in the national program of the Russian Federation "Restoration of the Volga River". The results on the elaborated hydrochemical and saprobiological water examination of the Sister River are reported along with the results on the multielement chemical analysis of surface sediments in the catchment of the town of Klin (Moscow Region) known for its numerous industrial and chemical enterprises with heavy contaminant inputs. Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study heavy metals and other toxic elements in bottom sediments. A total of 42 elements including Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined by polarography (method of inverse voltamperometry). Metal/Al rations which express the relative mobility of the elements follow the sequence: Fe > Mg > K > Na > Ca >> Zr > Mn > Zn = Sr > Cr > V > Ni = As > Co. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the bottom sediments of the Sister River reinforced us to determine t...

  20. IUCN guidelines using for assessment of plants from the Red Book of Russian Federation at regional level: a case study for the Republic of Mordovia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khapugin Anatoliy A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 15 plant species included in the Russian Red Book, which occur in the Republic of Mordovia: Najas tenuissima, Koeleria sclerophylla, Stipa dasyphylla, S. pennata, S. pulcherrima, S. zalesskii, Fritillaria ruthenica, Iris aphylla, Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipogium aphyllum, Neottianthe cucullata, Orchis militaris, Neotinea ustulata, Thymus cimicinus. Of these, only C. calceolus is included in the Global Red List as Critically Endangered. Threat status for studied species in Mordovia was assessed, and their distribution dynamics in this region throughout 12 years was described. Recent floristic studies, inspections of herbariums and literature were used for searches all provided data. Grid mapping and IUCN criteria were used. Nine taxa were determined as Critically Endangered, three as Endangered, one as Vulnerable, one as Near Threatened and one as Data Deficient. The areas of occupancy and extent of occurrence in Mordovia were assessed for each taxon. All studied species should be included in the next edition of the Mordovian Red Book. F. ruthenica, E. aphyllum, N. ustulata, T. cimicinus require additional studies to confirm earlier observations.

  1. The regional stratotype section and point for the base of the Hirnantian Stage (the uppermost Ordovician at Mirny Creek, Omulev Mountains, Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren, Tatyana N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete Hirnantian sequence comprising the Normalograptus extraordinarius and N. persculptus biozones is well developed at the Mirny Creek section in the Omulev Mountains. The underlying beds are assigned to the Appendispinograptus supernus Biozone, and in the overlying strata the lower boundary of the Silurian is precisely defined at the base of the Akidograptus ascensus Biozone. Due to the completeness of the sedimentary and palaeontological record, the Mirny Creek section can be considered as a reference section for the Hirnantian Stage. The succession, about 100 m thick, is composed of calcareous siltstones and marls with pebble-shaped limestones, deposited at a high sedimentation rate in shallow shelf settings. The regional stratotype section and point (RSSP for the lower boundary of the Hirnantian is established at the base of member 68, where Normalograptus extraordinarius first appears. This level can be precisely correlated with that at the GSSP section in Yichang and with the sections in Kazakhstan and North America. The position of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is redefined and placed at the FAD of A. ascensus at the base of member 74.

  2. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  3. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  4. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)

  5. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  6. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  7. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  8. Russia Cannot Be Understood By the Mind Alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ These words by the 19th-century Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev still resonate today. Russia is beyond comprehension; it can only be felt. And to do that, you have to come to Russia, see Russia, travel through Russia.

  9. Russia's Interests in the Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crimes against humanity committed by Bashar Assad's regime in Syria and despite the growing international pressure, Russia provided steadfast international political support to the regime during the development of the conflict in Syria in March 2011-July 2012. The article examines Russia's position and analyzes the reasons behind its support for the regime, arguing that it was primarily motivated not by material interests but rather by the foreign policy doctrine of multipolarity and the wish to maintain influence and reputation in the region.

  10. Dovyrenite Ca6Zr[Si2O7]2(OH)4 - A New Mineral from Skarned Carbonate Xenoliths in Basic-Ultrabasic Rocks of the Ioko-Dovyren Massif, Northern Baikal Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuskin, Evgeny V.; Pertsev, Nikolai N.; Armbruster, Thomas; Kadiyski, Milen; Zadov, Aleksander E.; Galuskina, Irina O.; Dzierżanowski, Piotr; Wrzalik, Roman; Kislov, Evgeny V.

    2007-01-01

    Dovyrenite, simplified formula Ca6Zr[Si2O7]2(OH)4, occurs as an accessory mineral in vein skarns developed in carbonate xenoliths in subvolcanic layered plagiodunite-troctolite series in the Ioko-Dovyren Massif of Proterozoic age, Northern Baikal Region, Buryatia, Russia. Dovyrenite is a late mineral of altered pyroxene and melilite-monticellite skarns. Associated minerals are Zr-bearing phases: fassaitic pyroxene, perovskite and hydrogarnets; and also monticellite, vesuvianite, diopside, foshagite, brucite, calzirtite, tazheranite, baghdadite, apatite, calcite, native bismuth, sphalerite, selenian galena, clausthalite, safflorite, rammelsbergite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, valleriite, laitakarite, nickeline, nickel-skutterudite. The average structure of dovyrenite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, with subcell parameters A = 5.666(16) Å, B = 18.844(5) Å, C = 3.728(11) Å, V = 398.0(2) Å3 and Z = 1. Dovyrenite shows a new type of modular structure with stacking of the tobermorite-like and the rosenbuschite-like layers parallel to (010). Single-crystal structural data point to an incompletely occupied Ca(2) site from the rosenbuschite module which is confirmed by microprobe analyses: ZrO2 16.47, SiO2 32.83, TiO2 0.14, HfO2 0.16, Cr2O3 0.01, CaO 43.87, FeO 0.25, MgO 0.13, MnO 0.02, Nb2O3 0.03; total 99.38 wt% with calculated H2O. The empirical formula is (Ca5.73Fe0.03Mg0.02)σ5.78(Zr0.98Hf0.01Ti0.01)σ1Si4(O13.56OH0.44)σ14(OH)4. The presence of two types of OH group in the dovyrenite structure is corroborated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Dovyrenite is an optically positive biaxial mineral: α 1.659(2), β 1.660(2); γ 1.676(2); 2Vz 30(5)° (measured), 28° (calculated). The coexistence of monticellite, foshagite and dovyrenite points to a narrow interval of crystallization 560-630°C under subvolcanic conditions (P < 108 Pa).

  11. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia...

  12. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  13. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third...

  14. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  15. China Urges Russia to Honor Oil Agreements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's Premier Wen Jiabao paid a three-day official visit to Russia in late September with a mission to secure more power supply from Russia to satisfy China's booming demand for oil and gas.This is his first visit to Russia since taking office in March last year. Oil was top of the agenda in Premier Wen's trip to Moscow.

  16. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  17. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), a delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia from October 7 to 13, 2010.

  18. HIV epidemic in Russia and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Pokrovskiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV/AIDS cases attributed to sexual transmission from foreigners were published in the USSR in the mid of 80s. In the initial decade of the epidemic, the subtype B was found in men who have sex with men (MSM population and several non-B subtypes were identified in heterosexual persons. The first case of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDU was reported in 1993 and since then a specific subtype A and its recombinants invaded the intravenous drug users (IVDU populations of the region with the highest rate in Estonia, Russia and Ukraine. The concentrated HIV epidemic in IVDUs is still the main problem in the Eastern Europe; however, the rate of heterosexual transmission is increasing and many evidences of HIV prevalence rise in MSM are published. UNAIDS estimations for the number of HIV-positive persons living in the region range from 980,000 to 1,300,000 but distribution of HIV-cases is uneven and the prevalence rate of HIV infection in separate regions is over 1%. Mass seasonal labour migration from Central Asia and Caucasian republics to Russia transmits HIV to these countries. Prevention programs in the region are limited, and ART coverage is not more than 20% of the total HIV-positive population. The lack of concern about the epidemic, absence of effective national strategies and limited allocated resources are the main barriers to prevention and care in many countries. Local conflicts, rising religiosity and discrimination are adverse factors. The near-term forecast for the epidemic in the region is pessimistic and further international advocacy is needed to improve the situation.

  19. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  20. Russia s Putin Courts Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱多秀

    2000-01-01

    WithRussia'srelationshipwiththeUnitedStatessouring1,PresidentVladimirPutinistryingtoedgeclosertotheEuropeanUnionanduseitsgrowinginternationalclout2tooffset3Washington.BorisYeltsin,Putin'spredocessor4,mademuchofhisbackslapping5,first-name"BillandBoris"relationshipwithPresidentClinton-whichpaidoffinU.S.supportedloansandotheraid.ButtieswiththeUnitedStateshavefrayed6inrecentyearsoverissuessuchastheU.S.-ledbombingofYugoslaviaandU.S.allegations7ofRussiangovernmentcorruption.NowPutinislikelytofocusonstrengtheningt...

  1. Nikita Mikhalkov, Russia's Political Mentor

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In his political manifesto on "enlightened conservatism" film director Nikita Mikhalkov calls on Russians to submit themselves to a strong leader. Although some claim that Mikhalkov is singing Vladimir Putin's praises, in fact, he is putting himself forward as the best guide for Russia.

  2. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  3. Present Russia in a sociological mirror (about Zinaida Golenkov's studies related to social structure of contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In many aspects, sociological thought in present Russia is a mirror of the condition and key social processes occurring in that large country. They are basically the same as the processes which have already been under way in the majority of other societies in the region of former real-socialism. Therefore the results acquired by the sociological thought in Russia specially those from empirical researches, are significant for the scientific and broader social public in other countries, too. In that sense, the findings obtained by Zinaida Golenkova in the research about the changes of the social structure in present Russia are representative and very indicative. Her researches concentrate on the social stratification. She concludes that the government, income and ownership are the main factors in social stratification, thus revealing the main factors in the creation and reproduction of social inequalities - which are very deep in present Russia - then the basis of the formation of a new social structure in that country and the division into losers and winners in the ownership-structural changes. The key relation is the relation between these changes and "deetatization". The middle class in Russia is underdeveloped, more than a half of the specialists with the high and secondary education is poor. In spite of the widespread poverty, there are no larger social protests, disturbances and strikes in Russia. This could be explained by the tradition of forbearance political aparthy, struggle for survival, as well as by the additional income of one part of the unemployed population. Material-status inequalities and life perspectives intersect with ethnic inequalities and with the destiny of numerous migrants of Russian and non-Russian origin.

  4. Stratigraphic scale the Lower Precambrian of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Svetlana; Bogdanov, Yuri

    2017-04-01

    The quality of state geological maps depends on the quality of the combined serial legends, which are based on the adopted stratigraphic scheme of the General stratigraphic scale, regional and local stratigraphic schemes. The main task of the General stratigraphic scale is the temporal correlation of stratigraphic units of regional schemes and the age of their boundaries. For the Precambrian age determination is based on paleontological and geochronological methods. Currently, work is being carried out to update the stratigraphic framework of the formations of the upper Proterozoic (Riphean and Vendian). Relatively less studied is the stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian. To the bottom are Precambrian structurally-material complexes of Archean and lower Proterozoic rocks, crystalline basement of ancient platforms and also included in the fold belts. The solution to the problems of stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian is possible only by creating and improving regional stratigraphic schemes. Such work should be based on the study of stratotype sections and references of boundaries in the model regions of the lower Precambrian. The current General stratigraphic scale of the lower Precambrian of Russia (RGSS) consists of the Lower Archean (Sami) and the Upper Archean (Lopi) and lower Proterozoic (Karelian) Eonotam. Archaea is divided into two Eonotam in Russian General stratigraphic scale, in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC) - three units, designated as Eon. The age of the boundary between Eonotam and Eon the same (3200 million years). The same and the age of the boundary between the Archean and the Proterozoic. The RGSS of the Precambrian, based on the comprehensive study of typical sections and analysis of isotopic Dating of different methods. Stratotype reference sections of the districts of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula represent different types of sections, the time (geochronological) correlation which was the basis for the regional scheme

  5. SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF FORMATION HIGH PEDAGOGICAL SCHOOL IN THE INNER ASIA REGIONS (EXAMPLE OF ULAN-UDE (BURYATIA, RUSSIA AND HOHHOT (INNER MONGOLIA AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Innokentievna Garmaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the some aspects of formation of the pedagogical higher school in Republic of Buryatia and Inner Mongolia Autonomous region. The importance of research is obvious, because it is necessary to comprehend the changes happening in the XX century in educational systems and its influences on modern processes, to analyze and establish the reasons of the transformational processes happening in an education system that is impossible without experience gained from previous generation. Methodological basis of the research is the historical method, and also systematic and structural-functional analysis. Results of the study let us to reveal features of development and formation of the pedagogical higher school of Internal Asia considering their history and national color and also have a direct relation to one of the most actual problem of cultural, information and educational security. The obtained results can be used in the work of public authorities involved in the development of public policy in the field of education, in reading of the lecture course, special seminars on pedagogy and history of education for the students and specialists of humanities.

  6. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Delegation To Russia,Latvia and Lithuania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by its president Chen Haosu paid a friendly visit to Russia,Latvia and Lithuania from May 31 to June 9 at the invitation of the Russian Centre for International Scientific and Cultural Cooperation,the United Latvian Friendship Society with Foreign Countries and the Lithuanian Parliament. In Russia,the delegation attended the 12th Symposium on China-Russia Regional Cooperation,one of the activities of the Year of China. Leaders of friendship organizations and relevant departments,representatives of local governments and small and medium-sized enterprises,totaling over 70 people,attended the symposium.

  7. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  8. Social Media Marketing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva, Yu. A.; Zaviyalova, Zinaida Sergeevna; Агеева, Ю. А.; Завьялова, Зинаида Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on using social media for business promotion. The authors analyze and compare the SMM experience in the western countries and Russia, give examples of failed promotion. A short review of Russian social networks are given including their peculiar features, which are important to consider when planning a SMM campaign. The main problems and perspectives of Russian SMM are described in conclusion of the article. In order to present the situation and specific of use of social n...

  9. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  10. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform

  11. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied.

  12. Risk and Safety in Post-Soviet Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Yearbook. Official Publication (1994). Goskomstat of Russia. Moscow. 3. Health Protection in Russia. Issue 1 (1995). Yuridicheskaya Literatura , Moscow... Literatura , Moscow. 4. Feshbach Murray (ed), Environment and Health Atlas of Russia (1995). PAIMS, Moscow. 5. State Report on the Environmental Conditions in...Disasters, and Cataclysms in Russia. Moscow: Finizdat (Russian) 4. Ecological Safety of Russia. Issue 1 (1994). Moscow: Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  13. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  14. The image of Russia in 2010—2011 international indices: positioning crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendeev M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the political and economic shortcomings of the image of Russia and its perception by the international community in 2010—2011. International indices are a comprehensive information source in terms of the economic and political image of a country and, to a great extent, a decisive factor in the global trends relevant to different countries and their development potentials. The author also compares the international images of Russia and the Baltic Sea region countries.

  15. The image of Russia in 2010—2011 international indices: positioning crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendeev Mikhail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the political and economic shortcomings of the image of Russia and its perception by the international community in 2010—2011. International indices are a comprehensive information source in terms of the economic and political image of a country and, to a great extent, a decisive factor in the global trends relevant to different countries and their development potentials. The author also compares the international images of Russia and the Baltic Sea region countries.

  16. Deterrence and Engagement: A Blended Strategic Approach to a Resurgent Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    1758. 21 Raina, Himanil, “Legal Questions of Russia’s Intervention in Ukraine” International Policy Digest . April 21, 2014. http...the inclusion of nations or regions where Russia wants to gain or maintain its influence. These international organizations also court nations...now the number one priority ally for Russia, with Kazakhstan close behind. Any attempts by European nations to court Belarus into any association

  17. IMPACT OF THE GOVERNMENT’S SOCIAL POLICY ON SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail S. Nosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on interrelation between the government’s social policy and the level of sports development. This paper presents the comparative analysis of the average salary data in the countries worldwide and in Russia (by regions and reports the level of teenage incidence.The article draws attention to the main reasons of low level of sports business in Russia and proposes important directions of social policy in the field of physical culture and sport.

  18. [Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

    2006-06-01

    Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%.

  19. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  20. The Return of China, Post-Cold War Russia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Gallucci, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    of the world, especially Asian emerging powers, which reflects climate change and power transition/globalization. We look in depth at the cases of cross-border exchange, energy and shipping. We show that Sino-Russian relations in this region reflect the general trends of Russia and China in a post-Cold War...... globalized international political and economic system. Russia for both domestic and international reasons struggles to find its post-Cold War position in the international political and economic system, which affects its place between the West and China. Russia's entire northern boundary is the Arctic...... economic growth, which is the strongest single driver of political and economic power transition in the international system. This power transition also defines China’s relation to the Arctic and to Russia. China now terms itself a "near Arctic" nation, has previously described the Arctic as a common...

  1. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  2. Energy Fuels Booming China-Russia Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the latest visit to Russia in mid-June this year, Chinese President Hu Jintao expressed that China is willing to strengthen cooperation with Russia and other energy-producing and energy-consuming countries to jointly safeguard the stability of world en

  3. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  4. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  5. Biogerontology in Russia: from past to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Mikhailova, Olga N

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents major steps of gerontology development in Russia. The issues of training in gerontology and geriatrics, institutional infrastructure within the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its activities have been considered therein. Some results of Russian researchers obtained during 2005-2010 have been summarized as well. Special attention is given to the prospects of gerontology in Russia.

  6. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  7. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  8. Russia's transition process in the light of a rising economy: Economic trajectories in Russia's industry and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hockmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years Russia has faced an astonishing economic growth, coinciding with the era of Vladimir Putin's presidentship. Accordingly, it is not surprising that commonly these rising economic trajectories are attributed to progress in terms of transition initiated and further triggered by Putin's government. This paper is trying to investigate empirically whether the current growth in Russia tends to be caused mainly by (1 success of transition or just by (2 favourable external circumstances such as rising prices for oil, gas, etc. Thus, analytically, progress in transition has been approximated by efficiency estimates, which are - from a theoretical point of view - expected to be rising in course of transition of a formerly planned economy towards a free market system. In order to capture potentially different trajectories of several sectors and regions industry and agriculture have been considered separately, each at regionally aggregated level over a period of 11 years. In general, little evidence of the anticipated rising trends could be found. Instead, notable ups, downs and divergences among regions and sectors were uncovered. According to this analysis, Russia's current growth rates cannot be attributed to general success of transition. Instead, besides reaping the benefits of favourable external circumstances at world markets, from an empirical point of view, scale effects and slightly rising productivity appear to be the main causes of the recent track record. Moreover, in the industry the trend is also triggered by technological progress, which may indicate the turnaround after a decade of decline and give a reason to believe in an initiation of a long-term growth process. Unfortunately, in agriculture little evidence for such a sustainable growth process was evident so far. In general, the inter-sectoral integration in Russia's economy seems to be still quite low.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  10. The Establishment and Development of Muftiates in Tsarist Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Alp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, muftiates which was founded in Tsarist Russia, composed important part of policy of Russian government on Muslim people and Islam religion and lasted for a long time was analyzed. Factors which influenced foundation process of Orenburg Ecclesiastical Assembly, Crimean Muftiate, Southern Caucasia Sunnite and Shiite Muftiates, their duties and authorities were put forward. It was mentioned that religious organizations which have equal rights and authorities were not formed in regions where Muslim people were dominant in Russia. The difference between perspective of Tsardom government and Muslim people towards muftiates were determined, the reflection of this situation on relation between Empire and Muslim people was stated in the sense of policy.

  11. CO2 fluxes at wetland ecosystems in European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, J.; Astafeva, E.; Ivanov, D.; Avilov, V.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands are one of the main element of natural landscapes of Russia (about 10% of territory). Chamber measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil with vegetation were conducted during green seasons 2011, 2012 years in European part of Russia (Central Forest Reserve, Tver region). Two main subjects were selected for field researches: ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. Our previous eddy covariance investigations in the ecosystems have allowed to determine that in common wet forest is source of CO2 for atmosphere but ombrotrophic bog is sink for CO2. Chamber measurements have evaluated net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. Photosynthesis of vegetation cover on the bog is significantly more than at the forest. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance as at the bog as at the wet forest mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile.

  12. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  13. [Priest-doctors in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited.

  14. Oil Deals to Widen Trade Deficit with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The US$ 150 billion oil deal between China and Russia will expand bilateral trade and China's huge trade deficit with Russia, according to Chinese experts. China's exports to Russia may have increased rapidly in recent years but the nation is expected to see its trade deficit with Russia widen for the foreseeable future.

  15. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  16. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  17. Genre Formatting in Periodic Printed Media of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertytchny A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of genre formatting in printed media in Russia are analyzed in the article. A number of printed periodicals are investigated, namely “Ekonomika i zhizn’”, “Vedomosti”, “Schastlivye roditeli” (more than 1200 texts and 5 regional Moscow newspapers (“Kolomenskaya Pravda”, “Zarya”, “Orekhovo-Zuevskaya Pravda”, “Serebryanoprudsky Vestnik”, “Khimkinskie Novosti” comprising more than 400 texts. The author states that formatting of modern printed media and formatting of the used genres occur within the main tendencies of journalism development. They are PR, Westernization, glamorization and usage of Western journalism patterns. It leads to distribution of new text types, such as an advertising article, an ordered article, an image and supporting articles. Some changes in the process of genre formatting in Russia are determined: traditional genre forms characteristic for Russia are reduced and hybrid genres appear instead whereas journalism genres mutate and Western ones are widely applied. This results in news reports as the most popular genres whereas high quality analytical and art-journalistic genres are reduced.

  18. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  19. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  20. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  1. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Y.E

    2005-07-01

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  2. The analysis of statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic agression in Russia [2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М М Yusupov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of significant challenges to social and national security of Russia. In some regions of the country the crimes pertaining to xenophobia show a persistent upward trend. However, the lack of official information on statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic crimes blocks the elaboration of regional measures designed to cope with the challenge of xenophobia. The results of the investigations of the survey papers of the Moscow Office for Human Rights over the period of 2005-2007 conducted to analyze the statistics, geography and dynamics of xenophobic aggression in federal districts of Russia are presented in the article.

  3. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungweon Suh

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  4. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  5. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  6. China, US, Russia Inaugurate Global Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China, the United States and Russia began on Jaunary 12 a global network for scientific research, the first of its kind in the North Hemisphere connecting major scientific centers such as Chicago, Moscow and Beijing.

  7. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  8. Elections in Russia, 1991-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Treisman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I review the main trends in voting in national elections in Russia since 1991, discuss the evidence of manipulation or falsification by the authorities, and use statistical techniques to examine the determinants of voting trends.

  9. Efficient Location of Distribution Centres and Warehouses in the Territory of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vladimirovich Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the creation of efficient regional logistic infrastructure that has currently a special relevance. The additional task of this problem is a warehouse network formation. The efficient location of warehouses is one of the priority objectives for cross-border regions as it allows them to benefit from membership in a global supply chain, promotes the creation of additional jobs and, finally, leads to the growth of Gross Regional Product (GRP. The authors offer an approach to determine the location of distribution centres and warehouses in the territory of the regions of the Russian Federation. This approach allows solving the problem of the efficient location of warehouse network in a region taking into account its key indicators of socioeconomic development. The implementation of the approach identified the indicators that have a significant impact on a choice of the location of warehouses of a region. Methodological framework of the conducted research includes the methods of ABC and cluster analyses. That provides the identification of the cities and municipal districts of a region, in the territory of which it is expedient to locate warehouses. The developed approach was tested on the example of the Volgograd region. The solution of the problem of warehouse network in this region belongs to the priority one, considering its geographical position and industrial capacity. The analysis of indicator values for the period of 2010–2014 by means of the methods of classical and modern ABC analysis as well as the two-stage cluster analysis allowed the territorial binding of the warehouse network in the Volgograd region. Further, the research showed that when splitting the cities and municipal districts of the region into clusters, the greatest influence is made by such indicators as investments into fixed capital, goods turnover of the motor transport and transportation of goods by the motor transport.

  10. [Epidemiology of malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabishvili, V M; Diachenko, A A; Val'kov, M Iu; Krasil'nikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in Russia the dynamics of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia is presented. A precise elaboration of data on cases is performed according to the database of the Population-based Cancer Registries of St. Petersburg and Arkhangelsk region.

  11. Project Management in Russia: Sociologic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Gomaleev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sociologic approach to project management allows to highlight the problems aroused by discrepancies between real management practices and ideal models; to determine basic socio-psychological barriers that impede project management in Russia; to classify real management practices on the basis of their correlation to project management; to single out basic types of projects implemented in Russian businesses; to work out practical recommendations on overcoming social barriers of developing the system of project management is Russia.

  12. NATO Needs a Comprehensive Strategy for Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    February 11, 2015: http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=59003 13 Dempsey, 2015. 14 See Vladimir Putin , “Meeting of the Valdai International...Crimea, presents an unequivocal challenge to European security. Russia’s actions are not just a stark rejection of Euro-Atlantic integration; Russia ...economic sanctions on Russia and NATO conventional military measures geared toward demonstrating readi- ness and new capabilities. NATO leaders clearly

  13. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  14. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  15. Integration of Russia in Asian Pacific Educational Space (the Case of Russian-Chinese Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Leonidovna Guruleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the formational processes of APR educational space and role of Russia in educational integration of the region. Participation of Russia in cooperation of Asia-Pacific countries in the higher education is studied. The author proves the formation of the new international polycultural educational region of Siberia and the Far East of Russia and the Northeast provinces of China, and investigates prerequisites of its formation. The author identifies the following prerequisites specificity of the modern education system in China, the similarity of the higher education systems of Russia and China, China's interest in the study and use the experience of Russia in the organization of higher education, the desire and the willingness of the Russian and Chinese counterparts to identify and solve the problems arising in the process of international educational cooperation, the strategic interest of Russia and China in the economic recovery and development of Siberia and the Russian Far East and north-eastern provinces of China. Particular attention is paid to the role of the Forum of rectors of higher educational institutions of the Far East and Siberia of Russia and north-eastern provinces of China. The author concludes that currently there are processes of convergence of the EHEA and educational area of APR. This can be illustrated by the initiative of establishing a bridge between the countries of the EHEA and the participating countries of the Tokyo Convention on the recognition, which was approved by the political and economic forum of European and Asian countries (Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM.

  16. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  17. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  18. Russia and the U.S. in the Middle East: a New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbanov Murad Adilgeraevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the system of modern international relations the Muslim world plays an increasingly prominent role due to several factors of economic, political, social and religious nature. The Middle East is a region that has always aroused the keen interest and attention of the great powers – in this large, populous and resource-rich territory there are many “pain points” related to global problems of mankind. The Middle East accounts for about 2/3 of reliable oil supplies. Oil-producing Arab monarchies have always been an arena of intense competition, not only between oil interests, but also between different States in their struggle for political influence, economic benefits, and strategic base. Russia has always had different from the rest of Europe view on this region, but one thing was certain – the USSR and the new Russia were distinguished with great interest and concern for the situation in the Middle East. The article is devoted to the analysis of the Middle East policy of Russia and the USA; it analyzes the position and role of Russia and the U.S. in the context of recent events in the Arab world; it examines the efforts of the two countries aimed at normalizing interelations. The author evaluates the problems and prospects for further cooperation between Russia and countries of the Arab East in the economic and political spheres.

  19. Cultural and landscape zoning in the North- West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manakov A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the framework of cultural geography — a relatively recent field of geography. This article considers the problems of geographical study of cultural landscapes of the North-West Russia, which includes Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, and Kaliningrad regions. This article sets out to develop and test the methodology for historical and cultural zoning at the mesogeographical level. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the features of formation of cultural landscapes in the North-West Russia, which can be used for the development of schemes of protection and rational management of territorial cultural and historical heritage. The authors rely on historical and cultural zoning as the basic geographical method of research on cultural landscapes. To this effect, the article offers a hierarchy of historical and cultural zones comparable to the zoning systems applied in physical, historical, and cultural geography. The major results of the research are the authors' taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the corresponding system of historical and cultural zoning of the North-West Russia presented on a sketch map. The article offers an exemplary description of historical and cultural provinces of the region. The contribution of the research to the Russian geography of culture is the authors' variant of taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the formulation of basic principles of historical and cultural zoning at different hierarchical levels. The research results can be applied, first of all, in the development of projects aimed at the protection and use of territorial cultural heritage in the framework of comprehensive schemes of territorial planning of the country's regions.

  20. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  1. Foreign Policy of the USA and Russia in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper analyzes the role of the Russian Federation as a world power in the East Asian area between 2000 and 2010, delving into its relations with major regional actors, namely: China, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Russia’s policies and actions are compared to those of the United States as the arguably predominant superpower during most of the period in exam. Emphasis is put on the possible causes of escalation between the various actors within the Asian scenario, with a detailed comparison between the actions taken by Russia and the United States. 

  2. Chinese Jiaotong Universities Presidents Delegation Visits Russia and Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Russian St.Petersburg State Transport University and the Regional State Administrative Agency for Eastern Finland,the Chinese Jiao tong Universities Presidents Delegation,led by CPAFFC Secretary General Li Xikui,visited Russia and Finland,to attend the First Forum of Chinese and Russian Transport Universities’Presidents and hold exchanges with local governments and universities of Finland from May 19 to 26.The forum was jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC and

  3. 读《俄国东西伯利亚与远东考古》%Book Review:Archaeology in Eastern Siberia and Far East, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌恩岳斯图

    2004-01-01

    There have been close cultural relations between Russia and North China since antiquity. To make comparative studies of archaeological cultures in the two regions, we should got further knowledge of archaeological researches in Russia. Therefore, as a regional introduction to Russian archaeology, the Archaeology in Eastern Siberia and Far East, Russia, is of self-evident academic significance. The book deals in detail with archaeological cultures in "these regions and makes a comparativ estudy of them with archaeological data and literal records on Northeast China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula. With a lot of original views, it has made an excellent beginning in our study of Russian archaeology.

  4. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  5. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  6. THE GERMANS IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA: PERCEPTION AND TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article attempt, to show how the process of formation of relations between the Cossacks, who moved by the Decree of Catherine II in the southern regions of Russia and arrived in the same region representatives of other peoples in the specific case of the Germans, bound also previously adopted by the Decree of the Queen (1762, as an invited foreigners to Russia. Part of Germans has settled in the black sea (Kuban Cossack troops, arriving from Central Russia and the Volga area. Undoubtedly, in process of settlement were established and relations between the Cossacks and the Germans, allowed for the sharing of experience of farming, cultivation techniques, culture. Contacts developed in terms of relationships that is demonstrated in the confidence and of the perception of the Cossacks and became the Russian Germans. Cossacks married girls from the German colonies. Of course, not without contradictions, frustration, but overall remained prevalent in a relationship consensus. Cossacks with respect and understanding belonged to the Germans expressed an interest in the field of culture the Germans, especially the training of children, youth education, consumer culture. Noteworthy is the fact that the Cossacks and the Germans showed together attention to the construction of roads, improvement of transport communications. All this was caused by a complex landscape of the region of inhabitance and of the Cossacks, and Germans, often the spills happen in Kuban river. Of course, the Germans welcomed the peaceful nature of the relations. The relationship has been continuously improved and filled with new content. The leaders of the German community of Michaelsberg adopt this policy. The head of the community, the Ruhr has always been a supporter of the principle of peaceful coexistence with neighbors and respect for the initiatives of the Cossacks on the arrangement of habitat, speaking at the same time for the trust between the community and

  7. [Issues in oncologic radiation physics and the establishing of a nuclear medicine service in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostylev, V A

    1997-01-01

    The creation of a framework of federal and regional medico-physical agencies at key medical, research and educational establishments will help solve many problems of development of oncological radiation physics. The setting-up of a medico-physical service in Russia will be instrumental in providing effective radiation treatment to cancer patients and will prevent huge losses in resources.

  8. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  9. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    with recultivating abandoned cropland to assess the potentially available cropland in European Russia, western Siberia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan—the region where the vast majority of post-Soviet cropland abandonment took place. Using spatial panel regressions, we characterized the socio-economic determinants...

  10. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  11. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.; Rizov, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the pro

  12. Permafrost and infrastructure in the Usa Basin (Northeast European Russia) : Possible impacts of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazhitova, G.; Karstkarel, N.; Oberman, N.; Romanovsky, V.; Kuhry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a h

  13. Monitoring the impact of surface albedo on a saline lake in SW Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argaman, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Elton is located east of the Volga River in Russia and covers an area of 155¿km2. The hydrological system of the Lake and its surroundings are extremely vulnerable to climate change and human interference, but available local and regional information is sparse. Utilising climate data from 1987

  14. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.; Rizov, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the

  15. [The butterflies (Lepidoptera, Diurna) of the boreal forests in southeastern Russia. II. Light coniferous forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, A B

    2009-01-01

    Species groupings formed in dark coniferous forests of southeastern Russia are analyzed by the example of butterflies. The species and chorological composition of these groupings are discussed. Classification analysis of species checklists for twelve local faunas is given. It is indicated that the applicability of a single faunistic category to all the dark coniferous forests of the studied region is doubtful.

  16. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  17. Detection of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes koreicus in the Area of Sochi, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, Ludmila A; Patraman, Ivan V; Rezza, Giovanni; Migliorini, Luigi; Litvinov, Serguei K; Sergiev, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Following the identification of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti in the Sochi area in Russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus. These findings highlight Russia as being the only country in the World Health Organization European Region with a documented presence of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the Black Sea. Control measures are needed to reduce the possible risks of importing exotic vector-borne infections, such as dengue and chikungunya.

  18. CARTOGRAPHIC RESEARCH OF MORDOVIAN ETHNOS RESETTLEMENT IN RUSSIA ON THE DATA OF CENSUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ivlieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the research on mapping modeling of Mordovians accommodation on the territory of Russia. The study discovers that a great number of Mordovians live outside the ethnic territory. The dynamics of its population in the regions can be most accurately traced accoding to population censuses. With the help of modern methods of cartographic visualization and mathematical-cartographic modeling were revealed spatiotemporal characteristics of Mordovians resettlement process on the territory of Russia since the end of XIX to the beginning of the XXI century.

  19. Vietnam's strategic hedging vis-à-vis China: the roles of the European Union and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of China's assertive policies in the South China Sea, the present study evaluates how Vietnam has sought to mitigate the increasingly unequal regional power distribution vis-à-vis China. It argues that Vietnam tends to cope with China mainly by engaging itself in hedging strategies on the basis of diversified and strong relationships with different players. Appraising the roles of Russia and the European Union (EU, the study analyzes the pay-offs of Vietnam's military hedging with Russia and its economic hedging with the EU.

  20. Isotope paleohydrology at the northern Boreal treeline, Canada and Russia (paleohydrology climate change)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, B.B.

    1997-12-31

    A Canada-Russia international research project was established to better understand the relationship between the northern treeline region and climate change. The study involved the oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of lake sediment cores using several different sedimentological, biological and geochemical techniques. The study has provided an insight into Holocene paleohydrology and watershed carbon cycling in arctic Canada and Russia. Results showed that periods of treeline advance and climate warming in central Canada and central and eastern Russia were characterized by distinct changes in moisture conditions. During these intervals, summer relative humidity increased by 10 to 15 per cent in central Canada. Central Russia was also wetter, but a drier climate was associated with treeline advance in eastern Russia. Carbon isotope records have suggested that lake carbon reservoirs at boreal treeline were greatly influenced by catchment hydrology as well as soil and vegetation development. Nitrogen isotope composition of lacustrine bulk organic matter was also useful for determining nutrient dynamics in these watersheds. It was concluded that lake sediment organic isotope tracers are an effective approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  1. STUDY OF IMMUNITY TO POLIOVIRUSES ON CERTAIN "SILENT" TERRITORIES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The degree of immunity to polioviruses of three serotypes among children of different ages was analysed on certain "controlled" and "silent" territories of Russia in different periods of Polio Eradication Initiative. It was shown that the levels of immunity of children’s population to polioviruses on "controlled" and "silent" territories had no significant difference. It was stated that on the phase which preceded the certification for the absence of circulation of wild polioviruses, when the National Immunisation Days were conducted in the country, the percentage of eronegative children to polioviruses of different serotypes was low on all the territories of Russia. After Russia as a part of the WHO European region was certified as a polio free country and mass immunisation was stopped thepercentage of seronegative children increased, especially to poliovirus of serotype 3, both on the "controlled" and on the "silent" territories.

  2. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  3. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  4. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system, Altay-Sayan region, Russia%俄罗斯阿尔泰-Sayan地区Aksug斑岩Cu-Mo体系的地质与地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berzina AN; Berzina AP

    2008-01-01

    The Aksug deposit, located in Ahay-Sayan region of Russia, is one of the largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Southern Siberia. The ore-bearing porphyries of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system were formed in post-collisional environment. Geochemically they belong to calk-alkaline and high K-calk-alkaline series. Rocks are characterized by enrichment of LILE and depletion of HSFE and HREE, showing the importance of subduction-related components in magma generation. Large plutonic intrusions that host porphyry systems have been formed during collision. The origin of porphyritic rocks is dominantly the mantle with lower crustal contribution. The mainly economically important Cu-Mo mineralization is closely related to a porphyry series in time and space, being emplaced towards the end of magmatic activity. Though the emplacement of plutonic and ore-bearing porphyry complexes took place in different geodynamic environments, both complexes are characterized by certain similarity in geochemical composition, alkalinity, trace element content, Sr isotopic composition. This fact evidently indicates a common deep-seated magmatic source (at the lower crust-upper mantle level), Low initial 87Sr/86Sr, sulfur isotopic characteristics and presence of PGE-Co-Ni mineralization in associated pyrite-chalcopyrite ores suggest that mantle source of chalcophile elements was of high importance in porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization of the Aksug deposit.

  5. Russia and the World: 2015. IMEMO Forecast1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Dynkin; V Baranovsky; I Kobrinskaya; G Machavariani; S Afontsev; Y Mirkin; A Kuznetsov; F Voytolovsky; V Shvydko; S Utkin; V Mikheev; S Lukonin; Y Kvashnin; B Frumkin; N Toganova; V Zhuravleva

    2014-01-01

    ... (the world's third largest, inferior only to those of the United States and Russia) is non-transparent. [...]the deep inter-dependence of the global economic system is the safety catch that makes Russia and the West...

  6. Features of Russia migration policy in the 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Sergej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of Russia migration policy after the Soviet Union collapse. The analysis of the dynamics of the accommodation of refugees and internally displaced people on the territory of Russia is made.

  7. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-10-28

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.).

  8. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  9. Children and Young People in Russia: Global Challenges of Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present-day world’s development is becoming more and more uneven and new global challenges are emerging. Russia should respond to them by enhancing its economic competitiveness, preserving and increasing its population and human potential, first of all, that of children and young people. The paper points out that for the Russian Federation with its vast territory and substantial reserves of natural resources the most important geopolitical challenges consist in the preservation and increase of population and human potential. The authors prove that the formation of the population of Russia is under double “pressure” of high mortality and low fertility; therefore, natural movement (decline is not completed by mechanical movement. In addition, the article determines that the share of young people in the total population is decreasing. For the first time in the history of Russia the share of children has become lower than the proportion of the elderly. In 2013 in 56 Russian regions, the proportion of children and adolescents accounted for less than 20% of the population (in the early 2000s, there were 41 such regions, and in 1990 – three. In addition to the reduction in the number of the population, child health potential is also deteriorating: about 35% of children in Russia are born ill or become ill in the near future (the figure is 30% in the Vologda Oblast. The number of adolescents aged 15–17 who are accounted for severe mental disorders is continuously increasing. The greatest socio-economic damage to the society comes from suicides that are widely spread among young people (the younger generation (persons up to 24 years old accounts for one third of all the potential years of life lost from suicides. At the same time, young people consider health more valuable than does the population as a whole (4.5 points vs 4.4 points on a five-point scale. But young people underestimate the importance of self-preservation behavior. World

  10. What’s Next for Russia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the United States proceeds with its missile defense plan in Eastern Europe, Russia is left with few options In May 2007, the United States launched a plan to deploy an anti-missile system in Eastern Europe, including 10 inter- ceptor missiles in Poland and a radar station in the Czech Republic. Although the system allegedly is being built to counter the threat of a ballistic missile-equipped Iran, the plan has met with vehement opposition from Russia, which insists that the system is directed against it.

  11. Mercury Content in Organs and Tissues of Indigenous (Vulpes vulpes L.) and Invasive (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray.) Species of Canids from Areas Near Cherepovets (North-Western Industrial Region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Gremyachikh, V A; Poddubnaya, N Y

    2016-10-01

    Trophic and spatial components of ecological niches of two canids native Vulpes vulpes and introduced Nyctereutes procyonoides are overlapping partially in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of mercury in predatory mammals of Canidae family from surroundings of Cherepovets have been determined in liver and kidneys (over 0.50 mg/kg wet weight), with minimal concentrations in brain (mercury in the same organs of the red fox and raccoon dog is not significantly different. These levels of mercury content are noticeably higher than those in the predators of Canidae family that inhabit territories of Europe lacking the local sources of mercury. At the same time, absolute values of metal quantity are commensurable with the levels registered in predators from the mercury polluted regions of Spain and Poland.

  12. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  13. HIV-infection in the South Ural region of Russia at the present stage: the analysis of the epidemiological situation and new approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of the response to the epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kon’kova-Rejdman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsuccessful epidemiological situation on HIV infection with negative tendencies is observed in Chelyabinsk region (1034,1 on 100 thousand population. The big difference between estimated quantity of people living with HIV and the registered number of HIV-positive people increase (for 59,7% – in 2012, for 60,2% – in 2013, for 61,1% – in 2014. The cascade model of levels of medical care of people living with HIV of Chelyabinsk region is used in thearticle. Main «losses» of people living with HIV are noted at the following stages of the cascade in Chelyabinsk region: «HIV infection – Detection of HIV (-61,1% With»; «Detection of HIV – statement on the dispensary account (-22,4%»; «Medical examination – needs in the ART (-71,1%». The cascade of delivery of health care in Chelyabinsk region is distinguished from data on the Russian Federation with big percent of losses (-32,7% at the stage «receiving the ART-epidemiologically safe level of virus loading». Leaving of the patient from everyone «cascade steps» of delivery of health care reflect problems in the organization of medical care. Transition of epidemic from groups of risk in the general population, its feminization and generalization demands optimization of strategy of counteraction of epidemic of HIV infection. The cascade model reflecting «profile» of the organization of medical care in a period can be effectively used as an independent element of an information and analytical subsystem of epidemic supervision of HIV infection in regions of the Russian Federation.

  14. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  15. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ] ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia... antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...

  16. Oligarchs, megafarms and land reserves: understanding land grabbing in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to unravel the political economy of large-scale land acquisitions in post-Soviet Russia. Russia falls neither in the normal category of ‘investor’ countries, nor in the category of ‘target’ countries. Russia has large ‘land reserves’, since in the 1990s much fertile land

  17. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and...

  18. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA- 340-E and 340-H...

  19. CO2 fluxes in wetlands of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Avilov, V.; Varlagin, A.; Olchev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The question on an arrangement, scales and the factors determining ground sink of CO2 in a forest zone of Russia is opened and discussed. Peatlands located in forest zone and wetland forest are main elements of natural landscapes of Russia. During the last years through fires in forest zone and modern climate changes, connected with growth of extreme weather events, such as drought, wetlands are in the focus of scientific investigations. Two subjects for long investigations of CO2 fluxes have selected in southern taiga in European Russia (Central Forest reserve, Tver region): ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. To estimate of seasonal and interannual variations of CO2 fluxes different methods such as eddy covariance, chamber methods and modeling calculations were used. Our researches have allowed to evaluate net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. The results of researches have confirmed strong dependence of CO2 fluxes from changes in precipitations and/or temperatures and level of ground water. Bog and wetland forests can be as sink as source of CO2 for atmosphere. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance in wetland ecosystems mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile. The modeled results supported the hypothesis that the soil processes, especially the decomposition process, in wetlands could play an important role in altering the C dynamics in the ecosystems. The studies were supported by grand RFBR No. 11-05-00854 and RF Government No. 11.G34.31.0079.

  20. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. METHODS Data were from nine rounds (1994-2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and 'other' reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for 'other' reasons in 2004. RESULTS After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for 'other' reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. CONCLUSIONS Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of affordability

  1. Remigration and Telling about It: Stories of Estonians from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Korb

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I will analyse the stories which focus on the reasons for returning toEstonia and remigration and have been written and told by Estonians who were born in Russia and returned to their motherland. These people returned to Estonia during 1941–1958 until the time Estonia became newly independent. Their ancestors had migrated to the rural areas of Russia since the middle of the 19th century.Stories about returning to homeland and adapting to the new environment have for a long time been limited to specific groups of people. They reached wider audiences after Estonia regained its independence and censorship weakened in Russia, and also as a result of the so-called biography boom in Eastern Europe. The context, time and situation of recording a narration or narrative shape the tales and can be repeatedly reassessed in the course of time.Stories about returning to homeland are both individual and collective; they express the experience of individuals as well as of a community or group. The stories of Estonians from certain regions are rather similar. The time and reasons for returning – forced or voluntary – have also had an impact on the stories.People do not mention shameful events in their lives or describe them only briefly. Even though this return of Estonians is not migration across state borders, most of these stories can still be classified as tales of traditional remigration. These stories give us information about the migration behaviour of remigrated Estonians and the emotions, attitudes and values associated with returning.

  2. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce C Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia...

  3. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  4. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  5. Focus on Russia. Democratie a la Russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-15

    Russian president Vladimir Putin managed to consolidate his power in parliamentary elections in December 2007. Most likely Putin will also keep a tight control over the country's energy resources. A brief overview is given of the consequences of the Russian energy policy for the energy sector in Russia and abroad.

  6. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  7. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  8. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.

    2016-01-01

    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic speakin

  9. Poisonings by Cardiovascular Drugs in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Brusin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most common drugs causing hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias were clonidine, CCBs, drotaverine and the veterinary drug “veratrine”. Drotaverine, clonidine and CCBs were the most common drugs causing death. Poisonings with these agents are rare in other countries. Measures to reduce the availability of drotaverine and veratrine should be taken in Russia.

  10. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  11. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  12. From Obsolete Normative to Realpolitik in the EU and Russia Foreign Policy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Păsătoiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing global and regional challenges in terms of security and prosperity call for cooperation and “new type of great power” relations. Yet, both the EU and Russia took a U-turn in terms of rejuvenation of the Cold War politics announcing an astonishing overt deviation to a binary ideology fuelled zero-sum game. The EU failed to transpose Russia radical twist in foreign policy into a new design of the ENP and directly recalibrating the instruments managed to address the Eastern neighbourhood. The liberal functionalist approach would have been compatible assuming Russia had maintained its Western course; here, an exclusive design of the policy based on the normative matrix might have worked, although still at risk as it was excluding other regional power dynamics, the influences of the proximity of geography and the path-dependency that seems to reveal Cold War legacies. The Russia-Georgia war of 2008 and the annexation of Crimea were just a few of the outstanding signals that Russia’s assertiveness announced a reset of the power relations in the region. Hence, we reckon that it was a wrongly inspired policy choice for the EU to conclude prematurely enough that “Russia lacks the means of maintaining great-power status”, and consequently not predict state-like behaviour scenarios in response to a particular foreign policy pursued by the EU. In order to demonstrate the inappropriateness of the EU foreign policy design, we apply the concept of power and the regional security complex. Despite the fact that one of the pillars of the European Neighbourhood Policy is security for all, the EU has relied exclusively on policy stewardship built on a normative paradigm while miscalculating national security concerns of the Russian Federation.

  13. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    advertisement for the sale of business than in 2013, in the Moscow region - 11.7 times, in St. Petersburg - 15.8 times, in Krasnodar Territory - 11.1 times (according to www.rbc.ru. The economic crisis has hit the tourism. The cost of trips abroad increased by 50% or more. Changed the main streams - greatly increased domestic tourism in general, and in the south of Russia in particular. The paper analyzes the changes in the overall macroeconomic performance of Russia in 2014-2015, illustrated by changes in the ADAS model. The paper discusses two nearest forecast scenario from the perspective of the average consumer: optimistic (reduced volume and intensity of sanctions and pessimistic (strengthening of sanctions, including a work stoppage of Visa and MasterCard in the Russian Federation, the Russian banking system off from SWIFT, etc..

  14. Geography of FDI from Visegrad Countries in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the Russian place in outward FDI geography of the Visegrad countries. The role of the neighborhood effect is shown. With the help of the authors’ special methodology for FDI calculations which overcomes deficiencies in the Bank of Russia’s statistics, the distribution of the Visegrad group’s FDI between Russian regions is studied. The authors demonstrate the presence of a hierarchical-wave model of spatial diffusion of FDI by investors in retail and banking. At the same time, it is found that Moscow and its surrounding dominate the recipient regions. It is also shown that Visegrad group investments in Russia are mostly made by enterprises which remove any political component. As a result, their FDI expansion to the Russian market is likely to continue as soon as the Russian economy returns to growth.

  15. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  16. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  17. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  18. ANALYSIS OF EVENT TOURISM IN RUSSIA, ITS FUNCTIONS, WAYS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF EVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yur'evich Grushin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers one of the important directions of development of the national economy in the area of tourist services – development of event tourism in the Russian Federation. Today the market of event management in Russia is in the process of formation, therefore its impact on the socio-economic development of regions and Russia as a whole is minimal, and the analysis of the influence is not performed. This problem comes to the fore in the regions of Russia, specializing in the creation of event-direction tourist-recreational cluster. The article provides an analysis of the existing market of event management and event tourism functions. Providing the ways to improve the efficiency of event management and recommendations for the organizer of events in the regions. The article shows the specific role of event tourism in the national tourism and provides direction for the development of organizational and methodical recommendations on its formation in the regions of Russia and the creation of an effective management system at the regional level. The purpose of this article is to analyze the emerging in Russia event tourism market and its specifics. On the basis of these studies are considered folding patterns of the new market and the assessment of its impact on the modern national tourism industry. Methodology. To complete this article are used comparative and economic and statistical analysis methods. Conclusions/significance. The practical importance of this article is in the elimination of existing in the national tourism industry contradictions: on the one hand, in the Russian Federation is annually held a large amount events activities, including world-class in all regions say about tourist trips to the event, but the event tourism does not exist yet. In all regions, there is an internal and inbound tourism, but it has nothing to do with the event tourism. The article has a practical conclusions demonstrate the need to adapt the

  19. The Relevancy of NATO Membership in Russia’s Near Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    commitment of its policy to the region. Background Imperial Russia absorbed many regions with distinctive cultures before the formation of the Soviet...position described by the 19th Century British historian and poet Hilaire Belloc, who wrote of the Zulu Wars, “(the British) have got the Maxim guns and...they (the Zulus ) have not.”44 Accordingly, NATO assistance, training, and equipping should be directed toward national defense as a whole, rather

  20. MAPPING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nokelaynen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is paid to climate change policy and sustainable development, for which transport still presents a major challenge. Railway transport plays an important role in the pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, it is highly important to monitor and analyse the environmental impacts of railway transport at the county scale. For this purpose, the thematic ecological database was developed for the territory of Russia and the digital map of the environmental impacts of railway transport was created at a scale of 1:20 000 000. The map is representing linear pollution connected with railway transportation systems, which is accessed according to the traffic intensity and types of freight transported on the routes. The major criteria of evaluation are freight volumes, the presence of polluting cargos and passenger train frequency. Conducted research aims to support decision makers with comprehensive data on the environmental impact of railway transport and helps to define the priority regions of Russia requiring measures of improvement of transport and ecological conditions.

  1. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  2. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  3. Black earth bonanza? : Soil, soul and depth in large-scale farmland investments in Russia and Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with the centrality of what is called here the ‘celebration’ of black earth soil (fertility) in driving foreign investors’ land rush in the fertile black earth region of Russia and Ukraine. Since the mid-2000s, this region experienced a quick rise of farmland investment

  4. Problems and Prospects of Cross-Border Cooperation in Tourism between Russia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitseva Natalia A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this research is related to the increasing role of tourism in the world in general and in border areas in particular. This article sets out to identify the problems and prospects of the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries. The authors focus on the scientific and theoretical aspects of cross-border cooperation and examine the role of tourism, and recreational potential and its effective use. The authors employ the methods of expert judgement and statistical analysis, refer to the surveys of Russian and European consumers showing their preferences, as well as to the authors’ own materials. The analysis makes it possible to have a deeper insight into the issue of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries and to assess the prospects of it. The authors provide an assessment of changes in the socio-economic relations between Russia and European countries and identify key problems in the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism. These problems relate to both macroeconomic and regional/industrial factors. The article is of interest for researchers studying cross-border tourism, the regional and local administrations of border areas of Russia and European countries, and representatives of the tourism business.

  5. Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żęgota K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic in the context of relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis focuses on the role of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in relations between the EU and Russia and conditions of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic. The methodology employed is based on analysing primary (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The article also addresses the “Kaliningrad question” — one of the most important issues in Russia-EU relations. The analysis shows that the signing of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic should be viewed as a success. Based on the agreement, the inhabitants of borderlands in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region can cross the border without obtaining an entry visa. For the inhabitants of the borderlands, the agreement brings a range of significant advantages relating to the intensification of social, cultural, touristic, and economic contacts. It is worth noting that the agreement is one of very few examples of EU —Russia cooperation, especially in context of deterioration thereof observed over the last several years.

  6. CHALLENGES AND DILLEMAS WITHIN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria Simionov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every EU enlargement signified a step towards Central and Eastern Europe, therefore, the 2004 „big bang enlargement”, followed by the one in 2007, modified the geopolitical context within the „old continent” and also increased the importance of the European Union regionally, as well as globally. Integrating the ex-soviet countries into the EU meant taking them out of the Russian sphere of influence, as well as attempting to super size the EU territory in order to increase the European power on a long term. Despite the weakening of Russia after the Cold War, the federation still represents a challenge regarding „pax europea”, as Russia still has an amazing military capacity, as well as important natural resources. The entrance into the Russian sphere of influence, the European energetic dependency on Russia, the conflicts within the separatist regions situated at the EU eastern borders are just few of the many challenges regarding the relations between the European Union and Russia.

  7. Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żęgota K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic in the context of relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis focuses on the role of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in relations between the EU and Russia and conditions of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic. The methodology employed is based on analysing primary (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The article also addresses the “Kaliningrad question” — one of the most important issues in Russia-EU relations. The analysis shows that the signing of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic should be viewed as a success. Based on the agreement, the inhabitants of borderlands in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region can cross the border without obtaining an entry visa. For the inhabitants of the borderlands, the agreement brings a range of significant advantages relating to the intensification of social, cultural, touristic, and economic contacts. It is worth noting that the agreement is one of very few examples of EU —Russia cooperation, especially in context of deterioration thereof observed over the last several years.

  8. Prospects of Cooperation Between Russia and the Countries of the Maghreb in the Light of New Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zherlitsina Natalya A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the new realities of Russia’s foreign policy after the “Arab Spring” and the potential for increased Russian influence in the Maghreb. One of the consequences of the recent political upheavals in North Africa is the growth of terrorist threat – this factor draws particular attention to this region. The Maghreb is important for the promotion of Russian interests in the Arab world and the African continent. Russia and North Africa are seeking strategic cooperation, and these countries have long-term friendship and mutual interests in the political and economic spheres. Further increase of the interaction will strengthen bilateral relations, will make it easier to survive during the political and economic crisis. The article analyzes the formation, the current state and prospects of Russian-Algerian, Moroccan-Russian and Russian-Tunisian relations. Algeria is one of the leading economic partners of Russia on the African continent. The main areas of bilateral cooperation are the energy and military spheres. The growth of the terrorist threat in the Sahara-Sahel region prompted Russia and Morocco to deepen security cooperation. In the context of EU economic sanctions against Russia a priority in Russian- Tunisian and Russian-Moroccan trade relations is to enhance cooperation in the field of agriculture. Russia is a traditional exporter of Moroccan oranges and Tunisian olive oil. Promising areas of cooperation of Russia and Tunisia are the development of water resources and hydraulic engineering, infrastructure projects in the field of construction of roads, bridges, industrial facilities. Expansion of ties with the North African countries will allow Russia to increase influence in the region.

  9. Guess-Work and Reasonings on Centennial Evolution of Surface Air Temperature in Russia. Part II: Is it Possible to Research Both Local Peculiarities and Regional Tendencies from the Bifurcation Analysis Viewpoint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Monovskaya, Anna

    This paper is devoted to the development of the experimental bifurcation analysis in the research of local climate dynamics. In particular, we consider the dynamics of the land surface air temperature in the centennial timescale. The experimental bifurcation analysis supposes the choice of a conceptual model to demonstrate how the observable kinds of dynamical processes can be realized on the whole. We worked on the conceptual model with a variable structure (HDS-model), where the dynamics is determined by the competition between the amplitude quantization and the time quantization. The model originates from the hysteresis regulator with double synchronization (HDS-regulator) proposed in 1970’s to achieve the extreme combination of both efficiency and reliability of energy conversion processes. The HDS-model allows to consider the interplay between several periodical processes instead of chaos and quasi-periodicity in order to excuse the variety of the behaviors observed in the local climate dynamics. In particular, the intermittency seems to be the typical behavior of a local climate system from such viewpoint. Here we continue to verify the HDS-model and continue to develop the idea of the modified bifurcation diagrams to reveal the regularities within the intermittency. In particular, we first build the spatial diagram to summarize the results of the bifurcation analysis of the local climate dynamics in the centennial timescale. We assume that each effect of the regional temperature oscillations (RTO-effect) appears as a certain combination of several effects of the local temperature oscillations (LTO-effects), where each LTO-effect can be revealed by the bifurcation analysis. The possibility to build the modified bifurcation diagrams is provided by the SUC-logic aimed for the synthesis of experimental bifurcation analysis, symbolical analysis, and multidimensional data visualization under the assumption that an annual warming-cooling cycle is the unit to

  10. DUAL TRAINING IN RUSSIA: FROM THE CONCEPT TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Listvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to judge and justify the conditions of system elements application of dual training at implementation of programs of professional education for increase of efficiency of functioning and quality of preparation of qualified personnel by institutions of the secondary professional education (SPE. Methods. The methods used in work involve the comparative analysis of practice of application of dual training in system of professional education of Germany and regions of Russia for the purpose of identification of the existing problems and definition of optimum organizational and legal and didactic conditions. Results. The essence of system of dual training, its strong and weaknesses reveals. Necessary and indispensable conditions of application of dual training in modern regional systems of professional education are proved. Scientific novelty. According to the author, modern publications on problems and ways of development of professional education in Russia contain enough antinomy of standard and legal and organizational and administrative character. In particular, operating by the concept «dual education», an identification of the practice-focused and dual training introduction «the list 50 of the most demanded in labor market, the new and perspective professions that demand secondary professional education» as opposed to the existing list of professions and the constitutional guarantee of public and free secondary professional education. Standard and legal, and didactic conditions of application of elements of dual training in regional systems of professional education are proved theoretically. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be useful to pedagogical staff of institutions of secondary professional education, representatives of employers and Chambers of Commerce and Industry to the organization and use of system of dual training in training of skilled workers (serving

  11. Striking the balance: Challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degteva, Svetlana V; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Eisenman, Sasha W; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav

    2015-10-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on the largest remaining tracts of old-growth boreal forest in Europe necessitates additional conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity in northeastern European Russia. In a regional network comprising 8 % of the Nenets Autonomous District and 13.5 % of the Komi Republic, 248 areas have varying protected statuses as state nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, reserves/sanctuaries (zakazniks), or natural monuments. Due to increased natural resource extraction in this relatively pristine area, designation of additional protected areas is critical for the protection of key ecological sites. The history of ecological preservation in these regions is herein described, and recent recommendations for incorporating additional ecologically representative areas into the regional network are presented. If the protected area network can be expanded, the overall environmental stability in these globally significant ecosystems may remain intact, and can help Russia meet the 2020 Aichi conservation targets, as set forth by the Convention of Biological Diversity.

  12. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  13. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  14. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantueva, Radzhana

    2017-04-14

    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  15. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova

    2014-01-01

    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute (www.ipgg.sbras.ru/ru/institute/structure/geophysics/natural-fields). GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at http://maps.nrcgit.ru/geoterm. In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  16. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  17. CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: THE PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. LITVYAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  18. Specifics of Cluster Policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zemtsov S.P; Pavlov P.N; Sorokina A.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of management quality survey in Russian clusters that reveals specifics of cluster support policy in Russia. We compare 22 Russian clusters, supported by the Government, using series of indicators measuring cooperation intensity of cluster participants and activity of cluster management teams. We introduce a description of the typical Russian innovative territorial cluster, based on the average values of the indicators. Our analysis revealed that international...

  19. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and Armenia. For reference, USA was 6th 59 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco -Russian Rapprochement and the Future of...policy started by Turkey, which allows Russians in for 30 days, VISA-free. 60 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco ...Shevtsova, L. “Imitation Russia,” Nov/Dec 2006, American Interest, pp. 67-77 78. Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco

  20. Development of Russia economy under Putin governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pernikář, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my Bachelor thesis is to describe the development of Russia economy under governance of president Vladimir Putin. Analyze the causes of recent economic development and indentify potential problems. First chapter describes the development after collapse of the Soviet union till Putin appointment. In second chapter GDP, unemployment and inflation is shown. Third chapter is oriented on foreign trade. Balance of payment, FDI and exchange rate are describes in fourth chapter. Fifth cha...

  1. Environmental management tools: international practicies for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanina, T.; Pintassilgo, P.; Matias, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the basic tools of environmental management applied by developed countries and discusses its application to Russia. The focus is on environmental management instruments such as environmental taxes, subsidies, standards, permits and also on the important role of voluntary tools. Russian practice is analyzed in terms of the current environmental management situation and the prospects of necessary legislative actions. The article refers to the formation of the basic parts...

  2. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  3. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, M.; I. Semenchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  4. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brousser, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  5. Foreword: French Language Acquisition in Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Offord

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The foreword to Vivliofika’s cluster of articles on French language acquisition in Imperial Russia mentions the scholarly project and conference out of which the cluster arises, briefly describes the UK-based project, states the importance of study of education in it, summarises a few of the main educational questions that are germane in this connection and, finally, simply introduces the contents of the cluster.

  6. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  7. Fiscal Federalism in Russia: A Canadian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some of the key instrumental components of intergovernmental fiscal relations that arise in the Russian Federation -- expenditures, revenues, transfers, borrowing, and institutional arrangements -- in comparison both to Canada’s lengthy experience with federalism and to a framework developed on the basis of previous work on fiscal federalism in a variety of transitional and developing countries. Unsurprisingly, from either of these perspectives fiscal federalism in Russia...

  8. Significance of Protected Areas for the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul: Felidae conservation in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pallas's cat, or Manul, Otocolobus manul, belongs to the small felines. In Russia this species is located at the northern periphery of its range. Potential habitats of this species within its Russian range's part have been highlighted on the base of remote sensing data, topographic maps and digital cartographic models. Maps of the Pallas's cat's records in Russia have been compiled using literature data, authors' own data and information provided by contributors of the online database «Small Wild Сats of Eurasia». We have shown the representation of potential habitats of the Pallas's cat and its actual registrations within Protected Areas of Russia. The total area of potential habitats for this species in Russia is assessed as 145,150 km2. The presence of Manul is confirmed for five regions of Russia: Republic of Altai, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Trans-Baikal Krai. The registration of the species' records mainly corresponds to the location of its potential habitats. The main categories of both federal and regional Russian Protected Areas cover 10.8% (13.5% taken with the buffer zones of the total area of potential habitats for the Pallas's cat. The significance of each Protected Area for Manul conservation has been considered in detail. We have discussed whether the representativeness of the existing Protected Areas is sufficient for conservation of this species. We have identified the main territorial gaps that reduce the Pallas's cat protection in some parts of the Russian range.

  9. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  11. Biotechnological studies in the Far-Eastern Region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonik, Valentin A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bulgakov, Victor P; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2007-07-01

    Achievements and problems in both the studies on natural bioactive compounds from the Far-Eastern higher plants and marine invertebrates and development of the corresponding biotechnologies concerning new drugs and food supplements, as well as pharmaceutical leads are discussed. Special emphasis is made on recent results from the Far-eastern Institutions belonging to the Russian Academy of Sciences, and their application in both medicine and the food industry, as well as on peculiarities of biological and chemical diversity in the North-Western part of Asia and adjoining seas.

  12. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare (1Rev)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    threat and an opportunity in this regard.  Russian military theorists generally do not use the terms cyber or cyberwarfare. Instead, they...Ukraine, Russia appeared to employ cyber as a conventional force enabler.  The Georgia and Ukraine conflicts also provided opportunities for Russia...Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del: MVD) focuses on cyber crime.14 For a brief period in the 1990s, Russia had a separate information security agency, the Federal

  13. CRFA President Chen Yuan Leads Delegation to Visit Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The year 2014 marked the 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Russia as well as establishment of the China-Russia Friendship Association(C R FA).The success ful meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President VladimirPutin in May of the year elevated the China-Russia comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership to a

  14. Problems and prospects of integration development of oil and gas complex in the south of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitaeva Anastasia, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic transformations of the global energy market in recent years have formed the basic tendency of development of modern oil and gas complex – consolidation and integration of companies in the industry to maintain its competitiveness and ensure sustainable strategic business development. In this regard, the issues of building effective mechanisms of partnership interactions and management of integration processes of oil and gas complex at the national and regional levels become relevant. The authors describe the specific operating conditions of oil and gas companies in southern Russia, identify obstacles to the region's integration into the structure of the Russian oil and gas industry, and formulate directions and measures activation of innovative development of oil and gas complex in the South of Russia.

  15. Assessment of raw-mineral resources exploration influence on economic security of russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennad’evich Shelomentsev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the impact of development of mineral resources on the economic security of Russia. The main branch of the national economy, to which mineral resources have a significant impact, are reviewed. The authors examine the economic security in terms of strategictypes of mineralresources of the nationaleconomy and thecompetitiveness of mineralresources and theirreproduction in thelong term, as well as theimpact of mineral resources development on theregionaleconomy. It isconcluded that the primary socioeconomic development of the regions demands, on the one hand, rapid reproduction and development of mineral resources, and on the other hand, infrastructure of thereclaimed subsoil. The paper presents the activities of the state and recommendations on the formation of public policy in the sphere of economic security at the federal, sectoral and regional levels. The findings are based on the evaluation of the role of mineral resources in the leading economies, developing countries and Russia

  16. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES OF BUSINESS INCUBATION: THE USA, GERMANY AND RUSSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva

    2017-01-01

    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  17. An Inventory of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from the Rostov-on-Don province of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavsky, Alexander N

    2015-11-27

    Records of leafroller moths (Tortricidae) from the Rostov-on-Don province of southern Russia are presented based on 10 years of field work (2005-2014). The list includes 91 species from 43 collecting sites; 80 species are recorded from the region for the first time. Compared to other well-surveyed, adjacent areas, the tortricid fauna is considerably more depauperate, and this may be explained in part by the predominance of steppe vegetation.

  18. [The Foundation for European Education in Anesthesiology (FEEA): the first steps in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherperel, F; Lebedinskiĭ, K M; Gordeev, V I; Obolenskiĭ, S V; Pogorel'chuk, V V; Aleksandrovich, Iu S; Koriachkin, V A; Glushchenko, V A

    2009-01-01

    The mission, structure, and working schedule of the Foundation for European Education in Anesthesiology (FEEA), an international non-profitable organization with 70 regional centers in Europe, Central and South America, Africa, and Asia, which are organized in 2006-2007 in Saint Petersburg by the Association and Society of Anesthesiologists and all the Anesthesiology Departments of the city are given. Today's geography of FEEA, dedicated to ESA diploma (DESA) exam training, is expanding in Russia.

  19. Adaptability of grades and hybrids of tangerine in a subtropical zone of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Abilphazova; Oksana Belous

    2015-01-01

    Results of researches of various cultivars and hybrids of tangerine growing in the conditions of the humid subtropics of Russia and possessing valuable physiological and biochemical markers are presented in article. The stress factors limiting cultivation of tangerine culture in Krasnodar region are defined. The assessment of the water saving and enzymes activity in tangerine leaves is given. Changes of physiological parameters at influence of a stressful factor are shown. The analysis of wat...

  20. Regional Overview: The Rebalance Picks up Steam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ralph A Cossa; Brad Glosserman

    2015-01-01

      China continues to make its presence felt in regional affairs as well; President Xi Jinping attended dual summit meetings in Ufa, Russia with other BRICS and Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO...

  1. FACTORS DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN FDI INFLOWS INTO AZERBAIJAN''S AND RUSSIA''S OIL SECTORS AFTER INDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Eyyubov, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the FDI inflows into Azerbaijan's and Russia's oil sectors between 1991 and 2006. It identifies the main reasons for Azerbaijan's advantage over Russia. The author first gives a brief explanation of FDI in general, then identifies the different patterns of FDI inflow into the oil sectors of both Azerbaijan and Russia, and concludes his article by pointing out the main determinants of the differences in FDI inflow into the oil sectors of these two countries.

  2. Occupational health and health care in Russia and Russian Arctic: 1980–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paradox in Russia and its Arctic regions which reports extremely low rates of occupational diseases (ODs, far below those of other socially and economically advanced circumpolar countries. Yet, there is widespread disregard for occupational health regulations and neglect of basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises. Study design and methods. This review article presents official statistics and summarises the results of a search of peer-reviewed scientific literature published in Russia on ODs and occupational health care in Russia and the Russian Arctic, within the period 1980–2010. Results. Worsening of the economic situation, layoff of workers, threat of unemployment and increased work load happened during the “wild market” industrial restructuring in 1990–2000, when the health and safety of workers were of little concern. Russian employers are not legally held accountable for neglecting safety rules and for underreporting of ODs. Almost 80% of all Russian industrial enterprises are considered dangerous or hazardous for health. Hygienic control of working conditions was minimised or excluded in the majority of enterprises, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. There is direct evidence of general degradation of the occupational health care system in Russia. The real levels of ODs in Russia are estimated to be at least 10–100 times higher than reported by official statistics. The low official rates are the result of deliberate hiding of ODs, lack of coverage of working personnel by properly conducted medical examinations, incompetent management and the poor quality of staff, facilities and equipment. Conclusions. Reform of the Russian occupational health care system is urgently needed, including the passing of strong occupational health legislation and their enforcement, the maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers

  3. HOTEL FRANCHISING IN RUSSIA IN THE LIGHT OF THE DOMESTIC TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses future prospects of franchising development of hotel chains in Russia. The relevance is due to the strong growth of domestic tourism in recent years. So, it becomes necessary to increase the number of hotels and rise the quality of tourist services.Goal/objectives. The purpose of this article is to identify the advantages of franchising for the development of hotel chains. To achieve this goal, the author has posed and solved the following tasks: analyze the current situation on the hotel market of Russia, tendencies of its development, uncovered potential hotel franchise for the successful development of domestic tourism in Russia.Methodology. The theoretical basis of this article leans on the work of Russian researchers, in the hotel industry, analyst reports made by consulting companies. Also the author takes into account experience of real participants of this business. As a methodological basis of this article, the author used: analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, induction and deduction.Results. Franchising is one of the most eff ective ways of of hotel business development today, which, unfortunately, has not yet received wide distribution in Russia.Conclusions/significance. The development of domestic tourism in every country requires a stable growth in the amount of hotels and an improvement of tourism services quality.Current world practice proves that hotel franchising could help to reach this target. In spite of novelty of franchising in Russian industry, this tool has already successfully used in major international hotel chains in several Russian regions. And today Russian hotel chains more and more approve the benefits of franchising development. However, the its development is slow due to the unfavorable business climate in Russia.

  4. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  5. Modern Aspects of Cultural and Historical Heritage Involvement in Tourism Activities in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aleksandrova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on problems and prospects of cultural tourism development in Russia. The results of overall research at national, regional and local levels and case studies held in several regions of Russia are presented. They confirm that Russia’s huge cultural and historical heritage is still inefficiently used in tourism. In recent years the growing demand for cultural tours remains largely pending due to lack of modern tourist products and their insufficient promotion. The use of iconic and flagship attractions for increasing the destination attractiveness as well as culture-tourism interaction in regional development are being discussed. Currently, particular attention is paid to events based on cultural and historical sites. “National Calendar of Events” and national “Russian Event Award” are established to encourage event tourism growth. State policy in cultural tourism management in Russia is now changing mainly from the separate “growth points” development to the organization of interregional tourist routes based on diverse cultural heritage. Effective interaction of cultural heritage and tourism industry requires special measures and platforms based on the partnership of a vast number of stakeholders.

  6. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  7. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  8. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  9. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  10. Assessment and forecast of changes of reservoir volumes due to thermal settling in permafrost areas of Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilja S.Sobol; Stanislav V.Sobol

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of data analyses and assessments of field and theoretical researches on reservoir bed relief transformation due to thermal settling in the permafrost regions of Russia. The resulting changes (increases) of the total volumes of large and small reservoirs are quantified, of which information will be of great use in future reservoir design and exploitation.

  11. Russia's Social Transformation: Contradictions and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the political elites of Russia described for the general public a bright future based on Western values: transition from highly centralized planning economic system to market economy via shock therapy, development from highly centralized political system to "democratic system" by implementing "separation of powers," development from underdevelopment of social functions to "civil society" by fostering the middle-class in order to achieve economic prosperity, political democracy, social justice and building a strong and powerful nation in the shortest possible time.

  12. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents new calendar of immunoprophylaxis in Russia, functioning since 2008, with author’s comments to its innovations. Mass vaccination against influenza was added to other ones, presenting in calendar earlier. The age limits of vaccination against hepatitis B, rubella, and measles were enlarged, and scheme of vaccination against hepatitis B was changed. This article describes new opportunities of immunoprophylaxis, that didn’t find its place in calendar yet.Key words: children, immunoprophylaxis, vaccination calendar.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:114-120

  13. Institutional design of food quality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoguzov Eugene, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the comprehensive analysis of reforms consequences in the field of technical regulation of food quality in Russia. In the research the institutional approach is applied to discover reasons of this problem. Institutional changes have brought to the loss of food determinacy on the Russian food markets. Authors propose a way to solutions this problem mentioned by the institutional design of food quality. The institutional design based on the idea of conventional norms (social standards, the development of which is possible due to reconciling the interests of social groups.

  14. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  15. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  16. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  17. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia Using a Focus Reduction Neutralization Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ivanov, Leonid I.; Leonova, Galina N.; Takashima, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus has been spreading geographically to non-endemic areas in various parts of the world. However, little is known about the extent of WN virus infection in Russia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, which is closely related to WN virus, is prevalent throughout East Asia. We evaluated the effectiveness of a focus reduction neutralization test in young chicks inoculated with JE and WN viruses, and conducted a survey of WN infection among wild birds in Far Eastern Russia. Following single virus infection, only neutralizing antibodies specific to the homologous virus were detected in chicks. The neutralization test was then applied to serum samples from 145 wild birds for WN and JE virus. Twenty-one samples were positive for neutralizing antibodies to WN. These results suggest that WN virus is prevalent among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia. PMID:21363987

  18. Natural hazards and technological risk in Russia: the relation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every natural disaster is accompanied by some sort of technological one. A number of studies also show a correlation between technological disasters and various global processes such as solar disturbances, geophysical field variation etc. In this study we attempted to ascertain and codify the relationship between different types of technological disasters and natural hazards. Two types of natural hazards were found, based on their genesis, distribution in time, and impact pattern on the technosphere. Solar and geomagnetic disturbances generally affect technological risk through the failure of automatic machinery and the reduction of operator reliability. They increase the probability of transport accidents, fires, and catastrophic toxic emissions. These types of technological disasters are widely prevalent throughout Russia and in all federal regions. Geological, climatic, hydrological, and other natural hazardous processes increase technological risk through direct mechanical impacts. Their occurrence in space and time depends on the character of the natural process and the specific regional environment. The total number and proportion of technological disasters in federal regions results mainly from the concentration of industrial units and their type, as well as the local natural and social environment. Temporal changes in the number of technological disasters of different groups depend on the prevailing type of natural processes.

  19. The Outlook of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in The Light of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed the building of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt. Against this background, the involved countries will achieve joint development and co-prosperity by carrying out all-round regional cooperation. As close neighbors, both China and Russia have very important political and economic positions in the world; meanwhile, energy cooperation is one of most significant and influential fields in the China-Russia relationship. This paper tries to analyze some concrete issues in the process of the China-Russia energy cooperation, illustrate the outlook of the cooperation between the two countries in terms of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and finally raise policy references to deepen the China-Russia energy cooperation in the future.

  20. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through different co-financing programmes, can also become innovators.