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Sample records for volcanological complex guatemala

  1. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  2. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    The people, geography, history, government, economy, defense and foreign relations of Guatemala are reviewed in this background notes series publication by the U.S. State Department. There are 8.4 million Guatemalans, growing at 3.1% annually. Infant mortality rate is 79/1000 and life expectancy is 55 years among the Indian population. The terrain includes both tropical rain forest and hot fertile lowlands, and cooler central highlands. The native Indians are descendants of the Mayans, conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century. Since independence in 1821, Guatemala has endured a succession of dictatorships, military coups, and political violence. The current government, in power since 1986, has the benefit of elections and a constitution. The economy is based on private enterprise, including exports of agricultural commodities and petroleum. The country is self-sufficent in hydroelectric power. It has suffered from economic setbacks and guerrilla insurgencies in recent years, but Guatemala has the resources for diverse agricultural products and tourism.

  3. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Guatemala's area comprises 108,780 square km or 42,000 square miles. The population numbered 9 million in 1990. Ethnic groups include mixed Spanish-Indian races. Spanish and 23 Indian languages are used. Literacy is 52%, the infant mortality rate is 73/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years but only 44 years for Indians. The government is constitutional democratic republic. The total gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $10 billion in 1990. US economic assistance amounted to $118 million in FY 1990. Protestantism and traditional Indian religions make up 30% of practiced religion. Since the defeat of the flourishing Mayan civilization by the Spanish in 1523-24 the country's history has been turbulent with a series of dictatorships after independence in 1821. In its recent history Vinicio Cerezo won the 1985 election overwhelmingly, but renewed violence, a failing economy, strikes, corruption, and an inability to deal with infant mortality, illiteracy, and the low quality of health care marked its final years. In 1990 Jorge Serrano was elected in the 1st democratic transition. Negotiations were started with the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unit to end the violence and respect human rights. An agreement on dialogue was signed in Oslo with the hope of ending one of the oldest insurgencies in the world. The economy started to improve after 1986, and far-reaching reforms could induce rapid growth in coming years especially in agricultural exports. The private sector generates 90% of the GDP. Foreign development assistance has increased: the US has contributed $800 million since 1986. Impediments to faster economic growth are posed by illiteracy and low levels of education, insufficient capital market, and limitations of the infrastructure.

  4. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.

    2007-05-01

    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  5. First physical volcanological description of a Miocene, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall complex in the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Tamás; Hencz, Mátyás; Karátson, Dávid; Márton, Emő; Bradák-Hayashi, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    The study reports the basic physical volcanological and stratigraphical features of a hitherto unrecognized silicic phreatomagmatic fall succession from the Bükk Foreland Volcanic Area (Hungary), known as part of the extensive Miocene ignimbrite volcanism of the northern CPR. The complex have been identified at two sites, in the vicinity of Bogács and Tibolddaróc villages. Tens of mm to several dm thick layers make up the 20 m thick entire succession. The complex could be subdivided into three eruption cycles by two, intercalated well-developed paleosoil horizons, which indicate longer repose periods. The eruption cycles consist of several individual eruptive events. The volcano-sedimentological field approach was completed by granulometrical and low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies. Combined dry sieving and laser diffraction particle size analysis were performed to get information on median grain size (MdΦ) and sorting (σΦ) of friable layers. AMS was used to infer the emplacement processes. Based on the following features the succession is proposed to record a large-scale, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall activity: i) Presence of very fine ash and abundant ash aggregates, ii) General poor sorting, and often bimodal grain-size distributions; ii) Extremely weak magnetic fabric compared to dilute, thin pyroclastic density current deposits. On the basis of comparison of the recorded grain size characteristics with data from other silicic phretomagmatic fall deposits worldwide, several units in the succession can be considered as phreatoplinian fall deposit (sensu lato), described for the first time in the CPR.

  6. Unraveling the history of complex zoned garnets from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barickman, M. H.; Martin, C.; Flores, K. E.; Harlow, G. E.; Bonnet, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is situated in central Guatemala, between the North American and Caribbean plates. Two serpentinite mélanges straddle the Motagua Fault system: the North Motagua Mélange (NMM) and the South Motagua Mélange (SMM). In this study, chemically zoned garnet grains from four eclogite blocks from the NMM were analyzed by EMPA for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements to unravel the geological history of the eclogites. These eclogites typically consist of euhedral to subhedral garnets, partly retrogressed omphacite grains, and accessory minerals such as phengite and epidote as inclusions in garnet. EBSD was employed to examine apparent garnet inclusions in garnet. The garnet grains in NMM eclogites display complex chemical zonations: all grains roughly show a spessartine-rich core, an almandine-rich core and/or intermediate zone, and a pyrope and grossular-rich rim. Additionally, crystal resorption can be observed between the different zones, and the pyrope-grossular rim can display oscillatory zoning. Finally, grossular-rich zones (crystallographically syntactic) within garnet are present in all studied samples. REE and spider diagrams do not show any significant difference in the patterns of the different zones within the garnet, or indicating that the chemical environment from which each garnet zone grew was broadly the same. The lack of significant variation in LILE content indicates that a fluid influx during garnet growth is unlikely. Consequently, we interpret that garnet grains grew in a largely closed system; however, the presence of the grossular-rich zones, argues for occasional excursions into conditions when either two garnets crystallized or Ca-rich overgrowths that were largely resorbed prior to subsequent continued garnet growth.

  7. The late Quaternary Diego Hernandez Formation, Tenerife: Volcanology of a complex cycle of voluminous explosive phonolitic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, C. J.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P. H.; Nichols, H. J.; Pittari, A.; Cas, R. A. F.; Reiners, P. W.; Spell, T. L.; Martí, J.

    2007-02-01

    The Diego Hernandez Formation (DHF; 600-ca. 180 ka) represents the products of the most recent complete cycle of phonolitic explosive volcanism on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). We provide a revised and detailed stratigraphy, new 40Ar/ 39Ar and (U-Th)/He age determinations for major eruptive units, a summary of new chemical data and an overview of the key characteristics of the cycle, including volume estimates, dispersal patterns, eruption styles, phreatomagmatic influences and caldera collapse episodes. The complex stratigraphy of the DHF is divided into 20 named members, each representing a major eruption, as well as numerous unnamed members of limited present-day exposure. The major eruptions are represented by the Fortaleza (370 ka), Roque (347 ka, 3 km 3), Aldea (319 ka, 3 km 3), Fasnia (309 ka, 13 km 3), Poris (268 ka, 3.5 km 3), Arafo (4 km 3), Caleta (223 ka, 3.5 km 3) and Abrigo (between 196 and 171 ka, 20 km 3) Members. The Aldea, Fasnia and Poris Members consist of highly complex successions of plinian fall, surge and flow deposits and several of the eruptions produced widespread and internally complex ignimbrite sheets. Phreatomagmatism occurred most frequently in the opening phase of the eruptions but also recurred repeatedly throughout many of the sequences. Inferred sources of water include a shallow caldera lake and groundwater, and intermittent phreatomagmatic activity was an important influence on eruption style. Another important factor was conduit and vent instability, which frequently loaded the eruption column with dense lithic debris and occasionally triggered column collapse and ignimbrite formation. Most of the major DHF eruptions were triggered by injection of mafic magma into existing phonolitic magma bodies. Two phonolitic magma types were available for eruption during the lifetime of the DHF, but each was dominant at different times. The results presented here support a caldera collapse rather than a landslide model for the origin

  8. UNM/LANL Volcanology Summer Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eaton, A.; Goff, F.; Fischer, T. P.; Baldridge, W.; Semken, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Volcanology Summer Field Course, taught jointly by volcanologists from the University of New Mexico and Los Alamos National Laboratory, has instructed over 140 undergraduate and graduate students from 15 countries since 1992. The course consists of nine graded field exercises conducted in diverse volcanic rocks of the Miocene to Quaternary-age Jemez Volcanic Field and Valles caldera, with excursions to the Miocene Ship Rock dike and plug complex, the Pliocene Mount Taylor composite volcano, and the Quaternary Zuni-Bandera basalt field. Exercises focus on mapping large-scale silicic eruption deposits (e.g., Bandelier Tuff as well as older and younger eruptions), establishing volcanic stratigraphy, understanding the processes of water-magma interaction through detailed mapping, and investigating hydrothermal alteration in an intra-caldera setting. Techniques such as geothermal gas sampling and identification of volcanic rocks and structures form an integral part of the training. Contributing to the success of the course include: 1) its small class size of 16 to 17 students; 2) duration of 3.5 weeks--long enough for sustained focus on the Jemez field area; 3) central lodging arrangement (Young's Ranch Field Station), with meals coordinated by a camp cook; 4) organized course structure supplementing field assignments with evening lectures in a common-room; 5) instructors with a variety of geological/volcanological expertise; and 6) the ability to team up with multi-national students bringing a wide array of approaches and experiences. The course acts as a springboard for students pursuing interests in volcanology, offering an intensive and lively field experience that is difficult to find anywhere else.

  9. Geomorphology and volcanology of Maat Mons, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2016-10-01

    Full-resolution (FMIDR) Magellan radar backscatter images have been used to characterize the geology and volcanology of the volcano Maat Mons on Venus. This volcano has often been identified by remote sensing techniques as one of the volcanoes on the planet that could have been recently active, and is the highest volcano on Venus with a relief of ∼9 km. The summit of Maat Mons is characterized by a caldera complex ∼26 × 30 km in diameter with at least six remnant pit craters ∼10 km in diameter preserved in the walls of the caldera, suggesting that multiple small volume (lava flow types, described as "digitate flows", "sheet flows", "fan flows" and "filamentary flows", can be identified on the flanks. Three rift zones can be identified from the distribution of 217 pit craters >1 km in diameter on the flanks. These pits appear to have formed by collapse with no effusive activity associated with their formation. No evidence for explosive volcanism can be identified, despite the (relatively) low atmospheric pressure (∼55 bar) near the summit. There is also a lack of evidence for lava channels, deformation features within the caldera, and thrust faults on the flanks, indicating that the physical volcanology of Maat Mons is simpler than that of typical martian and terrestrial shield volcanoes. Preservation of fine-scale (3-4 pixels) structures within the pit craters and summit pits is consistent with geologically very recent activity, but no evidence for current activity can be identified.

  10. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (alteration on erosional surfaces of the domes, but not the type of pervasive acid-sulfate alteration implicated in collapses of other altered edifices. To evaluate the possibility of internal alteration, we re-examined existing aqueous geochemical data from dome-fed hot springs. The data indicate significant water–rock interaction, but the Na–Mg–K geoindicator suggests only a short water residence time, and δ18O/δD ratios show only minor shifts from the meteoric water line with little precipitation of secondary (alteration) minerals. Based on available data, hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration within the dome

  11. Experimental Volcanology: 2010 and 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The advent of an experimental approach to volcanology has its roots in decades-old laboratory based approaches to characterising the properties of magmas and analog materials, together with the attempts at simulating volcanic processes in the lab. A little over ten years ago many new thrusts of experimental advance led to a new dawn for experimental science applied to volcanic eruptions. Along with that, new expectations, new goals and new strategies emerged about ten years ago. Ten years later, in 2010, many fruits have been born of this labour, and new frontiers are being unfolded as we meet here. Here are some of the youngest captivating themes being explored in experimental programs today: 1) interfacing volcanic monitoring systems to experimentally generated eruptions. 2) elucidating the physicochemical behavior of experimentally generated volcanic ash as an agent in the earth system. 3) blending experimental rock deformation and magmatology studies to understand the strength and stability of volcanic materials and volcanic structures 4) exploiting the kinematics of experimentally-generated versus natural volcanic products to understand flow style and strain history. The past ten years of experimental developments in volcanology have prepared us for great advances in the future, most of which were not perceived as likely avenues of investigation as little as ten years ago! The situation is likely to repeat itself in 2020.

  12. High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Gemma; Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Marsella, Ennio; Passaro, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    New high resolution seismic data (Subbottom Chirp) coupled to high resolution Multibeam bathymetry collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment aimed at recording active seismic data and tomography of the Stromboli Island are here presented. The Stromboli geophysical experiment has been already carried out based on onshore and offshore data acquisition in order to investigate the deep structure and the location of the magma chambers of the Stromboli volcano. A new detailed swath bathymetry of Stromboli Island is here shown and discussed to reconstruct an up-to-date morpho-bathymetry and marine geology of the area compared to the volcanologic setting of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex. Due to its high resolution the new Digital Terrain Model of the Stromboli Island gives interesting information about the submerged structure of the volcano, particularly about the volcano-tectonic and gravitational processes involving the submarine flanks of the edifice. Several seismic units have been identified based on the geologic interpretation of Subbottom Chirp profiles recorded around the volcanic edifice and interpreted as volcanic acoustic basement pertaining to the volcano and overlying slide chaotic bodies emplaced during its complex volcano-tectonic evolution. They are related to the eruptive activity of Stromboli, mainly poliphasic and to regional geological processes involving the intriguing geology of the Aeolian Arc, a volcanic area still in activity and needing improved research interest.

  13. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  14. Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.

  15. 2010 Pacaya, Guatemala Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A television reporter was killed by a shower of burning rocks when he got too close to the volcano, about 15 miles (25 kilometers) south of Guatemala City. On 29...

  16. "Demokratiseerimine" Guatemala moodi / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Guatemala ajaloost, Ameerika Ühendriikide poolt Guatemalas toime pandud riigipööretest ja kodusõjas toimunud maia-indiaanlaste genotsiidist, mille eest vastutavaid isikuid on nüüd hakatud kohtu alla andma

  17. "Demokratiseerimine" Guatemala moodi / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Guatemala ajaloost, Ameerika Ühendriikide poolt Guatemalas toime pandud riigipööretest ja kodusõjas toimunud maia-indiaanlaste genotsiidist, mille eest vastutavaid isikuid on nüüd hakatud kohtu alla andma

  18. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  19. Inflationary Dynamics in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. FULLERTON

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Short-run price dynamics for Guatemala are analyzedusing a linear transfer function methodology.  This approach has previously been employed for other national economies such as the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Nigeria. The data for this study range from 1960 to 2010.  Inflation is measured using the consumer price index.  Explanatory variables include the monetary base, real output, interest rates, and the exchange rate. Allof the estimated coefficients exhibit the arithmetic signs hypothesized by the theoretical model. Almostall of the parameter estimates satisfy the 5-percent significance criterion and all exhibit economically plausible magnitudes. Estimation results indicate that although monetary policy effects begin to materialize within twelve months of implementation, the bulk of the impacts associated with the money supply do not occur until the second year after any monetary policy action is taken.Keywords. Inflation, Guatemala, Monetary Economics, Applied Econometrics.JEL. C22, E31, O54.

  20. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  1. Volcanological applications of the Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, R.; Carn, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Kinect is a motion capture device designed for the Microsoft Xbox system. The device comprises a visible (RGB) camera and an infrared (IR) camera, refractor and light emitter emitting a known structured light pattern at a near-infrared wavelength of 830 nm, plus a three-axis accelerometer and four microphones. Moreover, by combining the signal from the IR camera and the light emitter it is possible to produce a distance image (depth). Thanks to the efforts of the free and open source software community, although originally intended to be used for videogames the Kinect can be exploited as a short range low-cost LiDAR sensor by scientists in various fields. The main limitation of the Kinect is its working distance, which ranges from ~0.5 to 15 m, with a distance sensitivity of ~1 mm at 0.5 m and ~8 cm at 5 m estimated by Mankoff et al. (2011). After their co-registration, we will present the calibration process for the RGB, depth and IR intensity images, and a sensitivity analysis of the IR intensity to the color spectrum will be performed. We expect the intensity to exhibit a non-linear correlation with distance of the target from the sensor, with lower sensitivity and larger errors at greater distances. We envisage several possible applications of the small-scale, precise topographic data acquired by the Kinect in volcanology, and solicit other ideas from the community. Possible applications could include monitoring of light tephra accumulation to characterize mass flux, monitoring of active lava flows or mapping inactive lava tubes, capturing topographic data on the outcrop scale, mapping surface roughness variations on volcanic mass flow deposits, or visualizing analog volcano models in the lab. As a demonstration, we will present an application of the Kinect as a tool for 3D visualization of volcanic rock samples. Data will be collected with free and open source software, demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of the Kinect for volcanological applications

  2. Guatemala - The Role of Judicial Modernization in Post Conflict Reconstruction and Social Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The Peace Accords of 1996 brought an end to 36 years of armed conflict in Guatemala, and signaled the beginning of a complex and challenging process of reconstruction and social reconciliation. A central plank of the consensus expressed in the Peace Accords was the overhauling of Guatemala's public institutions, which were seen to exacerbate the social and economic injustices that had cont...

  3. concreto en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Mejicanos Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza en el sistema de jurisdicción constitucional guatemalteco, en especial de la Corte de Constitucionalidad de Guatemala, el procedimiento del control concreto de constitucionalidad a petición de parte y aquel desarrollado de manera oficiosa por la propia Corte de Constitucionalidad. Asimismo se analizan los efectos de los fallos en la materia de la Corte, como asimismo se realiza un análisis crítico del estado de la situación en la materia analizada y se formulan algunas proposiciones para mejorar el tratamiento institucional de la materia.

  4. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domínguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catú, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O; Lindblade, Kim A

    2009-01-01

    .... We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification...

  5. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  6. ITCB's Guatemala Communiqué

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ITCB Council of Representatives,meeting at its 44th session from 16-19 April 2007 in Guatemala City,discussed important issues challenging global textile and clothing industry with topics on the agenda shown below:

  7. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  8. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  9. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  10. Café y campesinos en Guatemala (1853- 1897). Introducción a la Historia Agraria de Guatemala. Agrarismo en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se analizan los libros titulados Café y campesinos en Guatemala (1853- 1897), Introducción a la Historia Agraria de Guatemala y Agrarismo en Guatemala, publicados por el autor Julio Castellanos Cambranes.

  11. Grassroots movement in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A new report on the National Seminar on the Integrated Project (IP) established in 1988 in San Lucas Toliman, Solota State, Guatemala is summarized. Conference participants included area mayors, community leaders, health promoters, military personnel, health center workers, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), representatives from San Carlos University, Project staff, and members of a vocational sewing school operating under the IP. The seminar objective was to inform participants about project achievements and the success of integration of family planning (FP), maternal and child health (MCH), primary health care, environmental sanitation, and community development. The current target population is 70,000 people from the initial area of San Lucas Toliman and the neighboring areas of Godinez, Agua Escondida, San Antonio Palapo, Santa Catarina, San Andres Semetabaj, Patanatic, and Panajachel in Solola and Patulu in Suchitepequez State. Several projects were the primary focus: the MCH Handbook on FP, new equipment and facilities, a field trip to San Lucas Toliman, and parasite control and community participation. The MCH Handbook was developed based on the Japanese MCH Handbook and funded by the Japanese Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication's voluntary Deposit for International Aid (VDIA) scheme. the booklet is directed to illiterate Spanish-speaking populations through ample pictorial displays and literates. The focus on parasite control was the impetus for community participation and community funding of 1000 latrines. Personal hygiene habits have changed dramatically. Japanese technical assistance was given for refinement of technical skills in sewing and income generation through demonstrations of laboratory and field techniques and for promotion. A new IP laboratory in San Andres Sematabaj was also commemorated during the workshop period; a 3rd laboratory will be funded by the community. Both labs will be used for primary health care services and FP

  12. Development and Gender in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rosamaria

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, rural Mayan women in Guatemala have been working to overcome long-standing disadvantages: illiteracy, poverty, lack of basic community services, and lack of respect for women's abilities and contributions. Profiles of 10 Mayan women describe their educational experiences and their community development work, particularly in the…

  13. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  14. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-28

    republican governments of Estrada Cabrera and later of Jorge Ubico had a modern vision of the importance of economics but reversed the process that...important that the United States notice that Guatemala needed military aid. Peralta reinforced the army’s request for that aid. 2 3 in 1966 Lic Julio

  15. Looking Backward and Forward: A Decadal View of Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In many scientific fields, decades are the time intervals of choice for retrospective and prospective reflections and speculations. AGU Session V02 seeks to apply this perspective to the assessment of where volcanology has been since 2000 and where it is headed in the next ten years. Most sciences progress through incremental observational, experimental and theoretical steps, accelerated by the identification of new socially-relevant applications, technological breakthroughs or conceptual insights, and jolted by largely unanticipated events. Volcanology is unusual in the dominant role that unpredictable eruptive observations play in controlling the evolution of the discipline. As a result, the most important constraints on how the field will change are virtually unknowable. At a session at the Fall AGU meeting in 2000 on "Volcanology 2010" a dozen talks sought to forecast how volcano science and policy would change in the next ten years, focusing on such topics as seismology, petrology, remote sensing, deformation, volcano-tectonic interactions, communications, graduate education, international cooperation, numerical modeling, database querying, and networking of observatories. While progress occurred in many of these areas, what was perhaps the most important influence on volcanology was not mentioned: for the first 9.5 years of the decade, there were no eruptions disastrous or novel enough to garner global public or political attention, with associated prioritization by funding agencies. The notable exception was the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in mid-2010, which captured the western world’s attention due to the magnitude of the disruption, the frustrating inability of scientists to provide guidance, and the fortunate lack of casualties. We can expect continuing technical advances in all aspects of geoscience to improve the understanding of volcanic processes in the coming decade. However, another natural disaster in 2010 might hold more relevance for how

  16. Reaching the community in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) survey in the area near San Lucas Toliman, Solola State, where JOICFP is implementing its integrated project (IP) in Guatemala, will target the ethnic Mayan people living in the area. The IP is promoted by the Family Planning Association of Guatemala (APROFAM) and uses community participation with the support of women's clubs and traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The survey of about 1000 women of reproductive age will gauge progress in family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health, and environmental sanitation using a method sensitive to the Mayan culture. A JOICFP mission to Guatemala, which included Saeko Ichikawa (Global Link Management) and Ayumi Shingo (a public health nurse serving with the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers in Guatemala) pretested the survey. The team also discussed the work plan for the approved JOICFP/UNFPA Latin American regional project RLA/96//P02 and the country-level Integrated Reproductive Health/Family Planning with IEC for Adolescents Project. The mission met three volunteers at the IP laboratory, which provides basic examinations for a fee and uses volunteers who learn skills for future employment. The team discussed the laboratory as a model for the 13 new laboratories planned by APROFAM throughout the country. Another IP activity is the Chilam Balam education center in Aldea Panimatzalam, San Andres Semetabaj. Covering a population of 4616 in 8 communities, the center provides literacy education, vocational training, and education on adolescent health and environmental protection. The team discussed plans to start a revolving fund and received a request for typewriters for skills training. The team donated 8 typewriters to the women's club.

  17. Research collaboration, hazard modeling and dissemination in volcanology with Vhub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma Lizana, J. L.; Valentine, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Vhub (online at vhub.org) is a cyberinfrastructure for collaboration in volcanology research, education, and outreach. One of the core objectives of this project is to accelerate the transfer of research tools to organizations and stakeholders charged with volcano hazard and risk mitigation (such as observatories). Vhub offers a clearinghouse for computational models of volcanic processes and data analysis, documentation of those models, and capabilities for online collaborative groups focused on issues such as code development, configuration management, benchmarking, and validation. A subset of simulations is already available for online execution, eliminating the need to download and compile locally. In addition, Vhub is a platform for sharing presentations and other educational material in a variety of media formats, which are useful in teaching university-level volcanology. VHub also has wikis, blogs and group functions around specific topics to encourage collaboration and discussion. In this presentation we provide examples of the vhub capabilities, including: (1) tephra dispersion and block-and-ash flow models; (2) shared educational materials; (3) online collaborative environment for different types of research, including field-based studies and plume dispersal modeling; (4) workshops. Future goals include implementation of middleware to allow access to data and databases that are stored and maintained at various institutions around the world. All of these capabilities can be exercised with a user-defined level of privacy, ranging from completely private (only shared and visible to specified people) to completely public. The volcanological community is encouraged to use the resources of vhub and also to contribute models, datasets, and other items that authors would like to disseminate. The project is funded by the US National Science Foundation and includes a core development team at University at Buffalo, Michigan Technological University, and University

  18. Knowledge engineering in volcanology: Practical claims and general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichny, Cyril A.

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge engineering, being a branch of artificial intelligence, offers a variety of methods for elicitation and structuring of knowledge in a given domain. Only a few of them (ontologies and semantic nets, event/probability trees, Bayesian belief networks and event bushes) are known to volcanologists. Meanwhile, the tasks faced by volcanology and the solutions found so far favor a much wider application of knowledge engineering, especially tools for handling dynamic knowledge. This raises some fundamental logical and mathematical problems and requires an organizational effort, but may strongly improve panel discussions, enhance decision support, optimize physical modeling and support scientific collaboration.

  19. Dual US-Europe Graduate Degrees in Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.; van Wyk Devries, B.; Calder, E. S.; Tibaldi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Universite Blaise Pascal and University of Milan Bicocca have formed an educational consortium to offer dual MS degrees in volcanology and geotechniques. Students in the program spend half of their MS in Europe and half in the US and have graduate advisory committees that bridge the Atlantic. The new program combines the expertise of four campuses and give students a broader choice of study options than any one campus can offer, while building an international professional experience. The initiative is funded jointly by the US Department of Education and the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) of the European Community. Volcanology and geotechniques are global concerns: the volcanological community is fully globalized, while international consortia now deal with major geotechnical problems. Importantly, both fields require clear appreciation of specific local cultural, social and economical conditions. The new generation of researchers and professionals require international vision, but also the ability to understand local conditions. This masters specifically answers this need. This program will give students a language and cultural training in American English, French and Italian, as well as a wide course choice to meet each individual’s professional requirements. Students benefit from both research and professional approaches, acquiring a sound multidisciplinary profile for an excellent start to their careers. The trained INVOGE masters students will: meet a clear need for professionals/researchers with broad volcanology/geotechniques skills, and provide a workforce with international vision, but capable of addressing local projects. The project is innovative, combining international experience, strong multidisciplinary grounding and a broad subject range: students can choose among many possible advanced coursework and research combinations, and can have a broad choice of graduate advisors, field sites and

  20. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  1. Educational Effects of Multilingualism in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The educational deficit in Guatemala, reflected in a high, chronic level of illiteracy, is only partly due to the existence of a large, multilingual Indian population. The high proportion of rural population and the ineffectiveness of the rural education program must be addressed to increase literacy in Guatemala. (Author/CB)

  2. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  3. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  4. Science development on volcanology flawed by the Spanish IGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Scientists performing research activities in the field of volcanology, related more specifically to volcano monitoring in the Canary Islands, recently discovered that not all seismic events that occurred in the country had been listed in the Spanish National Seismic Catalogue and its related data base. The National Geographic Institute (IGN) is the legal Spanish institution in-charge of the National Seismic Catalogue, together with volcanic surveillance in Spain. It was therefore a huge surprise to discover that the number of seismic events registered in and around Tenerife Island in 2010, and according to the national catalogue, was only approximately 60, while the real number of seismic events recorded by the IGN in the region was 1,176. The existence of two different accounts of seismic activity registered by the IGN in and around Tenerife Island, keeping one for the public eye, while hiding the other one from even the scientific community, is not only illegal but also unscientific, hindering the progress of science. In addition, most importantly it is detrimental for timely forecasting of sudden/instantaneous dynamic events, such as major earthquakes and/or volcanic eruptions which might spell disaster for the population, the economy of the island, and severely impact tourism. This unethical behaviour by IGN's volcanological staff has already caused damage to open scientific discussions; a key parameter for scientific development. A scientific contribution was recently published using data from 15 years of research on diffuse CO2 emission monitoring from the summit cone of Teide volcano (Pérez et al., 2013). The seismic data that was used to discuss the observed temporal variations of the degassing pattern from Teide volcano came from the National Seismic Catalogue. In contrast it is obvious that the observed variations on diffuse CO2 emission from Teide volcano from 1997 to 2011 provided a better scientific explanation when using the real seismic data that

  5. TBAs drive project in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Two Japanese family planning experts provided technical assistance in Guatemala as part of a three-member monitoring mission of JOICFP's Integrated Project (IP). Their mission was to monitor project activities implemented by the Family Planning Association of Guatemala (APROFAM). Activities included family planning/maternal and child health (FP/MCH) efforts and the work of traditional birth attendants (TBA), the main agents of the project in the areas of San Lucas Toliman, San Pedro La Laguna, and San Antonio Patulul. The mission observed TBA training February 15 in San Lucas Toliman. The illustrated MCH handbook jointly developed by JOICFP and APROFAM was used effectively, and was well understood by TBAs. The JOICFP consultants suggested that changes be made to the publication to reflect the cultural beliefs of the indigenous Mayan people. Herbal remedies are widely used by TBAs for various MCH-related purposes. Training was recommended to encourage TBAs to combine the use of modern drugs with herbal medicine. The mission visited health posts, centers, and hospitals in various IP areas. It was recommended that a revolving fund be established to ensure the availability of reasonably priced medicine. TBAs provide regular monthly check-ups to pregnant women and recommend that they visit health posts for prenatal care. Finally, it was recommended that a training course for younger TBAs with leadership skills be held to provide correct knowledge on FP.

  6. AID awards 3-year Guatemala contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded a 3-year US$593,036 grant to the Los Angeles firm of Juarez and Associates, Inc. to help implement a contraceptive social marketing project in Guatemala. The firm will provide marketing assistance to the for-profit organization. Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (PROFA), an offshoot of the nonprofit International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate, Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala (APROFAM), created specifically to conduct the social marketing project. Juarez and Associates has previous market research experience in family planning in Guatemala. Contraceptive social marketing sales are projected to begin in early 1985.

  7. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  8. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  9. Sistema de salud de Guatemala The health system of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud y el sistema de salud de Guatemala, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan, así como las tareas de generación de información en salud e investigación. También se discuten los esfuerzos por ampliar la cobertura de servicios básicos, sobre todo a las comunidades rurales pobres. Destacan dentro de las innovaciones recientes del sistema guatemalteco de salud el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura de Servicios Básicos y el Programa de Accesibilidad de Medicamentos, así como los acuerdos del Ministerio de Salud con organizaciones de la sociedad civil para prestar servicios básicos en comunidades rurales.This paper describes the health conditions in Guatemala and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Guatemalan health system, including its structure en coverage, its financial sources, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health, as well as the generation of health information and the development of research activities. It also discusses the recent efforts to extend coverage of essential health services, mostly to poor rural areas.The most recent innovations also discussed in this paper include the Program for the Expansion of Coverage of Essential Services, the Program to Expand Access to Essential Drugs and the agreements between the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations to provide essential services in rural settings.

  10. Volcano hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Matías, O.; Rose, William I.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fuego-Acatenango massif comprises a string of five or more volcanic vents along a north-south trend that is perpendicular to that of the Central American arc in Guatemala. From north to south known centers of volcanism are Ancient Acatenango, Yepocapa, Pico Mayor de Acatenango, Meseta, and Fuego. Volcanism along the trend stretches back more than 200,000 years. Although many of the centers have been active contemporaneously, there is a general sequence of younger volcanism, from north to south along the trend. This massive volcano complex towers more than 3500 meters (m) above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north. The volcano complex comprises remnants of multiple eruptive centers, which periodically have collapsed to form huge debris avalanches. The largest of these avalanches extended more than 50 kilometers (km) from its source and covered more than 300 square km. The volcano has potential to produce huge debris avalanches that could inundate large areas of the Pacific coastal plain. In areas around the volcanoes and downslope toward the coastal plain, more than 100,000 people are potentially at risk from these and other flowage phenomena.

  11. ITCB’s Guatemala Communiqué

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ITCB Council of Representatives,meeting at its 44th session from 16-19 April 2007 in Guatemala City,discussed important issues challenging global textile and clothing industry with topics on the agenda shown below:

  12. UNOPS in Guatemala: from relief to development

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkzeul, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) has carried out post-conflict rebuilding programs in Guatemala for several years. This case study examines functioning of UNOPS in this country and its role in bringing about peaceful development through implementing programs through the PRODERE programme. It places them in the broader context of civil conflict and social exclusion in Guatemala and the rest of Central America. As a consequence, it also indicates the practical problems and...

  13. Volcanology Curricula Development Aided by Online Educational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Using On-Line Volcano Monitoring Data in College and University Courses: The Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP); Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, 26-30 July 2010; Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near-real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  14. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  15. Legendary Mount Vesuvius is subject of intensive volcanological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank

    The Roman population centers of Pompeii and Herculaneum (circa 15,000 inhabitants) were destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. after centuries of repose. Many times since then its eruptions have claimed human lives; basaltic lava flows from an eruption in 1631 killed 3,000. Vesuvius' location, near the heart of the Roman empire—a center of learning in the ancient world—led it to become the site ofsome of the earliest volcanological studies on record.In letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger documented the sequence of events of the 79 A.D. plinian eruption. Geophysical studies of volcanoes were pioneered by Italian volcanologists who installed seismographs in an observatory on the flanks of Vesuvius to study volcano seismology and to forecast and monitor eruptions early this century. It is easy to understand why interest in Vesuvius has been so keen: it is accessible, persistently active, and a large population resides nearby. Today, around 1 million people live within the shadow of this potentially explosive and dangerous volcano.

  16. Social inequality and children's growth in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebley, A R; Goldman, N

    1995-04-01

    This paper is an investigation of the effects of social inequality in Guatemala on children's health and nutritional status as measured by attained height. Guatemala remains a highly stratified and poor society. We examine the association of land distribution, land tenure, occupation, and other aspects of family social and economic status with children's height between the ages of three months and 36 months, using data from a cross-sectional survey. An important consequence of the poverty and poor living conditions of the majority of the Guatemalan population is substantial deficits in children's growth. Our results suggest that children's growth is affected by ethnicity, their father's occupation, land distribution in the area where they live, and maternal education. Substantial growth deficits are observed among children living at altitudes above 1500 metres; we hypothesize that this is because, in Guatemala, higher altitude is associated with land scarcity, poorer agricultural conditions, and greater remoteness from transport networks and other public services.

  17. Masaya, the “Mouth of Hell”, Nicaragua: Volcanological interpretation of the myths, legends and anecdotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramonte, José G.; Incer-Barquero, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Nicaragua's conquest started only 30years after Christopher Columbus arrived to America in 1492. At that moment the Masaya and Momotombo volcanoes were erupting simultaneously. The former was the first permanent lava lake observed by Europeans, and this produced a strong impression and interest in it. For more than a century there was great controversy over the nature of this phenomenon. Some people believed that it was the Mouth of Hell, whereas others could greedily see in the lava a source of gold or silver. This fact led to many attempts trying to prove it. In this paper, aboriginal myths about the volcano are described as well as different ideas and "supported evidence" given by the Spaniards regarding whether it was or not indeed the Mouth of Hell. Moreover, the first detailed geological descriptions are exposed as well as interesting interpretations found in the chronicles. It is also narrated the first descent into the volcano's mouth to extract samples of that "gold", a real exploit for that time. From these descriptions, a volcanological interpretation is proposed, which is a contribution to the understanding of the eruptive history and evolution of the Masaya volcanic complex, one of the largest, shallow magma chamber systems in Central America.

  18. Current and future trends of Volcanology in Italy and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, P.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology in Italy and in the world has rapidly developed during last decades. In the Seventies, stratigraphy and petrology provided the basic knowledge on the volcanic activities that still forms the root for modern volcano research. During the Eighties and Nineties the interest was more on the quantitative description of the volcanic processes, with enormous progresses in different but complementary fields including laboratory measurements and experiments, physico-mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, geophysical surveys and inverse analysis, and volcano monitoring and surveillance. In year 2000 a large number of magma properties and magmatic and volcanic processes was characterized at a first or higher order. Volcano research in Italy during the first decade of the new millennium has further developed along those lines. To-date, the very high risk Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius volcanoes, and the less risky but permanently active Etna and Stromboli volcanoes, are among the best monitored and more deeply investigated worldwide. The last decade has also seen coordinated efforts aimed at exploring exploitation of knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society. A series of projects focused on volcanic hazard and risk have joined >1000 researchers from Italian and foreign (Europe, US, Japan) Universities and Research Centers, on themes and objectives jointly defined by scientists from INGV and end-users from the national Civil Protection Department. These projects provide a global picture of volcano research in year 2010, that appears to be evolving through i) further rapid developments in the fields of investigation listed above, ii) their merging into effective multidisciplinary approaches, and iii) the full inclusion of the concepts of uncertainty and probabilities in volcanic scenario predictions and hazard forecast. The latter reflects the large inaccessibility of the volcanic systems, the extreme non-linear behaviour of volcanic processes put in

  19. Volcanology: Lessons learned from Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Virginie; Poland, Michael P.; Hooper, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years of continuous Earth observation by satellite SAR have resulted in numerous new insights into active volcanism, including a better understanding of subsurface magma storage and transport, deposition of volcanic materials on the surface, and the structure and development of volcanic edifices. This massive archive of data has resulted in fundamental leaps in our understanding of how volcanoes work – for example, identifying magma accumulation at supposedly quiescent volcanoes, even in remote areas or in the absence of ground-based data. In addition, global compilations of volcanic activity facilitate comparison of deformation behavior between different volcanic arcs and statistical evaluation of the strong link between deformation and eruption. SAR data are also increasingly used in timely hazard evaluation thanks to decreases in data latency and growth in processing and analysis techniques. The existing archive of SAR imagery is on the cusp of being enhanced by a new generation of satellite SAR missions, in addition to ground-based and airborne SAR systems, which will provide enhanced temporal and spatial resolution, broader geographic coverage, and improved availability of data to the scientific community. Now is therefore an opportune time to review the contributions of SAR imagery to volcano science, monitoring, and hazard mitigation, and to explore the future potential for SAR in volcanology. Provided that the ever-growing volume of SAR data can be managed effectively, we expect the future application of SAR data to expand from being a research tool for analyzing volcanic activity after the fact, to being a monitoring and research tool capable of imaging a wide variety of processes on different temporal and spatial scales as those processes are occurring. These data can then be used to develop new models of how volcanoes work and to improve quantitative forecasts of volcanic activity as a means of mitigating risk from future eruptions.

  20. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  1. 'Trump' har allerede vundet i Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken; Restrup, Anne Katrine

    2016-01-01

    En karismatisk tv-stjerne uden politisk erfaring og en tidligere førstedame med mange års erfaring havde også hovedrollerne i Guatemalas præsidentvalg. Men problemerne er begyndt at vise sig - for kan man være systemkritiker og præsident på samme tid?...

  2. Army Killings in Indian Village Shock Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Marlise

    1978-01-01

    Detailing accounts of what the State Department officials have said privately (that Guatemala has one of the worst human rights records in this hemisphere): mass murders of men, women, and children ("Panzos Massacre" in a Nekchi Indian village) with the wealthy landowners exploiting the natural resources at the expense of 6.3 million…

  3. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  4. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  5. Tobacco point-of-sale advertising in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Mejia, Raul; Szeinman, Debora; Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

    2010-08-01

    To determine tobacco point of sale advertising prevalence in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Convenience stores (120 per city) were chosen from randomly selected blocks in low, middle and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods. To assess tobacco point of sale advertising we used a checklist developed in Canada that was translated into Spanish and validated in both countries studied. Analysis was conducted by neighbourhood and store type. All stores sold cigarettes and most had tobacco products in close proximity to confectionery. In Guatemala, 60% of stores had cigarette ads. High and middle socioeconomic status neighbourhood stores had more indoor cigarette ads, but these differences were determined by store type: gas stations and supermarkets were more prevalent in high socioeconomic status neighbourhoods and had more indoor cigarette ads. In poorer areas, however, more ads could be seen from outside the stores, more stores were located within 100 metres of schools and fewer stores had 'No smoking' or 'No sales to minors' signs. In Argentina, 80% of stores had cigarette ads and few differences were observed by neighbourhood socioeconomic status. Compared to Guatemala, 'No sales to minors' signs were more prevalent in Argentina. Tobacco point of sale advertising is highly prevalent in these two cities of Guatemala and Argentina. An advertising ban should also include this type of advertising.

  6. Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Taney Seamounts northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, J. P.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Taney seamounts are a NW-SE trending, linear, near-ridge chain consisting of five submarine volcanoes located on the Pacific plate 300 km west of San Francisco, California. Morphologically, the seamounts are characterized as truncated cones with nested calderas decreasing in age towards the ridge axis. This study examines the volcanology and geochemistry of the largest and oldest seamount, (Taney A, ~26 Ma), which is comprised of four well-exposed nested calderas. Each successive collapse event exposes previously infilled lavas, defining a relative chronology. The caldera walls and intracaldera pillow mounds were carefully sampled by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts to obtain stratigraphically-controlled samples. Whole rock samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, volcanic glasses were analyzed for major and volatile elements(S, Cl), and plagioclase phenocrysts were separated for mineral and glass inclusion microprobe analysis. Overall, the erupted lavas are mostly subalkalic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) varying from differentiated to more primitive (6.0 - 8.2 wt. % MgO) with decreasing age. Incompatible elements and REE profiles normalized to primitive mantle suggest that the lavas are transitional to slightly enriched (0.1 - 0.3 wt. % K2O; 1.1 - 2.2 wt. % TiO2), which is unusual for near-ridge seamounts. Sc, which is compatible in clinopyroxene, increases linearly with TiO2 at primitive compositions (>7.0 wt. % MgO). In more evolved seamount basalts (<7.0 wt. % MgO), the low CaO and Sc contents and decreasing CaO/Al2O3 suggest that there is either extensive clinopyroxene fractionation, or mixing with magmas that have undergone extensive clinopyroxene fractionation. MELTS modeling suggests that clinopyroxene fractionation occurs at <6.0 wt. % MgO, inconsistent with the observed clinopyroxene imprint at <7.0 wt. % MgO. The discrepancy could indicate magma mixing. Although whole rock ICP-MS data have some scatter, especially for

  7. Rural poverty and export farming in Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on rural poverty and the dualistic nature of agrarian structures (dualistic farming) in Guatemala - examines level and trend of rural poverty through indicators such as household income, housing, illiteracy and nutrition; notes paradox of high rate of agricultural development and severe poverty in rural areas; analyses nature of agrarian system leading to internal migration of peasant farmers and aspects of rural employment; focuses on high economic growth and l...

  8. Multiculturalism Reconsidered. Bilingual Education in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowicz, Jarema

    2015-01-01

    The modern Maya movement is an example of a new sort of indigenous cultural activism. The long lasting struggle for indigenous rights had finally led to the renegotiation of the social, legal and political order in countries like Guatemala and Mexico. Today we witness a vibrant indigenous activism in many fields, like education for example. This paper deals with the issue of multicultural education in the mentioned countries, but also it presents critical problems of a wider process – i...

  9. Territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Crispín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the nuclei, flows and surfaces generated by tourism in Guatemala that, nowadays, constitute the basis for the promotion of the country in the international market. Following the trend in Central America, and after a long civil war, Guatemala is encouraging the growth of its tourism economy. The starting point of this research is rooted in the fact that there are only a handful of places, distributed over the Guatemalan territory, that articulate the tourist flows (constituted mainly by international visitors and onto which tourism surfaces are being constructed. We assume that this territorial structure is still weak, does not include all areas of the country and it is mostly dependant on regional emitting markets. The context of the territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala suggests that all countries in the region are competing to get access to the international tourism market and that this competition will be decided in favour of those nations that mastermind the administration of their natural and cultural resources. At the end of the text, we comment on the basics of the territorial structure found by our study.

  10. Fremragende fortælling om Guatemalas kvinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2016-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Jayro Bustamantes ’Ixcanul’ ayro Bustamantes smukke familiedrama ’Ixcanul’ blandt Guatemalas traditioner, slanger og vulkaner er en stor, oplevelsesrig biografrejse......Anmeldelse af Jayro Bustamantes ’Ixcanul’ ayro Bustamantes smukke familiedrama ’Ixcanul’ blandt Guatemalas traditioner, slanger og vulkaner er en stor, oplevelsesrig biografrejse...

  11. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  12. Witnesses to Political Violence in Guatemala. Facts for Action #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Fred; Wunder, Haleh

    The sources of political violence against Guatemala's rural poor are traced in this document for high school global education classes. The paper summarizes "Witness to Political Violence in Guatemala: The Suppression of a Rural Development Movement" (Oxfam America's Impact Audit No. 2). The study was based on 115 respondents, both…

  13. Volcanology Section Bulletin. French Geologic Society; Bulletin de la Section de Volcanologie. Societe Geologique de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudon, G. [I.P.G.P. - Observatoire Volcanologique, 75 - Paris (France); Gourgaud, A. [Universite Blaise Pascal, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France); Soler, E. [Universite Paris 6, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    This issue of the Volcanology Section Bulletin is a compilation of abstracts from the meeting the section of April, 2 1996 about the active volcanism of Central America and Mexico. The abstracts selected in this issue report on measurements of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes disequilibrium in lava, and radon fluctuations in volcanic gases. One abstract reports on new {sup 14}C datings on avalanche debris. (J.S.).

  14. Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Beltrán, Boris

    2006-03-03

    The ruins of San Bartolo, Guatemala, contain a sample of Maya hieroglyphic writing dating to the Late Preclassic period (400 B.C. to 200 A.D.). The writing appears on preserved painted walls and plaster fragments buried within the pyramidal structure known as "Las Pinturas," which was constructed in discrete phases over several centuries. Samples of carbonized wood that are closely associated with the writing have calibrated radiocarbon dates of 200 to 300 B.C. This early Maya writing implies that a developed Maya writing system was in use centuries earlier than previously thought, approximating a time when we see the earliest scripts elsewhere in Mesoamerica.

  15. Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the philosophy and evolution of volcanological science in recent years, particularly in relation to the growth of volcanic hazard and risk science. It uses the lens of Science and Technology Studies to examine the ways in which knowledge generation is controlled and directed by social forces, particularly during eruptions, which constitute landmarks in the development of new technologies and models. It also presents data from a survey of volcanologists carried out during late 2008 and early 2009. These data concern the felt purpose of the science according to the volcanologists who participated and their impressions of the most important eruptions in historical time. It demonstrates that volcanologists are motivated both by the academic science environment and by a social concern for managing the impact of volcanic hazards on populations. Also discussed are the eruptions that have most influenced the discipline and the role of scientists in policymaking on active volcanoes. Expertise in volcanology can become the primary driver of public policy very suddenly when a volcano erupts, placing immense pressure on volcanologists. In response, the epistemological foundations of volcanology are on the move, with an increasing volume of research into risk assessment and management. This requires new, integrated methodologies for knowledge collection that transcend scientific disciplinary boundaries.

  16. Gravity and structure of the continental margins of southwestern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Richard; Woodcock, Stephen

    1981-03-01

    Geophysical measurements over the eastern end of the Tehuantepec Ridge and adjacent continental margins of southern Mexico and northern Guatemala indicate that the ridge is a fracture zone and that it marks the boundary between two different subduction provinces. A positive free-air gravity anomaly which extends northwestward along the outer continental shelf of Guatemala curves abruptly landward in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. The positive shelf anomaly is on trend with the positive anomaly of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, and suggests that rocks genetically related to Cretaceous rocks of the Nicoya Complex extend northwestward along the continental shelf to the Gulf of Tehuantepec. A crustal and subcrustal cross section of the continental margin of Guatemala, constrained by gravity, magnetic, and seismic refraction data, indicates that the rock strata causing the outer shelf gravity high dip landward, consistent with imbricate thrusting of the oceanic crust beneath and into the continental margin. A model crustal cross section of the continental margin of southern Mexico, north of the Tehuantepec Ridge, shows a markedly different margin structure with a relatively small amount of continental accretion and a continental crustal block extending to within approximately 25 km of the trench axis.

  17. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  18. Guatemala's Altos de Chiantla: Changes on the High Frontier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Steinberg; Matthew Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The Altos de Chiant-la in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes represents an economic and environmental anomaly compared with areas surrounding it in highland Guatemala and Mesoamerica in general...

  19. Studies on neotropical Collembola, I. Some Collembola from Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Willem N.

    1967-01-01

    Eight species of Collembola are recorded from an ant nest in Guatemala. Two species, described by Denis (1931a) from Costa Rica are redescribed more extensively. A new species of Pseudosinella is described.

  20. Complejo Caldera Diamante-volcán Maipo (34°10'S, 69º50'O: Evolución volcanológica y geoquímica e implicancias en su peligrosidad Volcanological and geochemical evolution and hazard assessment of the Diamante Caldera-Maipo Volcano Complex (34°10'S, 69º50'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sruoga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El Complejo Caldera Diamante-Volcán Maipo (34°10' S, 69º50' O se halla situado en el extremo norte de la Zona Volcánica Sur. Su actividad se remonta a 450/150 ka, posee un registro histórico incierto y carece de manifestaciones fumarólicas o hidrotermales. Su evolución abarca dos etapas: 1 Diamante, con la formación de una caldera de colapso (20x16 km y el emplazamiento de ignimbritas de gran volumen y 2 Maipo, con la construcción de un estratovolcán, domo anular y conos adventicios asociados. Esta etapa comprende siete eventos eruptivos principales (cuatro preglaciales: 86 ± 10 ka / 88 ± 7 ka, 75 ± 16 ka, 45 ± 14 ka y 28 ± 17 ka y tres postglaciales: The Caldera Diamante-Maipo volcanic complex (34°10' S, 69º50' W is located at the northern end of the South Volcanic Zone. The eruptive activity started 450/150 ka ago and its historic record remains uncertain. At present, neither fumarolic activity nor hydrothermal manifestations are detected. Two main stages are distinguished in the evolution of the volcanic complex: 1 "Diamante stage" corresponds to the emplacement of large-volume ignimbrites associated to a 20 by 16 km in diameter collapse caldera and 2 the "Maipo stage" represents andesite-dacite stratocone-building lavas and pyroclastics, a ring-fault dome and parasitic cones emplaced during the last 100 ka of the complex lifetime (4 pre-glacial events: 86 ± 10 ka / 88 ± 7 ka, 75 ± 16 ka, 45 ± 14 ka, 28 ± 17 ka and 3 post-glacial events <14 ka. Scoria flows and fall deposits near the summit are assigned to the recent explosive record. The last eruption tentatively occurred in 1912. The volcanics define a high-K, calc-alkaline suite ranging in silica from 54% to 74%. The Maipo series encompasses two pyroxene with minor olivine andesites and two pyroxene and hornblende dacites. Magmatic differentiation is strongly controlled by fractional crystallization. However, periodic magma mixing and crustal assimilation should have

  1. Trauma and forgiveness: comparing experiences from Turkey and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Guatemala and Turkey are both examples of countries that have experienced violent conflicts in the past two decades. Turkey’s ongoing Kurdish Question, which took place primarily between PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan - Kurdistan Workers’ Party) combatants and the Turkish military, occurred between 1984 and 1999, involved a short-lived period of negative peace between 1999 and 2004, and has sparked again in recent years. In Guatemala a brutal ethnic conflict resulting in th...

  2. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  3. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  4. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN GUATEMALA

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    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (subfamilias Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae de Guatemala. Un total de 31 géneros y 59 especies son tratados, de los cuales cinco géneros (Allamanda, Beaumontia, Catharanthus, Nerium y Vinca corresponden a plantas introducidas. Mandevilla es el género más grande, con seis especies, seguido de Echites, Prestonia, Stemmadenia y Tabernaemontana con cuatro y Cascabela con tres. No se han encontrado especies endémicas. Se citan claves, descripciones, nombres comunes y especímenes representativos para cada departamento, incluyendo un apéndice con el total de todos los especímenes examinados. Se lectotipifican Cameraria oblongifolia y Echites biflorus.

  5. Astronomy Outreach Adventures in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, L.

    2015-03-01

    Astronomy can be an inspirational gateway to learning science and analytical reasoning, and to careers in STEM fields-particularly important in developing countries where educational opportunities can be scarce. Following this idea and my interest in learning about other cultures, I decided to spend 6 weeks in late 2011 (between Ph.D. and postdoc) doing astronomy public outreach in Guatemala. I volunteered through a Spanish language school embedded in a poor rural community (typical earning ~ $3/day), working mostly with children. My teaching goals were primarily attitudinal: to encourage people to observe and ask questions about the world around them, and to show them that phenomena have explanations that we can understand.

  6. Ancient Maya astronomical tables from Xultun, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F; Rossi, Franco

    2012-05-11

    Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

  7. Ancient Maya Astronomical Tables from Xultun, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A.; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F.; Rossi, Franco

    2012-05-01

    Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

  8. Undergraduate Field Courses in Volcanology at the University of California, Davis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, P.

    2002-05-01

    At U.C. Davis, undergraduate Geology majors have two opportunities to participate in extended field courses in volcanology: (1) all majors spend one week in a volcanology module during their six-week, "capstone" Summer Field Geology (GEL 110) course, and (2) all majors may enroll in a two-week, Introductory Volcanology course (GEL 138) offered each summer at Kilauea Volcano. The former course is required of all majors in order to fulfill their B.S. degree requirements, whereas the latter fulfills upper division elective units for either the B.A. or B.S. degree in Geology. The volcanology module in GEL 110 is based at U.C.'s White Mountain Research Station in Bishop, California and includes four separate exercises: (1) mapping patterns of consolidation of tephra at the Black Point tuff cone in order to understand the processes of palagonitization, (2) contouring graphic mean and sorting for tephra collected from the Red Cones cinder cone to understand Strombolian processes, (3) measuring a stratigraphic section of the Bishop Tuff in the lower Owens River Gorge to differentiate cooling units in ignimbrites, and (4) mapping the relationships amongst pumice units and obsidian at the Glass Mountain flow to understand evolution of silicic flows. Most exercises require laboratory measurements for grain size or density (Mayfield and Schiffman, 1998). GEL 138, based at the Kilauea Military Camp, includes a daily schedule of morning lectures and afternoon field excursions and exercises. Exercises include: (1) measuring a stratigraphic section of the Keanakako'i Ash Member to interpret pre-1790 periods of hydrovolcanism, (2) measuring and contouring ground temperatures in the Steaming Bluffs thermal area (3) conducting granulometric measurements of tephra from the Nanawale sand hills to understand the genesis of littoral cones, (4) mapping of soil pH around the perimeter of Kilauea Caldera to illuminate climatic effects (i.e.,vog and wind patterns) on the summit region, and

  9. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  10. Sustaining an Online, Shared Community Resource for Models, Robust Open source Software Tools and Data for Volcanology - the Vhub Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A. K.; Valentine, G. A.; Bursik, M. I.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Jones, M.; Simakov, N.; Aghakhani, H.; Jones-Ivey, R.; Kosar, T.; Zhang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 5 years we have created a community collaboratory Vhub.org [Palma et al, J. App. Volc. 3:2 doi:10.1186/2191-5040-3-2] as a place to find volcanology-related resources, and a venue for users to disseminate tools, teaching resources, data, and an online platform to support collaborative efforts. As the community (current active users > 6000 from an estimated community of comparable size) embeds the tools in the collaboratory into educational and research workflows it became imperative to: a) redesign tools into robust, open source reusable software for online and offline usage/enhancement; b) share large datasets with remote collaborators and other users seamlessly with security; c) support complex workflows for uncertainty analysis, validation and verification and data assimilation with large data. The focus on tool development/redevelopment has been twofold - firstly to use best practices in software engineering and new hardware like multi-core and graphic processing units. Secondly we wish to enhance capabilities to support inverse modeling, uncertainty quantification using large ensembles and design of experiments, calibration, validation. Among software engineering practices we practice are open source facilitating community contributions, modularity and reusability. Our initial targets are four popular tools on Vhub - TITAN2D, TEPHRA2, PUFF and LAVA. Use of tools like these requires many observation driven data sets e.g. digital elevation models of topography, satellite imagery, field observations on deposits etc. These data are often maintained in private repositories that are privately shared by "sneaker-net". As a partial solution to this we tested mechanisms using irods software for online sharing of private data with public metadata and access limits. Finally, we adapted use of workflow engines (e.g. Pegasus) to support the complex data and computing workflows needed for usage like uncertainty quantification for hazard analysis using physical

  11. Physical Volcanology and Hazard Analysis of a Young Volcanic Field: Black Rock Desert, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, A. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Black Rock Desert volcanic field, located in west-central Utah, consists of ~30 small-volume monogenetic volcanoes with compositions ranging from small rhyolite domes to large basaltic lava flow fields. The field has exhibited bimodal volcanism for > 9 Ma with the most recent eruption of Ice Springs volcano ˜ 600 yrs ago. Together this eruptive history along with ongoing geothermal activity attests to the usefulness of a hazard assessment. The likelihood of a future eruption in this area has been calculated to be ˜ 8% over the next 1 Ka (95% confidence). However, many aspects of this field such as the explosivity and nature of many of these eruptions are not well known. The physical volcanology of the Tabernacle Hill volcano, suggests a complicated episodic eruption that may have lasted up to 50 yrs. The initial phreatomagmatic eruptions at Tabernacle Hill are reported to have begun ~14 Ka. This initial eruptive phase produced a tuff cone approximately 150 m high and 1.5 km in diameter with distinct bedding layers. Recent mapping and sampling of Tabernacle Hill's lava field, tuff cone and intra-crater deposits were aimed at better constraining the eruptive history, physical volcanology, and explosive energy associated with this eruption. Blocks ejected during the eruption were mapped and analyzed to yield minimum muzzle velocities of 60 - 70 meters per second. These velocities were used in conjunction with an estimated shallow depth of explosion to calculate an energy yield of ˜ 0.5 kT.

  12. The new IMGC-02 transportable absolute gravimeter: measurement apparatus and applications in geophysics and volcanology

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    V. D’errico

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (formerly Istituto di Metrologia «G. Colonnetti» aiming to develop a transportable ballistic absolute gravimeter ended with a new version of the instrument, called the IMGC-02. It uses laser interferometry to measure the symmetrical free rising and falling motion of a test mass in the gravity field. Providing the same accuracy achieved with previous versions, the instrumental improvements mainly concern size, weight, data processing algorithms and operational simplicity. An uncertainty of 9 ?Gal (1 ?Gal=1×10–8 m·s?2 can be achieved within a single observation session, lasting about 12 h, while the time series of several observation sessions show a reproducibility of 4 ?Gal. At this level, gravity measurements provide useful information in Geophysics and Volcanology. A wide set of dynamic phenomena, i.e. seismicity and volcanic activity, can produce temporal gravity changes, often quite small, with an amplitude ranging from a few to hundreds of microgals. Therefore the IMGC absolute gravimeter has been employed since 1986 in surveying the Italian active volcanoes. A brief history of the gravimeter and the description of the new apparatus, together with the main results of ongoing applications in Geophysics and Volcanology are presented.

  13. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala.

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    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (> or =7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.9%. The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16 in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0-0.05%. Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0-0.01%. The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus.

  14. FPA withdraws from CSM project in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Guatemala's family planning association, the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia (APROFAM) recently cut its ties with the nation's contraceptive social marketing program. The announced reasons for the disassociation was APROFAM's concerns about the legality of selling donated commodities. APROFAM helped create the program served as a member of the marketing program's board of directors, and was expected to function as the channel for the commidities donated by the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The marketing program will now be managed by the newly created Importadora de Farmaceuticos (IPROFA), a for-profit organization. This alters the legal status of the marketing program, and as a result, the program will be required to pay duties on USAID donated contraceptives. USAID cannot legally pay duties on its own contributions. Instead, the duies will be paid by IPROFA out of the revenues generated by the project. IPROFA will finance the 1st consignment of products with a bank loan, and the loan and duties on subsequent shipments will be paid out of the program's revenues. This strategy is not expected to pose legal problems for USAID, since the agency has no control over how programs use the revenues generated by selling the agency's commodities. As a result of the changed status, the marketing program must acquire it own storage and packaging facilities. According to Manuel DeLucca, the program's resident advisor, these problems will not delay the launch of the program's products scheduled for early 1985. The program plans to sell an oral contraceptive, a vaginal spermicidal tablet, and a condom. Orginal plans called for selling the low dose OC, Norminest; however, Norminest may not be approved for distribution in Guatemala, and USAID may replace Norminest with another product. As a result, the program may market Noriday, a normal dose pill instead of Norminest. Guatemalan registration of the spermicidal tablet the program is planning to sell is

  15. Causas de invalidez para el trabajo en Guatemala Disability causes for the working area in Guatemala

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    Héctor Gabriel Cabrera Valverde

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar cuales son las causas más frecuentes de invalidez en el programa de Invalidez, Vejez y Sobre vivencia (IVS del Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social. (IGSS, se estudiaron 1,698 pacientes que solicitaron cobertura por el programa en los años 2003 y 2004. El 32. 4 % del total de pacientes recibieron dictamen favorable, de los cuales el 73.3 % son masculinos y 26. 7 % femeninos. Las principales causas de invalidez encontradas en su orden fueron secuelas de traumatismo, síndrome de inmuno deficiencia adquirida, enfermedades neurológicas, visuales y renales. El 70 % de la población cubierta procedían del departamento de Guatemala.In order to determine the most frequent causes of disability at the Disability, Seniorhood and Survival Program of the Guatemalan Institute of Social Security, the cases of 1698 patients who applied for covertures in 2003 and 2004 at this program, have been studied. From the total patients who applied, only 32.4% got a favorable opinion; 73.3% of them are male and 26.7% female. The main disability causes found were: traumatism, Acquired Inmune Defficiency Syndrome, neuron degenerative disorders, haematic oncology problems, blindness and kidney insufficiency diseases. 70% of the coverage population belonged to the Department of Guatemala.

  16. Guatemala como alternativa de desarrollo local

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    Rosa Elba Hernandez Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El área aledaña a la Reserva de la biósfera del Volcán Tacaná, en Chiapas México destaca por la producción de café, además de una alta diversidad de flora y fauna; sin embargo las comunidades rurales que habitan estos espacios están en constante búsqueda de alternativas productivas para mejorar sus medios de vida y cuidar el ambiente el cual está sufriendo deterioro. Ante esta situación se planteó como objetivo la integración de una red de fincas agroecoturísticas en los municipios de Cacahoatán, Tuxtla Chico, Unión Juárez en Chiapas, México y una comunidad en Guatemala. Para construir la propuesta se utilizó la metodología de modos de vida, se realizaron talleres participativos, recorridos en campo y se identificaron los productos turísticos. Se concluye, a partir del análisis de los modos de vida, que la región presenta características y oportunidades para desarrollar la red de agroecoturismo como una alternativa económica.

  17. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Amenorrhea in Rural Guatemala

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    Guido Pinto Aguirre

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La asociación entre los patrones de lactancia y el retorno de la menstruación de posparto es estudiada en mujeres rurales de Guatemala a partir del estudio longitudinal INCAP (1969-1977. En el estudio se distinguen entre mujeres que experimentaron la muerte de un infante antes del regreso de la menstruación, mujeres que quitaron la leche materna a sus hijos antes del regreso de la menstruación y mujeres que menstruaron mientras estaban lactando a sus hijos. Se encontró que el destete y mortalidad del infantil antes de la menstruación son factores de riesgo para el retorno de la menstruación. También se encontró que el bajo número de episodios de lactancia por día y una introducción temprana de alimentos sólidos en la dieta del infante son factores de riesgo significativos para el retorno de la menstruación de posparto.

  18. Ajuste estructural e informalidad en Guatemala

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    María José Paz Antolín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la relevancia de las reformas económicas aplicadas para el desempeño económico de las últimas dos décadas son necesarios estudios que analicen estos vínculos. Éste es el objetivo del presente trabajo que se centra en la economía guatemalteca y en la evolución de sus condiciones laborales. El análisis tiene presente los rasgos comunes de las políticas de reforma llevadas a cabo pero se centra en lo distintivo del caso guatemalteco. En este sentido, destacan el contexto político y social y la particular forma de inserción en la economía mundial. Los distintos indicadores estudiados muestran cómo se ha producido un deterioro de las condiciones laborales, sobre todo por el crecimiento de la informalidad. Aunque éste ha sido un fenómeno típico en Guatemala su evolución presenta elementos novedosos vinculados precisamente con las políticas de ajuste.

  19. Reino de Guatemala, 1808-1811

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    Jordana Dym

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1808 y 1812 los reinos, las provincias y las ciudades del imperio español formaron juntas gubernativas en respuesta a la invasión de Napoleón Bonaparte sobre la Península española. Este ensayo considera cómo los cabildos de las ciudades principales de la Capitanía General de Guatemala (hoy América Central apropiaron el lenguaje utilizado por las juntas sobre el pactismo, la soberanía de los pueblos y la representación popular. Por un lado, subrayaron en 1808 tanto su lealtad al rey cautivo Fernando VII para sacar mayores derechos para las instituciones locales, como al cabildo, y en 1810- 1811, su derecho de organizar junti-ayuntamientos con el fin de insistir en una autonomía más amplia. En una palabra, se demuestra que aunque las ciudades de América Central no formaron juntas idénticas a las de México, Caracas o Sevilla; sí manejaban las mismas ideas e ideales en la lealtad o la insurrección para reclamar el aumento de la autonomía local y el derecho de participar directamente en el gobierno imperial o nacional.

  20. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  1. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  2. ¿Mayanización, indigeneidad o mestizaje? Clasificaciones étnicas y diversidad en Guatemala

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    Celigueta, Gemma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The last Guatemalan national census, the census of 2002, introduced new classifications in line with national and international changes on indigenous representation. These new classifications revealed an ethnic complexity that previous censuses had ignored. Based on an analysis of these data, dialogue with other authors and ethnographic data obtained in the western highlands of Guatemala, this article reflects on the changes, usages and meanings of concepts as important to the country as Indigenous, Mayan and Ladino. Could the data revealed by the 2002 census suggest a Mayanization or Indigenization of the country similar to other countries in Latin America? Or should we consider another category, absent from the census, such as Miscegenation?El último censo nacional de población de Guatemala, el censo de 2002, introdujo nuevas clasificaciones acordes a los cambios nacionales e internacionales ocurridos en la representación de lo indígena. Estas nuevas clasificaciones revelaron una complejidad étnica que los censos anteriores habían ignorado. A partir del análisis de estos datos, del diálogo con otros autores y de algunas apreciaciones etnográficas obtenidas en el altiplano occidental de Guatemala; este artículo reflexiona sobre las transformaciones, usos y significados, de conceptos tan centrales para este país como indígena, ladino y maya. ¿Los datos revelados por el censo del 2002 podrían sugerirnos cierta mayanización o indigenización del país de forma parecida a lo que ha ocurrido en otros países de América Latina o debemos acercarnos más bien a otra categoría, ausente en el censo, como la de mestizo?

  3. Probing diversity in freshwater fishes from Mexico and Guatemala with DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Moreno, M; Ivanova, N V; Elías-Gutiérrez, M; Contreras-Balderas, S; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    The freshwater fish fauna of Mexico and Guatemala is exceptionally diverse with >600 species, many endemic. In this study, patterns of sequence divergence were analysed in representatives of this fauna using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcodes for 61 species in 36 genera. The average divergence among conspecific individuals was 0.45%, while congeneric taxa showed 5.1% divergence. Three species of Poblana, each occupying a different crater lake in the arid regions of Central Mexico, have had a controversial taxonomic history but are usually regarded as endemics to a single lake. They possess identical COI barcodes, suggesting a very recent history of isolation. Representatives of the Cichlidae, a complex and poorly understood family, were well discriminated by barcodes. Many species of Characidae seem to be young, with low divergence values (clusters were apparent in the Bramocharax-Astyanax complex. The symbranchid, Opisthernon aenigmaticum, has been regarded as a single species ranging from Guatemala to Mexico, but it includes two deeply divergent barcode lineages, one a possible new endemic species. Aside from these special cases, the results confirm that DNA barcodes will be highly effective in discriminating freshwater fishes from Central America and that a comprehensive analysis will provide new important insights for understanding diversity of this fauna.

  4. A study on educational development cooperation: Case analysis in Guatemala

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    Sanghee Jung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the status of demand for educational ODA (Official Development Assistance in Guatemala. It includes reviews of ODA references of major donor countries & international organizations, and interviews of experts carried out during field study. The paper analyzes cooperative educational development projects of major donor countries & international organizations. Germany and the Us are analyzed on a bilateral level while UNICEF is analyzed on a multilateral level. Based on the results of this analysis, it draws specific implications of South Korea’s ODA policies for providing educational ODA in Guatemala.

  5. Women caught in a culture of violence in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Randee

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women is prevalent around the world. In Guatemala it is pervasive. Living in a culture of violence oppresses women, children, the economy and society as a whole. It destroys families and can effect women emotionally and spiritually, as well as physically. Nurses have the power to intervene and influence change on a global level by taking action against abuse and oppression of women. By examining the pervasive nature of intimate partner violence and femicide in Guatemala, nurses can identify actions and interventions to combat violence on a global basis.

  6. L’emigrazione italiana in Guatemala attraverso la letteratura

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    Patrizia Spinato Bruschi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From different perspectives, the lecture means to focus on the peculiar experience and complications of Italian emigration in Guatemala, mostly at the beginning of the last century, and its literary reading. Contemporary writers have often approached the theme of desplacement and uprooting in America, but it's quite unusual to find a voice who tells stories about small communities of emigrants. This is the case of Italians in Guatemala, whose cultural identity has been represented in the latest novel of Dante Liano. By analyzing his work, we try to speculate about the links among history, biography, exile and literary creation.

  7. VarPy: A python library for volcanology and rock physics data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcom; Bell, Andrew; Snelling, Brawen; Main, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of digital instrumentation in volcanology and rock physics is leading to a wealth of data, which in turn is increasing the need for computational analyses and models. Today, these are largely developed by each individual or researcher. The introduction of a shared library that can be used for this purpose has several benefits: 1. when an existing function in the library meets a need recognised by a researcher it is usually much less effort than developing ones own code; 2. once functions are established and multiply used they become better tested, more reliable and eventually trusted by the community; 3. use of the same functions by different researchers makes it easier to compare results and to compare the skill of rival analysis and modelling methods; and 4. in the longer term the cost of maintaining these functions is shared over a wide community and they therefore have greater duration. Python is a high-level interpreted programming language, with capabilities for object-oriented programming. Often scientists choose this language to program their programs because of the increased productivity it provides. Although, there are many software tools available for interactive data analysis and development, there are not libraries designed specifically for volcanology and rock physics data. Therefore, we propose a new Python open-source toolbox called "VarPy" to facilitate rapid application development for rock physicists and volcanologists, which allow users to define their own workflows to develop models, analyses and visualisations. This proposal is triggered by our work on data assimilation in the NERC EFFORT (Earthquake and Failure Forecasting in Real Time) project, using data provided by the NERC CREEP 2 experimental project and volcanic experiments from INVG observatory Etna and IGN observatory Hierro as a test cases. In EFFORT project we are developing a scientist gateway which offers services for collecting and sharing volcanology

  8. The VIDA Framework as an Educational Tool: Leveraging Volcanology Data for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgenfrei, M.; Chester, E.

    2008-12-01

    In an effort to address existing gaps in the current method of collecting, processing, and disseminating information related to volcanic eruptions a new system framework has been developed. This framework, known as VAPOR Integrated Data-Sharing and Analysis (VIDA), also holds substantial educational potential. VIDA proposes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data could be used to educate school children about the characteristics of volcanoes, satellite mappings could support informed growth and development of societies in at-risk areas, and raw sensor data could contribute to a wide range of university-level research projects. While the basic intention of VIDA is to support disaster risk reduction efforts, this paper will propose several methods of leveraging raw science data to support education across a wide demographic.

  9. Ciencias Sociales, Sociología y pobreza en Guatemala Social Sciences, Sociology, and poverty in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Desde una perspectiva de la sociología del conocimiento de Karl Mannheim se puede comprender el estado del arte de los estudios de pobreza en Guatemala en un escenario entre 1980 y 2004. La justificación del trabajo se debe a la ausencia de una investigación que trate de entender el desarrollo del tema en las Ciencias Sociales en Guatemala y que demuestre su importancia a través de experiencias teóricas y metodológicas. Se puede decir que la investigación sobre la pobreza no ha sido sistemáti...

  10. Representing Mayas: Indigenous Authorities and Citizenship Demands in Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I analyze how indigenous authorities in Guatemala negotiate citizenship at the local level within the larger context of indigenous claim making in Latin America. I argue that the construction of citizenship at the local level is not only framed by models imposed on indigenous commun

  11. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  12. Solanum sect. Petota in Guatemala: taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Hoekstra, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Martinez, V.

    1998-01-01

    There are five wild potato species in Guatemala:Solanum agrimonifolium,S. bulbocastanum,S. clarum,S. demissum, andS. morelliforme. We conducted a collecting expedition there from September 11 to November 5, 1995. The goals of the expedition were to gather field data for taxonomic studies of the five

  13. Circular Migration and Young Child Malnutrition in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Charles H.; Butz, William P.

    This paper examined the relationship between temporary migration and childhood malnutrition in Guatemala and questioned whether migration patterns or low socioeconomic status produced a special risk group. The study emphasized policy implications of high priorities placed on population redistribution in Latin American governments and the…

  14. Supply-Side Interventions and Student Learning in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of production functions of reading and mathematics test scores to assess the effects of supply-side interventions, such as the provision of a community-based school management programme, bilingual education and multigrade teaching, on student learning in Guatemala. The efficiency and consistency of the estimates is…

  15. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  16. School Quality and Learning Gains in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2009-01-01

    I use unusually detailed data on schools, teachers and classrooms to explain student achievement growth in rural Guatemala. Several variables that have received little attention in previous studies--including the number of school days, teacher content knowledge and pedagogical methods--are robust predictors of achievement. A series of…

  17. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  18. Wild tomato introgressions that confer resistance to begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, are one of the major diseases of tomatoes in subtropical and tropical regions. In Guatemala, several bipartite begomoviruses and the monopartite geminivirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are present. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate th...

  19. Use of Educational Assessment for Understanding Pupil Heterogenity in Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin Morales, A.

    2017-01-01

    For the last two decades Guatemala has developed an educational assessment system for accountability purposes following a continuous improvement cycle. The system is nowadays led by the Ministry of Education’s Dirección General de Evaluación e Investigación Educativa [General Directorate for

  20. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.

  1. Development of Visualisations for Multi-Hazard Environments in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present an adaptation of global interacting hazard matrices for the purpose of improving disaster risk reduction in multi-hazard environments of Guatemala. Guatemala is associated with multiple natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mass movements and floods. These processes are often not independent and it is therefore important to consider and understand the ways by which they interact to generate cascades or networks of natural hazard events. We first present a review of such hazard interactions and hazard chains in Guatemala, focusing on the volcanic environments around Pacaya, Fuego and Santiaguito. Interactions discussed are those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards. Consideration is also given to interactions where two hazards combine to trigger a third hazard, or two concurring hazards result in impacts greater than the sum of components. Second, we utilise and adapt global interacting hazard matrices designed to understand and communicate information about interactions. We explore the use of this hazard visualisation framework within the more regional Guatemalan context. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews, and a workshop with 16 participants, were held with hazard and civil protection professionals in Guatemala to solicit feedback on: (i) how visualisations with a global focus can be modified for use in Guatemala, (ii) possible end users for such visualisations, and (iii) participants' understanding of hazard interactions and their opinion of community understanding of these themes. Core ideas that emerged from these interviews were (i) the importance of such tools in rapid response, preparedness and community education, (ii) the appropriate scales for visualisation development, in order to have maximum impact, and (iii) the need to integrate anthropic factors to fully understand hazard cascades. It is hoped that the development of improved tools to understand natural hazard

  2. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  3. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  4. VIDEOGRAMMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION APPLIED TO VOLCANOLOGY: PERSPECTIVES FOR A NEW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE IN VOLCANO MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cecchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with videogrammetric reconstruction of volcanic structures. As a first step, the method is tested in laboratory. The objective is to reconstruct small sand and plaster cones, analogous to volcanoes, that deform with time. The initial stage consists in modelling the sensor (internal parameters and calculating its orientation and position in space, using a multi-view calibration method. In practice two sets of views are taken: a first one around a calibration target and a second one around the studied object. Both sets are combined in the calibration software to simultaneously compute the internal parameters modelling the sensor, and the external parameters giving the spatial location of each view around the cone. Following this first stage, a N-view reconstruction process is carried out. The principle is as follows: an initial 3D model of the cone is created and then iteratively deformed to fit the real object. The deformation of the meshed model is based on a texture coherence criterion. At present, this reconstruction method and its precision are being validated at laboratory scale. The objective will be then to follow analogue model deformation with time using successive reconstructions. In the future, the method will be applied to real volcanic structures. Modifications of the initial code will certainly be required, however excellent reconstruction accuracy, valuable simplicity and flexibility of the technique are expected, compared to classic stereophotogrammetric techniques used in volcanology.

  5. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  6. Mantle Structures between Guatemala and the Eastern USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R.; Helmberger, D. V.; Wei, S.

    2015-12-01

    While cratons are stable features based on their ages, they apparently can be disturbed by flattened slabs and hidden hotspots. When these slabs break up they provide a host of volatiles which interact with the old lithosphere producing complicated structures. These have been imaged by a host of techniques involving modeling regional waveforms and an assortment of tomography models. Here we test these models against a deep March 25th, 2013 Guatemala event at a depth of 190 km, which produced an excellent set of TA record sections that provide dense sampling of the structure, spanning the ranges from 15 to 35 degrees. Because the structure in the southern Gulf of Mexico is uncertain, we first concentrated on deriving a pure-path model for this region. Both P and SH triplication data is well sampled by stations located in Florida from 13 degrees and beyond. The best fitting model is modified from the SH model ATL (Grand and Helmberger, 1984) with a P-model in Zhao and Helmberger (1993). These models contain a high-velocity lid structure along with a low-velocity gradient at depth. This allows the up-going S wave (direct) to remain the first arrival traveling in the fast lid to beyond 180 degrees. The modeling of the direct S along with the diving phases and depth phase triplications, pP, sP, sS allows for a well constrained model. This model ATLm and the earlier craton model CR along with mixture of the two are tested with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) code on whole 3 component records. Over large paths of data produced by the southern US support the so-called X-phase arrivals which are produced by a 300 km transition. This feature breas down at large distance (>25 degree) along a northwest-southeast boundary. Data at larger distances indicate a complexity in the 660 transition which appears to be caused by a fast slab located at the top of the lower mantle. Variation in the EF-CD branches of pP and sP display changes of up to 5 s and sS up to 10 s, associated with the

  7. Zentralamerikas Jugendbanden: "Maras" in Honduras, El Salvador und Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "In El Salvador hat das Parlament Ende letzten Jahres ein neues Gesetz verabschiedet, nach dem die Mitgliedschaft in einer mara (Jugendbande, Streetgang) mit zwei bis fünf Jahren Gefängnis bestraft wird. Dem oder der Beschuldigten muss keine konkrete Straftat nachgewiesen werden. Einige Monate zuvor hatte der honduranische Kongress einstimmig eine ähnliche Regelung beschlossen. Mitte Januar 2004 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten von Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras und Nikaragua ein Abkommen, i...

  8. Guatemala in the 1980s: A Genocide Turned into Ethnocide?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    While the Guatemalan Truth Commission came to the conclusion that agents of the state had committed acts of genocide in the early 1980s, fundamental questions remain. Should we indeed speak of the massacres committed between 1981 and 1983 in Guatemala as 'genocide', or would 'ethnocide' be the more appropriate term? In addressing these questions, this paper focuses on the intentions of the perpetrators. Why did the Guatemalan military chose mass murder as the means to 'solve the problem of su...

  9. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Belloso; Ivonne González; Rebeca Suárez; Armando Cáceres

    2015-01-01

    Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Aga...

  10. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  11. Some Salient Features of Guatemala's Public and Private School Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Ruano

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the formulation and implementation of educational policy processes in relation to private schools in Guatemala. Specifically, how bilingual education is defined and implemented in the private education sector in Guatemala City where the largest number of privately run establishments exist. Given the great deficits in the provision of educational coverage in the public sector, there has been an explosive expansion of private institutions which have very different levels of quality. Through an analysis of the administrative processes within the Guatemalan Government in general and its Education Ministry in particular as well as of the governance arrangements existing in the private school sector, an overall view of the curricular and policy decisions taken by private schools in the formulation and implementation of bilingual education is presented. This study was based on a sample of six private schools which cater to higher income segments of Guatemala City’s student population. Some of the relevant findings of this study include, the existence of a situation of quasi autonomous institutional functioning of the private sector, extreme differentials in the quality of services provided, inadequate levels of teacher and school administrator’s training as well as lack of cooperation between public and private sector schools.

  12. Self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Karissa; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Maloney, Megan J; Figueroa, Ligia; Taicher, Brad M; Ross, Sherry; Rice, Henry E

    2013-09-01

    Access to pediatric surgical care is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Barriers must be identified before improvements can be made. This pilot study aimed to identify self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. We surveyed 78 families of Guatemalan children with surgical conditions who were seen at a pediatric surgical clinic in Guatemala City. Spanish translators were used to complete questionnaires regarding perceived barriers to surgical care. Surgical conditions included hernias, rectal prolapse, anorectal malformations, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism, soft tissue masses, and vestibulourethral reflux. Average patient age was 8.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years) with male predominance (62%). Families reported an average symptom duration of 3.7 years before clinic evaluation. Families traveled a variety of distances to obtain surgical care: 36 per cent were local (less than 10 km), 17 per cent traveled 10 to 50 km, and 47 per cent traveled greater than 50 km. Other barriers to surgery included financial (58.9%), excessive wait time in the national healthcare system (10. 2%), distrust of local surgeons (37.2%), and geographic inaccessibility to surgical care (10.2%). The majority of study patients required outpatient procedures, which could improve their quality of life. Many barriers to pediatric surgical care exist in Guatemala. Interventions to remove these obstacles may enhance access to surgery and benefit children in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  14. Abuse and discrimination towards indigenous people in public health care facilities: experiences from rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Alejandro; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Sánchez, Silvia; Chew, Aiken S; Díaz, Diego; Hernández, Alison; Flores, Walter

    2016-05-13

    Health inequalities disproportionally affect indigenous people in Guatemala. Previous studies have noted that the disadvantageous situation of indigenous people is the result of complex and structural elements such as social exclusion, racism and discrimination. These elements need to be addressed in order to tackle the social determinants of health. This research was part of a larger participatory collaboration between Centro de Estudios para la Equidad y Gobernanza en los Servicios de Salud (CEGSS) and community based organizations aiming to implement social accountability in rural indigenous municipalities of Guatemala. Discrimination while seeking health care services in public facilities was ranked among the top three problems by communities and that should be addressed in the social accountability intervention. This study aimed to understand and categorize the episodes of discrimination as reported by indigenous communities. A participatory approach was used, involving CEGSS's researchers and field staff and community leaders. One focus group in one rural village of 13 different municipalities was implemented. Focus groups were aimed at identifying instances of mistreatment in health care services and documenting the account of those who were affected or who witnessed them. All of the 132 obtained episodes were transcribed and scrutinized using a thematic analysis. Episodes described by participants ranged from indifference to violence (psychological, symbolic, and physical), including coercion, mockery, deception and racism. Different expressions of discrimination and mistreatment associated to poverty, language barriers, gender, ethnicity and social class were narrated by participants. Addressing mistreatment in public health settings will involve tackling the prevalent forms of discrimination, including racism. This will likely require profound, complex and sustained interventions at the programmatic and policy levels beyond the strict realm of public

  15. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  16. Current and future use of TOPSAR digital topographic data for volcanological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Garbeil, Harold

    1993-01-01

    In several investigations of volcanoes, high quality digital elevation models (DEM's) are required to study either the geometry of the volcano or to investigate temporal changes in relief due to eruptions. Examples include the analysis of volume changes of a volcanic dome, the prediction of flow paths for pyroclastic flows, and the quantitative investigation of the geometry of valleys carved by volcanic mudflows. Additionally, to provide input data for models of lava flow emplacement, accurate measurements are needed of the thickness of lava flows as a function of distance from the vent and local slope. Visualization of volcano morphology is also aided by the ability to view a DEM from oblique perspectives. Until recently, the generation of these DEM's has required either high resolution stereo air photographs or extensive field surveying using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other field techniques. Through the use of data collected by the NASA/JPL TOPSAR system, it is now possible to remotely measure the topography of volcanoes using airborne radar interferometry. TOPSAR data can be collected day or night under any weather conditions, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the derivation of DEM's from air photographs that may often contain clouds. Here we describe some of our initial work on volcanoes using TOPSAR data for Mt. Hekla (Iceland) and Vesuvius (Italy). We also outline various TOPSAR topographic studies of volcanoes in the Galapagos and Hawaii that will be conducted in the near future, describe how TOPSAR complements the volcanology investigations to be conducted with orbital radars (SIR-C/X-SAR, JERS-1 and ERS-1), and place these studies into the broader context of NASA's Global Change Program.

  17. "IlVulcanoInforma": The restyling of the INGV Volcanological Information Centres, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Riposati, D.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    Vulcano and Stromboli are the most active volcanoes of the Aeolian Islands. Vulcano is quiescent since the eruption of 1888-90 but in the last decades it experienced several crises with huge increase of gas output and temperature of the crater fumaroles, and variations in the magmatic gas components. Stromboli is characterized by a permanent mild explosive activity, episodically interrupted by major explosions, lava effusions, or paroxystic explosive events (October 2001: a tourist killed; December 2002: lava effusion, tsunami generated by flank collapse; April 2003: explosive paroxysm, block fallout on Ginostra village; February-March 2007: lava effusion and paroxysm). These islands are renowned tourist sites for the marvelous sea and the fascination that the volcanoes evoke. In fact, during summer risk increases as there are 10,000-15,000 persons per island (only a few hundreds in winter). Starting from the 1990 the INGV and the Civil Protection established a Volcanological Information Centre on each island with the main goal to inform population and tourists on the risks related to each volcano. During the year the two centres are visited by 8000-10,000 visitors coming from different countries. Researchers and trained students are involved in the educational activity devoted to inform visitors on the scientific aspects of volcano monitoring and hazard assessment and to ensure that tourists, willing to climb the summit crater area, will behave properly. In 2008 the Vulcano exhibition has been totally restyled. The INGV Laboratorio Grafica e Immagini has created for the project a composite and innovative graphic study. This includes a series of products (logos, brochures, panels ecc) with the intent to create new effective information means. The logo creation has been the first step for all the communications: an image with strong impact on volcano information distributed in strategic zones of the village to stimulate interest in the INGV centre and its exhibition.

  18. The volcano in a gravel pit: Volcano monitoring meets experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scarlato, P. G.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Wagner, R.; Walk, F.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. During explosive eruptions, gas and pyroclasts are ejected at high speed over variable time spans and at variable intensity. As magma fragmentation inside a volcanic edifice defies direct observation, our mechanistic and quantitative understanding of the syn-eruptive processes is still incomplete. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we used a supra-disciplinary approach and combined experimental volcanology and volcano monitoring devices. We performed 34 field-based fragmentation experiments using cylindrical samples, drilled from natural volcanic rock samples. Decompression and particle ejection were monitored with (1) Doppler Radar (DR), (2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, (3) high-speed thermal camera, (4) acoustic and infrasound sensors and (5) pressure transducers. The experiments were performed at controlled sample porosity (25 to 75 vol.%) and size (60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively), confinement geometry, applied pressure (4 to 18 MPa) and temperature (25 and 850 °C). We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast ejection, giving coherent results of up to 130 m/s. Close and high-resolution volcano monitoring, spiced with results from our experiments, will allow for "calibrating volcanoes". An enhanced understanding of the pressurisation state of a volcano is an essential factor in ballistic hazard evaluation and eruption energy estimation and will contribute to adequate risk mitigation.

  19. The VIDA Framework as an Education Tool: Leveraging Volcanology Data for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-04-01

    The VIDA Framework as an Education Tool: Leveraging Volcanology Data for Educational Purposes Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. While the basic intention of VIDA is to support disaster risk reduction efforts, there are several methods of leveraging raw science data to support education across a wide demographic. Basic geophysical data could be used to educate school children about the characteristics of volcanoes, satellite mappings could support informed growth and development of societies in at-risk areas, and raw sensor data could contribute to a wide range of university-level research projects. Satellite maps, basic geophysical data, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource

  20. Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2009-11-01

    The scattering cross-section sigma(s) of a gas bubble of equilibrium radius R(0) in liquid can be written in the form sigma(s)=4piR(0) (2)[(omega(1) (2)omega(2)-1)(2)+delta(2)], where omega is the excitation frequency, omega(1) is the resonance frequency, and delta is a frequency-dependent dimensionless damping coefficient. A persistent discrepancy in the frequency dependence of the contribution to delta from radiation damping, denoted delta(rad), is identified and resolved, as follows. Wildt's [Physics of Sound in the Sea (Washington, DC, 1946), Chap. 28] pioneering derivation predicts a linear dependence of delta(rad) on frequency, a result which Medwin [Ultrasonics 15, 7-13 (1977)] reproduces using a different method. Weston [Underwater Acoustics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series Vol. II, 55-88 (1967)], using ostensibly the same method as Wildt, predicts the opposite relationship, i.e., that delta(rad) is inversely proportional to frequency. Weston's version of the derivation of the scattering cross-section is shown here to be the correct one, thus resolving the discrepancy. Further, a correction to Weston's model is derived that amounts to a shift in the resonance frequency. A new, corrected, expression for the extinction cross-section is also derived. The magnitudes of the corrections are illustrated using examples from oceanography, volcanology, planetary acoustics, neutron spallation, and biomedical ultrasound. The corrections become significant when the bulk modulus of the gas is not negligible relative to that of the surrounding liquid.

  1. "Alla en Guatemala": Transnationalism, Language, and Identity of a Pentecostal Guatemalan-American Young Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the transnationalism of a Pentecostal Guatemalan-American young woman who is a second-generation immigrant. Amalia traveled to Guatemala from when she was six months old until her sophomore year in college. These visits to Guatemala have helped her maintain her Guatemalan language, culture, and identity in the larger Southern…

  2. EU Support for Justice and Security Sector Reform in Honduras and Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    This desk study reviews the literature on EU programmes that supported security and justice reform in Guatemala and Honduras, focusing on two programs: the programme in support of the security sector (PASS) in Honduras and the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). The

  3. 77 FR 59541 - Extension of Import Restrictions on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... determined to extend the bilateral Agreement between the Republic of Guatemala and the United States to... multilateral agreements to impose import restrictions on eligible archaeological and ethnological materials... September 29, 1997, the United States entered into a bilateral Agreement with Guatemala concerning the...

  4. Socioeconomic disparities and the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight in guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2013-01-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined here as households with a stunted child and an overweight mother (SCOM), is a growing problem in Guatemala. We explored the magnitude of SCOM and the identification of socio-economic factors associated with this malnutrition duality. From the 2000 Living Standards Measurement Study from Guatemala, we obtained a sample of 2492 households with pairs of children 6–60 months and their mothers (18–49 years) and estimated the prevalence of SCOM. Economic characteristics of this sample were assessed with the Concentration Index (CI). Results revealed higher prevalence of child stunting, but a lower prevalence of maternal overweight among the poor compared to the rich households. Economic inequality in child stunting was greater than economic inequality in maternal overweight (CI = −0.22 vs. +0.14). SCOM pairs were more prevalent among the poor and middle SES groups as compared to the rich households. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that SCOM was more likely to occur in households from the middle consumption quintile than in those from the first quintile (odds ratio = 1.7). The findings reported here add new insights into the complex phenomenon observed in households with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum, and support the need for the identification of economic, social and biological interventions aimed at, on the one hand, the prevention of this duality of the malnutrition in those households where it is still non-existent, and on the other hand, to deter or correct the economic, social and biological environments where those mother-child dyads are already affected by such phenomena. PMID:21889428

  5. Physical volcanology of the mafic segment of the subaqueous New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lyndsay N; Mueller, Wulf U [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boul. du l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H2B1 (Canada)], E-mail: lyndsay.moore@uqac.ca

    2008-10-01

    Archean calderas provide valuable insight into internal geometries of subaqueous calderas. The New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, is an Archean example of a subaqueous nested caldera with a basal stratigraphy dominated by gabbro-diorite dykes and sills, ponded magmas and basalt and andesite lava flows. The aim of our study is to focus on the use of physical volcanology to differentiate between the various mafic units found at the base of the New Senator caldera. Differentiation between these various mafic units is important from an exploration point of view because in modern subaqueous summit calders (e.g. Axial Seamount) margins of ponded magmas are often sites of VMS formation.

  6. Guatemala 2008: la democracia en medio de un escenario complejo Guatemala 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZO LAUTARO ROSAL

    2009-01-01

    of crime and violence in Guatemala, provoked to a large extent by juvenile gangs and, especially, by organized crime organizations headed by drug trafficking. It is true that such a situation doesn't call to optimism, but neither it is convenient to assume and attitude of defeat, given the country's potentials to recover and continue advancing.

  7. A comparison of new, old and future densiometic techniques as applied to volcanologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Matthew; Moreland, William; Dobson, Kate; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Fitton, Godfrey; Lee, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The density of any material imposes a primary control upon its potential or actual physical behaviour in relation to its surrounds. It follows that a thorough understanding of the physical behaviour of dynamic, multi-component systems, such as active volcanoes, requires knowledge of the density of each component. If we are to accurately predict the physical behaviour of synthesized or natural volcanic systems, quantitative densiometric measurements are vital. The theoretical density of melt, crystals and bubble phases may be calculated using composition, structure, temperature and pressure inputs. However, measuring the density of natural, non-ideal, poly-phase materials remains problematic, especially if phase specific measurement is important. Here we compare three methods; Archimedes principle, He-displacement pycnometry and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMT) and discuss the utility and drawbacks of each in the context of modern volcanologic study. We have measured tephra, ash and lava from the 934 AD Eldgjá eruption (Iceland), and the 2010 AD Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland), using each technique. These samples exhibit a range of particle sizes, phases and textures. We find that while the Archimedes method remains a useful, low-cost technique to generate whole-rock density data, relative precision is problematic at small particles sizes. Pycnometry offers a more precise whole-rock density value, at a comparable cost-per-sample. However, this technique is based upon the assumption pore spaces within the sample are equally available for gas exchange, which may or may not be the case. XMT produces 3D images, at resolutions from nm to tens of µm per voxel where X-ray attenuation is a qualitative measure of relative electron density, expressed as greyscale number/brightness (usually 16-bit). Phases and individual particles can be digitally segmented according to their greyscale and other characteristics. This represents a distinct advantage over both

  8. Time correlation by palaeomagnetism of the 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Volcanological and volcanic hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Principe, C.; Rosi, M.; Soler, V.

    1993-11-01

    The 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius was the most destructive episode in the recent volcanic history of Vesuvius and the last in which large pyroclastic flows were emitted. The controversy about whether lava flows were also generated in this eruption, as sustained in the mapping by Le Hon (1866) and by the interpretation by some authors (Burri et al., 1975; Rolandi et al., 1991) of eyewitness accounts, is important not only for a better understanding of the eruption but also for the implications in the prediction of volcanic hazards of this volcano, set in an overpopulated area with more than 3 million people potentially at risk. Short-period palaeomagnetic techniques (secular variation curve) have been applied to correlate lava flows interpreted as produced in the event of 1631 with the pyroclastic flow of this same eruption and other lava flows unquestionably emitted prior to this eruptive event. The model that best fits the results obtained suggests that the presumed 1631 lava flows were not the result of a single eruptive event but were, in fact, produced by several different eruptions. These lava flows also have a better palaeomagnetic correlation with the medieval lava flows than with the pyroclastic flow of 1631, whose juvenile pumice clasts have a well-defined single component magnetization that fits in the expected corresponding position of the secular variation curve for that age. The palaeomagnetic characteristics of the 1631 pyroclastic flow are compatible with a "hot" depositional temperature (apparently above the Curie point of magnetite, 585 °C) for the juvenile pumice fragments (magmatic fraction) and a "cold" deposition for the non-magmatic fraction. This suggests the lack of thermal equilibration during transport of the larger clasts, probably due to the short distance travelled by the pyroclastic flows. The main volcanological and volcanic hazard issues of this work are that the 1631 event was entirely explosive and that pyroclastic flow activity

  9. Perfil etnodemográfico de la Audiencia de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovell, W. George

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a short history of the population evolution in the «Audiencia de Guatemala» from the years previous to the Conquest through the early 19th Century. As a consequence of historical research conducted in the latest decades, the authors focus on topics such as the Indigenous population following a span that covers the years before the Conquest and the decline of their numbers up to their slow recovery in the North and West of Central America. Other topics discussed are the voluntary migration of Spaniards and the forced migration of Africans, as well as interrelations between these groups and the Natives, in particular the impact of metissage and the genesis of the castes, including the «ladinos». It is particularly interesting the surprising impact, both socioeconomical and demographical, of the groups of African origins in the «Audiencia de Guatemala».

    Este estudio es una breve historia de la evolución poblacional de la Audiencia de Guatemala desde las vísperas de la Conquista hasta principios del siglo XIX. Como consecuencia de las investigaciones históricas de décadas recientes, los autores se enfocan principalmente en la población indígena, su tamaño antes de la Conquista, su disminución y su lenta recuperación en el norte y occidente de Centroamérica. Otros temas discutidos son la migración voluntaria de españoles y la migración forzada de africanos a la región, así como la interrelación de estos dos grupos con la población indígena, especialmente el impacto de mestizaje y la génesis de las castas, incluyendo la ladina. Quizá, el tema más notable sea el sorprendente impacto socioeconómico y demográfico de la población de ascendencia africana en la Audiencia de Guatemala.

  10. Guatemala y los retos de las elecciones 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo resaltar los retos que a criterio de su autora, son especialmente relevantes de cara al proceso electoral 2015 en Guatemala, en el cual se elegirán presidente, diputados y autoridades municipales. Se valoran las experiencias de 2007 y 2011, sus avances y dificultades con la finalidad de llamar la atención de los nuevos magistrados electos, sobre aquellos aspectos que requieren mayor atención en aras de salvaguardar la integridad del proceso, así como de mejorar la imagen del Tribunal Supremo Electoral.

  11. In the army hands: violence and post war in guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    ESPARZA, MARCIA

    2007-01-01

    La guerra muchas veces de carácter fraticida entre sectores de la población maya en Guatemala (1962-1996) ha dejado secuelas impresas en el tejido social. En mi investigación, que incluye el trabajo de campo para la Comisión de la Verdad auspiciada por las Naciones Unidas en ese país (1997-1998), fui testiga de la destrucción de lazos de confianza y solidaridad, componentes clave en el soporte de la identidad comunal indígena. Mi estudio muestra cómo la persistente militarización produce que ...

  12. Guatemala; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund.

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Guatemala’s economy has performed solidly since the 2008–09 crisis. Output has converged to potential, inflation is under control, and macroeconomic policies remain prudent. However, risks to the outlook are tilted downwards, while buffers are modest and space for counter-cyclical policies is thin. Long-term inclusive growth is constrained by low investment in physical and human capital, institutional weaknesses, and lack of security. Near-term policies are broadly app...

  13. Microbiological Effectiveness of Disinfecting Water by Boiling in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Miller, Laura; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Boiling is the most common means of treating water in the home and the benchmark against which alternative point-of-use water treatment options must be compared. In a 5-week study in rural Guatemala among 45 households who claimed they always or almost always boiled their drinking water, boiling was associated with a 86.2% reduction in geometric mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) (N = 206, P boiling significantly improved the microbiological quality of drinking water, though boiled and stored drinking water is not always free of fecal contaminations. PMID:20207876

  14. Comportamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Enrique Plá Acevedo; Eddy Mario Collejo Acevedo; Odalis Elena Acevedo Tristá; Learelis Fernández Cruz; Yanet Marbelis Plá Acevedo

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda (EDA) en Tierra Blanca, Departamento Petén, Guatemala; en el período comprendido de enero a diciembre del año 2011. El universo de estudio lo formaron todos los individuos que fueron evaluados en el puesto de salud de Tierra Blanca con diagnóstico clínico de EDA. La muestra estuvo constituida por 529 pacientes. Se trabajó con el Sistema de Información Gerencial...

  15. First Volcanological-Probabilistic Pyroclastic Density Current and Fallout Hazard Map for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.

    2005-05-01

    Integrated volcanological-probabilistic approaches has been used in order to simulate pyroclastic density currents and fallout and produce hazard maps for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius areas. On the basis of the analyses of all types of pyroclastic flows, surges, secondary pyroclastic density currents and fallout events occurred in the volcanological history of the two volcanic areas and the evaluation of probability for each type of events, matrixs of input parameters for a numerical simulation have been performed. The multi-dimensional input matrixs include the main controlling parameters of the pyroclasts transport and deposition dispersion, as well as the set of possible eruptive vents used in the simulation program. Probabilistic hazard maps provide of each points of campanian area, the yearly probability to be interested by a given event with a given intensity and resulting demage. Probability of a few events in one thousand years are typical of most areas around the volcanoes whitin a range of ca 10 km, including Neaples. Results provide constrains for the emergency plans in Neapolitan area.

  16. Ciencias Sociales, Sociología y pobreza en Guatemala Social Sciences, Sociology, and poverty in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar S. G. Mendoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva de la sociología del conocimiento de Karl Mannheim se puede comprender el estado del arte de los estudios de pobreza en Guatemala en un escenario entre 1980 y 2004. La justificación del trabajo se debe a la ausencia de una investigación que trate de entender el desarrollo del tema en las Ciencias Sociales en Guatemala y que demuestre su importancia a través de experiencias teóricas y metodológicas. Se puede decir que la investigación sobre la pobreza no ha sido sistemática ni continua debido al proceso social y político que ha vivido el país, no obstante se afirma con toda certeza que existe un corpus bibliográfico heterogéneo y considerable entre 1980-2004. La investigación tuvo como objetivo realizar un balance de las tendencias teóricas y metodológicas de los estudios en los últimos 20 años. Debo apuntar que la bibliografía sobre pobreza es bastante amplia e inevitablemente mereció seleccionar una muestra de los trabajos más representativos e innovadores, no sólo en las dos décadas analizadas, sino también en sus temas. No se puede entender los estudios de pobreza alejados de la Ciencias Sociales y de los procesos históricos, políticos, económicos y sociales de Guatemala y la relación con otros campos de conocimiento en Centroamérica y América Latina.From the perspective of Karl Mannheim's sociology of knowledge, it is possible to understand the state of the art of poverty studies in Guatemala between 1980 and 2004. This work is justified by the lack of investigations looking into the development of Social Sciences in Guatemala and it demonstrates its importance through theoretical and methodological experiences. Investigation on poverty can be said to have been neither systematic nor continued, due to the social and political process the country has undergone. Nevertheless, it can also be sustained that there is a heterogeneous and considerable bibliographic corpus between 1980-2004. This

  17. Workshops on Volcanoes at Santiaguito (Guatemala): A community effort to inform and highlight the outstanding science opportunities at an exceptional laboratory volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.; Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Pineda, A.

    2016-12-01

    Santiaguito is one of Earth's most reliable volcanic spectacles and affords opportunity to investigate dome volcanism, including hourly explosions, pyroclastic flows, block lava flows, and sporadic paroxysmal eruptions. The cubic km dome, active since 1922, comprises four coalescing structures. Lava effusion and explosions are ideally observed from a birds-eye perspective at the summit of Santa Maria volcano (1200 m above and 2700 km from the active Caliente vent). Santiaguito is also unstable and dangerous. Thousands of people in farms and local communities are exposed to hazards from frequent lahars, pyroclastic flows, and potentially large sector-style dome collapses. In January 2016 more than 60 volcano scientists, students, postdocs, and observatory professionals traveled to Santiaguito to participate in field study and discussion about the science and hazards of Santiaguito. The event facilitated pre- and syn-workshop field experiments, including deployment of seismic, deformation, infrasound, multi-spectral gas and thermal sensing, UAV reconnaissance, photogrammetry, and petrologic and rheologic sampling. More than 55 participants spent the night on the 3770-m summit of Santa Maria to partake in field observations. The majority of participants also visited lahar and pyroclastic flow-impacted regions south of the volcano. A goal of the workshop was to demonstrate how multi-disciplinary observations are critical to elucidate volcano eruption dynamics. Integration of geophysical and geochemical observation, and open exchange of technological advances, is vital to achieve the next generation of volcano discovery. Toward this end data collected during the workshop are openly shared within the broader volcanological community. Another objective of the workshop was to bring attention to an especially hazardous and little-studied volcanic system. The majority of workshop attendees had not visited the region and their participation was hoped to seed future

  18. Resumption Of Postpartum Fecundability In Rural Guatemala: A Multistate Approach

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    Pinto Aguirre, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate and re-estimate the effects of breastfeeding patterns, women's nutritional and health status, and energy expenditure on the timing of resumption of postpartum fecundability (i.e. resumption of postpartum menses using all the relevant information in the Instituto de Nutrición de Centroamérica y Panamá longitudinal study and a more adequate estimation procedure (hazard models. The data used in this study come from a Longitudinal Study carried out in Guatemala between 1967 and 1979. In this article we use a multi-state hazard model that recognizes different pathways and states in the process of returning to the postpartum fecundability. The model relies on the existence of five states (fully breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, weaning, infant mortality and menses. It also includes explicitly maternal nutrition and women's energy expenditure as strategic elements of the model. The study shows that the estimated effects of breastfeeding patterns, maternal nutrition and women's work patterns (energy expenditure on resumption of fecundability in rural Guatemala are strong and significant. The contribution of this paper is to show that application of hazard models with multiple states provides estimates that are consistent with hypotheses relating lactation patterns, maternal nutritional status and maternal external stressors to processes that accelerate (decelerate resumption of normal menstrual cycles.

  19. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to respiratory infections.

  20. Seismic event classification and precursor identification at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.; Rodriguez, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the nature and origins of seismic signals generated by volcanic activity can greatly aid in hazard mitigation efforts. Systematic identification and detailed cataloging of explosive events provide a first step for this understanding, and can be even more valuable when the events span longer time periods. Beyond simply being a more useful monitoring tool, the detailed classification of events can illuminate the processes behind different conduit flow phenomena such as rheological sealing or piston-style chugging. Fuego volcano, Guatemala, is a basaltic-andesite stratovolcano that has been continually active since 1999. Activity is characterized by small-scale explosive eruptions and intermittent lava flows. In this study, we categorize different events recorded with a 10 station temporary seismic array at Fuego volcano in Guatemala in January 2012 that included infrasound and tilt sensors. Waveform analysis, along with visual and thermal characteristics captured by cameras allow us to identify precursory activity in different bandwidths that precedes some of the event types. We investigate the physical mechanisms behind these precursors to explain why some event types exhibit them while others may not, and how these mechanisms influence our conceptual models of explosion dynamics at Fuego. Finally, we compare events recorded in 2012 with other studies conducted at Fuego volcano in previous years to identify changes in the signal characteristics and their potential influences on activity styles observed during different field campaigns to highlight the importance of longitudinal studies at persistently active volcanic systems.

  1. DeLucca named project director in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Mike Delucca, a social marketing specialist since 1978, has been named director of a new contraceptive social marketing effort in Guatemala. The project is sponsored by Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (IPROFA), S.A., a group of private-sector community leaders who came together specifically to set up the project. IPROFA plan to being marketing 1 brand of oral contraceptive, condom, and foaming tablet in early 1985. Efforts will first be targeted at economically and socially disadvantaged fertile couples between the ages of 18-44 in large urban areas. By the end of 1985 marketing will begin in rural and small urban areas. DeLucca is on assignment IPROFA from Juarez and Associates, a marketing and research firm in Los Angeles. He was formerly with Development Associates of Arlington, Virginia, and served as project director for the social marketing project in El Salvador. He joined the Guatemala project in May 1984, overseeing prelaunch activities that included development of the marketing plan. After the product launch he will coordinate sales and follow-up marketing studies. The project is the result of a cooperative agreement between IPROFA and US Agency for International Development (USAID) signed in April 1982.

  2. La Candelaria Neighborthood City of Guatemala, Forgotten Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Alberto de la Roca Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Guatemala de la Asunción, has been impacted by climate change, due to its geographical location, the tectonic plates and volcanic features of the soil, which causes that the country is always threatened by tragic events that occur suddenly and on a recurring basis, by natural events (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, storms, floods, landslides. Because the age of the District of La Candelaria, (since it is the second set in the Valle de la Ermita, after the transfer of the city in January 1776, likewise it was one of the areas damaged by the earthquake of February 4, 1976, has as a consequence that the architectural heritage of the District of La Candelaria is constantly at risk. In the 21st century, the problems of nationwide architectural heritage have additional components that make it more vulnerable to ruin, (social, economic and political deterioration, insecurity, which added to the poor state of physical buildings, referred to the lack of maintenance, little financial support and interest of the authorities to apply the laws for the protection of immovable cultural heritage assets. Within the Barrio of La Candelaria, there are homes and architectural remains, which could improve its current state. Guatemala needs to join the State and private institutions to ensure prevention and safeguarding of the heritage. 

  3. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.; Andrew R DiNardo; Puac Polanco, Victor D.; Harvey, Michael J.; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, dire...

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces, the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs of Miocene age. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the Reforma and offshore Campeche areas. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala, and one major discovery has been reported in northwestern Guatemala. Small- to medium-sized oil accumulations also occur in Miocene sandstone reservoirs on salt structures in the Isthmus Saline basin of western Tabasco State, Mexico. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt structures. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. The sedimentary cover of Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks ranges in thickness from about 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to as much as 12,000 m (40,000 ft) or more in most of the region. Paleozoic marine carbonate and clastic rocks 1,000 to 2,000 m (3,300 to 6,500 ft) thick overlie the metamorphic and igneous basement in part of the region; Triassic through Middle Jurassic red beds and evaporite deposits, including halite, apparently are present throughout the region, deposited in part in a Triassic graben system. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) through Cretaceous rocks make up the bulk of the Mesozoic regional carbonate bank complex, which dominates most of the area. Tertiary marine and continental clastic rocks, some of deep water origin, 3,000 to 10,000 m (10,000 to 35,000 ft) thick, are present in the coastal plain Tertiary basins. These beds grade eastward into a carbonate

  5. Guatemala värvid ja kontrastid / Märt Peet, Elo Talvoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peet, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Guatemala vaatamisväärsustest ja kultuurist. Eesti noorte naiste ja meeste kristlike ühingute esindajate osalemisest rahvusvahelises noortejuhtide programmis Kesk- Ameerikas erinevate kultuuride tundmaõppimiseks

  6. Sulgmadu ja jaaguarijumal : Mehhiko ja Guatemala indiaani kultuur Tampere kunstimuuseumis / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    Kolumbuse-eelse mesoameerika indiaani kultuuride näitus. Eksponeeritud 350 Mehhiko, Guatemala ja Prantsuse muuseumidele kuuluvat eksponaati ajavahemikust 1500 a. e. kr.-1500 a. p. kr. Indiaani jumalatest

  7. Genomic insights on the ethno-history of the Maya and the 'Ladinos' from Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Söchtig, Jens; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ...' from Guatemala by means of uniparental and ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Analyses of uniparental genetic markers indicate that Maya have a dominant Native American ancestry (mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]: 100%; Y-chromosome: 94...

  8. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  9. Guatemala värvid ja kontrastid / Märt Peet, Elo Talvoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peet, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Guatemala vaatamisväärsustest ja kultuurist. Eesti noorte naiste ja meeste kristlike ühingute esindajate osalemisest rahvusvahelises noortejuhtide programmis Kesk- Ameerikas erinevate kultuuride tundmaõppimiseks

  10. Sulgmadu ja jaaguarijumal : Mehhiko ja Guatemala indiaani kultuur Tampere kunstimuuseumis / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    Kolumbuse-eelse mesoameerika indiaani kultuuride näitus. Eksponeeritud 350 Mehhiko, Guatemala ja Prantsuse muuseumidele kuuluvat eksponaati ajavahemikust 1500 a. e. kr.-1500 a. p. kr. Indiaani jumalatest

  11. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    .... This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used...

  12. The process of social participation in primary health care: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruano, Ana L; Sebastián, Miguel S; Hurtig, Anna‐Karin

    2014-01-01

    .... In Guatemala, social participation has been the main policy for the decentralization process since the late 1990s and the social development council scheme has been the main means for participation...

  13. Política y comercio en la Guatemala del siglo XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Webre, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    ResumenEstudia la comunidad constituida por los comerciantes de Santiago de Guatemala en el siglo XVII y los diversos medios por los cuales procuró influir en las políticas coloniales, concretamente en lo concerniente a impuestos sobre el comercio y a regulaciones mercantiles de la Corona.AbstractA study of the merchant community seventeenth-century Santiago de Guatemala and y the various means through wich it strivde to influence Colonial policies, specifically regarding commercial taxation ...

  14. State Capacity and Effectiveness in Combating Crime: A Comparative Study of El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    massacres took place on Mayan villages. He has remained in Guatemalan politics since the civil war, and because he was a congressman, he has been...decades after the conclusion of brutal civil wars, El Salvador and Guatemala are once again faced with high levels of violence stemming from drug...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Less than two decades after the conclusion of brutal civil wars, El Salvador and Guatemala are once again

  15. A symbiotic relationship: Norwegian diplomacy and Norwegian journalism on war and peace in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Krøvel

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with Norwegian journalism on the Guatemalan civil war and the peace process from 1990 to 1997. The author has examined all documents regarding the peace process in Guatemala registered in the archive of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from the late 1980s to 1995 and interviewed most of the relevant Norwegian and Guatemalan sources. The results of the study show that Norwegian sources consistently dominated the reporting on Guatemala. The constructed understand...

  16. Political and socioeconomic implications of Classic Maya lithic artifacts from the Main Plaza of Aguateca, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    AOYAMA, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Political and socioeconomic implications of Classic Maya lithic artifacts from the Main Plaza of Aguateca, Guatemala. This article discusses the results of an analysis of 4,076 lithic artifacts collected in and around the Main Plaza of Aguateca, Guatemala, by the Aguateca Restoration Project Second Phase with the objective of examining Classic Maya political and socioeconomic organization. First, combined with the results of analysis of 10,845 lithic artifacts collected in the Palace Group, t...

  17. A revised checklist of the mosquitoes of Guatemala including a new country record, Psorophora cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, R F

    1994-12-01

    A newly erected genus, Isostomyia, a recently described subgenus, Phenacomyia, of Culex, and 15 species have been added to the mosquito fauna of Guatemala since the last checklist was published by Clark-Gil and Darsie (1983); therefore a revised list is included. One of the additions is Psorophora cyanescens, a new country record for Guatemala. Its presence in Mexico and Central America is reviewed.

  18. Violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala: causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in Latin America, and thus the world. The primary purpose of this thesis is to answer the following question: what factors explain the rise of violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala? The secondary focus of this thesis is to identify the transnational implications of Guatemala’s violence for U.S. policy. Guatemala’s critical security environment requires the identification of causal rela...

  19. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  20. "Something of an adventure": postwar NIH research ethos and the Guatemala STD experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Bagdady, Kayte; Lombardo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The STD experiments in Guatemala from 1946-1948 have earned a place of infamy in the history of medical ethics. But if the Guatemala STD experiments were so "ethically impossible," how did the U.S. government approve their funding? Although much of the literature has targeted the failings of Dr. John Cutler, we focus on the institutional context and research ethos that shaped the outcome of the research. After the end of WWII, Dr. Cassius Van Slyke reconstructed the federal research contracts process into a grant program. The inaugural NIH study section recommended approval of the Guatemala STD experiments at its first meeting. The funding and oversight process of the Guatemala research was marked with serious conflicts of interest and a lack of oversight, and it was this structure, as opposed to merely a maleficent individual, that allowed the Guatemala STD experiments to proceed. We conclude that while current research regulations are designed to prevent the abuses perpetrated on the subjects of the Guatemala STD experiments, it takes a comprehensive understanding of research ethics through professional education to achieve the longstanding ideal of the responsible investigator, and ensure ethical research under any regulatory scheme.

  1. Efectividad de la intervención cambiaria en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Castillo Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las intervenciones cambiarias de compra y de venta de dólares del Banco de Guatemala se analiza en el contexto de un modelo ACT-GARCH. Con información diaria para el periodo 1996-2008, se concluye que solamente las intervenciones de compra produjeron una disminución de la volatilidad de largo plazo del tipo de cambio quetzal/dólar, pero que ambos tipos de intervención afectaron el quetzal. En relación con los objetivos establecidos por el banco central, la intervención cambiaria fue efectiva cuando se orientó a moderar el tipo de cambio, pero careció de efectividad cuando ésta se limitó a moderar la volatilidad cambiaria sin afectar su tendencia.

  2. Estratificación y movilidad social en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la estructura de las clases sociales en Guatemala en el nuevo siglo, caracterizada por una incipiente clase media, que representa menos del 20% de la población. El artículo también aborda el tema de la movilidad social en las áreas educativa y laboral. En ambos casos la movilidad social es baja, existiendo diferencias significativas según género y grupo étnico. La movilidad de la educación es mayor en hombres que en mujeres, así como en el grupo étnico no indígena que en el indígena. En la movilidad ocupacional la situación es inversa.

  3. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  4. Fertility remains high in Guatemala despite increasing use of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    With a total fertility rate of 5.1, Guatemala has one of the highest levels of fertility in Latin America, according to findings from the 1995 DHS survey in Guatemala (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil--ENSMI-95). Fertility is lower among educated women, urban women, and Ladino women. The differences are most striking by education: on average, women with no formal education will have 7 children, compared with 2 or 3 children among women with at least some secondary education. Contraceptive use among currently married women increased from 23% in 1987 to 32% in 1995; however, this level of use is still low compared with other countries in the region. Almost half of contraceptive users (15%) rely on female sterilization; relatively few use the pill (4%) or the IUD (3%). It is estimated that 24% of married women want to space or limit their births but are not using a contraceptive method. The survey indicates that there have been improvements in most indicators of maternal and child health, but many challenges remain. Only about half of the women receive antenatal care and just one-third receive assistance at delivery from trained medical personnel. Less than half of the children aged 12-23 months have received all the recommended vaccinations, and half of the children under 5 years are malnourished (stunted). At the same time, infant mortality has shown a steady decline. In the 5-year period preceding the survey the infant mortality rate was 51/1000 live births (under-five mortality was 68/1000). The ENSMI-95 was implemented by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. A total of 12,403 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. The final report and summary report are available in Spanish.

  5. A qualitative study of conceptions and attitudes regarding maternal mortality among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Rööst, Mattias; Johnsdotter, Sara; Liljestrand, Jerker; Essén, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore conceptions of obstetric emergency care among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala, elucidating social and cultural factors. STUDY: design Qualitative in-depth interview study. SETTING: Rural Guatemala. SAMPLE: Thirteen traditional birth attendants from 11 villages around San Miguel Ixtahuacán, Guatemala. METHOD: Interviews with semi-structured, thematic, open-ended questions. Interview topics were: traditional birth attendants' experiences and conceptions...

  6. Integrated, multi-parameter, investigation of eruptive dynamics at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; De Angelis, Silvio; Rietbrock, Andreas; Lamb, Oliver; Hornby, Adrian; Lamur, Anthony; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Chigna, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the nature of the signals generated at volcanoes is central to hazard mitigation efforts. Systematic identification and understanding of the processes responsible for the signals associated with volcanic activity are only possible when high-resolution data are available over relatively long periods of time. For this reason, in November 2014, the Liverpool Earth Observatory (LEO), UK, in collaboration with colleagues of the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Guatemala, installed a large multi-parameter geophysical monitoring network at Santiaguito - the most active volcano in Guatemala. The network, which is to date the largest temporary deployment on Santiaguito, includes nine three-component broadband seismometers, three tiltmeters, and five infrasound microphones. Further, during the initial installation campaign we conducted visual and thermal infrared measurements of surface explosive activity and collected numerous rock samples for geochemical, geophysical and rheological characterisation. Activity at Santiaguito began in 1922, with the extrusion of a series of lava domes. In recent years, persistent dome extrusion has yielded spectacularly episodic piston-like motion displayed by characteristic tilt/seismic patterns (Johnson et al, 2014). This cyclicity episodically concludes with gas emissions or gas-and-ash explosions, observed to progress along a complex fault system in the dome. The explosive activity is associated with distinct geophysical signals characterised by the presence of very-long period earthquakes as well as more rapid inflation/deflation cycles; the erupted ash further evidences partial melting and thermal vesiculation resulting from fault processes (Lavallée et al., 2015). One year of data demonstrates the regularity of the periodicity and intensity of the explosions; analysis of infrasound data suggests that each explosion expulses on the order of 10,000-100,000 kg of gas and ash. We

  7. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chary, Anita; Greiner, Miranda; Bowers, Cody; Rohloff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system...

  9. Two Curricular Units for Advanced Spanish Students: Guatemala, Ayer y Hoy Descubre Mexico. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bonnie L.

    These two curriculum units were developed as a result of study in Mexico and Guatemala during the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program, 2000. The units are designed for use in an upper-level high school Spanish class. They are intended to be taught in Spanish, and the supplementary materials (with a few exceptions) are written in Spanish.…

  10. Patient-centered boundary mechanisms to foster intercultural partnerships in health care: a case study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Berger Gonzalez, Mónica; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Ochaíta Santizo, Daniela; Solis Miranda, Regina; Aguilar Ferro, Andrea Isabel; Vides-Porras, Ana; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2017-08-08

    traditional health care due to refined diagnoses and adapted treatment strategies. In individual cases, the beneficial effects of traditional treatments were remarkable, and the doctors continued to collaborate with healers after the study was completed. Comparison of the two linguistic groups illustrated that the outcomes are highly context-dependent. If well adapted to local context, patient-centered boundary mechanisms can enable intercultural partnerships by creating access, building trust and fostering mutual learning, even in circumstances as complex as those in Guatemala. Creating multilateral patient-centered boundary mechanisms is thus a promising approach to improve health care in medically pluralistic developing countries.

  11. ‘Con nuestro propio esfuerzo’: Understanding the Relationships between International Migration and the Environment in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Aguilar-Støen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:International migration from rural areas affects the environment in numerous and complex ways. The inflow of economic and social remittances changes production and consumption patterns, social relations, and social and economic institutions in the places of origin of migrants. In this case study, I discuss how migration is pushing a local process of land redistribution in Guatemala. Such a process is also changing patterns of land use and land cover. The process is influenced by the emergence of local cooperatives, which in turn are stimulated by organizations and networks in wider temporal and spatial contexts. Land acquisition by migrant families has also improved their position vis-àvis traditional landowners. My study suggests that in contexts where local organization is successful and linked to actors and networks at wider scales, transnational households are in a good position to negotiate the outcomes of the use of remittances. These families are improving their living standards without degrading the environment irreversibly.Resumen: ('Con nuestro propio esfuerzo': Comprendiendo la relación entre la migración internacional y el medio ambiente en GuatemalaLa migración internacional de las zonas rurales afecta el medio ambiente de maneras significantes y complejas. El ingreso de las remesas económicas y sociales cambian los patrones de producción y consumo; las relaciones sociales y las instituciones sociales y económicas en los lugares de origen de los migrantes. En este estudio de caso, se analiza cómo la migración está impulsando un proceso local de redistribución de la tierra en Guatemala. Este proceso también está afectando los patrones de uso del suelo. Asimismo, este proceso está influenciado por el surgimiento de cooperativas locales, que a la vez son estimuladas por organizaciones y redes en amplios contextos temporales y espaciales. Adquisiciones de tierras por familias de inmigrantes también ha mejorado

  12. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and

  13. Identifying individuals at risk for fracture in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaton M Nasser

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The FRAX calculator combines a set of clinical risk factors with country-specific incidence rates to determine the ten-year absolute risk of major osteoporotic fracture. However, regional or country-specific databases from Central American countries are not available. We compared the use of various FRAX databases and the Pluijm algorithm in determining risk of fracture. METHODS: We collected clinical risk factor data needed for the FRAX calculator and Pluijm algorithm of Hispanic women in Guatemala and calculated the FRAX absolute risk measures of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture. Subjects were postmenopausal women greater than age 40 with no history of using medication that affect bone. A random sample of 204 women in 34 different regions women in Guatemala City was visited in their homes to complete the surveys. The Pluijm risk score and FRAX risk score using the US Hispanic, Spain, and Mexican databases were calculated. RESULTS: We used the US NOF guidelines for treatment which suggest a treatment threshold for patients with a 10-year hip fracture probability ≥ 3% or a 10-year major osteoporotic fracture risk ≥ 20%. The number of patients meeting the suggested threshold limits for treatment using the Spain and Mexico calculators were identical. There was 100% conformity in threshold limits for both hip and major osteoporotic fracture risk. The mean conformity for any fracture risk between US Hispanic and the other two databases was 97.5%. Conformity was 99.0% based on major osteoporotic fracture and 97.5% based on risk of hip fracture. The Pluijm evaluation shows conformity of 87.2% and 83.3%, respectively, when compared to the US Hispanic and Spain/Mexico FRAX thresholds for risk of fracture. DISCUSSION: Although the different FRAX databases provide variations in the absolute risk of fracture, the overall conformity to treatment thresholds amongst the US Hispanic, Spain, and Mexico databases show the database

  14. MUSEOS TEXTILES EN CANADÁ, GUATEMALA Y MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los productos textiles no suelen ser protagónicos en las prácticas museográficas tradicionales; se les considera objetos decorativos, piezas de arte popular o elementos etnográficos, pero generalmente apoyan discursos de otras tipologías museales, más convencionales y establecidas. Por ello, este texto compara los fondos y los sistemas expositivos de tres instituciones dedicadas exclusivamente al objeto textil: el Textile Museum of Canada (fundado en Toronto en 1975; el Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena (inaugurado en Guatemala en 1977; y el Museo Textil de Oaxaca (abierto al público en 2008. Se propone que los museos textiles son entidades híbridas y sugerentes, con frágiles acervos que requieren soluciones museográficas provenientes de la antropología, la historia del arte occidental “culta” y las artes populares. Si bien el discurso curatorial de los museos textiles ha sido relativamente periférico, también es polivalente: (reafirma identidades nacionales, pero construye nuevas visiones —más incluyentes— de diversidad cultural. Textile artifacts are not central devices in generalized curatorial practices: even if these objects might be considered simultaneously as decorative items, popular art pieces or ethnographical resources, they are certainly not independent from more traditionalist and established kinds of exhibits. For those reasons, this article will compare the collections and displays of three important institutions exclusively related to textile artifacts: the Textile Museum of Canada (inaugurated in Toronto in 1975; the Museum Ixchel of the Indigenous Garment (opened to the public in 1977 in Guatemala; and the Museum Textil of Oaxaca, Mexico (founded in 2008. Some institutional, architectonical and technical aspects of these three museums will be compared. The article will suggest some patrimonial possibilities latent in textile museums, according to their precise typological traits, with the main idea that

  15. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  16. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoff, K A; Thompson, Lisa M; Bly, K C; Romero, Carolina

    2013-03-01

    Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  18. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera Arreola, Andrea; Ortíz Wolford, Jenniffer S.; Corona Figueroa, Mildred Fabiola; Gudiel Corona, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Cetaceans have been studied in Guatemala since 1960s, but only a few scientific works based on the collected cetacean data were published. We reviewed literatures about cetaceans in Guatemala for the past fifty years to gain the biological knowledge for conservation and management plans. A total of

  19. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Espinoza Sanabria; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs; J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed.

  20. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera Arreola, Andrea; Ortíz Wolford, Jenniffer S.; Corona Figueroa, Mildred Fabiola; Gudiel Corona, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Cetaceans have been studied in Guatemala since 1960s, but only a few scientific works based on the collected cetacean data were published. We reviewed literatures about cetaceans in Guatemala for the past fifty years to gain the biological knowledge for conservation and management plans. A total of

  1. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  2. Mesoamerican Indigenous Society at the Millennium: Historic and Contemporary Perspectives. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Teresa

    This curriculum unit combines folk tales and art from Guatemala and Mexico. The unit introduces students to traditional stories and local art of the indigenous people, as well as some details about the culture and geography of the area. It contains four lesson plans: (1) "The Race of Toad and Deer" (Guatemala), mask and play, grades 2-4;…

  3. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  4. Herpetofaunal richness of San Julian Universitary Farm, Patulul, Suchitepequez, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofaunal richness of San Julian Universitary Farm (FUSJ, in Patulul, Suchitepequez, Guatemala, was investigated using three methods: (1 Capture/sighting of specimens, (2 social inquiry and (3 desk research. The field work was distributed over a 10 year period (2003-2013 at a rate of six fieldwork sessions each year. A 4.5 km long transect extending through the agricultural landscape of the farm was run repeatedly. Each fieldwork session included diurnal and nocturnal travels. The accumulated search time was 420 hr-transect. The equivalent to 337.5 of accumulated miles were traveled, including elevations between 1490 and 1833 feet above sea level. Three former hunters were interviewed and asked to identify species they think are present at the FUSJ. Published data were reviewed to determine which species were expected to occur in San Julian. Two lists (amphibians andreptiles totaling 97 species (including 95 expected, 38 found and 2 not expected was generated. The quality and significance of our data is discussed.

  5. Ceramic pot filters lifetime study in coastal Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, C; Elmore, A C; García Hernandez, B R; Drake, K D

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) are an effective means of household water treatment, but the characterization of CPF lifetimes is ongoing. This paper describes a lifetime field study in Guatemala which was made possible by a collaboration between researchers, CPF-using households, and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Disinfection data were collected periodically for two years using field coliform enumeration kits as were flow rate data with the assistance of NGO staff. Consumer acceptance was characterized by surveying householders in the four subject villages at the beginning and end of the study. Flow rate data showed that average CPF flow rates decreased below the recommended minimum of 1 L h(-1) after 10 months of use; however, the survey results indicated that the consumers were tolerant of the lower flow rates, and it is reasonable to assume that the daily volume of treated water can be readily increased by refilling the CPFs more frequently. Of greater concern was the finding that disinfection efficacy decreased below the recommended bacterial reduction after 14 months of use because it would not be obvious to users that effectiveness had declined. Finally, the follow-up visits by the researchers and the NGO staff appeared to increase consumer acceptance of the CPFs.

  6. Acuíferos volcánicos de Guatemala

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    Isaac R. Herrera-Ibañez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala el estudio de los acuíferos inició en la década de los setenta, sin embargo, pocos trabajos científicos con datos técnicos han sido publicados hasta la fecha. El objetivo del estudio es conocer las características hidrogeológicas de los acuíferos volcánicos, principalmente espesores saturados, parámetros hidráulicos, caudales y niveles de agua subterránea. El estudio fue ejecutado en varias etapas: recopilación y análisis de la información existente, elaboración de la base de datos geográficos y los mapas de acuíferos. El producto de este proyecto contiene: la distribución espacial, presencia y ocurrencia del agua subterránea, considerando varios grupos de rocas, diferenciadas por sus características de permeabilidad que se agrupan en dos tipos de acuíferos: poroso y fracturado. Los datos sobre la heterogeneidad de los acuíferos obtenidos de perfiles geológicos combinado con los datos hidráulicos estimados a partir de ensayos de bombeo, han posibilitado mejorar la caracterización y evaluación cuantitativa de las aguas subterráneas.

  7. Hydrogeochemical exploration of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Adams, A.; Roldan-M, A.; Meeker, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 100 thermal and nonthermal water samples and 20 gas samples from springs and fumaroles have been chemically and isotopically analyzed to help evaluate the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala. Thermal waters of the acid- sulfate, steam condensate, and neutral-chloride types generally occur in restricted hydrogeologic areas: Tecuamburro-Laguna Ixpaco (acid- sulfate); andesite highland north of Tecuamburro (steam-condensate); Rio Los Esclavos (neutral-chloride). One small area of neutral-chloride springs east of the village of Los Esclavos has no relation to the Tecuamburro geothermal system. Neutral-chloride springs on the Rio Los Esclavos east and southeast of Tecuamburro show mixing with various types of groundwaters and display a maximum oxygen-18 enrichment compared to the world meteoric line of only about 1.5 parts per thousand. Maximum estimated subsurface temperatures are {le}200{degree}C. In contrast, maximum estimated subsurface temperatures based on gas compositions in the Laguna Ixpaco area are about 300{degree}C. The relation of neutral-chloride waters to the overall Tecuamburro geothermal system is not entirely resolved but we have suggested two system models. Regardless of model, we believe that a first exploration drill hole should be sited within 0.5 km of Laguna Ixpaco to tap the main geothermal reservoir or its adjacent, main upflow zone. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Neoextractivismo, megaproyectos y conflictividad en Guatemala y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villafuerte Solís

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la nueva fase del modelo económico extractivista en Guatemala y Nicaragua, países que están planteando la construcción de corredores intero - ceánicos con el propósito de conectar el Pacífico con el Atlántico y eventualmente competir con el canal de Panamá. La hipótesis que aquí se presenta es que los nuevos corredores, además de agilizar el comercio y dinamizar la industria maqui - ladora, acelerarán la conversión de estos países en espacios de nueva inversión de capital extranjero, principalmente en minería, producción de energía eólica e hidroeléctrica, así como de agrocom - bustibles. Los proyectos constituyen la punta de lanza del neoextractivismo agrícola-minero y del aprovechamiento de recursos estratégicos, como el agua y el viento, para la producción de energía eléctrica; rubros que interesan al capital multinacional.

  9. Beverage consumption and anthropometric outcomes among schoolchildren in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkes, Sabine; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Groeneveld, Iris F; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2011-10-01

    This analysis explores the clustering of beverage patterns in a single day in private vs. public school children in urban Guatemala. This study is based on measurements taken from 356 third- and fourth-grade pupils from the highland city of Quetzaltenango. Height, weight and body mass index were assessed, and one day's intake of all foods and beverages using a pictorial workbook and dietician assisted recall. Mean differences in beverage consumption were compared for private vs. public school children and by anthropometric outcomes (stunting, overweight and obesity). Plain water was consumed by 30.9% of the children on the day intakes were measured, with higher proportions of water drinkers among private school children. Children having reported water intake on that day consumed 154 fewer kcal (-7.7%) compared with the energy intake of children not having reported water intake (P = 0.02). Significantly more children of high socio-economic status (SES) consumed dairy, fruit juice, commercial fruit juice, fruit drink and soda whereas low SES children consumed thin gruels and infusions. A key result from this study is the finding of a lower energy intake shown by children reporting water intake. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  11. Geology and geothermal potential of the tecuamburro volcano area, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, W.A.; Heiken, G.H.; Wohletz, K.H.; Maassen, L.W.; Dengo, G.; McKee, E.H.; Castaneda, O.

    1992-01-01

    Tecuamburro, an andesitic stratovolcano in southeastern Guatemala, is within the chain of active volcanoes of Central America. Though Tecuamburro has no record of historic eruptions, radiocarbon ages indicate that eruption of this and three other adjacent volcanoes occurred within the past 38,300 years. The youngest eruption produced a dacite dome. Moreover, powerful steam explosions formed a 250 m wide crater about 2900 years ago near the base of this dome. The phreatic crater contains a pH-3 thermal lake. Fumaroles are common along the lake shore, and several other fumaroles are located nearby. Neutral-chloride hot springs are at lower elevations a few kilometers away. All thermal manifestations are within an area of about 400 km2 roughly centered on Tecuamburro Volcano. Thermal implications of the volume, age, and composition of the post-38.3 ka volcanic rocks suggest that magma, or recently solidified hot plutons, or both are in the crust beneath these lavas. Chemical geothermometry carried out by other workers suggests that a hydrothermal-convection system is centered over this crustal heat source. Maximum temperatures of about 300??C are calculated for samples collected in the area of youngest volcanism, whereas samples from outlying thermal manifestations yield calculated temperatures <- 165??C. An 808 m deep drill hole completed in 1990 to partly test the geothermal model developed from surface studies attained a maximum temperature of almost 240??C. Thus, the possibility of a commercial-grade hydrothermal resource in the area seems high. ?? 1992.

  12. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  13. A symbiotic relationship: Norwegian diplomacy and Norwegian journalism on war and peace in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Krøvel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Norwegian journalism on the Guatemalan civil war and the peace process from 1990 to 1997. The author has examined all documents regarding the peace process in Guatemala registered in the archive of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from the late 1980s to 1995 and interviewed most of the relevant Norwegian and Guatemalan sources. The results of the study show that Norwegian sources consistently dominated the reporting on Guatemala. The constructed understandings of Norwegian engagement with war and peace in Guatemala resonated with deep sentiments within Norwegian society. Norwegian journalists came to rely heavily on Norwegian diplomats and facilitators, not only for information, but also for the interpretation of the information.

  14. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  15. The bischops of Guatemala and Nicaragua and the 1917 Canon Law codification: “postulata episcoporum”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salinas Araneda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1904, Pope Saint Pius X ordered the first draft for the Code of Canon Law that the Latin Church ever had. The codification task, however, was not only the work of a closed group of experts, but it also took into account the considerations of the Latin episcopate that was consulted in two different occasions and, in both times, the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Guatemala and Nicaragua were consulted. Based on the documents kept at the Vatican Secret Archives, this article studies the contribution of the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Guatemala in their first request in 1904.

  16. El poder en la Nueva Guatemala: la disputa sobre los Alcaldes de barrio

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La introducción de alcaldes de barrio en Nueva Guatemala, capital del reino de Guatemala, a finales del siglo XVIII, inició veinte años de pleitos entre el capitán general, la Audiencia, el Cabildo y varios inmigrantes españoles sobre la posición de esta nueva institución de seguridad pública dentro del sistema de organismos de gobierno reales y locales. ¿Dependerían los alcaldes de barrio del Cabildo, autoridad tradicional de policía, o de la Audiencia? ¿Quiénes serían aptos para servicio, e...

  17. Oxygen isotopic determinations of sequentially erupted plagioclases in the 1974 magma of Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.I.; Friedman, I.; Woodruff, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    Plagioclases in the 1974 high-Al basalt from Fuego Volcano have ??O18 values of +6.0 to +8.5 per mil. Meteoric water cannot have played a significant role in Fuego's magma. Large, weakly zone clear phenocrysts had ??O18 values in the accepted mantle range, while patchyzoned and oscillatory-zoned plagioclases inferred to have formed later and shallower levels have slightly heavier oxygen isotopic ratios. ?? 1980 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

  18. Maya phytomedicine in Guatemala - Can cooperative research change ethnopharmacological paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Pöll, Elfriede; Lopez, Marissa; Krütli, Pius

    2016-06-20

    This paper presents one of the first large-scale collaborative research projects in ethnopharmacology, to bring together indigenous stakeholders and scientists both in project design and execution. This approach has often been recommended but rarely put into practice. The study was carried out in two key indigenous areas of Guatemala, for which very little ethnopharmacological fieldwork has been published. To document and characterize the ethno-pharmacopoeias of the Kaqchikel (highlands) and Q'eqchi' (lowlands) Maya in a transdisciplinary collaboration with the two groups Councils of Elders. The project is embedded in a larger collaboration with five Councils of Elders representing important indigenous groups in Guatemala, two of which participated in this study. These suggested healing experts reputed for their phytotherapeutic knowledge and skills. Ethnobotanical fieldwork was carried out over 20 months, accompanied by a joint steering process and validation workshops. The field data were complemented by literature research and were aggregated using a modified version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Trotter & Logan's consensus index. Similar numbers of species were collected in the two areas, with a combined total of 530 species. This total does not represent all of the species used for medicinal purposes. Remedies for the digestive system, the central nervous system & behavioral syndromes, and general tissue problems & infections were most frequent in both areas. Furthermore, remedies for the blood, immune & endocrine system are frequent in the Kaqchikel area, and remedies for the reproductive system are frequent in the Q'eqchi' area. Consensus factors are however low. The Kaqchikel, in contrast to the Q'eqchi', report more remedies for non-communicable illnesses. They also rely heavily on introduced species. The transdisciplinary research design facilitated scientifically rigorous and societally relevant large-scale fieldwork, which

  19. Comportamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Plá Acevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda (EDA en Tierra Blanca, Departamento Petén, Guatemala; en el período comprendido de enero a diciembre del año 2011. El universo de estudio lo formaron todos los individuos que fueron evaluados en el puesto de salud de Tierra Blanca con diagnóstico clínico de EDA. La muestra estuvo constituida por 529 pacientes. Se trabajó con el Sistema de Información Gerencial en Salud 18 (SIGSA, las fichas de salud individual de cada paciente, así como una entrevista estructurada que se le aplicó a los mismos, previo consentimiento informado; información con la cual se obtuvieron las variables relacionadas con los aspectos socio-demográficos, epidemiológicos y clínicos. Los meses donde más casos se reportaron fueron entre mayo y septiembre, coincidiendo esto con los meses de lluvias. Las edades más frecuentes fueron de uno a diez años y el sexo que predominó fue el masculino. El 40,3% consumían agua procedente de chorro intradomiciliario; las infecciones respiratorias agudas fueron las patologías que con más frecuencia se asociaron a las EDA y el 88,1% recibió tratamiento con sales de rehidratación oral.

  20. Monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala using Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Griffin, R.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent and spatially continuous water quality monitoring is either unattainable or challenging for developing nations if only standard methods are used. Such standard methods rely on in situ water sampling, which is expensive, time-consuming and point specific. Through the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), Lake Atitlan's water quality was first monitored in 2009 using Earth observation satellites. Lake Atitlan is a source of drinking water for the towns located nearby and a major touristic attraction for the country. Several multispectral sensors were used to monitor the largest algal bloom known to date for the lake, which covered 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. Red and Near-Infrared bands were used to isolate superficial algae from clean water. Local authorities, media, universities and local communities, broadly used the information provided by SERVIR for this event. It allowed estimating the real extent of the algal bloom and prompted immediate response for the government to address the event. However, algal blooms have been very rare in this lake. The lake is considered oligotrophic given its relatively high transparency levels that can reach 15 m in the dry season. To continue the support provided by SERVIR in the algal bloom event, an algorithm to monitor chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration under normal conditions was developed with the support of local institutions. Hyperspectral data from Hyperion on board EO-1 and in situ water quality observations were used to develop a semi-empirical algorithm for the lake. A blue to green band ratio successfully modeled Chl a concentration in Lake Atitlan with a relative error of 33%. This presentation will explain the process involved from providing an emergency response to developing a tailored tool for monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel

    2009-02-01

    To determine if fruit and vegetable consumption among high- and low-socioeconomic status (HSES-LSES) urban schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, was adequate according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cross-sectional data from 449 third- and fourth-grade girls and boys from 12 elementary schools were collected, analyzed, and presented by socioeconomic status and gender. Public schoolchildren were classified as LSES (n = 219) and private schoolchildren were classified as HSES (n = 230). Dietary fruit/vegetable intake of each student was determined based on a 24-hour recall pictorial record and personal interview. All food items containing fruits or vegetables (including beverages) were classified and tabulated. Frequency of fruit/vegetable intake was calculated based on "mentions" (number of times a fruit or vegetable item was reportedly consumed), and nutritional adequacy was assessed for each group by mean and median values and compared to WHO daily recommended fruit/vegetable intake (400 g). Based on World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) exclusion guidelines, the fruit/vegetable contribution to total energy was estimated. Of the 247 different food items identified, 93 (37.7%) contained a fruit or vegetable. Total food mentions (n = 6 512) included 637 fruit items and 701 vegetable items. Although mean fruit/vegetable intake in grams was 461.3 (standard deviation, +/- 332.5), more than half (56.3%) of the subjects fell below the 400-g recommended daily level. Estimated fruit/vegetable contribution to total energy was 21.2% for HSES and 19.1% for LSES. This study revealed inadequate fruit/vegetable intake among the study sample. For compliance with global recommendations, interventions promoting fruit/vegetable intake are needed.

  2. Democracia y el crecimiento del protestantismo evangélico en Guatemala: entendiendo la complejidad de la religión "pentecostalizada"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. STEIGENGA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo propone que el crecimiento de la religión «pentecostalizada» en Guatemala tiene múltiples y complejos efectos políticos. La práctica de la religión pentecostalizada se extiende a través de varios grupos religiosos, sin embargo, esto no quiere decir que los distintos grupos religiosos conservadores en Guatemala sigan una sola trayectoria política. De hecho, las prácticas y creencias pentecostalizadas que comparten los evangélicos y los católicos carismáticos pueden significativamente motivar distintas agendas políticas. Aunque es menos común que los evangélicos y católicos carismáticos participen en actividades que desafíen las autoridades políticas, ambos participan políticamente, principalmente enfocándose en un ethos de «autoayuda », voluntarismo y votando. Estos resultados sugieren que las aserciones que conectan el crecimiento del protestantismo con la democracia o con el autoritarismo deben ser rechazadas, y en su lugar se debe adoptar un acercamiento más sutil que considere las conexiones específicas entre las creencias religiosas, las variables políticas y el contexto político.ABSTRACT: This article argues that the political effects of the growth of «pentecostalized» religion in Guatemala are multiple and complex. Although the practice of pentecostalized religion is widespread across religious groups, it does not appear as though this will lead to a single political trajectory among conservative religious groups in Guatemala. Rather, the same pentecostalized religious beliefs and practices shared by Evangelicals and charismatic Catholics can serve as powerful motivations for divergent political agendas. Though less likely to engage in political activity that challenges political authorities, Evangelicals and charismatic Catholics do participate politically; focusing on an ethos of self-help, volunteerism, and voting. These findings suggest that broad claims linking the growth of

  3. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  4. Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic impacts from Lago Paixban, a perennial wetland in Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Hansen, Richard D.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna; Schreiner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of an ~ 6 m sediment core from Lago Paixban in Peten, Guatemala, document the complex evolution of a perennial wetland over the last 10,300 years. The basal sediment is comprised of alluvial/colluvial fill deposited in the early Holocene. The absence of pollen and gastropods in the basal sediments suggests intermittently dry conditions until ~ 9000 cal yr. BP (henceforth BP) when the basin began to hold water perennially. Lowland tropical forest taxa dominated the local vegetation at this time. A distinct band of carbonate dating to ~ 8200 BP suggests regionally dry conditions, possibly associated with the 8.2 ka event. Wetter conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum are indicated by evidence of a raised water level and an open water lake. The timing of this interval coincides with strengthening of the Central American Monsoon. An abrupt change at 5500 BP involved the development of a sawgrass marsh and onset of peat deposition. The lowest recorded water levels date to 5500–4500 BP. Pollen, isotope, geochemical, and sedimentological data indicate that the coring site was near the edge of the marsh during this period. A rise in the water table after 4500 BP persisted until around 3500 BP. Clay marl deposition from 3500 to 210 BP corresponds to the period of Maya settlement. An increase in δ13C, the presence of Zea pollen, and a reduction in the percentage of forest taxa pollen indicate agricultural activity at this time. In contrast to several nearby paleoenvironmental studies, proxy evidence from Lago Paixban indicates human presence through the Classic/Postclassic period transition (~ 1000 BP) and persisting until the arrival of Europeans. Cessation of human activity around 210 BP resulted in local afforestation and the re-establishment of the current sawgrass marsh at Lago Paixban.

  5. Seismic properties of lawsonite eclogites from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Wallis, Simon; Endo, Shunsuke; Ree, Jin-Han

    2016-05-01

    We present new data on the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) and seismic properties of omphacite and lawsonite in extremely fresh eclogite from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala, to discuss the seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust. The CPO of omphacite is characterized by (010)[001], and it shows P-wave seismic anisotropies (AVP) of 1.4%-3.2% and S-wave seismic anisotropies (AVS) of 1.4%-2.7%. Lawsonite exhibits (001) planes parallel to the foliation and [010] axes parallel to the lineation, and seismic anisotropies of 1.7%-6.6% AVP and 3.4%-14.7% AVS. The seismic anisotropy of a rock mass consisting solely of omphacite and lawsonite is 1.2%-4.1% AVP and 1.8%-6.8% AVS. For events that propagate more or less parallel to the maximum extension direction, X, the fast S-wave velocity (VS) polarization is parallel to the Z in the Y-Z section (rotated from the X-Z section), causing trench-normal seismic anisotropy for orthogonal subduction. Based on the high modal abundance and strong fabric of lawsonite, the AVS of eclogites is estimated as ~ 11.7% in the case that lawsonite makes up ~ 75% of the rock mass. On this basis, we suggest that lawsonite in both blueschist and eclogite may play important roles in the formation of complex pattern of seismic anisotropy observed in NE Japan: weak trench-parallel anisotropy in the forearc basin domains and trench-normal anisotropy in the backarc region.

  6. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  7. Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic impacts from Lago Paixban, a perennial wetland in Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David; Hansen, Richard D.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna; Schreiner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Analyses of an ~ 6 m sediment core from Lago Paixban in Peten, Guatemala, document the complex evolution of a perennial wetland over the last 10,300 years. The basal sediment is comprised of alluvial/colluvial fill deposited in the early Holocene. The absence of pollen and gastropods in the basal sediments suggests intermittently dry conditions until ~ 9000 cal yr. BP (henceforth BP) when the basin began to hold water perennially. Lowland tropical forest taxa dominated the local vegetation at this time. A distinct band of carbonate dating to ~ 8200 BP suggests regionally dry conditions, possibly associated with the 8.2 ka event. Wetter conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum are indicated by evidence of a raised water level and an open water lake. The timing of this interval coincides with strengthening of the Central American Monsoon. An abrupt change at 5500 BP involved the development of a sawgrass marsh and onset of peat deposition. The lowest recorded water levels date to 5500-4500 BP. Pollen, isotope, geochemical, and sedimentological data indicate that the coring site was near the edge of the marsh during this period. A rise in the water table after 4500 BP persisted until around 3500 BP. Clay marl deposition from 3500 to 210 BP corresponds to the period of Maya settlement. An increase in δ13C, the presence of Zea pollen, and a reduction in the percentage of forest taxa pollen indicate agricultural activity at this time. In contrast to several nearby paleoenvironmental studies, proxy evidence from Lago Paixban indicates human presence through the Classic/Postclassic period transition (~ 1000 BP) and persisting until the arrival of Europeans. Cessation of human activity around 210 BP resulted in local afforestation and the re-establishment of the current sawgrass marsh at Lago Paixban.

  8. VLP Source Inversion and Evaluation of Error Analysis Techniques at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    In January of 2012, our team occupied 10 sites around Fuego volcano with broadband seismometers, two of which were collocated with infrasound microphone arrays and tilt-meters (see Figure 1 for full deployment details). Our radial coverage around Fuego during the 2012 campaign satisfies conditions outlined by Dawson et al. [2011] for good network coverage. Very-long-period (VLP) events that accompany small-scale explosions were classified by waveform and eruption style. We located these VLP event families which have been persistent at Fuego since at least 2008 through inversion in the same manner employed by Lyons and Waite [2011] with improved radial coverage in our network. We compare results for source inversions performed with independent tilt data against inversions incorporating tilt data extracted from the broadband. The current best-practice method for choosing an optimum solution for inversion results is based on each solution's residual error, the relevance of free parameters used in the model, and the physical significance of the source mechanism. Error analysis was performed through a boot strapping in order to explore the source location uncertainty and significance of components of the moment tensor. The significance of the number of free parameters has mostly been evaluated by calculating Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), but little has been done to evaluate the sensitivity of AIC or other criteria (i.e. Bayesian Information Criterion) to the number of model parameters. We compare solutions as chosen by these alternate methods with more standard techniques for our real data set as well through the use of synthetic data and make recommendations as to best practices. Figure 1: a) Map of 2012 station network: stations highlighted in red were collocated with infrasound arrays. b) Location of Fuego within Guatemala and view of the complex from the west with different eruptive centers labeled. c) Operational times for each of the stations and cameras.

  9. The marimba: musical and secret language of the political violence in Guatemala La marimba: lenguaje musical y secreto de la violencia política en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The author reflects the construction of national music while the arise of the nation State in Guatemala. This development begins formally while the first decades of the nineteenth century and has not finished yet. For the myth of the Nation state and those who use it for their project of domination it is crucial that national music can be distinguished externally from musics generated by other nations while it can be applied internally for the aim of national homogenisation. Since the middle ...

  10. A new species of Histura Razowski (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) from Guatemala attacking avocados (Persea americana) Lauraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histura perseavora Brown, new species, is described and illustrated from Guatemala. It is compared with Histura curvata (Meyrick) (from Brazil) and Histurodes costaricana Razowski (from Costa Rica). All specimens of H. perseavora were reared from either fruit, fruit pedicels, or young green branches...

  11. The Rotifer fauna of Guatemala and Belize: survey and biogeographical affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Alma Estrella; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2007-06-01

    Rotifer samples were obtained from 29 localities in northern Guatemala and central-southern Belize during March 2000 and June 2001. A total of 119 species were identified. Ten selected taxa are illustrated and commented: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis, and Z. hollaerti. The species Lepadella rhomboidula is a first record for the American Continent. The species are 71% cosmopolitan, 6 % tropicopolitan, and 4.2 % restricted to the subtropics. The Guatemala species number range was Petén-Itza lake (53 taxa), and Raxruja pool (three). La Democracia pool (49 taxa), and the Blue Hole sink-hole (six species) were the extremes in Belize. In total, 68 of the recorded taxa are new for Guatemala and 91 for Belize. Additionally, 47 species are registered by the first time in Central America. A comparison between these two countries and Mexico revealed that the south part of the latter conform a cluster with them, emphasizing the transitional character of this region between the Nearctics and the Neotropics. Furthermore, Guatemala and Belize have differences in species assemblages, as a response to the nature of their particular environments and topographical accidents.

  12. A survey of geothermal process heat applications in Guatemala: An engineering survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study investigates how process heat from Guatemala's geothermal energy resources can be developed to reduce Guatemala's costly importation of oil, create new employment by encouraging new industry, and reduce fuel costs for existing industry. This investigation was funded by the US Agency for International Development and carried out jointly by the Guatemalan Government and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sites, Amatitlan and Zunil, are being developed geothermally. Amatitlan is in the better industrial area but Zunil's geothermal development is more advanced. The industry around Zunil is almost exclusively agricultural and the development of an agricultural processing plant (freezing, dehydration, and cold storage) using geothermal heat is recommended. Similar developments throughout the volcanic zones of Guatemala are possible. Later, when the field at Amatitlan has been further developed, an industrial park can be planned. Potential Amatitlan applications are the final stage of salt refining, a thermal power plant, hospital/hotel heating and cooling, steam curing of concrete blocks, production of alcohol from sugar cane, and production of polyethylene from ethanol. Other special developments such as water pumping for the city of Guatemala and the use of moderate-temperature geothermal fluids for localized power production are also possible. 12 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Bayesian Integration of Large Scale SNA Data Frameworks with an Application to Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tongeren, J.W.; Magnus, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Bayesian estimation method applied to an extended set of national accounts data and estimates of approximately 2500 variables. The method is based on conventional national accounts frameworks as compiled by countries in Central America, in particular Guatemala, and on concepts that are

  14. Early Initiation of Breastfeeding Among Maya Mothers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyeo, Natalie N; Frank, Tahvi D; Vail, Emma F; Sperduto, William A L; Boyd, David L

    2017-01-01

    Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants. Understanding beliefs and practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding in Maya Guatemala may provide an avenue to guide nutrition interventions in indigenous communities. Research aim: This study aimed to determine major beliefs and practices associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Maya mothers in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala. As part of a larger study to assess child nutrition in the Lake Atitlán region, we created a series of semistructured interview questions to document breastfeeding practices and beliefs among mothers. We conducted and audio-recorded in-person interviews that were translated from Kaqchikel, the local language, to Spanish by a community assistant. We conducted 178 interviews with mothers; 76% practiced early initiation. Early initiation was associated with the village and complementary feeding practices. Mothers held a variety of beliefs about the value of colostrum, and these beliefs were associated with the village. Mothers who held negative beliefs toward colostrum were more likely to delay breastfeeding initiation. Although most Maya mothers practice early initiation, the intervillage disparity in breastfeeding practices demonstrates a need to geographically focus breastfeeding interventions. Our novel insights into the breastfeeding beliefs among Maya mothers will serve as a guide to structure culturally competent breastfeeding education interventions in indigenous communities.

  15. Indigenous Legal Translators: Challenges of a University Program for the Maya of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Pena, Guillermina; Raymundo, Jorge Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Guatemala is overhauling its justice system to be more congruent with its indigenous reality. A Rafael Landivar University program trains indigenous legal translators not only in legal and linguistic aspects, but also in strengthening indigenous identity and student commitment to the community. Challenges and future plans are described. A former…

  16. Violent Crime in Post-Civil War Guatemala: Causes and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and security threats, including transnational gangs, drug trafficking , and human rights violations.418 More recently, the influx at the U.S. border of...rather influential elements in the occunence of violence. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Guatemala, post-conflict, violent crime, drug trafficking , violent...23 a. Drug Trafficking .................................................................... 24 b. Violent Gangs

  17. Surviving utopia: Energy, social capital, and international migration in Ixcan, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew John

    Mounting peasant impoverishment in Guatemala comes face to face with growing ecological impoverishment. Abysmal living standards for Guatemala's majority results from highly skewed land distribution, rapid population growth, and a brutal civil war, which lasted almost four decades and laid waste to many rural communities and fields. In the face of such adversity, Guatemalans migrate to remaining forested frontiers and make longer journeys to North America in search of work. In an attempt to understand and improve natural resource use, especially firewood, I uncover how networks of social relations (social capital) and international migration influence livelihoods in agricultural communities along a forested frontier. I used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information about the lives of residents in four agricultural villages in Ixcan, Guatemala. The results from extended fieldwork illustrate how high levels of social capital can benefit the lives of rural residents. I argue that development programs can take advantage of existing high levels of social capital and take measures to create social capital where it is lacking to ensure the successful implementation of development programs. I also discuss firewood management in each community and demonstrate the disjuncture between local firewood use and national energy plans. Finally, I show how migrants and the money they send home from North America radically alter land use and land distribution in this part of rural Guatemala. My study reveals the need to examine the linkages between large-scale international migration, social capital, and the environment in communities that rely on the land for survival.

  18. Student Learning in Guatemala: An Untenured Faculty Perspective on International Service Learning and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explain how I combined service learning, public-good work, and research in Guatemala. This path has not been easy. Indeed, it has been risky because the time invested in public-good work and teaching field classes could have detracted from research productivity. Taking a risk under the current and traditional academic model at…

  19. Description of two new Homoeocera Felder from Guatemala and Mexico (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Arctiinae, Euchromiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Laguerre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Homoeocera Felder from Central America are described from high-altitude, humid localities in Mexico and Guatemala, Homoeocera georginas sp. n. and H. papalo sp. n. Both are compared to the closely related Homoeocera gigantea Druce. Illustrations of adults and male genitalia of the three species are provided. The generic placement within the genus Homoeocera is discussed.

  20. The Risks We Are Willing to Take: Youth Civic Development in "Postwar" Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle J. Bellino explores contrasting approaches to civic education in two rural schools serving indigenous Maya youth in post-civil war Guatemala. Through comparative ethnography, she examines how youth civic pathways intersect with legacies of authoritarianism while young people shape their identity as members of historically…

  1. Educational Access Is Educational Quality: Indigenous Parents' Perceptions of Schooling in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara-Brito, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational accomplishment;…

  2. Community-Based Education in San Juan La Laguna, Solola, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous education in Guatemala is currently undergoing a massive overhaul in the depth and breadth of its reach in Maya areas. Although much can be said about the re-evaluation and incorporation of indigenous culture, language and worldview into the schools' curricula, it is still failing to reach the country's adult population. As a result of…

  3. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  4. A Qualitative Inquiry on Teachers' Concerns about Decentralization and Privatization in One School in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael T.; Hudson, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a qualitative research project conducted at a public elementary school in a rural community in Guatemala. From analysis of interviews with teachers and the school administrator, we found that a key concern of participants was how they viewed the increasingly problematic relationship between their local educational…

  5. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in traveler returning from Guatemala to Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Juan José; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Salvador, Fernando; Rodríguez, Virginia; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Planes, Anna M; Molina, Israel; Larrosa, M Nieves

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread.

  6. Costs and Benefits of Bilingual Education in Guatemala: A Partial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Velez, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of bilingual education for a disadvantaged indigenous population as an investment in human capital are significant. Students of bilingual schools in Guatemala have higher attendance and promotion rates, and lower repetition and dropout rates. Bilingual students receive higher scores on all subject matters, including mastery of…

  7. A preliminary checklist of macrofungi of Guatemala, with notes on edibility and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Arzú R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its biological wealth, current knowledge on the macromycetes inhabiting Guatemala is scant, in part because of the prolonged civil war that has prevented exploration of many ecological niches. We provide a preliminary literature–based checklist of the macrofungi occuring in the various ecological regions of Guatemala, supplemented with original observations reported here for the first time. Three hundred and fifty species, 163 genera, and 20 orders in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have been reported from Guatemala. Many of the entries pertain to ectomycorrhizal fungal species that live in symbiosis with the several Pinus and Quercus species that form the extensive pine and mixed forests of the highlands (up to 3600 m a.s.l.. As part of an ongoing study of the ethnomycology of the Maya populations in the Guatemalan highlands, we also report on the traditional knowledge about macrofungi and their uses among native people. These preliminary data confirm the impression that Guatemala hosts a macrofungal diversity that is by no means smaller than that recorded in better studied neighboring Mesoamerican areas, such as Mexico and Costa Rica.

  8. Community-based Flood Risk Assessment using GIS for the Town of San Sebastian, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Guarin, G.; van Westen, C.J.; Montoya, L.

    2005-01-01

    The municipality of San Sebastián, considered one of the most prone to natural hazards in Guatemala, was selected as one of the pilot areas of the UNESCO program on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿. The town is located within the Samalá basin, near the active channel of the river,

  9. School backpack weights: a survey of students in Ghana, Guatemala and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2004-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies were conducted in conveniently selected schools in Ghana, Guatemala, and the USA to quantify and compare the percentage of body weight carried by students in their backpacks as well as assess parental knowledge of the backpack weights and contents. Mean backpack weights varied significantly by country and increased significantly with increasing student grade. In the USA, girls significantly carried heavier backpacks (p backpack loads represented an average of 7.7% (95% CI = 7.4-8.0), 9.7% (95% CI = 9.2-10.2), and 9.4% (95% CI = 9.1-9.8) of student body weights in Ghana, Guatemala, and the USA, respectively. No student in Ghana carried a wheeled backpack in contrast to 6% and 2.8%, respectively, in Guatemala and the USA. In Ghana, 4.1 and 73.6% of parents were reported to be aware of their children's backpack weights and contents, respectively, compared to 21.9 and 57.5% in Guatemala, and 7.7 and 55.3% in the USA. Backpack loads respresent a significant percentage of the body weights of students in all three countries. The vast majority of parents are unaware of their child's backpack weight.

  10. Etnicidad y desarrollo en el Altiplano las organizaciones mayas de desarrollo de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Sánchez, Ángel Mario

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis doctoral se ocupa del análisis del modelo de desarrollo puesto en práctica por una serie de organizaciones indígenas ubicadas en el occidente de Guatemala. El estudio de dicho modelo (que hemos calificado como de etnodesarroll

  11. Community-based Flood Risk Assessment using GIS for the Town of San Sebastian, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Guarin, G.; Westen, van C.J.; Montoya, L.

    2005-01-01

    The municipality of San Sebastián, considered one of the most prone to natural hazards in Guatemala, was selected as one of the pilot areas of the UNESCO program on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction”. The town is located within the Samalá basin, near the active channel of the river,

  12. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Joseph W; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Stout, Jason E; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M

    2015-12-01

    Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City.

  13. Intervention by Invitation? Shared Sovereignty in the Fight against Impunity in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Maihold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG, a joint hybrid commission to investigate impunity in the context of illegal security networks and organized crime. It was set up as an external governance intervention through an agreement between the UN and the State of Guatemala in 2006 to strengthen state institutions in the face of a worsening security situation. Based on a delegation of governance in the modality of shared sovereignty, CICIG has been operating in the country since 2006, trying to generate support in the national realm and the judicial system of Guatemala while exposed to the critical junctures of the highly contested national debates on its existence. More specifically, the article analyses the patterns of appropriation and rejection of CICIG by different actor constellations. Through a critical discourse analysis, actor constellations are specified, various themes of appropriation and rejection are detected and specific aspects of CICIG’s mandate are investigated. Resumen: ¿Intervención por invitación? Soberanía compartida en la lucha contra la impunidad en Guatemala En el centro del texto se trata la Comisión Internacional contra la Impunidad en Guatemala (CICIG, una comisión híbrida conjunta que realiza averiguaciones sobre la impunidad en el contexto de las redes ilegales de seguridad y el crimen organizado. Esta entidad fue concebida como una intervención externa de gobernanza en base a un acuerdo entre las NN.UU. y el estado de Guatemala en 2006 con la intención de fortalecer las instituciones estatales ante una situación de seguridad empeorada. Fundamentada en la delegación de gobernanza como soberanía compartida, la CICG está operando desde hace ocho años en Guatemala y ha vivido las coyunturas de los debates nacionales altamente polarizados sobre su quehacer. El texto analiza los patrones de apropiación y rechazo de la CICIG por diferentes configuraciones

  14. Subverting Justice: Socio-Legal Determinants of Impunity for Violence against Women in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Menjívar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High levels of violence against women and impunity in Guatemala have reached crisis proportions and have received increased international attention in recent years. The phenomenon of feminicide (e.g., killings of women in the context of state impunity, is widespread in Latin America and particularly acute in Guatemala. Many (if not the majority are rooted in violence that becomes concentrated in the family. In this paper, we propose that both the structure and application of the laws in Guatemala contribute to widespread impunity. Police and judges use laws other than those created to address violence against women in order to justify lack of enforcement. For example, judges resist issuing restraining orders, and police refuse to apply them because this can violate perpetrators’ property rights. Judges also refuse to apply domestic violence laws because this violates the principle of equality under the law. Women refuse to use the legal system to seek justice because alimony laws will not be enforced and women are economically dependent. The discriminatory fashion in which these laws are applied leads to widespread impunity. Even though laws on the books could be applied otherwise, those who implement them privilege laws that conflict with violence against women laws. While much scholarship focuses on individual-level motives for violence, we instead analyze the socio-legal environment and existing legal codes that enable continued failure to respond adequately to violence against women. The legal framework and the legal code itself are deeply shaped by the context in which they are written—the structural, gender, symbolic, everyday and long arm of political violence that permeate all aspects of life in Guatemala and exacerbate women’s vulnerability, especially the poor. We argue that this broader legal context endangers the lives of women in Guatemala. We also extend the socio-legal scholarship to highlight failures for victim

  15. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

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    Karen Belloso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus. Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico (ABTS. Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados fueron: fenoles totales del extracto acuoso 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g y 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.93 mg/mL (IC95 0.65-1.28 y 2.75 mg/mL (IC95 2.46-3.07 del extracto etanólico; y en ABTS CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.96 mg/mL (IC95 0.63-1.35 y 4.13 mg/mL (IC95 2.67-5.88 del extracto etanólico. Por la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuosos de algunas de las especies de basidiomicetos, pueden promoverse como alimentos funcionales.

  16. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

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    Burkhart Marianne

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy

  17. Experiences of improving water access in rural areas in Guatemala

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    Elena Bresci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GESAAF Department of the UNIFI has been involved in the project “Gestione ambientale e del rischio nel dipartimento di Sololà” in the period 2011-’12 aiming at guaranteeing water access to people leaving in rural areas in the Sololà Department in Guatemala, in collaboration with the two NGOs Movimento Africa ’70 and Oxfam Italia. Appropriate technologies, such as EMAS pump and well drilled with the Baptista- Boliviana technique, have been proposed and utilized for improving water access in areas where lack of water represented a limiting factor for the human development. They can be both considered compatible with local, cultural and economic conditions: in fact locally available materials are used and the tools can be maintained and operationally controlled by the local users. At the end of the project, 52 EMAS pumps have been installed and 19 wells drilled, 33 pumps have been installed in already existing wells tank. Formation activities of local people played an important role: diffusion actions of the methodology started from schools, 20 workers participated to an in class course and more than 100 participated in the field work. Monitoring activities on the 52 installed pumps have been carried out in order to check the performances of the pumps and the knowledge level acquired by the users. After some months of operation, more than 80% of the pumps were correctly functioning and the required maintenance activities have been carried out in collaboration with the local users. In order to analyze the project results, a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats has been carried out for developing a strategy able to tackle the weaknesses and threats of the procedure. The application of the SWOT analysis showed to be an useful tool to analyse the current situation coming from the ended project. It has been helpful to gauge how the project performed. The analysis results may be also utilized for exploring

  18. Online collaboration and model sharing in volcanology via VHub.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, G.; Patra, A. K.; Bajo, J. V.; Bursik, M. I.; Calder, E.; Carn, S. A.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Courtland, L. M.; Gallo, S.; Jones, M.; Palma Lizana, J. L.; Moore-Russo, D.; Renschler, C. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2013-12-01

    VHub (short for VolcanoHub, and accessible at vhub.org) is an online platform for barrier free access to high end modeling and simulation and collaboration in research and training related to volcanoes, the hazards they pose, and risk mitigation. The underlying concept is to provide a platform, building upon the successful HUBzero software infrastructure (hubzero.org), that enables workers to collaborate online and to easily share information, modeling and analysis tools, and educational materials with colleagues around the globe. Collaboration occurs around several different points: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) data sharing; (3) education and training; (4) volcano observatories; and (5) project-specific groups. VHub promotes modeling and simulation in two ways: (1) some models can be implemented on VHub for online execution. VHub can provide a central warehouse for such models that should result in broader dissemination. VHub also provides a platform that supports the more complex CFD models by enabling the sharing of code development and problem-solving knowledge, benchmarking datasets, and the development of validation exercises. VHub also provides a platform for sharing of data and datasets. The VHub development team is implementing the iRODS data sharing middleware (see irods.org). iRODS allows a researcher to access data that are located at participating data sources around the world (a cloud of data) as if the data were housed in a single virtual database. Projects associated with VHub are also going to introduce the use of data driven workflow tools to support the use of multistage analysis processes where computing and data are integrated for model validation, hazard analysis etc. Audio-video recordings of seminars, PowerPoint slide sets, and educational simulations are all items that can be placed onto VHub for use by the community or by selected collaborators. An important point is that the manager of a given educational resource (or any other

  19. Explosive injection of gas-particle dispersions into a non-fluidized granular host: volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.

    2006-12-01

    is similar to the cross-cutting pipes observed in deposits filling real volcanic vents, in which cavity collapse can result not only from gas escape through a granular host as in the experiments, but also through condensation of water vapor formed in phreatomagmatic explosions. The key conclusion from these experiments is that the geometry of crosscutting granular deposits is not directly informative of the geometry of "intrusion" that formed them. An additional conclusion is that complex structures can form quickly from discrete events.

  20. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

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    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  1. Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer-Healing Systems Between Biomedicine and the Maya of Guatemala: A Tool for Reciprocal Reflexivity in a Multi-Epistemological Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-González, Mónica; Stauffacher, Michael; Zinsstag, Jakob; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Transdisciplinarity (TD) is a participatory research approach in which actors from science and society work closely together. It offers means for promoting knowledge integration and finding solutions to complex societal problems, and can be applied within a multiplicity of epistemic systems. We conducted a TD process from 2011 to 2014 between indigenous Mayan medical specialists from Guatemala and Western biomedical physicians and scientists to study cancer. Given the immense cultural gap between the partners, it was necessary to develop new methods to overcome biases induced by ethnocentric behaviors and power differentials. This article describes this intercultural cooperation and presents a method of reciprocal reflexivity (Bidirectional Emic-Etic tool) developed to overcome them. As a result of application, researchers observed successful knowledge integration at the epistemic level, the social-organizational level, and the communicative level throughout the study. This approach may prove beneficial to others engaged in facilitating participatory health research in complex intercultural settings.

  2. Meemul Tziij: An Indigenous Sign Language Complex of Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Erich Fox

    2009-01-01

    This article examines sign languages that belong to a complex of indigenous sign languages in Mesoamerica that K'iche'an Maya people of Guatemala refer to collectively as Meemul Tziij. It explains the relationship between the Meemul Tziij variety of the Yukatek Maya village of Chican (state of Yucatan, Mexico) and the hitherto undescribed Meemul…

  3. Meemul Tziij: An Indigenous Sign Language Complex of Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Erich Fox

    2009-01-01

    This article examines sign languages that belong to a complex of indigenous sign languages in Mesoamerica that K'iche'an Maya people of Guatemala refer to collectively as Meemul Tziij. It explains the relationship between the Meemul Tziij variety of the Yukatek Maya village of Chican (state of Yucatan, Mexico) and the hitherto undescribed Meemul…

  4. Sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ordóñez, Jorge Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Turismo integral, interculturalidad y desarrollo sostenible [ES] El presente trabajo de investigación propone un sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala.

  5. Sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ordóñez, Jorge Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Turismo integral, interculturalidad y desarrollo sostenible [ES] El presente trabajo de investigación propone un sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala.

  6. Volcanological, petrographical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks around Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Rasim; Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge

    2015-04-01

    This study presents volcanological, petrographical and geochemical data for late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) in order to investigate their origin and magmatic evolution. Based on the previous ages and recent field studies, the late Cretaceous time in the study area is characterized by two different bimodal volcanic periods. The first bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism is mainly represented by mafic rock series (basaltic-basaltic andesitic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites) in the lower part, and felsic rock series (dacitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and pyrite-bearing tuffs) in the upper part. The second bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism begins with mafic rock suites (basaltic-andesitic lavas and dikes-sills) and grades upward into felsic rock suites (biotite-bearing rhyolitic lavas and hyaloclastites), which are intercalated with hyaloclastites and red pelagic limestones. All volcano-sedimentary units are covered by Late Campanian-Paleocene clayey limestones and biomicrites with lesser calciturbidites. The mafic volcanic series of the study area, which comprise basaltic and andesitic rocks, generally show amygdaloidal and aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of calcic to sodic plagioclase and augite in a hyalopilitic matrix of plag+cpx+mag. Zircon and magnetite are sometimes observed as accessory minerals, whereas chlorite, epidote and calcite are typical alteration products. On the other hand, the felsic volcanic series consisting of dacitic and rhyolitic rocks mostly display porphyritic and glomeroporphyritic textures with predominant feldspar, quartz and some biotite phenocrysts. The microgranular to felsophyric groundmass is mainly composed of aphanitic plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Accessory minerals such as zircon, apatite and magnetite are common. Typical alteration products are sericite and clay minerals. Late Cretaceous Artvin-Borçka bimodal rock series generally display a

  7. Volcanological implications of crystal-chemical variations in clinopyroxenes from the Aeolian Arc, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzareni, Sabrina; Molin, Gianmario; Peccerillo, Angelo; Zanazzi, Pier Francesco

    2001-03-01

    Crystal chemistry and structural data for clinopyroxene from the Aeolian islands (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) were determined with the aim of obtaining geobarometric information and exploring implications for the structure of volcanic plumbing systems. Cell and M1 site volumes for clinopyroxenes, which are known to decrease with increasing pressure of crystallization, revealed variable values, both within some single islands and along the entire arc, indicating polybaric conditions of crystallization. The lowest cell and M1 volumes were found at Filicudi, plotting close to values of clinopyroxenes from high-pressure ultramafic xenoliths entrained in alkali basalts. Indications of high-pressure crystallization were also found at Salina and, to a lesser extent, at Alicudi, all situated in the western sector of the Aeolian Arc. The central and eastern islands of Lipari, Vulcano, Panarea and Stromboli generally show higher values of cell parameters, suggesting crystallization in shallow magma chambers. These islands are characterized by the occurrence of large calderas, which are apparently lacking at Salina and Filicudi. Time-related variations were observed for cell and M1 volumes of clinopyroxene for some islands. At Salina, the early-erupted products display low values of cell parameters with respect to later activity, thus indicating a decrease in crystallization pressure with time. A similar, although less striking, pattern is observed at Alicudi and Lipari. An overall increase in cell parameters with time was observed at the scale of the entire arc. The observed variations in clinopyroxene structural parameters highlight the significance of pyroxene crystal chemistry for petrogenetic and volcanological interpretation. Correlation with time and the structural characteristics of volcanoes suggest significant regional and temporal modifications in the plumbing systems of Aeolian volcanoes. Clinopyroxenes from Filicudi and the older Salina crystallized at high

  8. VOLOBSIS: An Infrastructure for Open Access to Seismic and GNSS Data from the Volcanological and Seismological French Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, C.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J. M. M.; Pardo, C.; Vincent, D.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Beauducel, F.; Shapiro, N.; Cyril, G.

    2016-12-01

    The three Volcanological and Seismological Observatories of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP) are situated in the overseas French territories: Martinique and Guadeloupe observatories in the Lesser Antilles and La Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean. The main missions of IPGP observatories is to monitor French active volcanoes and seismic activity associated with regional tectonics and to foster scientific research on the Lesser Antilles arc and La Réunion hotspot. For that, the observatories operate, among others, permanent seismological and geodetic networks and process and analyze continuously acquired data.IPGP observatories have a long story of seismic and geodetic monitoring: the first seismograph in Martinique was installed in 1902; starting from the early '80 the three observatories begun deploying permanent networks of analog sensors. During the years 2010, seismic and geodetic monitoring at the three observatories saw a significant breakthrough with the advent of broadband seismic sensors, digital recording and continuous GNSS receivers.This wealth of data is constituted today by 81 seismological stations (broad-band and short period, networks GL, MQ, PF and WI) and 48 permanent GNSS stations. Data of both type is continuously recorded and acquired at the three observatories, as well as at the IPGP Data Center in Paris. Real-time streams for seismic data are available through a SeedLink server. Seismic and GNSS data are further validated and completed at IPGP, and distributed through the VOLOBSIS web portal (http://volobsis.ipgp.fr), which provides download links as well a web service interface.Seismic data is further available through IRIS, the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and the French RESIF portal (http://seismology.resif.fr).Here we discuss the different steps of data recording, quality-control and distribution behind VOLOBSIS, which provides an open data infrastructure for advancing the understanding of volcanic and

  9. A new species of Oileus Kaup (Coleoptera, Passalidae from Guatemala, with a key to the species of the genus

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    Enio Cano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oileus gasparilomi sp. n. is described from nine specimens from the mountains of Quiché in Guatemala, from cloud forest at 1795 m elevation. This represents the second species of the genus for Guatemala, differing from the closely related Mexican species Oileus rimator (Truqui ina straight anterior clypeal border, the postocular sulcus divided by a keel and the pronotum almost straight (not clearly bilobed. A key to the species of Oileus is given.

  10. A new species of Oileus Kaup (Coleoptera, Passalidae) from Guatemala, with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Enio B; Schuster, Jack C

    2012-01-01

    Oileus gasparilomisp. n. is described from nine specimens from the mountains of Quiché in Guatemala, from cloud forest at 1795 m elevation. This represents the second species of the genus for Guatemala, differing from the closely related Mexican species Oileus rimator (Truqui) in having a straight anterior clypeal border, the postocular sulcus divided by a keel and the pronotum almost straight (not clearly bilobed). A key to the species of Oileus is given.

  11. A new species of Oileus Kaup (Coleoptera, Passalidae) from Guatemala, with a key to the species of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Enio B.; Schuster, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Oileus gasparilomi sp. n. is described from nine specimens from the mountains of Quiché in Guatemala, from cloud forest at 1795 m elevation. This represents the second species of the genus for Guatemala, differing from the closely related Mexican species Oileus rimator (Truqui) in having a straight anterior clypeal border, the postocular sulcus divided by a keel and the pronotum almost straight (not clearly bilobed). A key to the species of Oileus is given. PMID:22679385

  12. Enough food is not enough - Litigation as a strategy to secure the right to food in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Lene Christine Morvik

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the conditions for legal enforcement of the right to food in Guatemala. In recent years there has been an increase in the phenomenon of protecting social rights through the legal opportunity structures and public interest litigation. As the right to food is frequently being violated in Guatemala, the country has both national and international legal obligations concerning the right to food, and there has been litigation on other economic, social and cultural ri...

  13. [Links and effects of globalization on social and economic organization and malaria prevalence in the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Caro Méndez

    2007-01-01

    As a result of Guatemala's growing involvement in international markets and policies favoring industrial and export-oriented efforts, the population has experienced substantial changes in its economic and social organization, with consequences for the health and well-being of marginal groups. The article discusses various links between global processes, national policies and priorities, social and economic strategies, and malaria prevalence, with the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala as the case study carried out between 2001 and 2003.

  14. El tratamiento de la diversidad cultural en los procesos formativos de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala: entre otredades, diversidad y diferencias

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Larios, Alicia Catalina

    2015-01-01

    El tratamiento de la diversidad cultural en los procesos formativos de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala (USAC): entre otredades, diversidad y diferencias. Siendo la USAC la única universidad estatal del país, esta no responde a la diversidad cultural con que cuenta la sociedad guatemalteca. Reconociendo que Guatemala es pluiétnica, pluricultural y multilingüe, este estudio presenta una propuesta para abordar la convivencia intercultural en la educación superior en Guatemala. D...

  15. Comorbilidad entre el distrés psicológico y abuso/dependencia de drogas, ciudad de Guatemala - Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de distrés psicológico en pacientes atendidos en centros especializados en alcohol y drogas en la Ciudad de Guatemala. Es un estudio transversal con 91 pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos en el Centro de Tratamiento de la Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Comisión contra las Adicciones y el Trafico Ilícito de Drogas, y en Casa Hogar Jireh. Se aplicó un cuestionario adaptado del formulario de la EULAC-CICAD para caracterizar a los participantes...

  16. Unraveling the polymetamorphic history of garnet-bearing metabasites: Insights from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala Suture Zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, G.; Flores, K. E.; Martin, C.; Harlow, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schists, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). The North Motagua Mélange (NMM) outcrops north of the MFS and testifies the emplacement of exhumed subduction assemblages along a collisional tectonic setting. The NMM is composed of a serpentinite-matrix mélange that contains blocks of metabasites (subgreenschist facies metabasalt, grt-blueschist, eclogite, grt-amphibolite), vein-related rocks (jadeitite, omphacitite, albitite, mica-rock), and metatrondhjemites. Our new detailed petrographic and thermobarometric study on the garnet-bearing metabasites reveals a complex polymetamorphic history with multiple tectonic events. Eclogites show a classical clockwise PT path composed of (a) prograde blueschist/eclogite facies within garnet cores, (b) eclogite facies metamorphic peak at ~1.7 GPa and 620°C, (c) post-peak blueschist facies, (d) amphibolite facies overprint, and (e) late stage greenschist facies. Two types of garnet amphibolite blocks can be found, the first consist of (a) a relict eclogite facies peak at ~1.3 GPa and 550°C only preserved within anhedral garnet cores, and (b) surrounded by a post-peak amphibolite facies. In contrast, the second type displays a prograde amphibolite facies at 0.6-1.1 GPa and 400-650°C. The eclogites metamorphic peak suggests formation in a normal subduction zone at ~60 km depth, a subsequent exhumation to the middle section of the subduction channel (~35 km), and a later metamorphic reworking at lower P and higher T before its final exhumation. The first type of garnet amphibolite shows a similar trajectory as the eclogites but at warmer conditions. In

  17. Las razones de presencia y éxito de los partidos étnicos en América Latina: Los casos de Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua y Perú (1990-2005 The Reasons for the Presence and Success of Ethnic Parties in Latin America: The Cases of Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua y Peru (1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Martí I Puig

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El texto explora si existe alguna causalidad entre la presencia y relevancia de los partidos étnicos (PE en seis países latinoamericanos y las "condiciones favorables" que indican diversas perspectivas de la literatura sobre acción colectiva. Para ello se realiza un análisis cualitativo multicausal orientado a los casos y a las variables que usa la lógica booleana para simplificar estructuras de datos complejos de forma sistemática. Con ello se trata de identificar la variedad de pautas causales de la presencia y éxito de los PÉ en Bolivia, Ecuador y Nicaragua, y no en Guatemala, México y Perú.The text examines if there is a causal link between the presence of ethnic parties in six Latin American countries and the "favorable conditions" indicated by the literature on collective action. The author undertakes a multi-causal, qualitative analysis oriented towards cases and variables wich uses Boolean logic to systematically simplyfy complex data structures. This is used to identify the causal patterns why ethnic parties have been successful in Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua, but not in Guatemala, Mexico and Peru.

  18. Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Since the rising cost of agrochemicals compelled Maya to return to plantation labor in the 1970s, synthetic fertilizers simply shifted, rather than alleviated, Mayan dependency on the cash economy. By highlighting Mayan farmers' historical narratives and delineating the relationship between agricultural science and postwar geopolitics, the constraints on agriculturists' agency become clear. In the end, politics, more than technology or agricultural performance, influenced guatemala's shift toward the Green Revolution.

  19. The Poetics of the Ancestor Songs of the Tz’utujil Maya of Guatemala

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    Linda O’Brien-Rothe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to define the relationship between a song tradition that survives in the Mayan highlands of Guatemala, and 16th century poetic Mayan literature. This song tradition of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala is slowly disappearing as the socio-cultural context in which it flourished changes. By comparing the poetics of the song texts (including their rhythmic structure, versification, and use of poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia to the poetics of the Popol Vuh, a K’iché Maya text probably copied from a manuscript that predates the Spanish invasion, a continuity is discovered that places the song texts squarely within the tradition of Mayan literature and suggests common origins.

  20. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  1. Hombres contra la violencia de género: replanteando la masculinidad en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    England, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es entender cómo los hombres activistas que participan en campañas contra la violencia de género en Guatemala interpretan las causas de este tipo de violencia, el papel que desempeña la masculinidad en su perpetuación, así como cuál es la mejor manera de comunicar estas ideas a otros hombres. La investigación se basó en entrevistas a ocho hombres involucrados en activismo de equidad de género en Guatemala y en la observación de talleres enfocados a propagar la igu...

  2. ESCENARIOS DE FRAGILIDAD POLÍTICA, BALANCE POLÍTICO: GUATEMALA 2010-2011 Scenarios of political fragility, political balance: Guatemala 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZO LAUTARO ROSAL

    2012-01-01

    hampered governance. Both years accounted for the second part of the Government headed by the engineer Álvaro Colom. The initial expectation of alleged Government guidance became its rapid weakening. Social programs, the initial strategy of his management, led to a patronage. The interest of the presidents Colom ex wife in participating in elections in late 2011 and the subsequent "presidential divorce" meant a greater degree of wear and loss of credibility of the Government. The advancement of the electoral process, the weakness of the Supreme Electoral Court (Tribunal Supremo Electoral, the continuity of thefragile system, ofpolitical parties, excessive and opaque private campaign financing linked to organized crime, sparked a paradigmatic electoral process. Political Parties choices represented a reduced spectrum, conservative and dominated by authoritarian options. In a economic level, although the country was not affected by the effects of the global economic crisis, the weakening in the management of public finances, the increase in the public debt to levels never before known and the consequences of the series of natural disasters that occurred annually as a result of climate change, generated a complex scenario with serious consequences to the following Governments. Levels ofcrime and violence remained high in Guatemala, just below Honduras and El Salvador. The presence oforganized crime and in particular drug trafficking networks was even throughout the country. The 2011 were held in a climate ofweak electoral institutions, high levels ofelectoral violence and a struggle between cartels for territorial control, highlighting the advance of los Zeta organized crime group.

  3. Environmental health and household demographics impacting biosand filter maintenance and diarrhea in Guatemala: an application of structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divelbiss, Daniel William; Boccelli, Dominic Louis; Succop, Paul Allan; Oerther, Daniel Barton

    2013-02-05

    In rural health development practice, engineers and scientists must recognize the complex interactions that influence individuals' contact with disease-causing pathogens and understand how household habits may impact the adoption and long-term sustainability of new technology. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of various environmental health factors and household demographics on the operation and maintenance of the Biosand filter (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and diarrhea health burden in the region. In July and August 2010, randomized household surveys (n = 286) were completed in rural Guatemala detailing water access, sanitation availability, hygiene practice, socio-economic status, education level, filter operation and maintenance, and diarrhea health burden of the home. A hypothesized structural equation model was developed based on a review of published research and tested using the surveyed data. Model-derived parameter estimates indicated that: (a) proper personal hygiene practices significantly promote proper filter operation and maintenance; and (b) higher household education level, proper filter operation and maintenance, and improved water supply significantly reduce diarrhea health burden. Additionally, a high level of unexplained variance in diarrhea indicated the filter, though protective of health, is not the only factor influencing diarrhea.

  4. Groundwater chemistry characterization using multi-criteria approach: The upper Samalá River basin (SW Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Arianna; Franchino, Elisa; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Malandrino, Mery; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Hernández Sac, Humberto Osvaldo; Coyoy, Israel Macario; Sac Escobar, Edwin Osvaldo; Hernández, Ardany

    2017-10-01

    Improving understanding on groundwater chemistry is a key priority for water supply from groundwater resources, especially in developing countries. A hydrochemical study was performed in an area of SW Guatemala (Samalà River basin), where water supply to population is groundwater-based and no systematic studies on its groundwater resources have been performed so far. Traditional hydrochemical analyses on major ions and some trace elements metals coupled with chemometric approach were performed, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results evidence that chemical differentiation is linked to the spatial distribution of sampled waters. The most common hydrochemical facies, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium, is linked to infiltration of meteoric waters in recharge areas represented by highlands surrounding Xela caldera, a wide plateau where most of population is concentrated. This trend undergoes chemical evolution in proximity of active volcanic complexes in the southern area, with enrichment in sulphate, chloride and magnesium. Chemical evolution also occurs towards the centre of Xela caldera due to slow circulation in aquifer and consequent sodium enrichment due to ion exchange with the porous medium. Water quality did not reveal severe concerns, even though some sources of contamination could be identified; in particular, agriculture and urban wastewater could be responsible for observed threshold exceedances in nitrate and lead. This integrated multi-approach to hydrochemical data interpretation yielded to the achievement of important information that poses the basis for future groundwater protection in an area where main water features were almost unknown.

  5. Teotamachilizti: an analysis of the language in a Nahua sermon from colonial Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madajczak, Julia; Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the document teotamachilizti, a sermon in a Nahuan language from colonial Guatemala. It concludes that the language is a Central Nahuan language closely related to "classical Nahuatl", but with some features of an Eastern Nahuan language closely related to Pipil Nawat....... It is suggested that the document was written by an ecclesiastic who was schooled in Central Mexican Nahuatl, but who was adapting the sermon to a local audience who spoke an Eastern Nahuan vernacular....

  6. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Dinardo, Andrew R; Puac Polanco, Victor D; Harvey, Michael J; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-05-01

    Guatemala's 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed.

  7. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidence...

  8. The politics and semiotics of sounds--Mayan linguistics and nation-building in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Brigittine M

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development Mayan linguistics as an authoritative field of knowledge in Guatemala. In particular, it links missionary linguists' and Maya linguists' activities with shifting nationalist agendas from the 1920s in to the late 1980s. It is argued that during the historical and intellectual moment that linguistics becomes an authoritative epistemology, phonetic analysis functions as a creative index that constitutes "expert" knowledge for particular semiotic and ideological reasons tied to competing versions of the Guatemalan imagined community.

  9. The Politics and Semiotics of Sounds – Mayan Linguistics and Nation-Building in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development Mayan linguistics as an authoritative field of knowledge in Guatemala. In particular, it links missionary linguists’ and Maya linguists’ activities with shifting nationalist agendas from the 1920s in to the late 1980s. It is argued that during the historical and intellectual moment that linguistics becomes an authoritative epistemology, phonetic analysis functions as a creative index that constitutes »expert« knowledge for particular semioti...

  10. Banditismo giovanile e mercato della sicurezza in un barrio di Città del Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    È opinione comune ritenere che con la firma degli accordi di pace e lo smantellamento degli apparati militari in Guatemala sia venuto meno il monopolio dello Stato nella gestione della sicurezza pubblica. Nuovi spazi economici all’interno del mercato della sicurezza si sarebbero allora aperti; spazi presto occupati anche da attori armati e illegali quali narcotraf-ficanti e bande giovanili. L’autore analizza a questo proposito il processo di formazione delle prime maras (gang) e la fondazione...

  11. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  12. Characterisation of genetic structure of the Mayan population in Guatemala by autosomal STR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Saiz, M; Alvarez, J C; Martinez-Labarga, C; Lorente, J A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the Guatemalan population comprises genetically isolated groups due to geographic, linguistic and cultural factors. For example, Mayan groups within the Guatemala population have preserved their own language, culture and religion. These practices have limited genetic admixture and have maintained the genetic identity of Mayan populations. This study is designed to define the genetic structure of the Mayan-Guatemalan groups Kaqchiquel, K'iche', Mam and Q'eqchi' through autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms and to analyse the genetic relationships between them and with other Mayan groups. Fifteen STR polymorphisms were analysed in 200 unrelated donors belonging to the Kaqchiquel (n = 50), K'iche' (n = 50), Mam (n = 50) and Q'eqchi' (n = 50) groups living in Guatemala. Genetic distance, non-metric MDS and AMOVA were used to analyse the genetic relationships between population groups. Within the Mayan population, the STRs D18S51 and FGA were the most informative markers and TH01 was the least informative. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses showed that the Guatemalan-Native American populations are highly similar to Mayan populations living in Mexico. The Mayan populations from Guatemala and other Native American groups display high genetic homogeneity. Genetic relationships between these groups are more affected by cultural and linguistic factors than geographical and local flow. This study represents one of the first steps in understanding Mayan-Guatemalan populations, the associations between their sub-populations and differences in gene diversity with other populations. This article also demonstrates that the Mestizo population shares most of its ancestral genetic components with the Guatemala Mayan populations.

  13. Professional midwifery in Guatemala: A qualitative exploration of perceptions, attitudes and expectations among stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Anna; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys

    2017-07-01

    Despite recommendations that women give birth with a skilled birth attendant (SBA), 70% of births in Guatemala occur outside health facilities with informally trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs). To increase SBA in rural, indigenous communities, a professional midwifery school accredited by the government is scheduled to open in 2017. Drawing from Filby's model on barriers to the successful integration of professional midwifery into health systems, this paper aims to identify threats - and facilitators-toward professional midwifery's re-introduction in Guatemala. To elucidate perceptions, attitudes and expectations towards professional midwifery, qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 physicians, nurses, and TBAs in six health centers and with key decision makers and professional midwives (PMs) in Guatemala City. We conducted open and axial coding in Atlas.ti and performed normative comparisons of participants' attitudes, perceptions, and expectations with the National Vision for professional midwifery and relative comparisons within and across disciplinary subgroups. Unprompted, physicians, nurses and TBAs were unable to correctly define professional midwifery. Yet, when professional midwifery was defined for them, they expressed willingness to work with PMs, seeing them as a needed human resource, instrumental in providing intercultural care and strengthening facility relationships with TBAs. Some stakeholders anticipated resistance toward PMs due to provider turf issues. Notable differences in expectations among all groups included ideas for supervision of and by the PMs and the PM's role in monitoring women and conducting births in communities alongside TBAs. Facilitators to professional midwifery's success include national political will, stakeholders' uniformity of vision, and the potential for improved intercultural care. Barriers are mostly professional in nature, including impediments to autonomous practice by PMs, hierarchical

  14. Análisis de la conducta en costa rica y Guatemala: presente y futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Villalobos Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe el desarrollo reciente del análisis de la conducta en Costa Rica yGuatemala, luego se realizan una serie de comentarios sobre la necesidad de construir, adaptarimplementar un análisis de la conducta centroamericano, involucrado en los problemassociales reales y macro de la región como estrategia de mantenimiento y difusión del mismo.

  15. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  16. Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus among patients with acute diarrhea in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Alejandra; Arvelo, Wences; Hall, Aron J; López, María R; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-07-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea in industrialized countries. To study the prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in Guatemala, stool specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients presenting with diarrhea (≥3 loose or liquid stools in a 24-hr period) who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance system in the Departments of Santa Rosa (October 2007 to August 2010) and Quetzaltenango (August 2009 to August 2010), Guatemala. Specimens were tested for rotavirus, enteric bacteria, and parasites by routine methods and for genogroups I and II NoV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 2,403 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized (n = 528) and ambulatory patients (n = 1,875). Overall, 341 (14%) samples tested positive for NoVs including 114 (22%) hospitalized and 227 (12%) ambulatory patients. NoVs disease peaked during the winter (November-January) months. Among the 341 NoVs-positive patients, 32 (9%) were also positive for rotavirus, 32 (9%) for bacteria, and 9 (3%) for protozoa. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from 84 samples collected from hospitalized children aged Guatemala. The findings highlight the need to implement laboratory diagnostics for NoVs to improve appropriate clinical management of diarrheal diseases and guide vaccine development.

  17. A MAYAN FOUNDER MUTATION IS A COMMON CAUSE OF DEAFNESS IN GUATEMALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Claudia; Menendez, Ibis; Herrera, Mariana; Castellanos, Patricia; Amado, Carlos; Maldonado, Fabiola; Rosales, Luisa; Escobar, Nancy; Guerra, Mariela; Alvarez, Darwin; Foster, Joseph; Guo, Shengru; Blanton, Susan H.; Bademci, Guney; Tekin, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Over 5% of the world population have varying degrees of hearing loss. Mutations in GJB2 are the most common cause of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) in many populations. The frequency and type of mutations are influenced by ethnicity. Guatemala is a multi-ethnic country with four major populations: Maya, Ladino, Xinca, and Garifuna. To determine the mutation profile of GJB2 in a NSHL population from Guatemala, we sequenced both exons of GJB2 in 133 unrelated families. A total of six pathogenic variants were detected. The most frequent pathogenic variant is c.131G>A (p.Trp44*) detected in 21 of 266 alleles. We show that c.131G>A is associated with a conserved haplotype in Guatemala suggesting a single founder. The majority of Mayan population lives in the west region of the country from where all c.131G>A carriers originated. Further analysis of genome-wide variation of individuals carrying the c.131G>A mutation compared to those of Native American, European, and African populations shows a close match with the Mayan population. PMID:26346709

  18. Prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate in rural north-central guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Jorge; Lydick, Elaine A; Torres, Olga R; Owen, Karen K; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the number of new cases of cleft lip and cleft palate in the department (state) of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, in 2012. Cross-sectional survey of midwives from communities identified through a two-stage cluster-sampling process. Midwives were asked how many babies they had delivered in the past year and how many of those newborns had various types of birth defects, as illustrated in pictures. Indigenous Mayan communities in rural north-central Guatemala. Midwives (n = 129) who had delivered babies in the previous year. Reports of babies born with cleft lip and cleft palate. A 1-year prevalence rate of 18.9 per 10,000 for cleft lip and 4.7 per 10,000 for cleft palate was estimated for Alta Verapaz. None of the cases of cleft lip also had cleft palate. The indigenous communities in north-central Guatemala might have a relatively high cleft lip prevalence rate compared with the global average.

  19. Malaria elimination challenges in Mesoamerica: evidence of submicroscopic malaria reservoirs in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Shirley Evelyn; Miranda, Adolfo; Henao, Juliana; Vallejo, Andres F; Perez, Julianh; Alvarez, Alvaro; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-08-30

    Even though malaria incidence has decreased substantially in Guatemala since 2000, Guatemala remains one of the countries with the highest malaria transmission in Mesoamerica. Guatemala is committed to eliminating malaria as part of the initiative 'Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and the Island of Hispaniola' (EMMIE); however, it is still in the control phase. During the past decade, the government strengthened malaria control activities including mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bed nets, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria, including gametocytes, in three areas of Guatemala using active case detection (ACD) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in three departments with varying transmission intensities: Escuintla, Alta Verapaz and Zacapa. Blood samples from 706 volunteers were screened for malaria using microscopy and qPCR which was also used to determine the prevalence of gametocytes among infected individuals. Results were collected and analysed using REDCap and R Project, respectively. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy in only 2.8 % (4/141) of the volunteers from Escuintla. By contrast, qPCR detected a prevalence of 7.1 % (10/141) in the same volunteers, 8.4 % (36/429) in Alta Verapaz, and 5.9 % (8/136) in Zacapa. Overall, 7.6 % (54/706) of the screened individuals were positive, with an average parasitaemia level of 40.2 parasites/μL (range 1-1133 parasites/μL) and 27.8 % carried mature gametocytes. Fifty-seven percent (31/54) of qPCR positive volunteers were asymptomatic and out of the 42.6 % of symptomatic individuals, only one had a positive microscopy result. This study found a considerable number of asymptomatic P. vivax infections that were mostly submicroscopic, of which, approximately one-quarter harboured mature gametocytes. This pattern is likely to contribute to maintaining transmission across the

  20. Challenges of the 1990's: Economic Development, Social Equity, and Environmental Protection in Mexico and Guatemala. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program (November 14, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This collection of curriculum projects concern Guatemala and Mexico and were written by U.S. school teachers who participated in the Summer 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program. The following are some titles of included curriculum projects: "Problems and Opportunities of Guatemala, A Developing Nation"; "Mexico: Integrated…

  1. Mortalidad materna en Guatemala: diferencias entre muerte hospitalaria y no hospitalaria Maternal mortality in Guatemala: differences between hospital and non-hospital deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marina Tzul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la asociación entre características obstétricas, sociodemográficas y factores de riesgo relacionados con la mortalidad materna hospitalaria y no hospitalaria en Guatemala durante el año 2000 MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal con 649 casos de muertes maternas (MM ocurridas en la República de Guatemala durante el año 2000, en el que se compararon las características de las muertes maternas hospitalarias y no hospitalarias RESULTADOS: De 649 MM registradas, 270 (41.6% se clasificaron como MM hospitalarias y 379 (58.4% como MM no hospitalarias. La mayor proporción de muertes ocurrió en mujeres mayores de 35 años de edad (29.28%, indígenas (65.49%, casadas o unidas (87.83%, con ocupación no remunerada (94.78%, sin educación (66.56%. El riesgo de MM no hospitalaria fue mayor en mujeres del grupo indígena (RM= 3.4; IC95% 2.8-5.3, con ocupación no remunerada (RM= 8.95; IC95% 1.7-46.4, bajo nivel escolar (RM= 1.96; IC95% 1.0-3.8, y hemorragia como causa básica de muerte (RM= 4.28; IC95% 2.3-7.9 CONCLUSIONES: De los 679 casos de MM ocurridas en Guatemala en el año 2000, 58% correspondió a MM no hospitalarias, lo que puede estar relacionado con el hecho de que una alta proporción de la población habita en áreas rurales o de alta marginalidad, además de aspectos culturales (mayoría indígena que dificultan la accesibilidad a los servicios de salud. Los resultados presentados pueden servir de orientación para determinar estrategias de intervención que prevengan la mortalidad materna en los ámbitos hospitalario y extrahospitalario, en Guatemala.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the association between obstetric and socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors related to intra- and extra-hospital maternal mortality in Guatemala during the year 2000 MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was carried out in 649 maternal mortality (MM cases that occurred in

  2. Field and experimental constraints on the rheology of arc basaltic lavas: the January 2014 Eruption of Pacaya (Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Chigna, G.; Whittington, A.

    2016-06-01

    We estimated the rheology of an active basaltic lava flow in the field, and compared it with experimental measurements carried out in the laboratory. In the field we mapped, sampled, and recorded videos of the 2014 flow on the southern flank of Pacaya, Guatemala. Velocimetry data extracted from videos allowed us to determine that lava traveled at ˜2.8 m/s on the steep ˜45° slope 50 m from the vent, while 550 m further downflow it was moving at only ˜0.3 m/s on a ˜4° slope. Estimates of effective viscosity based on Jeffreys' equation increased from ˜7600 Pa s near the vent to ˜28,000 Pa s downflow. In the laboratory, we measured the viscosity of a representative lava composition using a concentric cylinder viscometer, at five different temperatures between 1234 and 1199 °C, with crystallinity increasing from 0.1 to 40 vol%. The rheological data were best fit by power law equations, with the flow index decreasing as crystal fraction increased, and no detectable yield strength. Although field-based estimates are based on lava characterized by a lower temperature, higher crystal and bubble fraction, and with a more complex petrographic texture, field estimates and laboratory measurements are mutually consistent and both indicate shear-thinning behavior. The complementary field and laboratory data sets allowed us to isolate the effects of different factors in determining the rheological evolution of the 2014 Pacaya flows. We assess the contributions of cooling, crystallization, and changing ground slope to the 3.7-fold increase in effective viscosity observed in the field over 550 m, and conclude that decreasing slope is the single most important factor over that distance. It follows that the complex relations between slope, flow velocity, and non-Newtonian lava rheology need to be incorporated into models of lava flow emplacement.

  3. Relaciones entre africanos e indígenas en Chiapas y Guatemala Relations between africans and indigenous peoples in Chiapas and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Peña Vicenteño

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia africana en la Audiencia de Guatemala en los siglos XVI y XVII ha sido poco estudiada. Por lo tanto, en este trabajo se analizarán los diferentes mecanismos que utilizó la corona española para el traslado de esclavos, como las licencias y el sistema de asientos. Asimismo, se estudiará la inserción de los africanos en la sociedad colonial y principalmente su interrelación con la población indígena nativa de la región. En los documentos coloniales referentes a matrimonios, podemos observar los procesos de "interculturalidad" en los cuales el esclavo africano intercambió elementos culturales que influyeron en la música. Tal fue el caso de la marimba, instrumento que dio identidad a la región de estudio. Por último, se pretende observar, a través del análisis de las narrativas indígenas originadas en la década de los 90' del siglo XX, cómo en la cosmovisión indígena aún continúa la presencia de los "negros".The presence of African population at the "Audiencia" of Guatemala between 16th and 17th centuries has been vaguely studied by historians and other social scientists. This paper emphasizes on several ways -as slave trade licenses and 'asientos'- that were used by the Spanish Crown for slave trade and transportation. In addition, this article analyses the integration of African slaves and their descendents in Colonial Mexican society, especially their mixture with indigenous population. In Colonial records, as marriages and baptisms files, it is possibly to regard a profound influence on inter-cultural processes between African people and the rest of the Colonial casts. As an example, the musical instrument 'marimba' that brought cultural identity to Guatemala 'Audiencia'. Finally, in this article we will analyze the indigenous literature of the last decade of the 20th century, in which is clear the evidence of "negro" agents in indigenous cosmology.

  4. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia Guatemala's Pacific Cetaceans: Fifty Years of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Cabrera Arreola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala el estudio de los cetáceos inició en la década de los sesenta con los primeros registros de varamiento y captura incidental. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos científicos con datos de cetáceos han sido publicados. Con el objetivo de centralizar la información de cetáceos y obtener conocimiento biológico para el desarrollo de planes de manejo y conservación, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de cetáceos en Guatemala que recaba información de los últimos 50 años. Se obtuvo un total de 1,014 registros de avistamiento (1979-2011, 62 registros de captura incidental (1961/85 y 16 registros de varamientos (1975, 2007-2012, los cuales se analizaron en mapas batimétricos y en mapas de presiones antropogénicas. Se identificaron diecinueve especies pertenecientes a cinco familias de cetáceos, incluyendo Balaenopteridae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Kogiidae y Physeteridae. El esfuerzo y área de muestreo varió durante 1961-2012. Se identificaron diferentes patrones de distribución especie-específicos. La mayoría de avistamientos se registraron cerca de zonas con topografía compleja. Aunque los eventos de captura incidental se registraron únicamente en alta mar, los resultados sugieren que especies de distribución costera se encuentran en zonas con mayor riesgo antropogénico. Se reportaron ocho especies de cetáceos varados, eventos ocurridos principalmente en el departamento de Escuintla desde el año 2007. Debido a la gran diversidad en los patrones de distribución, comportamiento y uso de hábitat de los cetáceos, combinado con los riesgos antropogénicos de la zona, es necesario que se considere un enfoque integral cuando se implementen planes de manejo y conservación marina en Guatemala.

  5. The Guatemala-Penn Partners: An Innovative Inter-Institutional Model for Scientific Capacity-Building, Healthcare Education, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Avila, Maria Alejandra; Messenger, Elizabeth; Nelson, Caroline A; Calgua, Erwin; Barg, Frances K; Bream, Kent W; Compher, Charlene; Dean, Anthony J; Martinez-Siekavizza, Sergio; Puac-Polanco, Victor; Richmond, Therese S; Roth, Rudolf R; Branas, Charles C

    2017-01-01

    Population health outcomes are directly related to robust public health programs, access to basic health services, and a well-trained health-care workforce. Effective health services need to systematically identify solutions, scientifically test these solutions, and share generated knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance states that the capacity to perform research is an essential factor for well-functioning public health systems. Low- and middle-income countries have greater health-care worker shortages and lower research capacity than higher-income countries. International global health partnerships between higher-income countries and low-middle-income countries aim to directly address such inequalities through capacity building, a process by which human and institutional resources are strengthened and developed, allowing them to perform high-level functions, solve complex problems, and achieve important objectives. The Guatemala-Penn Partners (GPP) is a collaboration among academic centers in Guatemala and the University of Pennsylvania (Penn), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that echoes the vision of the WHO's Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance. This article describes the historical development and present organization of the GPP according to its three guiding principles: university-to-university connections, dual autonomies with locally led capacity building, and mutually beneficial exchanges. It describes the GPP activities within the domains of science, health-care education, and public health, emphasizing implementation factors, such as sustainability and scalability, in relation to the guiding principles. Successes and limitations of this innovative model are also analyzed in the hope that the lessons learned may be applied to similar partnerships across the globe.

  6. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  7. Guatemala: An analysis of Obstacles to Universal Access: Hundreds of PLWA Fall Between the Cracks Each Month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stern

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of two articles that describe the situation of ARVT access in Guatemala. The second will focus on drug procurement processes, prices, and other related topics. The response to the HIV epidemic in Guatemala has grown considerably over the past five years. This is not just about national efforts, but also international assistance, particularly The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. The response during this period has increased both prevention efforts and medical attention to PLWA . Nonetheless, current data shows the response has yet to reach the required level for halting the spread of the epidemic, particularly in terms of delivering antiretrovirals and comprehensive health care. As reported in the last UNGASS country progress report (Dec. 2009, 10,362 PLWHA (768 children and 9594 adults were receiving ARVs in Guatemala.

  8. An mHealth monitoring system for traditional birth attendant-led antenatal risk assessment in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroux, Lisa; Martinez, Boris; Coyote Ixen, Enma; King, Nora; Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Rohloff, Peter; Clifford, Gari D

    Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America. To address the lack of decision support in rural Guatemala, a smartphone-based system is proposed including peripheral sensors, such as a handheld Doppler for the identification of foetal compromise. Designed for use by illiterate birth attendants, the system uses pictograms, audio guidance, local and cloud processing, SMS alerts and voice calling. The initial prototype was evaluated on 22 women in highland Guatemala. Results were fed back into the refinement of the system, currently undergoing RCT evaluation.

  9. Diversificación y competencia religiosa en Guatemala: entre pentecostalismo y cultos "neotradicionales" Diversification and religious competence in Guatemala: between Pentecostalism and "neotraditional" cults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Pédron Colombani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala es uno de los países de Latinoamérica más afectados por la amplitud del movimiento de conversiones de su población al protestantismo. El pentecostalismo es el impulso principal de este movimiento. En este artículo se argumenta que el extraordinario desarrollo del pentecostalismo en Guatemala se debe, en parte, al hecho de que propone un cambio de vida, se presenta como un generador de modernidad, pero, al mismo tiempo, se enraíza en las tradiciones religiosas locales. La proposición pentecostal está hecha a la vez de ruptura y de continuidad. Sin embargo, dado que la dinámica actual del campo religioso no se reduce a esta "explosión pentecostal", en este trabajo se describe la (reaparición de movimientos tradicionales - o que se definen como tal. Así es el culto de Maximón - también llamado San Simón - cuya figura es el resultado de un largo proceso sincrético entre la religión católica y la religión maya. Actualmente, es continuamente reivindicado como un culto "tradicional", "maya", con una dimensión identitaria étnica fuerte, pero es también el lugar de numerosas adaptaciones y arreglos sincréticos entre poblaciones indias y ladinas. Además, el culto de Maximón se está adaptando al nuevo contexto de internacionalización y de competencia del universo religioso.Guatemala is one of the Latin American countries that is most affected by the wide conversion movement of its population to Protestantism. Pentecostalism is this movement's main drive. The article points out that the extraordinary development of Pentecostalism in Guatemala is partly due to the fact that it proposes life changes, presents itself as a generator of modernity and, at the same time, is rooted in local religious traditions. The Pentecostal proposition is a mixture of rupture and continuity. Today, nevertheless, the dynamic of the religious field cannot be reduced to the "Pentecostal explosion". This work also focuses on the re-appearance of

  10. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae forests in Western Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m² plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m. A total of 119 species

  11. Rural Electrification of Coban Municipality, Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala) using Intigis Model; Electrificacion Rural en el Municipio de Coban, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) segun el Modelo Intigis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bravo, J.; Pinedo Pascua, I.; Auger Campos, C.; Cedillo Heine, A.; Gil Garcia, M.

    2009-05-15

    The present project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energies and Environment Masters given by the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). It has been developed in collaboration with the research centre CIEMAT, the NGO Energy without Borders (ESF) and the University UPM, with the purpose of analyzing in a real context the application of Geographic Information Systems in renewable energies regional integration. The final aim of our study is to provide the isolated communities, specifically 13 communities in Alta Verapaz (Department of Coban, Guatemala), with the necessary conditions of electrification. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the area. Through the analysis of the geographic, technical and economic information gathered, using the IntiGIS methodology we will identify which is the most suitable autonomous generating system to cover the basic needs of the rural population in these Guatemalan communities. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Intervenciones y opciones de políticas para combatir la desnutrición en Guatemala Title: Intervention and Policy Options for Combating Malnutrition in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Martorell

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio es identificar las causas de la desnutrición en Guatemala que enfrenta una paradoja en términos de la salud de su población. Por un lado, la desnutrición crónica de sus infantes (49,8% en los niños entre 3 y 59 meses) que se sitúa por encima de los niveles de África y cuadruplica el indicador promedio de América Latina. Por otro lado, la obesidad y el sobrepeso afectan a la mitad de sus mujeres, entre las cuales también ha aumentado de forma alarmante la tasa ...

  13. The Rotifer fauna of Guatemala and Belize: survey and biogeographical affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Estrella García-Morales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotifer samples were obtained from 29 localities in northern Guatemala and central-southern Belize during March 2000 and June 2001. A total of 119 species were identified. Ten selected taxa are illustrated and commented: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis, and T. hollaerti. The species Lepadella rhomboidula is a first record for the American Continent. The species are 71 % cosmopolitan, 6 % tropicopolitan, and 4.2 % restricted to the subtropics. The Guatemala species number range was Petén-itza lake (53 taxa, and Raxruja pool (three. La Democracia pool (49 taxa, and the Blue Hole sink-hole (six species were the extremes in Belize. in total, 68 of the recorded taxa are new for Guatemala and 91 for Belize. Additionally, 47 species are registered by the first time in Central America. A comparison between these two countries and Mexico revealed that the south part of the latter conform a cluster with them, emphasizing the transitional character of this region between the Nearctics and the Neotropics. Furthermore, Guatemala and Belize have differences in species assemblages, as a response to the nature of their particular environments and topographical accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 569-584. Epub 2007 June, 29.El análisis de muestras procedentes del norte de Guatemala y centro-sur de Belice, recolectadas en marzo de 2000 y junio de 2001, dio como resultado la presencia de 119 especies. Se presenta una breve descripción de diez taxones seleccionados con base en sus distribuciones restringidas en ciertos ámbitos de América y el viejo continente: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis,y T. hollaerti. Por primera vez se informa Lepadella rhomboidula en el continente

  14. Il cimitero la Verbena: cinquant’anni di violenza politica e sociale a Città del Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ethnography of a specific place of Guatemala City – the cemetery of the barrio “la Verbena” – the paper will reconstruct the correlations that link the recent history of this country (marked by a civil war finished in 1996, after thirty-six years of conflicts with the actual explosion of social violence, which levels are actually among the highest in the world. The political and social violence of Guatemala embrace connections that have not been sufficiently investigated. The analysis of these connections is fundamental to understand some of the contemporary social dynamics affecting not only that country.

  15. El arte y la literatura en la construcción y disputa de la memoria en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas-Molina, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    La disputa entre si hubo o no genocidio en Guatemala es un generador que se mueve una parte del arte y la literatura guatemaltecos. La memoria se ha convertido en un lugar de disputa.  El  arte se convirtió en un espacio de expresión de aquellos que consideran que sus derechos han sido conculcados. ¿Cuáles han sido los temas que ha privilegiado el arte que tiene como eje la memoria en Guatemala? Este ensayo propone principalmente dos: la violencia y los desaparecidos. La artista performática ...

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Colletotrichum lindemuthianum DE ECUADOR Y GUATEMALA PARA IDENTIFICAR GENES DE RESISTENCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Halima Awale; Esteban Falcon\\u00ED-Castillo; Julio Cesar Villatoro-M\\u00E9rida; James Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Caracterización de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum de Ecuador y Guatemala para identificar genes de resistencia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la variabilidad patogénica de C. lindemuthianum en zonas productoras de frijol común en Ecuador y Guatemala para identifi car las combinaciones de genes de resistencia más efectivas para las condiciones locales. Aislamientos de antracnosis recolectados fueron caracterizados para la identifi cación de las razas presentes...

  17. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  18. Is decentralization good for logistics systems? Evidence on essential medicine logistics in Ghana and Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas J; Bowser, Diana M; Amenyah, Johnnie K

    2007-03-01

    Efficient logistics systems move essential medicines down the supply chain to the service delivery point, and then to the end user. Experts on logistics systems tend to see the supply chain as requiring centralized control to be most effective. However, many health reforms have involved decentralization, which experts fear has disrupted the supply chain and made systems less effective. There is no consensus on an appropriate methodology for assessing the effectiveness of decentralization in general, and only a few studies have attempted to address decentralization of logistics systems. This paper sets out a framework and methodology of a pioneering exploratory study that examines the experiences of decentralization in two countries, Guatemala and Ghana, and presents suggestive results of how decentralization affected the performance of their logistics systems. The analytical approach assessed decentralization using the principal author's 'decision space' approach, which defines decentralization as the degree of choice that local officials have over different health system functions. In this case the approach focused on 15 different logistics functions and measured the relationship between the degree of choice and indicators of performance for each of the functions. The results of both studies indicate that less choice (i.e. more centralized) was associated with better performance for two key functions (inventory control and information systems), while more choice (i.e. more decentralized) over planning and budgeting was associated with better performance. With different systems of procurement in Ghana and Guatemala, we found that a system with some elements of procurement that are centralized (selection of firms and prices fixed by national tender) was positively related in Guatemala but negatively related in Ghana, where a system of 'cash and carry' cost recovery allowed more local choice. The authors conclude that logistics systems can be effectively

  19. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is being directed at the extent to which farmers can benefit from market opportunities for indigenous crops by receiving a price premium for providing the environmental service of conserving agricultural biodiversity. Such an approach bridges the gap between poverty alleviation and in situ conservation. We explored this potential development pathway through both qualitative and quantitative research. Focus groups were conducted in 5 communities in the maize-growing highlands of Guatemala, followed by a survey of 989 farm households in 59 locations. Our results show that most farmers in the western highlands of Guatemala are severely maize deficient; on average, farm households produce enough maize for only 6.9 months of consumption a year and are forced to purchase maize to meet basic consumption needs. The results are in sharp contrast to research conducted in highland communities in neighboring Mexico, where many farmers are able to sell their maize in relatively lucrative specialty maize markets. In the context of renewed interest in reducing poverty in Central America, our research suggests that rather than focus on market development for local maize varieties, development efforts should target other types of interventions.

  20. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  1. Leveraging Field Trips in Higher Education for Local Engagement and Impact: An Example from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, J.; Watson, M.; Liu, E. J.; Chigna, G.; Purvis, M.; Naismith, A.

    2016-12-01

    For over ten years, the University of Bristol (U.K.) has run a field trip for masters students in Natural Hazards in the volcanically active areas of southern Guatemala, home to more than 13 million people. This trip has obvious benefits to its participants - it serves as an immersive and formative experience for students studying volcanic hazard, as well as a springboard for the work of the researchers who lead it. Over the years, it has helped to build strong collaborative ties between academic researchers at Bristol and Guatemala's geologic survey (INSIVUMEH) and emergency management agency (CONRED), facilitating the sharing of data, expertise, and monitoring equipment. The students' regular presence has also enabled infrastructure improvements at Fuego Volcano Observatory, which is itself hosted and partly staffed by the residents of Panimache, a small village just a few miles from the volcano's summit. This field trip does raise challenges, however - an influx of foreign students can draw questions from community members for whom the benefits are indirect (i.e., local job creation or infrastructure improvement) or intangible (i.e., incremental contributions to the body of knowledge regarding volcanic hazard). In this presentation, we'll share stories of our experiences of effective community collaboration in Guatemala. In the spirit of discussion, we would also like to explore the opportunities that exist to better utilise this trip, along with the energy and expertise of its participants, to maximise the positive impact on (and resilience of) local communities, particularly those in the small and largely indigenous villages that populate Fuego Volcano's flanks.

  2. Implications of 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology for Fluid Transfer and Magma Generation Across Southeastern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Bemis, K.; Cameron, B.; Noll, K.; Singer, B.; Zhang, X.; Ruscitto, D.; Roggensack, K.; Olney, J.

    2005-12-01

    Behind-the-front , or back-arc, monogenetic volcanism extends some 110 km across southeastern Guatemala providing an important window into fluid transfer and melting in the Central American subduction zone. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating measurements on basaltic lavas from cinder cones in southeastern Guatemala place important temporal constraints on this across-arc volcanism. Behind-the-front (BVF) volcanism has been notably long-lived: from 1070 ± 22 ka to 137 ± 25 ka. The morphologies of some undated cinder cones suggest that BVF volcanism has probably extended into the Holocene. Most morphological parameters for the dated cinder cones show no systematic changes with age, suggesting that cone degradation is rapid in the tropical climate of Guatemala, quickly approaching a morphological equilibrium stabilized by the thick vegetative cover. The volumes of cinder cones, however, have consistently increased towards the present. In additon, Ar/Ar ages become younger towards Pacaya volcano on the volcanic front, indicating a southwestward migration of eruptive activity with time. Some incompatible element concentrations and ratios, such as Ba, La, and La/Y, decrease with time suggesting increasing amounts of melting in the mantle wedge, consistent with the production of larger and larger cinder cones. Increasing melting, however, does not appear to be directly related to fluid transfer from the slab as the Ba/La, Ba/Th and U/Th ratios of basalts erupted from the dated cinder cones have also declined over time. Thus, the new age constraints suggest the increasing influence of decompression, versus flux, melting in the BVF region, an influence that has also spread into Pacaya volcano on the volcanic front (Cameron et al., 2002).

  3. Geodetic Slip Solution for the Mw=7.4 Champerico (Guatemala) Earthquake of 07 November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Molina, E.; Flores, O.; Rivera, J.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Lord, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the first large subduction thrust earthquake off the coast of western Guatemala in the past several decades, the 07 November 2012 Mw=7.4 earthquake offers the first opportunity for a geodetic study of coseismic and postseismic behavior for a segment of the Middle America trench where frictional coupling makes a transition from weak coupling off the coast of El Salvador to strong coupling in southern Mexico. We use measurements at 19 continuous GPS sites in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico to estimate the coseismic slip and post-seismic deformation of the November 2012 Champerico (Guatemala) earthquake. Coseismic offsets range from ~47 mm near the epicenter to inversion of the geodetic data indicate that that up to ~2 m of coseismic slip occurred on a ~30 km by 30 km rupture area between ~10 and 30 km depth, encouragingly close to the global CMT epicenter. The geodetic moment of 13 x 1019 N·m and corresponding magnitude of 7.4 both agree well with independent seismological estimates. An inversion for the postseismic fault afterslip shows that the transient postseismic motions recorded at 11 GPS sites are well fit with a logarithmically decaying function. More than 70 per cent of the postseismic slip occurred at the same depth or directly downdip from the main shock epicenter. At the upper limit, afterslip that occurred within 6 months of the earthquake released energy equivalent to only ~20 per cent of the coseismic moment. The seismologically derived slip solution from Ye et al. (2012), which features more highly concentrated slip than our own, fits our GPS offsets reasonably well provided that we translate their slip centroid ~51 km to the west to a position close to our own slip centroid. The geodetic and seismologic slip solutions thus suggest bounds of 2-5 m for the peak slip along a region of the interface no larger than 30 x 30 km and possibly much smaller.

  4. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  5. Erradicación de diabetes en Guatemala: Un sueño posible

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    José Antonio Cornejo Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus es un problema de salud con alcances económicos y sociales. La prevalencia mundial está aumentando: se estima que para 1985 había 30 millones de personas con diabetes, 177 millones en el año 2000 y se estima que para el año 2030 habrá 438 millones de diabéticos. En Guatemala el 8% de la población tiene diabetes y se desconoce el porcentaje no diagnosticado y en pre-diabetes; además el país tiene índices de obesidad, sobrepeso y sedentarismo altos, situación que predispone a la aparición de la enfermedad. En el mundo cada 6 segundos muere alguien a causa de complicaciones relacionadas con diabetes y en Guatemala ocupa la tercera causa de mortalidad general. Existen varios tipos de diabetes, sin embargo, el ensayo se enfoca en la diabetes tipo 2 debido a que representa el 90% de los casos pero sobre todo por que es prevenible. Para el autor existen tres momentos importantes de los pacientes diabéticos: (1 paciente sano y con riesgo qué enfermará de diabetes, (2 paciente diabético que tendrá complicaciones y (3 pacientes con complicaciones que morirán. En los tres momentos se puede intervenir directamente, sin embargo, existen deficiencias como la ausencia de programas de prevención y la ineficiencia del sistema asistencial público. El autor propone posibles soluciones en base a evidencia científica para detener el aumento de casos de diabetes mellitus, disminuir las complicaciones micro y macro vasculares en los pacientes y principalmente, generar una cultura preventiva en Guatemala.

  6. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

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    Ana Lorena Ruano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective: To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design: Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW

  7. Intereses de Noruega en Colombia y Guatemala: entre el humanitarismo y la geoestrategia

    OpenAIRE

    Jevne, Anne

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es analizar y comparar la política exterior de Noruega hacia América Latina y especialmente hacia Colombia y Guatemala. Mediante el análisis de los intereses diplomáticos, políticos, economicos, ambientales y geopoliticos de Noruega hacia estos dos países es evidente que la diplomacia se ha utilizado como una herramienta para ganar influencia en el escenario global y asegurar mercados. Esta investigación no tiene la intención de criticar el uso de la diplomacia en la...

  8. Centro cívico y ayuntamiento, El Chal, Petén, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    PEINADO ALMAZÁN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Proyecto de centro cívico para la comunidad de El Chal (Petén, Guatemala). Se compone de dos edificios: en uno de ellos se encuentra el ayuntamiento, el otro edificio alberga el hotel y el centro cultural. El ayuntamiento refleja el uso participativo de las diferentes comunidades; se proyecta con oficinas abiertas al público y acristalado para dar transparencia y visibilidad. Se contempla en dos piezas, con diferentes funciones: la zona administrativa, y el salón de usos múltiples y plenos. ...

  9. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (PMexico (Pwomen). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and opportunities for higher-level education may increase institutional delivery rates

  10. Experiencias de mujeres migrantes que trabajan en bares de la frontera Chiapas-Guatemala

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    Carmen FERNÁNDEZ-CASANUEVA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una exploración de la experiencia migratoria de las mujeres centroamericanas que laboran en bares en la frontera sur de México, entre Chiapas y Guatemala, desde el momento en que toman la decisión de migrar, hasta el momento en que han cruzado la frontera y se encuentran trabajando en ese sector. Se busca comprender la relación dinámica que estas mujeres tienen con su contexto, y también el rol de las redes sociales durante el proceso.

  11. RELIGIONES GLOBALES, ESTRATEGIAS LOCALES usos políticos de las conversiones en Guatemala

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    Manuela Cantón Delgado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las relaciones entre religiones globales y estrategias locales, y explora cuatro contextos localizados en Guatemala y Chiapas (México para ilustrar estas relaciones. Las conversiones a las nuevas religiones globalizadas deben ser entendidas desde una perspectiva local pero, por otra parte, lo que ocurre en los contextos locales no puede explicarse de espaldas a la fuerza y especificidad de grandes religiones como el pentecostalismo, que actualmente representa una porcentaje significativo de todo el protestantismo mundial.

  12. María Isabel, el feminicidio con rostro adolescente en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Vargas, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

     Resumen El autor ilustra este ensayo con el caso Véliz Franco (Guatemala, diciembre de 2001), el cual descarna la brutalidad de la agresión, la escasa información académica y forense sobre el feminicidio adolescente y la inercia estatal por hallar a los responsables de esta manifestación de homicidio. De igual manera, resalta el papel de las organizaciones no gubernamentales ante la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH), en especial la necesidad de contrarrestar la impunidad gen...

  13. LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LA VARIACIÓN TRANSCULTURAL: VALORES EN GUATEMALA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Estrada-Villalta; Nicholas Terpstra-Schwab

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio explora los valores culturales de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala, un país poco estudiado pero generalmente descrito como colectivista, comparándolos con estudiantes universitarios de Estados Unidos, un país descrito como individualista. El estudio explora los valores humanos y la dimensión horizontal-vertical del individualismo-colectivismo, utilizando distintos métodos de medición que incluyen ajustes para distintos estilos de respuesta. Contrario a l...

  14. Intelectualidad y racismo en Guatemala y El Salvador a finales del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina Gaitán, Chester

    2010-01-01

    Introducción. Guatemala. El Salvador. Hacia mediados del siglo XIX, en Europa, surge la moderna teoría racista articulada sobre obras antropológicas de clasificación del género humano a partir de los conceptos biológicos de “especie” y “raza”, desarrollados por los científicos desde el siglo XVIII. También tuvieron gran influencia los estudios que afirmaron la existencia de una supuesta raza aria y la teoría proveniente de los descubrimientos realizados por la lingüística del siglo XIX. En es...

  15. Nonpayment of water bills in Guatemala: Dissatisfaction or inability to pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates nonpayment behavior in Guatemala. Determinants of nonpayment behavior are identified through zero-inflated negative binomial regression models in order to take into account particular distributional characteristics of the amount of outstanding payments. Findings indicate that nonpayment behavior is a demonstration of consumer dissatisfaction with current water services. The amount of outstanding bill payments also responds to system unreliability. Results also suggest that nonpayment behaviors are more prominent in community-managed systems than in municipal systems. No evidence was found on a potential relationship between nonpayment behavior and household income. Policy implications are discussed.

  16. Desarrollo de germoplasma de maíz para el altiplano de Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Mario R.

    2016-01-01

    La metodología consistió en realizar colecciones nativas de maíz del y altiplano de Guatemala y evaluar formaciones de poblaciones en ambientes contrastantes. El esquema de selección incluyó la evaluación de progenies en fincas de agricultores y la recombinación en estación experimental para amortiguar los cambios ambientales. Bajo este sistema se han mejorado las poblaciones V-301, V-302, Bárcena 71, V-304, V-305, Don Marshall y Chanin adaptadas al altiplano Central y las poblaciones San Mar...

  17. Mujeres y neocolonialidad en los condominios de lujo de ciudad de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Camus, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    El artículo se refiere a los condominios suburbanos de clases medias y medias-altas que se extienden por el sureste de la ciudad de Guatemala y, desde las voces de sus mujeres residentes de estos, describe el estilo de vida de las familias en estos espacios. Expone también la reproducción de relaciones de neocolonialidad y de cultura de servidumbre que conlleva este mundo del privilegio. Finalmente propone en qué consiste la especificidad guatemalteca en esta tendencia global del habitar ...

  18. Time series evidence on education and growth: the case of Guatemala

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    Josef L. Loening

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of education on economic growth in Guatemala for the 1951-2002 period.An error-correction model shows that a better-educated labor force has a positive and significant impact on economic growth.A growth-accounting framework demonstrates that human capital explains about 50 percent of output growth.The findings are robust to changes to the conditioning set of variable,while controlling for data issues and endogeneity.The results also compare favorably with the microeconomic evidence.

  19. Intervención educativa en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Contreras Tejeda; Arely Díaz Cifuentes; Mayda Díaz Pérez; Aurora Seara Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de intervención comunitaria, con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos en pacientes diabéticos adultos mayores, pertenecientes al Departamento Alta Verapaz, Cobán, Guatemala; en el período comprendido desde junio de 2011 hasta junio de 2012. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por los pacientes diabéticos dispensarizados por el médico y la enfermera en el área periférica, conformándose la muestra con 46 de ellos, a los cuales se les evaluó el grado de conoci...

  20. Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

    2014-11-01

    The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America.

  1. The bischops of Guatemala and Nicaragua and the 1917 Canon Law codification: “postulata episcoporum”

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Salinas Araneda

    2016-01-01

    In 1904, Pope Saint Pius X ordered the first draft for the Code of Canon Law that the Latin Church ever had. The codification task, however, was not only the work of a closed group of experts, but it also took into account the considerations of the Latin episcopate that was consulted in two different occasions and, in both times, the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Guatemala and Nicaragua were consulted. Based on the documents kept at the Vatican Secret Archives, this article studie...

  2. Vivir en frontera. Movimientos Socio-religiosos en Chiapas y Guatemala

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    Gabriela Robledo Hernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se discuten los paralelismos de los movimientos de disidencia religiosa indígena en Chiapas y Guatemala, territorios que comparten, además de una frontera, una tradición histórica y cultural de larga data. Un significado compartido por estos movimientos es la construcción de nuevos proyectos colectivos sustentados en la experiencia del sentimiento numinoso, que al mismo tiempo proporcionan un capital social de suma importancia para estos pueblos quienes atraviesan por períodos de profunda transformación.

  3. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  4. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas. Guatemala, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Enrique Pla Acevedo; Eddy Mario Collejo Acevedo; Odalis Elena Acevedo Tristá; Learelis Fernández Cruz; Yanet Marbelis Pla Acevedo

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas en Guatemala, que abarcó el  período de enero hasta diciembre del 2011. La muestra estuvo comprendida por 457 pacientes en edades pediátricas. Se analizaron las variables: edad y sexo, actividad que realizaba en el momento de la intoxicación, tipo de plaguicida, severidad, utilización de equipos de protección y lugar de asistencia médica. Las variables para el análisis de los indicad...

  5. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Johanns, Casey K.; McNellan, Claire R.; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18–1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24–1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21–1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04–1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05–1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care

  6. Pediatric cardiac surgery: a challenge and outcome analysis of the Guatemala effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Wyss, Juan R; Veshti, Altin; Veras, Oscar; Gaitán, Guillermo A; O'Connell, Mauricio; Mack, Ricardo A; Calvimontes, Gonzalo; Garcia, Flor; Hidalgo, Amilcar; Reyes, Alfredo; Castañeda, Aldo R

    2009-01-01

    A large underserved population of children with congenital cardiac malformation (CCM) exists in many developing countries. In recent years, several strategies have been implemented to supplement this need. These strategies include transferring children to first-world countries for surgical care or the creation of local pediatric cardiovascular surgical programs. In 1997, an effort was made to create a comprehensive pediatric cardiac care program in Guatemala. The objective of this study is to examine the outcome analysis of the Guatemala effort. The goals of our new and first pediatric cardiac care program were to: 1) provide diagnosis and treatment to all children with a CCM in Guatemala; 2) train of local staff surgeons, 3) established a foundation locally and in the United States in 1997 to serve as a fundraising instrument to acquire equipment and remodeling of the pediatric cardiac unit and also to raise funds to pay the hospital for the almost exclusively poor pediatric cardiac patients. The staff now includes 3 surgeons from Guatemala, trained by the senior surgeon (A.R.C.), seven pediatric cardiologists, 3 intensivists, and 2 anesthesiologists, as well as intensive care and ward nurses, respiratory therapists, echocardiography technicians, and support personnel. The cardiovascular program expanded in 2005 to 2 cardiac operating rooms, 1 cardiac catheterization laboratory, 1 cardiac echo lab, 4 outpatients clinics a 6-bed intensive care unit and a 4-bed stepdown unit, a 20 bed general ward (2 beds/room) and a genetics laboratory. Our center has become a referral center for children from Central America. A total of 2,630 surgical procedures were performed between February 1997 and December 2007, increasing the number of operations each year. Postoperative complication occurred in 523 of 2,630 procedures (20%). A late follow-up study was conducted of all the patients operated from 1997 to 2005. Late mortality was 2.7%. Development of a sustainable pediatric

  7. Making a killing south of the border: transnational cigarette companies in Mexico and Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1994-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most unnecessary of modern epidemics in the world today, according to the World Health Organization. In response to declining sales at home, multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting allegedly developing countries with their deadly products, often with the strong support of the U.S. government. While Asian countries have been most heavily targeted in recent years, Latin American countries have not been overlooked. This paper discusses macro-level and micro-level implications of the tobacco companies' promotions, based on data gathered in Mexico and Guatemala during 1990. Recommendations for combating the corporations' efforts are also discussed.

  8. Geochemistry and Stable Isotopes of Tacana Volcano-Hydrothermal System, Mexico-Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouwet, D. /; Inguaggiato, S.; Taran, Y. /; Varley, N. /

    2003-12-01

    Tacana volcano (4100 m.s.n.m.), situated on the border between Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala is considered an active volcano. In May 1986, after a minor phreatic explosion, a fumarole field was formed at an altitude between 3200 and 3600 m.a.s.l. Around the volcano, at altitudes between 1500 and 2000 m.a.s.l., exist several thermal springs, with temperatures up to 63 degrees C. Incomplete chemical composition of the Agua Caliente thermal waters in the period 1986-1993 were presented by Medina (1986), De la Cruz-Reyna et al. (1989) and Armienta and De la Cruz-Reyna (1995), a chemical analysis of fumarole gases were published by Martini et al. (1986). This study presents the first series of isotope data of water and gases: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and helium. Data on gas and water chemistry of several thermal spring waters and gases are presented in more detail than ever. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of Tacana thermal spring waters show that meteoric water is the main contribution for the thermal waters. Cation geothermometry of the spring waters confirm these meteoric contribution, as all waters are immature in a dynamic system of water-rock interaction with a constant infiltration of fresh meteoric waters (precipitation of 6000 mm per year). The relatively high bicarbonate (up to 1100 ppm) and sulphate (up to 1200 ppm) concentrations in the thermal waters suggest an important degassing up to 2500 m below the volcano summit, which indicates the presence of a extended and complex volcano-hydrothermal system. Helium isotopes of free and dissolved gases confirm the existence of a magmatic contribution, so as for fumarole gases (6.6 R/Ra) as for gases sampled at the thermal springs (5.7-6.2 R/Ra for free gases and between 0.50 and 5.55 R/Ra for dissolved gases). These values are typical for gases liberated at volcanoes in clasic volcanic arcs. The lower values for the dissolved He is probably due to an interaction with the granitic basement, which can be found at

  9. Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

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    Lauren N. Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3 eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images (interferograms processed from both spaceborne Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS-1 and aerial Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR data acquired between 31 May 2010 and 10 April 2014 were used to measure post-eruptive deformation events. Interferograms suggest three distinct deformation processes after the May 2010 eruptions, including: (1 subsidence of the area involved in the co-eruptive slope movement; (2 localized deformation near the summit; and (3 emplacement and subsequent subsidence of about a 5.4 km lava flow. The detection of several different geophysical signals emphasizes the utility of measuring volcanic deformation using remote sensing techniques with broad spatial coverage. Additionally, the high spatial resolution of UAVSAR has proven to be an excellent compliment to satellite data, particularly for constraining motion components. Measuring the rapid initiation and cessation of flank instability, followed by stabilization and subsequent influence on eruptive features, provides a rare glimpse into volcanic slope stability processes. Observing these and other deformation events contributes both to hazard assessment at Pacaya and to the study of the stability of stratovolcanoes.

  10. Anticuerpos circulantes contra Influenza Aviar y Newcastle en zanates (Quiscalus mexicanus de la ciudad de Guatemala (Avian flu and Newcastle Antibodies in Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus in Guatemala city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, Luis E.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenAunque el zanate (Quiscalus mexicanus está distribuido en todaGuatemala y se encuentra estrechamente ligado a poblaciones humanas,se sabe muy poco acerca de su estado sanitario y su papel comoreservorio de enfermedades aviares de importancia. Esta investigacióngenera información sobre el papel del zanate en la epizootiología de la Influenza Aviar (IA; Orthomyxoviridae y de Newcastle (ENC;Paramixoviridae, midiendo los anticuerpos circulantes en zanates norelacionados a granjas avícolas. Se colectaron 71 muestras de suero dezanates urbanos asintomáticos del la ciudad de Guatemala entre abril yjulio de 2008 y se analizaron con la prueba de Inhibición de laHemoaglutinación.SummaryDespite the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus is distributed in all Guatemala and it is so close to human populations, few is knownabout its sanitarian status and role as reservoir of important aviandiseases. This research provides information about the role of the Greattailed Grackle in the epizootiology of Avian Influenza (AI;Orthomyxoviridae and Newcastle Disease (NCD; Paramixoviridae,measuring the antibodies of Grackles non-related to avian farms. Wecollected 71 serum samples from urban Great-tailed Grackles without any symptoms in Guatemala City from April to June of 2008, and analyzed with hemagglutination Inhibition Test.

  11. Mexico & Guatemala: A Close-Up Look at Their Ethos as a Tool To Improve ESL Instruction in the U.S. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerratken, Leila

    This paper presents the experiences of a secondary teacher of English as a Second Language (ESL) who went to Mexico and Guatemala to improve her ability to help Hispanic students new to the English language and/or to the United States. Before the project, the teacher incorporated into her ESL class the same strategies she used in teaching French,…

  12. Incidence of Hospitalized Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Adults in Guatemala, 2008-2012.

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    Carmen Lucía Contreras

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia worldwide. However, the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults in low- and middle-income countries is not well described.Data from 2008-2012 was analyzed from two surveillance sites in Guatemala to describe the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. A case of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was defined as a positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test or blood culture in persons aged ≥ 18 years hospitalized with an acute respiratory infection (ARI.Among 1595 adults admitted with ARI, 1363 (82% had either urine testing (n = 1286 or blood culture (n = 338 performed. Of these, 188 (14% had pneumococcal pneumonia, including 173 detected by urine only, 8 by blood culture only, and 7 by both methods. Incidence rates increased with age, with the lowest rate among 18-24 year-olds (2.75/100,000 and the highest among ≥65 year-olds (31.3/100,000. The adjusted incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was 18.6/100,000 overall, with in-hospital mortality of 5%.An important burden of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia in adults was described, particularly for the elderly. However, even adjusted rates likely underestimate the true burden of pneumococcal pneumonia in the community. These data provide a baseline against which to measure the indirect effects of the 2013 introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in Guatemala.

  13. Last menstrual period provides the best estimate of gestation length for women in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Haas, Jere D; Grajéda, Ruben; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2006-07-01

    The accurate estimation of gestational age in field studies in rural areas of developing countries continues to present difficulties for researchers. Our objective was to determine the best method for gestational age estimation in rural Guatemala. Women of childbearing age from four communities in rural Guatemala were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Gestational age at birth was determined by an early second trimester measure of biparietal diameter, last menstrual period (LMP), the Capurro neonatal examination and symphysis-fundus height (SFH) for 171 women-infant pairs. Regression modelling was used to determine which method provided the best estimate of gestational age using ultrasound as the reference. Gestational age estimated by LMP was within +/-14 days of the ultrasound estimate for 94% of the sample. LMP-estimated gestational age explained 46% of the variance in gestational age estimated by ultrasound whereas the neonatal examination explained only 20%. The results of this study suggest that, when trained field personnel assist women to recall their date of LMP, this date provides the best estimate of gestational age. SFH measured during the second trimester may provide a reasonable alternative when LMP is unavailable.

  14. Using Adolescents' Drawings to Reveal Stereotypes About Ethnic Groups in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Brien K; Gibbons, Judith L; de Baessa, Yetilú; Brown, Carrie M

    2017-06-15

    It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigenous Maya and nonindigenous Ladino people, which were then coded for patterns in the data. These patterns included negative stereotypes, such as the Maya being lazy and Ladina women being weak; and positive stereotypes, such as the Maya being caring and warm and Ladino men being successful. There were also interactions between the participants' own gender and ethnicity and how they depicted the target they were assigned. For example, male participants were unlikely to depict male targets of either ethnicity engaging in homemaking activities. Finally, there was evidence of in-group bias based both on gender and ethnicity. These findings suggest that perhaps because indigenous groups around the world share some common negative stereotypes, an understanding of these stereotypes will aid in decreasing prejudice and discrimination against indigenous people, could reduce intergroup conflict, and increase access to basic human rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. La Restauración Conservadora: Rafael Carrera y el destino del Estado nacional en Guatemala

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    Edelberto Torres-Rivas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo, partiendo de una revisión crítica de la historiografía liberal, analiza el periodo de la historia guatemalteca conocido como la “Restauración Conservadora” (1840-1870, el papel desempeñado en este proceso por el general Rafael Carrera y sus implicaciones en la constitución del Estado nacional. En primer lugar se hace un repaso de los alcances de la noción de Estado nacional a la vez que se examinan los intentos por imponer proyectos de Estado-nación en Guatemala después de la independencia. A continuación, se estudia el fracaso de las reformas liberales, la aparición de condiciones sociales para el ascenso de los conservadores y el posicionamiento de Rafael Carrera como caudillo. Posteriormente, se presenta un análisis de la significación política de la restauración conservadora; y finalmente, se hace un balance en términos teóricos e históricos de los logros y fracasos en la implantación del Estado nacional en Guatemala en la segunda mitad del siglo xix.

  16. The MANGUA Project: A Population-Based HIV Cohort in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Ignacio; Samayoa, Blanca; Sabidó, Meritxell; Prieto, Luis Alberto; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Pinzón, Rodolfo; Santa Marina de León, Luis Roberto; Ortiz, José Fernando; Ponce, Ernesto; Mejía, Carlos Rodolfo; Arathoon, Eduardo; Casabona, Jordi; Study Group, The Mangua Cohort

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The MANGUA cohort is an ongoing multicenter, observational study of people living with HIV/AIDS in Guatemala. The cohort is based on the MANGUA application which is an electronic database to capture essential data from the medical records of HIV patients in care. Methods. The cohort enrolls HIV-positive adults ≥16 years of age. A predefined set of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data are registered at entry to the cohort study. Results. As of October 1st, 2012, 21 697 patients had been included in the MANGUA cohort (median age: 33 years, 40.3% female). At enrollment 74.1% had signs of advanced HIV infection and only 56.3% had baseline CD4 cell counts. In the first 12 months after starting antiretroviral treatment 26.9% (n = 3938) of the patients were lost to the program. Conclusions. The implementation of a cohort of HIV-positive patients in care in Guatemala is feasible and has provided national HIV indicators to monitor and evaluate the HIV epidemic. The identified percentages of late presenters and high rates of LTFU will help the Ministry to target their current efforts in improving access to diagnosis and care. PMID:26425365

  17. The MANGUA Project: A Population-Based HIV Cohort in Guatemala

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    Juan Ignacio García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The MANGUA cohort is an ongoing multicenter, observational study of people living with HIV/AIDS in Guatemala. The cohort is based on the MANGUA application which is an electronic database to capture essential data from the medical records of HIV patients in care. Methods. The cohort enrolls HIV-positive adults ≥16 years of age. A predefined set of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data are registered at entry to the cohort study. Results. As of October 1st, 2012, 21 697 patients had been included in the MANGUA cohort (median age: 33 years, 40.3% female. At enrollment 74.1% had signs of advanced HIV infection and only 56.3% had baseline CD4 cell counts. In the first 12 months after starting antiretroviral treatment 26.9% (n=3938 of the patients were lost to the program. Conclusions. The implementation of a cohort of HIV-positive patients in care in Guatemala is feasible and has provided national HIV indicators to monitor and evaluate the HIV epidemic. The identified percentages of late presenters and high rates of LTFU will help the Ministry to target their current efforts in improving access to diagnosis and care.

  18. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

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    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidences to confirm a paleokarst. In the three countries mentioned there is literature related to the presence of “paleokarst” in the Upper Albian rocks of the Coahuila, Valles-San Luis Potosí, Golden Lane, Córdoba, Artesa-Mundo Nuevo, Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras Platforms. As much of the work was done before the time when the methodology for paleokarsts was stablished, muchof the descriptions do not allow confirmation of the paleokarsts presence. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out field research and to study the subsurface rocks in order to confirm the paleokarst structures. In Texas, at the San Marcos Platform (Upper Albian rocks, the studies of the breccias confirm a paleokarst structure in the rocks. In the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico the geophysics research done at the Jordan Knoll and the Campeche Scarp has discovered at Upper Albian rocks an unconformity at the Upper Albian rocks, but there are no physical evidences or rocks to confirm a paleokarst.

  19. Cultural scripts surrounding young people's sexual and romantic relationships in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

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    Singleton, Robyn; Schroffel, Heidi; Findlay, Trinity; Winskell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala has one of the world's highest teenage pregnancy rates and 92% of young people report not using contraception for first sex. We conducted narrative-based thematic analysis of a sample of narratives (n = 40; 15 male-authored, 25 female-authored) on HIV and sexuality, submitted to a 2013 scriptwriting competition by young people aged 15-19 years from Guatemala's Western Highlands. Our objective was to identify dominant cultural scripts and narratives that deviated positively from that norm with a view to informing the development of educational curricula and communication materials promoting youth sexual and reproductive health. The narratives are characterised by romantic themes and melodramatic plotlines: three in four had tragic endings. Rigid gender norms and ideologies of enduring love make female characters blind to the potential consequences of unprotected sex and vulnerable to betrayal and abandonment. Unprotected sex is the norm, with contraception and sexually transmitted infection protection mentioned rarely. In the four positively deviant narratives, female and male characters' interaction is based on mutual respect, dialogue and genuine affection. The narratives reveal opportunities for action to increase sexual health knowledge and access to services and to challenge harmful cultural scripts, potentially by leveraging the positive value attached to romantic love by authors of both sexes.

  20. The changing role of indigenous lay midwives in Guatemala: new frameworks for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Anita; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Henderson, Brent; Rohloff, Peter

    2013-08-01

    to examine the present-day knowledge formation and practice of indigenous Kaqchikel-speaking midwives, with special attention to their interactions with the Guatemalan medical community, training models, and allopathic knowledge in general. a qualitative study consisting of participant-observation in lay midwife training programs; in-depth interviews with 44 practicing indigenous midwives; and three focus groups with midwives of a local non-governmental organization. Kaqchikel Maya-speaking communities in the Guatemalan highlands. the cumulative undermining effects of marginalization, cultural and linguistic barriers, and poorly designed training programs contribute to the failure of lay midwife-focused initiatives in Guatemala to improve maternal-child health outcomes. Furthermore, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, Kaqchikel Maya midwives integrate allopathic obstetrical knowledge into their practice at a high level. as indigenous midwives in Guatemala will continue to provide a large fraction of the obstetrical services among rural populations for many years to come, maternal-child policy initiatives must take into account that: (1)Guatemalan midwife training programs can be significantly improved when instruction occurs in local languages, such as Kaqchikel, and (2)indigenous midwives' increasing allopathic repertoire may serve as a productive ground for synergistic collaborations between lay midwives and the allopathic medical community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  2. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  3. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  4. Vegetation monitoring for Guatemala: a comparison between simulated VIIRS and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, Vijendra K.; Easson, Gregory L.; Rowland, James

    2010-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are being widely used for vegetation monitoring across the globe. However, sensors will discontinue collecting these data in the near future. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is planning to launch a new sensor, visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS), to continue to provide satellite data for vegetation monitoring. This article presents a case study of Guatemala and compares the simulated VIIRS-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with MODIS-NDVI for four different dates each in 2003 and 2005. The dissimilarity between VIIRS-NDVI and MODIS-NDVI was examined on the basis of the percent difference, the two-tailed student's t-test, and the coefficient of determination, R 2. The per cent difference was found to be within 3%, the p-value ranged between 0.52 and 0.99, and R 2 exceeded 0.88 for all major types of vegetation (basic grains, rubber, sugarcane, coffee and forests) found in Guatemala. It was therefore concluded that VIIRS will be almost equally capable of vegetation monitoring as MODIS.

  5. Incidencia de accidente ofídico en Guatemala en años recientes

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    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El accidente ofídico, es una enfermedad desatendida que afecta principalmente a los campesinos pobres de los países tropicales y subtropicales. Con el objetivo de generar información epidemiológica sobre esta enfermedad en Guatemala, se estudió la incidencia de casos atendidos en hospitales nacionales durante el periodo 2008-2013. Se consultaron los datos oficiales del Sistema de Información Gerencial de Salud (Sigsa del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (Minsalud. Se analizó la distribución de las 23 especies de serpientes venenosas, en los 22 departamentos de Guatemala. La incidencia anual en el periodo estudiado, osciló entre 777 y 922 casos con una media anual de 849 casos (IC 95% = 803-894. La mayoría de casos ocurrió en Petén. La actividad agrícola y la distribución de las especies de serpientes venenosas podrían explicar la incidencia espacial de los casos.

  6. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care.

  7. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  8. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

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    Elena MARTÍNEZ BARAHONA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  9. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  10. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  11. Effectiveness of the Ty-3 Introgression for Conferring Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Tomato to Bipartite Begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of begomovirus-incited diseases on tomatoes in Guatemala continues to be a challenge and there continues to be a need to better understand the genetics of resistance to begomoviruses. In this study, the resistant line, Gh13, was crossed with the susceptible line, HUJ-VF, that lacked the ...

  12. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  13. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  14. Konflikt und Konfliktlösung in Guatemala – Die Verwirklichung der Rechte indigener Frauen im rechtspluralistischen Raum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Titze (Anja)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIm 20. Jahrhundert erlebte die Menschheit die Gräueltaten von zwei Weltkriegen und zahllosen Bürgerkriegen, die allesamt unermessliches Leid brachten. Auch Guatemala ist insoweit ein trauriges Beispiel. Der Bürgerkrieg, der dort in der Zeit des Kalten Krieges wütete und erst 1996 endete,

  15. Unit on Mexican and Guatemalan Archaeology. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn

    This curriculum unit on Mexican and Guatemalan archaeology is designed for students at a college preparatory high school who have taken a course in ancient and medieval history. The unit lists history and archaeology texts and teacher resources and is divided into the following sections: (1) geography assignment on Mexico and Guatemala; (2)…

  16. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in patients on hemodialysis in southwest Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cipriano, Ever; Herrera, Erick; Lopez, Noemi; Polo, Vicente Sanchez; Rothstein, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of patients on hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional causes (CKDnt). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study interviewed patients on hemodialysis at the Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social on their health and occupational history. Laboratory serum, urine and vital sign data at the initiation of hemodialysis were obtained from chart reviews. Patients were classified according to whether they had hypertension or obesity or neither. The proportion of patients with and without these traditional CKD risk factors was recorded and the association between demographic and occupational factors and a lack of traditional CKD risk factors analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 242 total patients (including 171 non-diabetics) enrolled in hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala, 45 (18.6% of total patients and 26.3% of non-diabetics) lacked traditional CKD risk factors. While agricultural work history was common, only travel time greater than 30 minutes and age less than 50 years old were significantly associated with CKD in the absence of traditional risk factors. Individuals without such risk factors lived throughout southwestern Guatemala's five departments. Conclusions The prevalence of CKDnT appears to be much lower in this sample of patients receiving hemodialysis in Southwestern Guatemala than in hospitalized patients in El Salvador. It has yet to be determined whether the prevalence is higher in the general population and in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  17. Previous violent events and mental health outcomes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D; Lopez-Soto, Victor A; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P PTSD (P civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery.

  18. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  19. La acción política de las viudas de pilotos en la Ciudad de Guatemala

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    Manuela Camus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The political action of the widows of bus drivers in the City of GuatemalaA wide range of violent acts is occurring within the context of a Guatemala caught in a post-conflictive problematic. Many urban transport drivers in Guatemala City have been executed by members of ‘pandillas’ or ‘maras’ (gangs to force the payment of the extortion money, leaving their families devastated by the trama and the difficulties of survival. This paper centres on the difficulties that the widows of these drivers organized in AVITRANS (Association of Transport Widows are facing in their political struggle for government support and social recognition when they are seen as being delegitimized for being poor, mestiza and coming from the ‘grey zone’ areas of this metropolis. This case study attempts to analyse the consequences of the neoliberal model in practice.Resumen La Guatemala postconflicto se encuentra abrumada por una amplia gama de violencias. Muchos pilotos del transporte urbano de la ciudad de Guatemala son ejecutados por miembros de las pandillas o maras para forzar el pago de las extorsiones quedando sus familiares devastados por el trauma y las dificultades de la sobrevivencia. Este texto se centra en las dificultades que las viudas de estos pilotos organizadas en AVITRANS (Asociación de Viudas del Transporte enfrentan en su lucha política por el apoyo del gobierno y el reconocimiento social al verse deslegitimadas por ser pobres, mestizas y procedentes de la ‘zona gris’ de las colonias de esta metrópolis. El caso permite considerar las consecuencias del modelo neoliberal en la práctica.

  20. HACIA UNA SÍNTESIS DE LOS PAPILIONOIDEA (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA DE GUATEMALA CON UNA RESEÑA HISTÓRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas José Luis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La riqueza biológica de Mesoamérica es enorme. Dentro de esta gran área geográfi ca seencuentran algunos de los ecosistemas más diversos del planeta (selvas tropicales, asícomo varios de los principales centros de endemismo en el mundo (bosques nublados.Países como Guatemala, en esta gran área biogeográfi ca, tiene grandes zonas de bosquehúmedo tropical y bosque mesófi lo, por esta razón es muy importante para analizarla diversidad en la región. Lamentablemente, la fauna de mariposas de Guatemalaes poco conocida y por lo tanto, es necesario llevar a cabo un estudio y análisis dela composición y la diversidad de las mariposas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea enGuatemala. Este es el primer esfuerzo en reunir diferentes tipos de información yaumentar el conocimiento de las mariposas en Guatemala y el Neotrópico. La lista estáintegrada por 761 taxones del nivel especie, con registros de colecciones biológicas,literatura, recolectas de campo, datos inéditos y bases de datos. Se comentan algunosaspectos de la diversidad, la composición de especies y la distribución geográfi ca delas mariposas en Guatemala y con respecto a otras unidades geográfi cas. Otra partepresenta un bosquejo histórico. Hoy en día el conocimiento de las mariposas de estepaís está aumentando y éste es uno de los muchos estudios en marcha.

  1. Dialysis enrollment patterns in Guatemala: evidence of the chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes epidemic in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Guerrero, Douglas R; Rothstein, Marcos

    2015-04-14

    In western Nicaragua and El Salvador, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and generally affects young, male, agricultural (usually sugar cane) workers without the established CKD risk factors. It is yet unknown if the prevalence of this CKD of Non-Traditional causes (CKDnT) extends to the northernmost Central American country, Guatemala. Therefore, we sought to compare dialysis enrollment rates by region, municipality, sex, daily temperature, and agricultural production in Guatemala and assess if there is a similar CKDnT distribution pattern as in Nicaragua and El Salvador. The National Center for Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment (Unidad Nacional de Atención al Enfermo Renal Crónico) is the largest provider of dialysis in Guatemala. We used population, Human Development Index, literacy, and agricultural databases to assess the geographic, economic, and educational correlations with the National Center for Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment's hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis enrollment database. Enrollment rates (per 100 000) inhabitants were compared by region and mapped for comparison to regional agricultural and daytime temperature data. The distribution of men and women enrolled in dialysis were compared by region using Fisher's exact tests. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated. Dialysis enrollment is higher in the Southwest compared to the rest of the country where enrollees are more likely (p < 0.01) to be male (57.8%) compared to the rest of the country (49.3%). Dialysis enrollment positively correlates with Human Development Index and literacy rates. These correlations are weaker in the agricultural regions (predominantly sugar cane) of Southwest Guatemala. In Guatemala, CKDnT incidence may have a similar geographic distribution as Nicaragua and El Salvador (higher in the high temperature and sugar cane growing regions). Therefore, it is likely that the CKNnT epidemic extends throughout the Mesoamerican region.

  2. The Earliest Maya Farmers of Peten: New Evidence from Buenavista-Nuevo San José, Central Peten Lakes Region, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette E. Castellanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins and cultural affiliations of the first sedentary agricultural and pottery-producing communities in the southern Maya lowlands remain hotly debated. Here, we describe the discovery of a new early farming settlement at the small site of Buenavista-Nuevo San José on Lake Peten Itza in northern Guatemala. Evidence for a pre-Mamom occupation (1000–700 BC at this site was found in the deepest fill layers overlying bedrock, including pottery diagnostic of this time period and the remains of a post-in-bedrock dwelling. Because the evidence for this early settlement is from secondary contexts and because four radiocarbon dates cover a broad chronological range, the best evidence for the pre-Mamom occupation consists of the ceramics recovered in the excavations. The closest links of the pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista-Nuevo San José are with the Eb complex at Tikal and the Cunil complex of Cahal Pech, Belize, suggesting strong interactions between these early groups. The discovery of pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista also suggests that the early farmers were more widespread than previously suggested. Furthermore, the presence of Olmecoid symbols incised on the pre-Mamom pottery at Buenavista-Nuevo San José indicates that these early communities were immersed in broad pan-Mesoamerican spheres of interaction.

  3. La consulta a los pueblos indigenas y su evolucion como herramienta de negociacion politica en America Latina. Los casos de Peru y Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulmer, Amanda M

    2011-01-01

    .... Uso dos casos de estudio: uno en Peru (Rio Blanco) y uno en Guatemala (la mina Marlin). La consulta ha sido un elemento importante de ambos casos, pero su funcion fue distinta en cada uno de ellos...

  4. La violencia sexual como genocidio. Memoria de las mujeres mayas sobrevivientes de violación sexual durante el conflicto armado en Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amandine Fulchiron

    2016-01-01

    ...). En l analizamos el uso sistem tico y masivo de la violaci n sexual contra las mujeres mayas dentro del marco de la pol tica contrainsurgente en Guatemala, nombr ndolo y denunci ndolo como feminicidio y genocidio...

  5. Genomic insights on the ethno-history of the Maya and the 'Ladinos' from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söchtig, Jens; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Salas, Antonio

    2015-02-25

    Guatemala is a multiethnic and multilingual country located in Central America. The main population groups separate 'Ladinos' (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. Genetic variation of these communities still remains largely unexplored. The principal aim of this study is to explore the genetic variability of the Maya and 'Ladinos' from Guatemala by means of uniparental and ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Analyses of uniparental genetic markers indicate that Maya have a dominant Native American ancestry (mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]: 100%; Y-chromosome: 94%). 'Ladino', however, show a clear gender-bias as indicated by the large European ancestry observed in the Y-chromosome (75%) compared to the mtDNA (0%). Autosomal polymorphisms (AIMS) also mirror this marked gender-bias: (i) Native American ancestry: 92% for the Maya vs. 55% for the 'Ladino', and (ii) European ancestry: 8% for the Maya vs. 41% for the 'Ladino'. In addition, the impact of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on the present-day Guatemalan population is very low (and only occurs in the 'Ladino'; mtDNA: 9%; 4%), in part mirroring the fact that Guatemala has a predominant orientation to the Pacific Ocean instead of a Caribbean one. Sequencing of entire Guatemalan mitogenomes has led to improved Native American phylogeny via the addition of new haplogroups that are mainly observed in Mesoamerica and/or the North of South America. The data reveal the existence of a fluid gene flow in the Mesoamerican area and a predominant unidirectional flow towards South America, most likely occurring during the Pre-Classic (1800 BC-200 AD) and the Classic (200-1000 AD) Eras of the Mesoamerican chronology, coinciding with development of the most distinctive and advanced Mesoamerican civilization, the Maya. Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data

  6. Comorbilidad entre el distrés psicológico y abuso/dependencia de drogas, ciudad de Guatemala - Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam García Estrada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de distrés psicológico en pacientes atendidos en centros especializados en alcohol y drogas en la Ciudad de Guatemala. Es un estudio transversal con 91 pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos en el Centro de Tratamiento de la Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Comisión contra las Adicciones y el Trafico Ilícito de Drogas, y en Casa Hogar Jireh. Se aplicó un cuestionario adaptado del formulario de la EULAC-CICAD para caracterizar a los participantes. La escala de Kessler-10 se aplico para detención de distrés psicológico. Los resultados muestran que 68% de la muestra total tenían entre 18 y 39 años, la edad promedio es 44. El 95.6% eran hombres. Refieren diagnostico previo (32.9%, relacionado con ansiedad en 2.4%, depresión en 3.3%, esquizofrenia en 4.4%, y trastorno bipolar en 4.4%. Presentan diagnostico actual de salud mental 17.58%. Conclui-se que El K-10 indica que 31.87% tienen niveles severos el 39.56% muy severo de distrés psicológico (71.43%. Datos sensibles a ansiedad y depresión, son similares a los reportados en otros estudios internacionales.

  7. Mayan spiritualities in the ball-games of forearm and hip in the 21th century. Pok-Ta-Pok in Mexico; Chaaj and Chajchaay in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Jairzinho Francisco Panqueba Cifuentes

    2015-01-01

    The present practice on Mesoamerican ball-games has come strengthening the mobilization of knowledge about Mayan spiritualities. The ceremonies are a central component during the ball-games in their forearm fashion: Chaaj in Guatemala; and in their hip fashion: Pok-Ta-Pok in Mexico and Chajchaay in Guatemala. These ancestral corporal heritages are in circulation as a sporting-competitive choice, but also in an exhibition format for different audiences. For each event, actually to undertake th...

  8. The Zipf's law and the effects of free trade: The case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Orellana Aragón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of trade policy changes on the order of the size of cities and economic growth of Guatemala between 1921 and 2002. The Pareto coefficient was estimated and an index was used to measure the degree of urban concentration. Finally, a model of the impact of trade liberalization on economic growth was estimated. The main results obtained showed a slight growth in inequality and divergence, although the urban concentration index showed a gradual decline since 1964 (the golden age of the CACM by the year 2002. It was found that the urban concentration has an inverse relationship with the commercial opening and positive economic growth during the period from 1921 to 1964. It was concluded that major cities reduced their growth and that small and medium-sized cities grew at a faster rate than big cities, driven by the growth of international trade.

  9. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  10. War and Post-conflict in Guatemala: Seeking Justice Before and After the Peace Agreements

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    Maira Ixchel Benítez Jiménez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By suggesting that the mobilization of civil society groups has been the driving factor behind the progress of legal justice in post-war Guatemala, this article argues that the recent achievements in this field were possible by several institutional changes over time which provided some degree of access to political and legal opportunities. A review of the oral and documental sources allows tracking some transformations before and after the peace agreements, which favored or inhibited the attribution of criminal responsibility for serious human rights violations committed during the war period. These changes in the political sphere, or resulting from the interaction between pro-justice advocates and their particular context, have enabled the legal activist community to position themselves as crucial stakeholders in the peacebuilding process. In addition, it has allowed them to play a prominent role in the activation of justice through judicialization strategies in this post-conflict period.

  11. Ecohealth Interventions Limit Triatomine Reinfestation following Insecticide Spraying in La Brea, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, David E.; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Rodas, Antonieta; Garnica, Roberto; Stevens, Lori; Bustamante, Dulce M.; Monroy, Maria Carlota

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at ≤ 3% and peridomestic infestation at ≤ 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions. PMID:23382173

  12. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  13. A social analysis of the bioinvasions of Dreissena polymorpha in Spain and Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binimelis, Rosa; Monterroso, Iliana; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2007-10-01

    Human agency plays a key role in the processes of biological invasions. This comprises not only the human role in the configuration of driving forces or in the perception of the impacts, but also the conceptualization of alien species themselves as an environmental problem. This paper examines different stakeholders' positions in bioinvasion processes at different scales, and it looks at their relevance for the management of invasive species. It compares two cases: the invasion process of Dreissena polymorpha in the Ebro River in Spain and the case of Hydrilla verticillata in Lake Izabal, Guatemala. Our results are structured according to impacts and to management options. The discussion focuses on the relevance of incorporating the different stakeholders' interests and values in the analysis and management of biological invasions. Although social analysis of stakeholders' positions is necessary in order to foster management actions, it also reveals conflicts on the relevant criteria and on the very definition of invasive species.

  14. Secondary level organisations and the democratisation of forest governance: Case studies from Nepal and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naya Sharma Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the emerging role of secondary level organisations in the democratisation of forest governance by analysing two cases of forest-based collective action in Nepal and Guatemala. It explores the conditions surrounding the emergence and growth of these secondary level organisations, and examines the nature of their organisational approaches, strategic actions, and the resulting outcomes in terms of democratising forest governance. The organisations discussed in this paper are products of broader decentralisation processes and represent organised and empowered forest people. They are capable of shifting the balance of power in favour of community level institutions, and can compel state agencies to become more accountable to the needs of forest-dependent citizens. As a result, by leading collective action beyond the community to a secondary level, these organisations have influenced forest governance by making it more democratic, equitable and productive.

  15. A Social Analysis of the Bioinvasions of Dreissena polymorpha in Spain and Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binimelis, Rosa; Monterroso, Iliana; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2007-10-01

    Human agency plays a key role in the processes of biological invasions. This comprises not only the human role in the configuration of driving forces or in the perception of the impacts, but also the conceptualization of alien species themselves as an environmental problem. This paper examines different stakeholders’ positions in bioinvasion processes at different scales, and it looks at their relevance for the management of invasive species. It compares two cases: the invasion process of Dreissena polymorpha in the Ebro River in Spain and the case of Hydrilla verticillata in Lake Izabal, Guatemala. Our results are structured according to impacts and to management options. The discussion focuses on the relevance of incorporating the different stakeholders’ interests and values in the analysis and management of biological invasions. Although social analysis of stakeholders’ positions is necessary in order to foster management actions, it also reveals conflicts on the relevant criteria and on the very definition of invasive species.

  16. Myxoedema in a patient with achondroplasia in rural area of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Michel; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-03-09

    A 43-year-old indigenous Guatemalan woman with achondroplasia presented to our clinic with chronic fatigue and generalised oedema. She had limited contact with the formal healthcare system. However, 1 year prior, she had sought medical evaluation from a private physician. Her symptoms had been attributed to a combination of heart failure and physical disability due to the musculoskeletal complications of her achondroplasia. She was lost to follow-up due to inability to pay for further testing or treatment. On initial laboratory evaluation in our clinic, she was found to have a thyrotropin level greater than assay. With initiation of oral levothyroxine supplementation, her dyspnoea and oedema completely resolved. The case illustrates how indigenous patients in rural Guatemala experience many barriers to accessing high-quality medical care. As a result, presentations of common illnesses are often very advanced and definitive diagnoses and treatments are frequently delayed. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Les Mayas, victimes de l’histoire dans la guerre civile du Guatemala, 1954-1996

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cet article vise à étudier les causes lointaines de la tension et de la haine qui ont mené à un génocide dirigé contre le peuple maya pendant la décennie des 1980. Il cherche à approfondir deux causes majeures de ces conflits entre l’élite du Guatemala et les peuples indigènes – la terre et le racisme. Chacun de ces thèmes a empoisonné les relations avec le peuple maya et ouvert la porte à la violence qui a marqué le pays de la période de la conquête jusqu’aux guerres du 20e siècle. Este a...

  18. Increased incidence and disparity of diagnosis of retinoblastoma patients in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michael; Bendfeldt, Giovana; Lou, Hong; Giron, Veronica; Garrido, Claudia; Valverde, Patricia; Barnoya, Margarita; Castellanos, Mauricio; Jiménez-Morales, Silvia; Luna-Fineman, Sandra

    2014-08-28

    Analysis of 327 consecutive cases at a pediatric referral hospital of Guatemala reveals that retinoblastoma accounts for 9.4% of all cancers and the estimated incidence is 7.0 cases/million children, higher than the United States or Europe. The number of familial cases is low, and there is a striking disparity in indigenous children due to late diagnosis, advanced disease, rapid progression and elevated mortality. Nine germline mutations in 18 patients were found; two known and five new mutations. Hypermethylation of RB1 was identified in 13% of the tumors. An early diagnosis program could identify cases at an earlier age and improve outcome of retinoblastoma in this diverse population.

  19. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  20. Impact of Teachers' Practices on Students' Reading Comprehension Growth in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Fernando; de Véliz, Leslie Rosales; Mosquera, María Cristina Perdomo; López, Ventura Salanic

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses an educational intervention, with a strong emphasis on reading development in a bilingual context, in the Western Highlands of Guatemala (WH), a highly disadvantaged region, where the majority of the population is of Mayan origin and primary education is poor. The majority of the students in the Western Highlands speak a Mayan language as their mother tongue, yet they are generally taught in Spanish. We assisted in the development and implementation of a bilingual/intercultural education model including teacher training at the university level and bilingual materials development. Implementation included education for administrators and teacher coaching. For this intervention, aimed at improving reading outcomes, we report data for the first 3 years of implementation, and offer insights for system-wide interventions in low-resource areas.

  1. Educational Reform in Administrative Systems with Pre-modern Characteristics: the Case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ruano y Ruano

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of specific instances of educational-reform failure in contemporary Guatemala. The purpose is to throw into relief those aspects which should be confronted in designing and implementing processes of educational reform in the context of weak nations with pre-modern features. One of these fundamental aspects is the need to study carefully the administrative and power structures within the government, with the aim of locating the channels of real and nominal decision-making. It is also argued that the principle of parallel liberty allows an understanding of the formation and reinforcement of parallel power structures, and that these are found outside the official bureaucratic channels. It is further argued that the administration and formulation of educational policies cannot be summed up in simple modernization schemes that do not take into account the particular sociohistorical conditions in which the educational systems originated.

  2. Failure to CAPTCHA Attention: Null Results from an Honesty Priming Experiment in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Stewart; Hernandez, Marco; Sanders, Michael; Hauser, Oliver; Ruda, Simon

    2017-04-28

    We report results from a large online randomised tax experiment in Guatemala. The trial involves short messages and choices presented to taxpayers as part of a CAPTCHA pop-up window immediately before they file a tax return, with the aim of priming honest declarations. In total our sample includes 627,242 taxpayers and 3,232,430 tax declarations made over four months. Treatments include: honesty declaration; information about public goods; information about penalties for dishonesty, questions allowing a taxpayer to choose which public good they think tax money should be spent on; or questions allowing a taxpayer to state a view on the penalty for not declaring honestly. We find no impact of any of these treatments on the average amount of tax declared. We discuss potential causes for this null effect and implications for 'online nudges' around honesty priming.

  3. An epidemiological description of a folk illness: a study of empacho in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S C; Ruebush, T K; Klein, R E

    1991-06-01

    Although anthropologists have provided descriptions of many folk illnesses, few have systematically evaluated their prevalence and determined who is at greatest risk for acquiring them. This report attempts to provide a systematic description of the folk illness empacho including the symptoms that define it. Illness prevalence was estimated and subpopulations at greatest risk were identified from illness histories collected from a random sample of households in rural Guatemala. Empacho was found to constitute a distinct cluster of symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, headache, and lack of appetite. It differed from other gastrointestinal illnesses in that headaches were more likely and stomachaches were less likely to be reported. Empacho was highly prevalent and occurred in adults and children. Further, results showed that although empacho was frequently diagnosed by residents, folk healers were rarely consulted for any illness. Nevertheless, a strong association exists between a household diagnosis of empacho and the use of folk healers by those households (p less than .001).

  4. [Natural resources of Central America: the origin of the botanical expedition to Guatemala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Polo, J L

    1995-01-01

    The scientific commission to Central America originated like a continuation of the three big botanical Spanish expeditions being carried out during the reign of Carlos III through the American territories. The presence of the naturalists José Longinos Martínez and José Mociño, and the painter Vicente de la Cerda at the capital of Guatemala was reason of great interest in the "Capitanía General", and it caused great impact on the Enlightened institutions of the time. Friends' of the Country Economical Society and the Consulado of commerce supported the works of the members of the expedition contributing to the institutionalization of the Natural History in Central America.

  5. Transformaciones en comunidades Maya-Mam de Huehuetenango, Guatemala: flujos migratorios y discursivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Álvarez Díaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Analizar las dinámicas familiares en contextos pluriétnicos requiere de un abordaje que asuma la complejidad de la realidad social. Así, en un contexto de transnacionalización y de importantes movimientos de circulación de grupos sociales, de imaginarios colectivos y de información, uno de los desafíos para la antropología se sitúa en torno al enriquecimiento de la categorización dicotómica, indígena/ladino. Este trabajo describe, en un municipio maya-mam de Guatemala, la presencia de nuevas condiciones de reproducción generacional en el marco de las redes de relaciones sociales, considerando las prácticas sociales y los discursos.

  6. The chemical composition and protein quality of amaranth grain germ plasm in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Elías, L G; González, J M; Gómez-Brenes, R

    1987-06-01

    The present research was carried out for the purpose of collecting part of the germ plasm of grain amaranth in Guatemala, as well as to evaluate it in terms of yield, chemical composition and nutritive value. A total of 27 Guatemalan selections, one from Mexico and seven from Peru were planted in June 1982 in 7.5 m2 experimental plots replicated four times. The harvest seed was utilized for analysis of protein, ether extract, crude fiber, tannin content and trypsin inhibitors, as well as for NPR assays. A group of five pooled samples was made based on protein content for amino acid analyses; 10 samples were selected for a second NPR and protein digestibility assay. A preliminary assay on amino acid supplementation of raw grain flour is also reported. The selections were significantly different in grain yield. In general, selections which flowered at a short height and were harvested also at short height, tended to yield more seed. Findings revealed a negative relationship between plant height and grain yield, but a positive relationship between plant height and dry vegetable residue. Protein content of the grain averaged 15.0% with values ranging from 12.8 to 17.4%. Fat content varied from 5.6 to 10.6% with an average of 8.4%. Amaranth grain with a higher protein content contained greater amounts of amino acids on a weight basis, but when these were expressed on a nitrogen basis, differences disappeared. Based on the FAO/WHO amino acid reference pattern, grain amaranth protein was deficient in sulfur amino acids. Although the biological trial corroborated this deficiency, more studies should be undertaken. The NPR values of the samples from Peru averaged 2.30, the one from Mexico 2.04 and those from Guatemala, 2.36. Protein digestibility was 80, 82 and 74%, respectively. The data suggest that there is sufficient variability to select materials of a higher chemical composition, nutritive value, and yield.

  7. Comparing Two Operating Configurations in a Full-Scale Arsenic Removal Plant. Case Study: Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía E. Garrido Hoyos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Naranjo County located in the municipality of Mixco, Guatemala. The water supply source comes from two wells with a maximum flow of 25.24 and 33.44 L·s−1. The main problem with this source is the high arsenic concentration—between 0.1341 and 0.1671 mg·L−1. The aim of this study was to conduct laboratory tests, basic engineering and supervision of the construction and evaluation of an operations plant using two configurations, A (low-rate sedimentation and ceramic filter and B (high-rate sedimentation and clinoptilolite filter, to remove arsenic present in water for human use and consumption. This plant supplies water to Naranjo County in Mixco, Guatemala (5000 inhabitants. First, a laboratory Jar Test was performed to evaluate arsenic removal efficiency. And second, a conventional clarification plant was then built (design flow: 25.24 L·s−1. The best results were achieved with configuration B, with the following reagents and dosage as defined by the laboratory tests: 10 mg L−1 ferric chloride as coagulant; 1.8 mg·L−1 CH-polyfocal as flocculant and 0.4 mg L−1 MIT03 as color removal; 1 mg L−1 sodium hypochlorite as oxidant and adjusting pH to ≈7.0 with sodium hydroxide. Once the plant began operating, the efficiency of the treatment process was evaluated. The maximum elimination efficiencies were obtained 100% for turbidity (0 UTN, 89.54% (3.66 UPt-Co for color and 96.80% (0.005 mg L−1 for arsenic, values that comply with Guatemalan standards. For this case, the relation between Fe(III dosage/mg and As(V removal was 1:46.

  8. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

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    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals. RESULTS: In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level. CONCLUSION: Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  9. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  10. The street food culture of Guatemala City: a case study from a downtown, urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, E; Romero-Abal, M E; Solomons, N W

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the structure and environment of 31 street food vendors in an urban park in the downtown area of Guatemala City. Vendors were interviewed and observed in order to assess the quality, safety, and accessibility of street food. The street food vending in the park consisted of five types: whole meal, snack, beverage, fruits, and carts. A great variety of typical Guatemalan meals, as well as ready-to-eat fruits and hot dog chapin (hot dog with cabbage and avocado cream), were found in the park. The food preparation and handling revealed inadequacies concerning the hygiene. Circumstances, such as the lack of portable water near the vending site and unhygienic sanitary facilities, supported the transmission of pathogens. The clientele was of all ages, and included female as well as the male purchasers. Typical clients came from the surrounding area, i.e. the employees of civil and private offices, commercial businesses, and the non-food vendors of the park. Comparing the economy of street food with the definition of very poor in Guatemala, the prices on the street were often above the daily money needed for a basic food basket. However, a special clientele were the very poor, such as the street children and handicapped people, who earned their meals by helping out at the vending sites. Mainly female street food vendors were found at the whole meal, snack, and refreshment sites whereas men sold predominantly at the carts. For all of the vendors, it was the main source of income and for many families the only one.

  11. The Diffusion of Labour Standards: The Case of the US and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda van Roozendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of free trade agreements (FTAs concluded by the United States of America (US has grown vastly over the past two decades. While FTAs contribute to increased global competition and as such may also contribute to socially-undesirable practices in the area of working conditions and the environment, the proliferation in FTAs has paradoxically also augmented the potential for making free trade more fair as some of these agreements now include labour provisions. However, the question is whether these trade agreements have also actually diffused internationally recognised labour standards. This article studies the FTA the US signed in 2004 with a number of Central American countries and which, at a later stage, also included the Dominican Republic. This FTA is commonly referred to as CAFTA-DR and includes a chapter on labour standards. The article argues that the effects of the inclusion of labour standards in CAFTA-DR have been limited and therefore should be viewed as an unsuccessful attempt at policy transfer. This is illustrated by the case of Guatemala, a country known for its lack of respect for labour standards and which is currently the subject of a complaints procedure under the CAFTA-DR. It is maintained that this lack of effectiveness is the result of many factors. Among these is the weakness of the labour chapter of CAFTA-DR resulting from the fact that the chapter is the outcome of bargaining processes both within the US and between the US and Guatemala, where symbolic results were valued more highly than actual substance.

  12. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  13. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the female population of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi

    2009-09-01

    The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden.

  14. Timing and sources of neogene and quaternary volcanism in South-Central Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James H.

    1987-08-01

    Five new and six existing radiometric age dates place constraints on the timing of volcanic episodes in a 1400-km 2 area east of Guatemala City. The source of the voluminous Miocene rhyolitic welded tuffs was the newly discovered Santa Rosa de Lima caldera, in the northern part of the area, not fissure eruptions as was previously believed. Resurgence during the Pliocene included the eruption of more silicic tuffs, followed by post-collapse volcanism around the perimeter. Volcanism in the southern part of the area occurred along the Neogene volcanic front. The sources for these Late Miocene and Pliocene andesitic lavas were not fissure eruptions, as was once believed, but were four large volcanic centers, Cerro Pinula, Ixhuatán, Teanzul, and Cerro La Gabia. The Santa Rosa de Lima caldera structure deflects the Jalpatagua Fault forming tensional fractures along which eruptions in the Quaternary Cuilapa-Barbarena cinder cone field took place. Pleistocene ash flows were erupted from Ixhuatán and Tecuamburro volcanoes in the southern part of the area. Tephras from Ayarza, Amatitlán, and Atitlán blanket the northern and central portions. Present-day activity is restricted to hot springs around the northern and eastern base of Tecuamburro volcano. Based on the work in this area it is proposed that rocks of the Miocene Chalatenango Formation throughout northern Central America were erupted from calderas behind the Neogene volcanic front. Rocks of the Mio-Pliocene Bálsamo Formation in Guatemala and El Salvador were erupted from discrete volcanic centers along the Neogene volcanic front. Pliocene rocks of the Cuscatlán Formation probably represent post-collapse volcanism around earlier caldera structures.

  15. The direct application of geothermal energy to provide process heat in Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    One part of an energy and resource development program in Central America is a geothermal process heat project in Guatemala. The feasibility of the direct heat application depends upon the production characteristics and reliability of the geothermal source. Other factors are the distance from the heat source, quantity of use, and capacity factor of the use facilities. Favorable conditions would be distances of under 5 km, heat requirements approximately equal to the well capacity, and high capacity factors (say 60% or higher) in the industrial plants. Depending upon the values of these factors, energy costs of less than $1.00/million Btus to greater than $5.00/million Btus have been estimated. This can be compared to about $5.00/million Btus for petroleum-based fuels in Guatemala in mid 1987. A survey was made of existing industries in the Amatitlan and Zunil geothermal areas. In both Amatitlan and Zunil the existing industries are spread out over an area too large to be called an optimum. The most promising situation for an industrial park development is at Amatitlan, except that proven production wells are not yet available. At Zunil, production wells exist, but a diverse nearby industrial base does not. However, both of these two areas are sufficiently promising to merit further development. Consequently, a demonstration project is underway aimed at the ultimate establishment of an agricultural processing center at Zunil. This center would have the capability to process agricultural products by dehydration, freezing, and cold storage. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  17. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.

  18. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE ROSA DE JAMAICA EN GUATEMALA REVELADA POR MARCADORES AFLP

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    Karla Melina Ponciano-Samayoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de rosa de jamaica en Guatemala revelada por marcadores AFLP. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la diversidad genética existente en una colección de diecisiete genotipos de rosa de jamaica cultivados en Guatemala. Durante el período julio 2010/mayo2011, en el Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas (ICTA se amplifi caron doce combinaciones selectivas AFLP de las cuales cinco fueron altamente informativas. Se observó un 98% de loci polimórfi cos, con un promedio de nueve por amplifi cación selectiva. Se estableció que no hay genotipos duplicados en la colección. El análisis de agrupamientos y de correspondencia identifi có tres grupos muy cercanos entre sí. El cuarto grupo fue conformado por la accesión 205 que se caracteriza por ser muy precoz y tener alto rendimiento respecto al resto. Los agrupamientos formados coincidieron con los conglomerados identifi cados en la caracterización agromorfológica realizada a la colección según su precocidad, días a cosecha y rendimiento. Es probable que exista un ligamiento entre AFLPs y loci de características cuantitativas, que puede ser aprovechado en selección asistida por marcadores. La diversidad genética (Nei fue alta (0,3053 de la cual el 57,62% se debió a la diferenciación entre grupos (GST. La variación genética dentro de los grupos fue menor (42,38% y probablemente se debe al bajo fl ujo genético (Nm=0,3678 que hay en una especie autógama.

  19. The Diffusion of Labour Standards: The Case of the US and Guatemala

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    Gerda van Roozendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of free trade agreements (FTAs concluded by the United States of America (US has grown vastly over the past two decades. While FTAs contribute to increased global competition and as such may also contribute to socially-undesirable practices in the area of working conditions and the environment, the proliferation in FTAs has paradoxically also augmented the potential for making free trade more fair as some of these agreements now include labour provisions. However, the question is whether these trade agreements have also actually diffused internationally recognised labour standards. This article studies the FTA the US signed in 2004 with a number of Central American countries and which, at a later stage, also included the Dominican Republic. This FTA is commonly referred to as CAFTA-DR and includes a chapter on labour standards. The article argues that the effects of the inclusion of labour standards in CAFTA-DR have been limited and therefore should be viewed as an unsuccessful attempt at policy transfer. This is illustrated by the case of Guatemala, a country known for its lack of respect for labour standards and which is currently the subject of a complaints procedure under the CAFTA-DR. It is maintained that this lack of effectiveness is the result of many factors. Among these is the weakness of the labour chapter of CAFTA-DR resulting from the fact that the chapter is the outcome of bargaining processes both within the US and between the US and Guatemala, where symbolic results were valued more highly than actual substance.

  20. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

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    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.El sur de México y América Central tienen varios cuerpos de agua con diferente morfología, composición química y una interesante fauna de zooplancton procedente de América del Norte o del Sur. Un grupo de 63 muestras, fueron tomadas en 2005 y 2008 para conocer la cantidad de copépodos calanoides en los cuerpos de agua del karst Península de

  1. Penser et construire l’espace tojolabal à travers une expérience rituelle transfrontalière (Mexique-Guatemala Conceiving and Constructing the Tojolabal Space by Means of a Cross-Border Ritual (Mexico-Guatemala

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    Carine Chavarochette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Au sud-est de l’État mexicain du Chiapas vivent des populations mayas tojolabal. L’une des origines mythiques de ce groupe se situe au Guatemala dans les montagnes des Cuchumatanes, dans un lieu habité par un autre groupe maya : les Chuj. Depuis la révolution mexicaine de 1910-1920 et la réforme agraire entreprise par les autorités gouvernementales, les Tojolabal entretiennent par l’intermédiaire de rituels des relations avec les Chuj du pays voisin. En choisissant de se rendre au Guatemala, les pèlerins tojolabal ne franchissent pas seulement une frontière politique et étatique, ils construisent et donnent sens à leur territoire par le fait même de traverser des limites. L’évolution de l’itinéraire et des pratiques religieuses tout au long du xxe siècle témoigne des événements politiques vécus par ces populations.The southeast Mexican state of Chiapas is home to Tojolabal Maya populations. One of the mythical origins of this group takes place in Guatemala in the Cuchumatanes mountains, in an area inhabited by another Maya group: the Chuj. Since the 1910-1920 Mexican revolution and the land reforms introduced by the government, the Tojolabal have been maintaining relations with the Chuj in the neighbouring country through rituals. By choosing to travel to Guatemala, the Tojolabal pilgrims cross not only a political and state boundary, they construct and give meaning to their territory by the very fact of crossing limits. The evolution of the religious itinerary and practices throughout the 20th century testify to the political events experienced by these populations.

  2. Paleo-geomorphic evolution of the Ciomadul volcano (East Carpathians, Romania) using integrated volcanological, stratigraphical and radiometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karátson, Dávid; Wulf, Sabine; Veres, Daniel; Gertisser, Ralf; Telbisz, Tamás; Magyari, Enikö

    2016-04-01

    Ciomadul volcano is the youngest eruptive center of the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR), located at the southernmost end of the Intra-Carpathian Volcanic Range, and within this, the Harghita Mountains in the East Carpathians. As a result of multi-disciplinary, ongoing studies (Karátson et al. 2013 and in review; Magyari et al. 2014; Veres et al. in prep.; Wulf et al. in review), we have obtained a number of constraints on the paleo-geomorphic evolution of the volcano. Our studies clarified that this volcano, a lava dome complex with a twin-crater (i.e. the older Mohos peat bog and the younger St. Ana lake), produced frequent explosive eruptions between 50 and 29 ky. As a result, a set of superimposed volcanic landforms were created, the chronology of which in some cases can be well constrained, in other cases further studies are required to infer their timing. Ciomadul evolved as a moderately explosive dacitic dome complex possibly for several hundred ka (see controversial chronology in Karátson et al. 2013, Harangi et al. 2015 and Szakács et al. 2015), resulting in a set of adjoining lava domes and a central complex. There is no evidence for crater-forming eruptions during that time, although the possibility of moderate explosions cannot be ruled out. Field relations show that the first exposive products are phreatomagmatic tuff series, called Turia type, dated at ca. 50 ka. These tephra units could be linked to the formation of a "Paleo-Mohos" crater, and possibly to the northern half-caldera rim which consists of massive lava dome rock and hosts Ciomadul Mare, the highest point of the volcano (1300 m). After this first explosive activity, volcanism seems to have migrated toward the W, at the site of the later St. Ana crater. Following plinian eruption(s) at ca. 47-43 ka, the explosive activity went dormant, and a lava dome might have grown up in a possibly small "Proto-St. Ana" crater. At 31-32 ka, a succession of violent magmatic explosive eruptions occurred

  3. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  4. Vector blood meals are an early indicator of the effectiveness of the Ecohealth approach in halting Chagas transmission in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecer, Mariele J; Dorn, Patricia L; Bustamante, Dulce M; Rodas, Antonieta; Monroy, M Carlota

    2013-04-01

    A novel method using vector blood meal sources to assess the impact of control efforts on the risk of transmission of Chagas disease was tested in the village of El Tule, Jutiapa, Guatemala. Control used Ecohealth interventions, where villagers ameliorated the factors identified as most important for transmission. First, after an initial insecticide application, house walls were plastered. Later, bedroom floors were improved and domestic animals were moved outdoors. Only vector blood meal sources revealed the success of the first interventions: human blood meals declined from 38% to 3% after insecticide application and wall plastering. Following all interventions both vector blood meal sources and entomological indices revealed the reduction in transmission risk. These results indicate that vector blood meals may reveal effects of control efforts early on, effects that may not be apparent using traditional entomological indices, and provide further support for the Ecohealth approach to Chagas control in Guatemala.

  5. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol and Guatemala (Cuxa: Market Survey and Risk Assessment

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    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110, and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16 were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L. Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  6. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  7. Narrating survival and change in Guatemala and South Africa: the politics of representation and a liberatory community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton; Blanche, Martin Terre; Hamber, Brandon

    2003-03-01

    Peace accords and international interventions have contributed to the suspension of armed conflict and the censuring of repressive regimes in many parts of the world. Some governments and their opposition parties have agreed to the establishment of commissions or other bodies designed to create historical records of the violations of human rights and foster conditions that facilitate reparatory and reconciliatory processes. This paper explores selected roles that community psychologists have played in this process of remembering the past and constructing new identities towards creating a more just future. With reference to two community groups (in Guatemala and South Africa) we show how efforts to "speak out" about one's own experiences of political and military repression involve complex representational politics that go beyond the simple binary opposition of silencing versus giving voice. The Guatemalan group consisted of Mayan Ixil women who, together with the first author, used participatory action research and the PhotoVoice technique to produce a book about their past and present struggles. The South African group, working within the ambit of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and in collaboration with the third author and others, explored ways of speaking about their roles in apartheid and post-apartheid society. Although both these initiatives can be seen as moments in on-going struggles to overcome externally-imposed repressive practices that censor the voices of marginalized communities, they also serve to dispel overly romanticized notions of "univocal" communities now liberated to express themselves in an unmediated and unequivocal fashion. The paper discusses how each group of women instead entered into subtly nuanced relationships with community psychologists involving a continual interplay between the authenticity of their self-representational accounts and the requirements of the discursive technologies into which they were being inducted and

  8. La marimba: lenguaje musical y secreto de la violencia política en Guatemala The marimba: musical and secret language of the political violence in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang DIETRICH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El autor refleja la construcción de la música nacional en el proceso del devenir del Estado nacional guatemalteco. Este proceso comienza formalmente a principios del siglo XIX, pero no ha concluido aún. Para el mito del Estado nación y para aquellos que lo utilizan para su proyecto de dominación, es de importancia decisiva que la música nacional se distinga externamente de las músicas expresadas por otras naciones, y para usos internos sirva al proceso de homogeneización nacional. Desde los mediados del siglo XIX la música en Guatemala se utiliza para transmitir ideologías que sirven a la construcción de tal mito. La música vernácula de los pueblos mayas no sigue esta lógica, por lo tanto está considerada inferior o «incorrecta». Para el mito del Estado nación sólo el pueblo como concepto abstracto en su conjunto, y no el grupo concreto e individual, podría entender y valorar la música nacional. Suponiendo esto, la música nacional se convirtió en una herramienta elemental y efectiva del mecanismo represivo de la deculturación.

     

    La marimba entonces funciona como símbolo del Estado nación guatemalteco. Las dictaduras militares, siendo ellas las principales responsables del genocidio contra los mayas, declararon la marimba cromática instrumento nacional. Tras un largo camino de violencia la marimba desindianizada y por lo tanto ladinizada, se convirtió en instrumento nacional. En el período de la violencia, la marimba cromática no cesó de sonar en los sitios nocturnos y en los restaurantes elegantes de la capital

  9. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya Lowlands of Petén, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining macroscopic charcoal and the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these two different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change available in the area. We detected three periods of high fire activity during the Holocene: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3700 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attribute the first maximum mostly to climate conditions and the last maximum to human activities. The rapid change between burned vegetation types at the 3700 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity.

  10. Modeling and testing maternal and newborn care mHealth interventions: a pilot impact evaluation and follow-up qualitative study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José Tomás; Zuleta, Clara; Rodríguez, Jorge Tulio

    2017-03-01

    To develop a descriptive model of structural characteristics of mHealth in the context of newborn nutrition, and to assess the effects of illustrative interventions through a mixed-methods study consisting of an impact evaluation and a qualitative assessment. We conducted a 23-week intervention with 100 mothers in rural Guatemala in 2013 and 2014. In group 1 ( n  = 24), participants received health-promoting text messages. In group 2 ( n  = 32), peer-to-peer groups were formed. In group 3 ( n  = 30), peer-to-peer groups were formed, a health professional participated in the discussions, and participants received health-promoting messages. In the control group ( n  = 14), participants were simply given a mobile phone. We measured changes in knowledge and self-reported behavior. Four focus groups in 2015 showed the perceptions of 44 additional women and the potential of the previously tested interventions in other marginalized areas. Significant relationships were found between group membership and changes in knowledge ( P  mHealth interventions can play an important role in helping to encourage recommended breastfeeding attitudes along with providing rich information about challenges in rural areas. A mixed-methods study was appropriate to compare the effects and assess the potential of mHealth strategies in a complex rural setting.

  11. National Security And Institutional Pathologies: A Path Dependent Analysis Of U.S. Interventions In Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, And Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    eventually took Guatemala into a 30-year calamity of internal violence and repression, drastically increased the financial burden of U.S. aid, and...problem load on the existing institutional framework,” and that when change does occur it is generally in bursts that “set in motion waves of contagion ...States- controlled oil wells in Saudi Arabia.”80 The result was broad based financial and military support to Qavam’s government that allowed the Iranian

  12. Power to the parents? Participatory governance, civil society, and the quality of democracy in rural Honduras and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines whether and how participatory governance (PG), a model for incorporating citizen participation in designing and/or implementing strategies to solve public problems, can strengthen civil society and improve the quality of democracy. The study focuses on community-managed schools (CMS) in Honduras and Guatemala, arguably each country's largest PG initiative, in which parents managed rural schools.This thesis advances a "political capabilities" framework to explore state ef...

  13. Enablers and obstacles to democratic consolidation and civil-military relations reform: a comparative analysis of Argentina and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Fetting, Nathaniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Argentina and Guatemala are separated by more than 3,000 miles, and their societies are in many ways dissimilar. Yet they share similarities in the undermining of democracy throughout their histories. Both countries were caught up in the Western fear of communism during the Cold War. With considerable backing from the United States, both countries crafted military governments with the mission of better governance and removal of their ...

  14. La elección del sector laboral y los retornos a la educación en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the returns to education in Guatemala, while attempting to account for self-employment and the presence of workers without monetary earnings in the economy, factors whose omission can potentially lead to sample selection bias. The analysis uses data from the Survey of Living Conditions (ENCOVI 2000) to obtain estimates of the rate of returns to different levels of schooling using a human capital earnings function. A multinomial logit model for sector choice is implement...

  15. Los lugares de la memoria y de la acción política en Guatemala. Justicia transicional, políticas del reconocimiento y ficciones de secularismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Salamanca Villamizar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available I analyze here the importance of religion in Guatemala during the conflict and post-conflict periods through: i the “new” structures of social mobilization during the sixties and seventies; ii religion as rhetorical practice and field of power; iii the territorialization of memory policies; and iv the processes of recovering historical memory. I argue against theories about secularism that coincide with some interpretations of identity that tend to separate and reproduce binary oppositional categories that prevent recognition of ambiguous, dynamic and complex social identities. I explain why a historical-anthropological perspective on space facilitates a more effective understanding of mobile and transversal societies in their processes of becoming constituted, political positioning, and interpreting the past.

  16. Too poor to be green consumers? A field experiment on revealed preferences for firewood in rural Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kempen, Luuk; Muradian, Roldan [Centre for International Development Issues Nijmegen (CIDIN), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sandoval, Cesar [Instituto de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (IARNA), Universidad Rafael Landivar (Guatemala); Castaneda, Juan-Pablo [Instituto de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (IARNA), Universidad Rafael Landivar (Guatemala); Development Research Institute (IVO), Tilburg University (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The paper reports on a field experiment that investigates whether households in Guatemala are willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala, the experiment assesses the potential viability of market-oriented solutions. Local consumers in developing countries are generally believed to be too poor to pay a premium for green/ethical products. Therefore, little information has been gathered on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for such products and its determinants in non-affluent consumer markets. While our experiment on firewood consumption in central Guatemala only implies a weak and indirect test of WTP for green products, the results indicate that it is premature, if not unwarranted, to assume that the poor are not ready to make pro-ethical choices in the marketplace. Moreover, we find that information on the legal procedures for firewood extraction significantly affects consumer choice between legal and illegal firewood. (author)

  17. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article.

  18. Fatal Case of Polymicrobial Meningitis Caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Pereira, César; Rodas-Rodríguez, Lia; Díaz-Paz, Manuel; Palacios-Rivera, Hilda; Firacative, Carolina; Meyer, Wieland; Alcázar-Castillo, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    We describe a fatal case of polymicrobial meningitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient from Guatemala caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Central nervous system infections caused concurrently by these species are extremely rare. This is also the first report of disseminated disease caused by C. liquefaciens.

  19. Early Miocene Kırka-Phrigian Caldera, western Turkey (Eskişehir province), preliminary volcanology, age and geochemistry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit

    2016-11-01

    Large rhyolitic ignimbrite occurrences are closely connected to the Early Miocene initiation of extension in the central-western Anatolia crossing the Tavşanlı-Afyon zones. Field and laboratory data performed at the apex of the Eskişehir-Afyon-Isparta volcanic area allowed recognition of newly identified caldera structure, named here "Kırka-Phrigian caldera". Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses since 25 Ma ago resulted in the NNW-SSE elongation of the magma chamber and influenced the roughly elliptical shape of the subsided block (caldera floor). The caldera, which is roughly oval (24 km × 15 km) in shape, formed during a series of collapse events, starting at 19 Ma, by the generation of a huge volume of extra- and intracaldera ignimbrites. Intracaldera post-collapse sedimentation and further volcanism at the northern edge (at 18.6 Ma) were controlled through subsidence-related faults with generation of a series of volcanic structures (domes and lavas) showing a large compositional range. Enriched mantle components within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle began to melt via decompression melting during the initiation of extension. The heat resulting from the fractionation of ascending mantle melts produced the silicic compositions in large mushy crustal reservoirs; interaction of these melts with fertile crustal rocks further caused crustal anataxis and consequently two different compositions: Rhyolite-1 and Rhyolite-2. The eruptions of Kırka-Phrigian caldera-related ignimbrites were probably triggered by basaltic intrusion. Rock volumes and geochemical evidence suggest that silicic volcanic rocks come from a long-lived complex magma chamber system. After caldera generation there was a northern shift to small volume extra- and intra-caldera episodic rhyolitic, basaltic-trachy andesitic, trachytic and lamproitic volcanism, the latter being the youngest (16.2 Ma) indicating a more primitive magma input which originated in an enriched mantle

  20. The Massive Compound Cofre de Perote Shield Volcano: a Volcanological Oddity in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Carrasco-Nunez, G.; Diaz-Castellon, R.; Rodriguez, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Cofre de Perote volcano anchors the northern end of the easternmost of several volcanic chains orthogonal to the E-W trend of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). Its structure, geochemistry, and volcanic history diverge significantly from that of the large dominantly andesitic stratovolcanoes that have been the major focus of research efforts in the MVB. Andesitic-trachyandesitic to dacitic-trachydacitic effusive activity has predominated at Cofre de Perote, forming a massive low-angle compound shield volcano that dwarfs the more typical smaller shield volcanoes of the central and western MVB. The 4282-m-high volcano overlooking Xalapa, the capital city of the State of Veracruz, has a diameter of about 30 km and rises more than 3000 m above the coastal plain to the east. Repeated edifice collapse has left massive horseshoe-shaped scarps that truncate the eastern side of the edifice. Five major evolutionary stages characterize the growth of this compound volcano: 1) emplacement of a multiple-vent dome complex forming the basal structure of Cofre de Perote around 1.9-1.3 Ma; 2) construction of the basal part of the compound shield volcano from at least two main upper-edifice vents at about 400 ka; 3) effusion of the summit dome-like lavas through multiple vents at ca. 240 ka; 4) eruption of a large number of geochemically diverse, alkaline and calc-alkaline Pleistocene-to-Holocene monogenetic cones (likely related to regional volcanism) through the flanks of the Cofre de Perote edifice; 5) late-stage, large-volume edifice collapse on at least two occasions (ca. 40 ka and ca. 10 ka), producing long-runout debris avalanches that traveled to the east. An undated tephra layer from Cofre de Perote overlies deposits likely of the youngest collapse. Cofre de Perote is one of several volcanoes in the roughly N-S-trending chain that has undergone major edifice collapse. As with Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) and Las Cumbres volcanoes, Cofre de Perote was constructed at the

  1. El Estado de Guatemala y la violencia. Percepciones desde comunidades Mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kalny

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Le Guatemala, pays d’une grande hétérogénéité ethnique, a une longue histoire de violence structurelle et de guerre. Cette violence est soutenue en majeure partie par l’Etat et ses représentants. Les traités de paix de décembre 1996 ont mis un terme à la guerre civile, mais les structures des institutions gouvernementales ne permettent pas une participation politique étendue des différentes majorités qui composent la société – peuples indigènes et femmes. La violence exercée pour combattre la guérilla et pour contrôler les peuples indigènes n’a pas permis à la population d’assimiler le système proposé par l’Etat. Les évènements qui ont suivi la fin de la guerre ont provoqué des déceptions considérables, dont l’un des résultats est la perte de crédibilité de l’Etat.Guatemala, un país con alta heterogeneidad étnica, tiene una larga trayectoria de violencia estructural y de guerra. Esta violencia es promovida en gran parte por el Estado y sus representantes. Con la firma de la paz en diciembre de 1996 finalizó la guerra civil, sin embargo, las estructuras mismas de las instituciones estatales no permiten que la mayoría de los habitantes, indígenas y mujeres, tengan acceso a o confianza en ellas. Resulta que la violencia ejercida para combatir la guerrilla y para lograr el control completo de los pueblos indígenas, no sirvió para hacer este Estado más fuerte. Desde la firma de la paz, las desilusiones sobre los acontecimientos reducen su credibilidad y otra vez disminuye la confianza de la población en el sistema estatal.Guatemala, a country with high ethnic heterogeneity, has a long history of structural violence and war. This violence is largely promoted by the state and its representatives. Peace accords in December 1996 put an end to the civil war, but the structures of governmental institutions themselves do not allow broad participation of the majorities - indigenous peoples and women. The

  2. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  3. The role of temperature and humidity on seasonal influenza in tropical areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina P Soebiyanto

    Full Text Available The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama.Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009. Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31 and 1.32 (1.08-1.63 and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93 and 1.97 (1.34-2.93, but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86 and 0.79 (0.69-0.91. Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91 whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09 and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14. In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9.The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific humidity that were lower than the

  4. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  5. La ciencia política en Guatemala: el reto de la consolidación como disciplina independiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Azpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La ciencia política surgió en Guatemala a finales de los años 60 y durante más de una década, tuvo que desarrollarse con las limitaciones impuestas por los regímenes autoritarios de turno. No obstante, desde su surgimiento las escuelas de ciencia política promovieron activamente la democratización del país. Al iniciarse el proceso democratizador a mediados de los 80, se abrió el espectro de los temas de estudio e investigación. Algo similar ocurrió con el proceso de paz en los años 90. A lo largo de tres décadas la disciplina ha contribuido en forma importante a la construcción de la democracia y la paz en Guatemala. Como disciplina, sin embargo, se ha visto limitada por los fuertes vínculos que ha mantenido con otras ciencias sociales y con el derecho. Durante 35 años los centros académicos que dan formación en ciencia política han enfrentado disyuntivas en cuanto al tipo de programas que deben ofrecerse a los estudiantes (grados técnicos, licenciatura o maestría, el perfil de los profesionales que egresan de los mismos vis-à-vis el mercado laboral y el énfasis en el estudio de la problemática guatemalteca vis-à-vis una perspectiva más global.Abstract The study of political science began in Guatemala in the late 1960s and for over a decade it had to develop with limitations imposed by the authoritarian regimes that governed the country. However, from the beginning the political science schools actively promoted democratization. When the democratization process began in the mid 1980s, the possibilities for research of different issues expanded. Something similar occurred with the peace process in the 1990s. Throughout three decades of existence, political science has significantly contributed to democracy-building and peace-building in Guatemala. However, as an academic discipline, it has been limited by the strong links that it has maintained with other social sciences and law. During 35 years the academic

  6. Acceptance and Impact of Point-of-Use Water Filtration Systems in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kim L; Hansen, Corrie; Ritz, Michala; Carreño, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Infants and children in developing countries bear the burden of diarrheal disease. Diarrheal disease is linked to unsafe drinking water and can result in serious long-term consequences, such as impaired immune function and brain growth. There is evidence that point-of-use water filtration systems reduce the prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries. In the summer of 2014, following community forums and interactive workshops, water filters were distributed to 71 households in a rural Maya community in Guatemala. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uptake of tabletop water filtration systems to reduce diarrheal diseases. A descriptive correlational study was used that employed community partnership and empowerment strategies. One year postintervention, in the summer of 2015, a bilingual, interdisciplinary research team conducted a house-to-house survey with families who received water filters. Survey data were gathered from the head of household on family demographics, current family health, water filter usage, and type of flooring in the home. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and in partnership with a village leader. Each family received a food package of household staples for their participation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all responses. Fisher's exact test and odds ratios were used to determine relationships between variables. Seventy-nine percent (n = 56) of the 71 households that received a water filter in 2014 participated in the study. The majority of families (71.4%; n = 40) were using the water filters and 16 families (28.6%) had broken water filters. Of the families with working water filters, 15% reported diarrhea, while 31% of families with a broken water filter reported diarrhea. Only 55.4% of the homes had concrete flooring. More households with dirt flooring and broken water filters reported a current case of diarrhea. A record review of attendees at an outreach clinic in this village noted a decrease in intestinal

  7. ÍNDICE DE DIVERSIDAD BIOLÓGICA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD DE LA ANTIGUA GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José García Polo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La urbanización es un fenómeno global de tendencia creciente, cuyo pronóstico prevé, para el 2050, que aproximadamente el 70% de la población mundial será urbana. Las administraciones municipales deben de contemplar este componente para la planificación y desempeño ambiental de sus ciudades y áreas urbanas. Dada la importancia de esta tendencia,  el Convenio para la Diversidad Biológica (CDB ha planteado una nueva herramienta para estimar la diversidad biológica en ciudades: el Índice de Diversidad Biológica Urbana. En este proyecto se evaluó el índice para la ciudad de La Antigua Guatemala en su línea base y se aportan elementos para la planificación y gestión ambiental,  midiendose dieciocho indicadores de biodiversidad urbana. De un máximo de 72 puntos, el resultado para la ciudad de La Antigua Guatemala fue de 33 puntos. Los registros para la línea base de la biodiversidad son: 99 especies de aves, 148 especies de plantas vasculares, 46 especies de mariposas y 11 especies de murciélagos. Las recomendaciones para tener un mejor desempeño en el tema de diversidad biológica están relacionadas con la urgente necesidad que la ciudad, previo a la próxima evaluación del índice, elabore la estrategia local de diversidad biológica y su plan de acción (LBSAP – por sus siglas en inglés. Se recomienda, además,  planificar e implementar proyectos de gestión ambiental y continuar utilizando el índice de diversidad biológica urbana para el monitoreo y evaluación del desempeño ambiental de la ciudad a largo plazo.

  8. [Modified-habitat use by tropical forest-dependent birds in the Caribbean region of Guatemala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Alexis; Robbins, Chandler S; Dowell, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Modified-habitat use by tropical forest-dependent birds in the Caribbean region of Guatemala. As natural areas are reduced into isolated remnants, the importance of secondary habitats for species conservation will increase. Consequently, the conservation value of human-modified or created secondary habitats must be determined. In this study, we evaluated the conservation potential of three habitats associated to cattle ranching (riparian forest, live fence, and pasture) for tropical forest birds in the Caribbean region of Guatemala. We studied the bird communities of five tropical forest and riparian forest (henceforth river) sites, three live fence sites and four pasture sites, in five cattle ranches in the region, and compared the four habitats based on the following parameters: species richness, number of individuals, species composition and an index of conservation importance. A 10-point series was sampled (six repetitions of each series) in each habitat site using the point-count method, in march and april of 1998 and 1999. Although forest, river and live fence had similar mean species numbers, considering all species (111, 96 and 94 species, respectively), and river and live fence surpassed the forest in mean number of individuals (80 and 72 compared to 56 individuals), river and live fence had significantly fewer mean numbers of interior-forest resident species and individuals (56, 21 and 15 species, and 61, 19 and eight individuals in forest, river and live fence, respectively). River and live fence, when compared to forest, had no significant differences in the number of resident forest-edge species and individuals, but their edge-species composition was significantly different from forest. Those resident edge species that were relatively abundant in forest had very low abundances in the modified habitats, and those that were abundant in river and live fence were rare or absent in forest sites. With respect to migratory species, both river and live fence

  9. Assessment of rock properties and slope stability at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren; Kendrick, Jackie; Oommen, Thomas; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Pacaya is an active stratovolcano located 30 km south of Guatemala City, Guatemala. A large (0.65 km3) sector collapse of the volcano occurred 0.6 - 1.6 ka B.P., producing a debris avalanche that traveled 25 km SW of the edifice. The structural setting of the current cone, along with two recent smaller-volume collapses in 1962 and 2010, suggest gravitational instability of this volcano. Recent measurements of the geomechanical properties of lava and breccia from Pacaya are used to improve our understanding of the destabilizing potential of different volcanic processes. Room-temperature uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests, and total porosity tests, were conducted on 17 breccia and 21 lava samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength (σci) of lava rocks was moderately strong (σci = 72.4 MPa), with breccia rocks being 62.2% weaker (σci = 27.4 MPa). These values can partially be contributed to lava rock's very low porosity (0.054) and breccia rock's higher porosity (0.19). We also find an apparent rate-dependent strengthening of the samples as strain rate is increased from 10-5 to 10-1. Values of Poisson's Ratio (v) and Young's Modulus (E) calculated from triaxial tests, are v= 0.28 and E = 13.9 GPa for breccia and v= 0.31 and E = 17.6 GPa for lava. These experiments highlight the contrasting character of breccia versus lava, and suggest that sector collapse may have initiated in the weaker breccia. Additionally, cohesion (c) and friction angle (φ) calculated from triaxial tests yielded values of c = 1.8 MPa and φ = 19.4° for breccia and c = 4.0 MPa and φ = 41.4° for lava. Following sector collapse, the frictional properties of the rocks partially dictate the flow and deposition of the debris avalanche, and these were studied using high velocity rotary shear experiments on ash and lava rock. Experimental results are combined to understand the historical flank stability and assess the likelihood of future sector collapse at Pacaya.

  10. The A.D. 472 ``Pollena'' eruption: volcanological and petrological data for this poorly-known, plinian-type event at vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Mauro; Santacroce, Roberto

    1983-09-01

    The pyroclastic products of a poorly-known eruption of Vesuvius (ascribed by a combination of historic and radiocarbon data to A.D. 472) have been investigated from both volcanological and petrological points of view. The eruptive sequence starts with pumice-fall deposits (three units can be recognized) that darken upwards where there are sandwave interbeds. Surge deposits cover the pumice-fall bed and thick pyroclastic-flow deposits represent the uppermost levels of the deposit. Isopach maps of both the pumice-fall and pyroclastic-flow deposits led to an estimate of the total volume of tephra of about 0.32 km 3. The eruptive sequence and the distribution of lithic ejecta are similar to those of the major Plinian eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius (although the volume involved is significantly lower) and reflect an increase in the hydromagmatic character of the eruption with time. The products range in composition from phonolites (first-erupted) to phonolitic leucitites with gradual changes upwards. Whole rock chemistry and microprobe mineralogy indicate that the Pollena sequence represents a liquid line of descent towards the phonolitic minimum of petrogeny's residua system. Fractionation occurred within a shallow magma chamber (P H 2O probably slightly higher than 1 kb) and was mainly controlled by leucite and clinopyroxene. The basic parental magma approached the composition of the recent period (A.D. 1631-1944), tephritic leucitites of Vesuvius. The phonolitic magma can be derived from a leucititic parent by fractionating about 50% solid phases. A two-stage fractionation model is suggested: the first stage occurred during the rise of magma from the deep source and the second within the shallow magma chamber. The rate of magma introduction during the 150 to 200 year repose time preceeding the eruption probably averaged 1.2 to 1.7 × 10 -3 km 3-yr -1. These conditions were probably favorable for the occurrence of magma-mixing within the convecting zone of the magma

  11. La importancia de los Derechos Humanos en la Consolidación de la Paz en Guatemala

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    María José TORRES MACHO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Hasta 1996 se firmaron en Guatemala doce Acuerdos de Paz, de los cuales tres versan sobre derechos humanos: El Acuerdo Global sobre Derechos Humanos, el Acuerdo sobre el Establecimiento de la Comisión de Esclarecimiento Histórico y el Acuerdo sobre Identidad y Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas. La totalidad de los Acuerdos constituye el pilar para conseguir la desmovilización y reinserción de los guerrilleros, el desmonte de grupos paramilitares, el desarrollo humano integral, el desarrollo humano sostenible y el fortalecimiento y la modernización del Estado democrático, además de establecer el marco de acción de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para Guatemala con el fin de verificar el cumplimiento de estos Acuerdos y promover la construcción de la paz después del conflicto. El proceso de paz en Guatemala duró 8 años, con la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz se puso fin al conflicto más antiguo de Centroamérica, sin embargo, los notables avances conseguidos hasta ahora se enfrentan a los intereses partidarios surgidos por la proximidad de las elecciones presidenciales. Aún así, la forma de negociación de los Acuerdos de Paz ha permitido la implementación de otras modalidades de participación política, el fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil y el reconocimiento de la mayoritaria población indígena del país.ABSTRACT: Until 1996, 12 peace agreements were agreed upon in Guatemala. Three of them deal with human rights: the global agreement on human rights, the agreement on the establishement of a committee for the "Esclarecimiento Historico" and the agreement on the identity and the rights of the indigenous peoples. All these agreements constitute the basis for the demobilization and reintegration into civic life of the guerrilla members, the elimination of paramilitary groupings, global human develepment, sustained development and for the strengthening and modernization of the democratic state. They also establish the

  12. GUATEMALA: DANZANDO CON LAS CRISIS ECONÓMICA Y POLÍTICA Guatemala: Dancing with the Economic and  Politic Crisis

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    KARIN ERBSEN DE MALDONADO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los guatemaltecos sobrevivieron con dificultad el 2009. Sus ya precarias condiciones de desarrollo humano y gobernabilidad se agravaron como resultado de mayores niveles de violencia, inseguridad e impunidad, así como por el incremento del crimen organizado, los efectos de la crisis financiera internacional y el impacto del calentamiento global. En mayo estalló una crisis política, provocada por un hecho insólito en el que (indebidamente, como se aclaró posteriormente fueron involucrados el Presidente Colom y cercanos colaboradores del mismo, lo cual afectó la estabilidad del gobierno y la credibilidad del mandatario. Entre los hechos positivos destacan un acuerdo de Estado para el avance de la seguridad y la justicia, la aprobación de la Ley de Comisiones de Postulación y la elección más transparente de los magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Justicia, así como un notorio empoderamiento de organizaciones sociales pro justicia y transparencia, a lo que se suma el activo desempeño de la Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala (CICIG.Guatemalans struggled to survive year 2009. Their already precarious conditions on human development and governance became worse because of higher levels of violence, insecurity and impunity, together with an increase in organized crime, the effects of the international financial crisis and the impact of global warming. In May, a political crisis erupted because of an unusual event in which (mistakenly, as it was later clarified President Colom and some of his close collaborators were involved, affected the stability of the government and the President s credibility On the positive side stands out a state agreement for the advancement of security and justice, the enactment of the law for the Nominating Commissions and a more transparent election of Supreme Court Magistrates. In addition, social organizations in favor of justice and transparency were notoriously empowered, and an active

  13. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas.

  14. Códigos de conducta y derechos laborales en maquilas de México y Guatemala

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    César A. Rodríguez Garavito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han creado sistemas de monitoreo para verificar el cumplimiento de los códigos empresariales de conducta en relación con las condiciones de trabajo. En este trabajo se sitúan los códigos en el contexto de los debates más amplios sobre la gobernanza global y defiende un enfoque participativo de los estándares laborales internacionales que otorgue una mayor conciencia a los trabajadores de su poder y sus derechos. A partir de una investigación etnográfica en fábricas del vestido en México y Guatemala, el autor explora el efecto que ha tenido la supervisión de los códigos en el empoderamiento de los trabajadores y en las condiciones laborales de las factorías globales y destaca las estrategias políticas e institucionales que contribuyen a la protección de los derechos laborales.

  15. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  16. Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala

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    Sandra Rodríguez-Guzmán

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos, la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumplimentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones. Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante.

  17. Migración retornada y juventud indígena (Zacualpa, Guatemala

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    Ricardo Falla, S.J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo resumo una investigación que acaba de ser publicada en forma de libro sobre la juventud indígena y la migración retornada en Zacualpa, Guatemala.1 De entrada advierto que los resultados de esta investigación reflejan la situación de principios de 2007. Ya se estaba enrareciendo entonces el ambiente con deportaciones masivas en los Estados Unidos, como fue la de las fábricas Swift el 12 de diciembre de 2006. Pero el repunte del número de deportaciones de2007 no se había sentido tan fuertemente. Tampoco la depresión económica en los Estados Unidos se había dejado sentir, como a fines de 2007 y principios de 2008.Por un lado, el cambio de coyuntura hace que los resultados de esta investigación no correspondan exactamente al momento actual. No es un artículo periodístico. Pero, por otro lado, ese cambio hace que el enfoque de la migración retornada se haga cada vez más importante, puesto que las dificultades para la población migrante en Estados Unidos, tanto de tipo laboral (desempleo como político(amenazas de deportación, incidirán en que más compatriotas centroamericanosdecidan regresar a sus tierras de origen.

  18. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas. Guatemala, 2011

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    Mario Enrique Pla Acevedo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas en Guatemala, que abarcó el  período de enero hasta diciembre del 2011. La muestra estuvo comprendida por 457 pacientes en edades pediátricas. Se analizaron las variables: edad y sexo, actividad que realizaba en el momento de la intoxicación, tipo de plaguicida, severidad, utilización de equipos de protección y lugar de asistencia médica. Las variables para el análisis de los indicadores fueron obtenidas por el Centro Nacional de Epidemiología. Como resultados fundamentales se observó que la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas afectó principalmente al grupo de edades entre 17 y 19 años. El sexo masculino fue el más perjudicado, el mayor porciento de afectados, según causa, fue accidente de trabajo, con un 68% del total de casos; el tipo de plaguicida más utilizado que provocó intoxicación fue el paraquat; predominó la forma severa en los que no usaron medios de protección y el  lugar de atención médica y de notificación correspondió al hospital.

  19. Colors, humors and evil eye: indigenous classification and treatment of childhood diarrhea in highland Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, E; Dardano, C; Cruz, J R

    1990-11-01

    Focal group interviews on indigenous perceptions and reported management of childhood diarrhea were conducted in 1987-88 in Guatemala as a part of a prospective epidemiological field study of chronic diarrhea. Six cognitive schemata were identified, each with specific causes, a linked progression of concepts, symptoms, signs, and diagnostic characteristics. Nearly all were related to the humoral theory of disease, including the concept of evil eye. Diarrheal disease was conceptualized in the village as a set of processes which could be either "hot" or "cold" rather than as an unchanging single-symptom entity occupying only one spot on the humoral continuum. Clarification of the temporal relationship between concepts was found to be essential to the understanding of these indigenously-defined schemata. Stool color reflecting humoral theory was the primary concept used in household-level diagnosis. Reported behavior associated with these cognitive schemata (traditional treatments, pharmaceutical and dietary management) showed remarkable constancy, and adhered for the most part to the humoral concept of equilibrium. These included the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and liquids. The applied importance of humoral theory to home-based use of ORS is discussed briefly as is the indigenous definition of dehydration.

  20. LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LA VARIACIÓN TRANSCULTURAL: VALORES EN GUATEMALA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS

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    Sara Estrada-Villalta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio explora los valores culturales de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala, un país poco estudiado pero generalmente descrito como colectivista, comparándolos con estudiantes universitarios de Estados Unidos, un país descrito como individualista. El estudio explora los valores humanos y la dimensión horizontal-vertical del individualismo-colectivismo, utilizando distintos métodos de medición que incluyen ajustes para distintos estilos de respuesta. Contrario a las expectativas, los guatemaltecos no mostraron una mayor preferencia por el colectivismo, pero sí una mayor inclinación por los valores de benevolencia y seguridad. Los participantes estadounidenses no se mostraron más individualistas, pero prefirieron el universalismo y el hedonismo. Los resultados sugieren que es necesario estudiar las variaciones interculturales e intraculturales con muestras más amplias, así como afinar la definición conceptual del colectivismo.

  1. Los mayas del altiplano: supervivencia indígena en Chiapas y Guatemala

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    Lovell, W. George

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto americano, pocos grupos indígenas han demostrado la capacidad de sobrevivir a lo largo de la historia como los mayas del altiplano. Hoy día en Chiapas existen más de un millón de indígenas mayas, un número que asciende a cinco o seis millones en el caso de Guatemala. Los pueblos mayas han respondido a la invasión y a la dominación para conservar elementos importantes de su cultura. Este artículo discute las formas en que los mayas del altiplano se han adaptado para sobrevivir a casi cinco siglos de conquista, identificando tres fases claves en su trayectoria histórica: (1 la experiencia colonial, que abarca los años entre 1524 y 1821; (2 una época de reforma y revolución, que corre de 1821 a 1954; y (3 un período de marginalización y descuido desde 1954 en adelante. Pese al desfío, los mayas del altiplano están equipados culturalmente para perdurar.

  2. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Huehuetenango Focus of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Richards, Frank O.; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Dominguez, Alfredo; Oliva, Orlando; Catú, Eduardo; Rizzo, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.8%), the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0% (95% CI 0–0.02%), and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0% (95% CI 0–0.1%). These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011) was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 0–0.04%). Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated. PMID:22970346

  3. 'Fruit of the accords': healthcare reform and civil participation in Highland Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Jonathan Nathaniel

    2009-04-01

    Governmental-contracting of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is a central strategy of neoliberal health reforms in Central America. More than improving the equity, efficiency, and quality of health services, contracting presents a potential mechanism to redefine antagonistic relationships between the state and civil society, particularly in countries ravaged by political violence. In this paper I examine the process of heath reform in Guatemala through the implementation of the Sistema Integral de Atención en Salud (SIAS) in the municipality of San Martín Jilotepeque. Mandated in the 1996 Peace Accords, SIAS potentially facilitates decentralization and civil participation through governmental-contracting of NGOs to provide health services to underserved populations. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with NGO representatives, Ministry of Health (MOH) workers, and community health workers and midwives, I examine the contracting process and then address issues of equity, efficiency, and quality of services, as well as the process of decentralization. I argue that contracted NGOs are largely restricted to serve as administrators, removed from the delivery of services, and are heavily dependent upon the traditional MOH structure, which limits the ability of SIAS to improve health services or foster the processes of decentralization and democratization.

  4. International Service Learning: Occupational Therapists' Perceptions of Their Experiences in Guatemala

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    Jason C. Lawson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is fast becoming more culturally diverse, creating a greater need for entry-level occupational therapists to be culturally competent. In order to increase students’ cultural competence, there is a growing support for international service learning (ISL. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perspectives of occupational therapy practitioners who engaged in ISL as occupational therapy students. Interviews were conducted with nine practicing occupational therapists, all of whom graduated from the same occupational therapy program in the U.S. and participated in an ISL experience in Guatemala. Phenomenological methods were used to analyze the transcribed interviews for codes, categories, and themes. The three themes that emerged were: Participants reported encountering many new experiences that led to experiencing a variety of emotions, their experiences in the Guatemalan culture further contributed to a deeper level of understanding about culture, and all of the participants reported that their ISL experiences allowed them to practice occupational therapy skills and interventions with limited resources, which facilitated creativity and resourcefulness. The findings of this study support that completing ISL as students contributes to occupational therapists’ personal and professional lives and offers a glimpse of potential long-term effects of completing an ISL experience.

  5. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  6. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Shallow landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-poor region of Guatemala (Comitancillo municipality

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    Federico Preti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although landslides are frequent natural phenomena in mountainous regions, the lack of data in emerging countries is a significant issue in the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility. A key factor in risk-mitigation strategies is the evaluation of deterministic physical models for hazard assessment in these data-poor regions. Given the lack of physical information, input parameters to these data-intensive deterministic models have to be estimated, which has a negative impact on the reliability of the assessment. To address this problem, we examined shallow landslide hazard in Comitancillo municipality, Guatemala. Shallow landslides are here defined as small (less than two or three metre-deep rotational or translational slides or earth flows. We based our hazard simulation on the stability index mapping model. The model’s input parameters were estimated from a statistical analysis of factors affecting landslides in the municipality obtained from a geodatabase. The outputs from the model were analysed and compared to an inventory of small-scale landslides. The results of the comparison show the effectiveness of the method developed to estimate input parameters for a deterministic model, in regions where physical data related to the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility is lacking.

  8. Morphometric analysis of Triatoma dimidiata populations (Reduviidae:Triatominae from Mexico and Northern Guatemala

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    P Lehmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. Its range includes Mexico, all countries of Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador. In light of recent genetic analysis suggesting that the possible origin of this species is the Yucatan peninsula, we have analyzed populations from the state of Yucatan, San Luis Potosi, and Veracruz in Mexico, and a population from the southern region of the Yucatan peninsula located in Northern Guatemala, the region of El Peten. Classical morphometry including principal component, discriminant, sexual dimorphism, and wing asymmetry was analyzed. San Luis Potosi and Veracruz populations were indistinguishable while clearly separate from Yucatan and Peten populations. Despite important genetic differences, Yucatan and Peten populations were highly similar. Yucatan specimens were the smallest in size, while females were larger than males in all populations. Only head characters were necessary to distinguish population level differences, although wing fluctuating asymmetry was present in all populations. These results are discussed in light of recent findings suggesting genetic polymorphism in most populations of Triatoma dimidiata south of Chiapas to Ecuador.

  9. Validation and adaptation of rapid neurodevelopmental assessment instrument for infants in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Peñaloza, R A; Stormfields, K; Kooistra, R; Valencia-Moscoso, G; Muslima, H; Khan, N Z

    2015-11-01

    Timely detection of neurodevelopmental impairments in children can prompt referral for critical services that may prevent permanent disability. However, screening of impairments is a significant challenge in low-resource countries. We adapted and validated the rapid neurodevelopmental assessment (RNDA) instrument developed in Bangladesh to assess impairment in nine domains: primitive reflexes, gross and fine motor development, vision, hearing, speech, cognition, behaviour and seizures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 77 infants (0-12 months) in rural Guatemala in July 2012 and July 2013. We assessed inter-rater reliability and predictive validity between the 27-item RNDA and the 325-item Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) and concurrent validity based on chronic malnutrition, a condition associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. For both RNDA and BSID-III, standardized scores below 80 were defined as borderline impairment. Children came from rural households (92%), were born to indigenous women of Mayan descent (73%) and had moderate or severe growth stunting (43%). Inter-rater reliability for eight RNDA domains was of moderate to high reliability (weighted κ coefficients, 0.49-0.99). Children screened positive for impairment in fine motor (17%) and gross motor (14%) domains using the RNDA. The RNDA had good concurrent ability; infants who were growth stunted had higher mean levels of impairment in gross motor, speech and cognition domains (all p neurodevelopmental impairment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The psychosocial effects of "La Violencia" on widows of El Quiche, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, J

    1993-06-01

    In Guatemala, government-sponsored terrorism directed at Mayan villagers resulted in at least 122,000 deaths and 18,000 "disappearances" during the period 1975-85. Even today, "low intensity warfare" in the form of random acts of terrorism continue. Thus, in the past 20 years, 120,000 women have been widowed, 11,000 in the province of El Quiche alone. This violence extended to threats of death directed toward women who joined a human rights organization, to the rape of women by their husbands' murderers and the further murder or kidnapping of their relatives. Groups of women were split between widows and married women, and women had to recreate their roles in society. The resulting reformation of family life led to an irretrievably altered relationship with the past. Survivors had to cope with pervasive fear, with a new understanding of their vulnerability, and with an inability to fulfill their obligations towards the dead who were buried in clandestine graves. The women who coped the best were those who learned to comprehend the violence in political terms through participation in human rights and women's groups and those who lived in villages where the dead were exhumed and properly buried. The psychological pain suffered by the women often manifested itself in physical ways and added to the suffering they realized from overwork and poor nutrition.

  11. Variability in eruption style and associated very long period events at Fuego volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Gregory P.; Nadeau, Patricia A.; Lyons, John J.

    2013-04-01

    Repeated short-term deployments of seismic, infrasound, video, and gas-emission instruments at Fuego volcano, Guatemala have revealed three types of very long period (VLP) events associated with conduit sealing, pressure accumulation, and release. In 2008, ash-rich explosions issued from a vent on the western flank and produced one type of VLP (Type 1). Impulsive, bomb-rich explosions from the summit vent in 2009 produced a shorter period VLP (Type 2), but also generated ash release. Type 3 VLP events occurred during ash-free exhalations from the summit in 2008 and had waveform shapes similar to Type 2 events. Weak infrasound records for Type 1 explosions compared to Type 2 suggest lower pressures and higher magma porosity for Type 1. Type 3 events correlate with spikes in SO2 emission rate and are driven by partial sealing and rapid release of ash-free gas at the summit vent. Variations in the VLP period may provide a new tool for monitoring conditions within the conduit.

  12. Bioprospección de hiperparásitos de Hemileia vastatrix en Guatemala

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    Soren S. Ramirez-Barillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La bioprospección de agentes de control biológico es una actividad primaria en la búsqueda de alternativas para el manejo de plagas y enfermedades; las reservas naturales dentro de plantaciones de café por las características de biodiversidad son aptas para albergar diversidad microbiana y entre ellos agentes biocontroladores. El estudio se realizó en 10 fincas con reservas naturales con café, cinco en el departamento de Guatemala, cuatro en Sacatepéquez y una en Chimaltenango, los muestreos se realizaron en época seca y lluviosa; se obtuvo, documentó y determinaron en laboratorio los agentes hiperparásitos: Cladosporium hemileiae Steyaert, y Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerm. Zare & W. Gams y además un insecto micófago Mycodiplosis sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae. Se evaluaron las cepas de los hongos hiperparásitos con el índice de velocidad de crecimiento micelial (IVCM y producción de conidiosporas. Se estableció que las mejores cepas de C. hemileiae fueron: Morán época seca parte baja, San Sebastián época seca y Guardabarranca parte alta; para L. lecanii fueron: San Sebastián época seca y Corral Viejo estación lluviosa parte baja.

  13. Nutritional status of an economically-privileged convenience sample of urban children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Virginia J; Mayorga, Evelyn; Molina, Susana; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide pandemic of overweight and obesity has now reached low-income tropical societies. To determine whether overweight or obesity is present among children from middle-class Guatemala City homes. A total of 363 children, 173 boys and 190 girls aged 72-131 months, were included for height, weight, and abdominal circumference at its narrowest point (natural waist). Overall, 58.6% of subjects presented a body mass index within the normal Center for Disease Control and Prevention curve limits, whereas 3.9% fell below this range (low weight), 17.4% were in the risk of overweight range, and 20.1% were classified as overweight. The mean natural waist circumference was 62.6+/-0.9 cm. The waist-circumference-to-height ratio had a median of 0.47, with 36.9% of all children having a waist-circumference-to-height ratio exceeding the proposed 0.5 upper limit. Nutrition transition has reached the juvenile population of this Central American republic, at least in its urban, privileged groups.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Sporothrix schenckii in India, Thailand, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ungpakorn, Rataporn; Torres Guererro, Haydee; Toriello, Conchita; Arenas, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Up to now, 30 mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)and 4 rDNA types of Sporothrix schenckii strains have been identified. Here, seventy-six isolates of S. schenckii from Mexico, Guatemala, Brazil, Thailand and India were genotyped and studied epidemiologically by mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms(RFLP)and internal transcribed spacer region(ITS)-RFLP analysis and two new mtDNA types, Type 31 and Type 32, were found. Type 30, previously reported by Mora-Cabrera et al. was confirmed to be Type 3 and designated as blank. Of 48 isolates from Mexico, 41 belonged to Group A wherein Type 2(13 isolates), Type 3(10)and Type 28(7)were dominant. All ten isolates from India and Thailand belonged to Group B. The 52 Group A and 24 Group B isolates corresponded to rDNA Type I and Type IV , respectively, reported by Watanabe et al.(Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 45: 165-175, 2004).

  15. Assessing the technical efficiency of health posts in rural Guatemala: a data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alison R; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening health service delivery to the rural poor is an important means of redressing inequities. Meso-level managers can help enhance efficiency in the utilization of existing resources through the application of practical tools to analyze routinely collected data reflecting inputs and outputs. This study aimed to assess the efficiency and change in productivity of health posts over two years in a rural department of Guatemala. Data envelopment analysis was used to measure health posts' technical efficiency and productivity change for 2008 and 2009. Input/output data were collected from the regional health office of Alta Verapaz for 34 health posts from the 19 districts comprising the health region. Technical efficiency varied widely across health posts, with mean scores of 0.78 (SD=0.24) and 0.75 (SD=0.21) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Overall, productivity increased by 4%, though 47% of health posts experienced a decline in productivity. Results were combined on a bivariate plot to identify health posts at the high and low extremes of efficiency, which should be followed up to determine how and why their production processes are operating differently. Assessing efficiency using the data that are available at the meso-level can serve as a first step in strengthening performance. Further work is required to support managers in the routine application of efficiency analysis and putting the results to use in guiding efforts to improve service delivery and increase utilization.

  16. Ensuring intercultural maternal health care for Mayan women in Guatemala: a qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marieke; Ruiz, Marta Julia; Letona, Diana; García, Sandra G

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous (Mayan) women in Guatemala experience a disproportionate burden of maternal mortality and morbidity, as well as institutional failures to respect their rights. The Guatemalan Ministry of Health has started to offer 'intercultural' services that respect Mayan obstetric practices and integrate them with biomedical care. We purposefully selected 19 secondary-level public health facilities of 9 departments that provided maternal healthcare to indigenous women. We carried out semi-structured interviews with biomedical providers (44), Mayan midwives or comadronas (45), and service users (18), exploring the main characteristics of intercultural care. We found that most facilities initiated the implementation of culturally appropriate services, such as accompaniment by a comadrona or family member, use the traditional teas or choosing the birthing position, but they still lacked standardisation. Comadronas generally felt excluded from the health system, although most biomedical providers reported that they were making important strides to be respectful and inclusive. Most users wanted the option of culturally appropriate services but typically did not receive them. In the health facilities, biomedicine is still the dominant discourse. Efforts at offering intercultural care still need strengthening and further monitoring. Involvement and participation of comadronas and indigenous women is key to moving forward to true intercultural services.

  17. Un Programa de Educación bilingüe en Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Shaclan.

    Full Text Available Guatemala es un país con variedad geográfica, cuya extensión territorial es de 108.889 Kms. Se le ubica en el área Centro_americana, compartiendo fronteras con México, al norte y occidente; con Honduras y el Salvador, al oriente; con el Océano Atlántico, al nor-oriente y, con el Océano Pacifico, al sur. Otros rasgos distintivos de este país son la   diversidad lingüística, cultural y social, como también la composición étnica y distribución espacia1 de la población. Así, de los ocho millones de habitantes del país, el 60% reside en las áreas rurales, y de éstos. el 90% es de origen maya. En efecto, el territorio guatemalteco es compartido por dos grandes grupos culturales: ladinos e indígenas. (Se utiliza el término ladino para designar a los mestizos.

  18. Conflict factors in cooperation for shared watersheds: Rio Hondo case (Mexico-Guatemala- Belize

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    David Nemesio Olvera Alarcón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hondo transboundary river basin is a territory shared by Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. There is not enough information about mechanisms of cooperation in water issues in the river basin and the reasons that prevent this process. Nevertheless, we know about the existence of factors of conflicts that limit the cooperation. This article describes the factor of conflicts and their bonds with the cooperation around the water. The construction of the analysis was based in the grounded theory, with the use of the semi–structured interviews and the participant observation as tools of data collection. The data obtained was analyzed by a codification of information based on: the anthropic conflicts, their relation with the cooperation and the institutional paper as part of the factors of conflict. For the location of key stakeholders and the elaboration of interviews, it was necessary to take advantage of a hemerographic analysis and the existing relations as a result of a previous work in 2003, besides applying the technique of “snow ball” to identify new key stakeholders. The paper tries to highlight how existing potential anthropic conflicts in the river basin may affect processes and attempts for cooperation in water issues.

  19. Memorias de la guerra contrainsurgente en Guatemala: hacia una ruptura de la victimización

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    Anelí Villa Avendaño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión historiográfica de trabajos paradigmáticos relacionados con la memoria histórica de la gue- rra contrainsurgente en Guatemala (1954-1996, centrada en cuatro ejes principales. El primero son las causas que ocasionaron la guerra. El segundo los actores que la protagonizaron, debatiendo entre la teoría de los dos demonios y una reconstrucción compleja de los sujetos. El tercer eje se centra en el tema de si el perdón y la reconciliación deben ser percibidos como los objetivos de la recuperación de la memoria histórica. Y finalmente planteo una discusión acerca de la participación activa o pasiva de los pueblos indígenas en las reconstrucciones locales de la memoria. Este es el punto medular del artículo, pues la mayoría de las narrativas siguen construyéndose sobre la victimización, reduciendo o negando el papel activo de la población. Con esta crítica planteo las pistas para salir de ella a través del reconocimiento de todos los actores como sujetos políticos con capacidad transformadora.

  20. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala, 1927/37-2004

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    van Etten Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L. in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of farmer-defined cultivars drawn up by ethnographers in the first half of the twentieth century. A questionnaire format based on two independent lists of local farmer cultivars dating from 1927 and 1937 was used to assess changes in maize diversity. Comparisons between attributes given to each cultivar in the past and in 2004 were used as a partial test of the stability of cultivar identity. In farmers' perceptions, cultivar loss was low and limited to certain cultivars adapted to the warmer environments. Crop production problems were mentioned as the main motives for change. No evidence for a loss of cultivars due to the political violence of the 1980s was found. In the lower areas many newly introduced cultivars were found, which reportedly provide solutions for the production problems the older cultivars have. The article contrasts these findings with those of an earlier study which suggested much cultivar loss due to political violence, and draws conclusions about the methodological implications.

  1. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  2. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Christina J. Sun; Andrade, Mario de; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías.

  3. El impacto de las remesas en Guatemala ¿Alivio a la pobreza o factor de desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Barre

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con su numerosa emigración hacia Estados Unidos, Guatemala hace parte los principales países receptores de remesas en América latina. Frente a este fenómeno, presente en toda Latinoamérica, políticos, académicos y organizaciones internacionales se han interesado en el impacto que tienen las remesas para el desarrollo de los países de la región. Este artículo estudia el caso de Guatemala y busca mostrar qué consecuencias económicas y sociales generan estas transferencias de dinero en la sociedad de Guatemala, país con significativos índices de emigración a los Estados Unidos. Para lograr tal objetivo, el presente artículo caracteriza los emigrantes guatemaltecos que envían remesas, estudia el perfil de los hogares receptores de las mimas, y la forma cómo estas son utilizadas. Posteriormente, se muestra que las remesas representan una ayuda significativa para los hogares más pobres, permitiéndoles aumentar el consumo de bienes de primera necesidad y tener acceso a educación y salud. A su vez se observa cuáles son los factores que permiten convertir las remesas en actividades productivas que contribuyen al desarrollo del país, pero también se advierte sobre las limitantes en el uso de estos recursos. Por último, se mostrará la posición del Estado guatemalteco frente a la emigración de sus ciudadanos, las remesas y las políticas públicas formuladas en relación a éstos dos fenómenos.

  4. Expectations of health care quality among rural Maya villagers in Sololá Department, Guatemala: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Matthew; Chary, Anita; Daniel, Michael; Barnoya, Joaquin; Monroe, Anne; Eakin, Michelle

    2017-03-14

    Indigenous populations in Latin America have worse health outcomes than their nonindigenous counterparts. Differences in access to and use of biomedical resources may explain some of the observed disparities. Efforts to address these differences could be aided in part by better understanding the socio-medical contexts in which they occur. We performed a qualitative analysis of field notes collected during a 2008 program evaluation of a health post in a rural Maya village in Sololá Department, Guatemala. Forty-one interviews were conducted among a community-based convenience sample of adult men and women. Interviews focused on experiences, perceptions, and behaviors related to the local biomedical and ethnomedical health care resources. Penetrance of the local health post was high, with most (90%) of respondents having accessed it within the prior five years. The prevailing attitude toward the health post was positive. We identified facilitators and barriers to health post use that corresponded with three thematic areas: clinic operations, visits and consultations, and medical resources. Proximity to the home, free consultations and medications, and social support services were among the most commonly cited facilitators. Barriers included limited clinic hours, medication stock-outs, provision of care that did not meet patient expectations, and unavailability of diagnostic tests. In a rural Maya community in Guatemala, operational and quality-based factors, independent of sociocultural considerations, informed the perception of and decision to access biomedical resources. Interventions that address these factors may increase health care utilization and alleviate some of the health disparities that accompany indigeneity in Guatemala and similar contexts.

  5. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  6. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

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    Sonia Morales-Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. METHODS: Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. RESULTS: During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361% during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding

  7. El impacto de las remesas en Guatemala ¿Alivio a la pobreza o factor de desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Barre

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con su numerosa emigración hacia Estados Unidos, Guatemala hace parte los principales países receptores de remesas en América latina. Frente a este fenómeno, presente en toda Latinoamérica, políticos, académicos y organizaciones internacionales se han interesado en el impacto que tienen las remesas para el desarrollo de los países de la región. Este artículo estudia el caso de Guatemala y busca mostrar qué consecuencias económicas y sociales generan estas transferencias de dinero en la sociedad de Guatemala, país con significativos índices de emigración a los Estados Unidos. Para lograr tal objetivo, el presente artículo caracteriza los emigrantes guatemaltecos que envían remesas, estudia el perfil de los hogares receptores de las mimas, y la forma cómo estas son utilizadas. Posteriormente, se muestra que las remesas representan una ayuda significativa para los hogares más pobres, permitiéndoles aumentar el consumo de bienes de primera necesidad y tener acceso a educación y salud. A su vez se observa cuáles son los factores que permiten convertir las remesas en actividades productivas que contribuyen al desarrollo del país, pero también se advierte sobre las limitantes en el uso de estos recursos. Por último, se mostrará la posición del Estado guatemalteco frente a la emigración de sus ciudadanos, las remesas y las políticas públicas formuladas en relación a éstos dos fenómenos.

  8. The Violence After ‘‘La Violencia’’ in the Ch’orti’ Region of Eastern Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Brent; Mariano, Lorenzo; López García, Julián

    2010-01-01

    El oriente de Guatemala ha tenido una reputación por ser ladino, fuera de la ley y violento, y lo es en relación al occidente del país. En este artículo intentamos a subvertir la presunción que la gente del oriente sea inherentemente violento por examinar las condiciones históricas y estructurales que fomentan la posibilidad de actos violentos. Entre tales condiciones son tradiciones de racismo y subversión de la autoridad del estado, el genocidio de la guerra civil, la desinte...

  9. Regresando desde Xibalbá: Evolucion de las identificaciones en el periplo de los refugiados mayas de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This text describes and analyzes the dynamics of identities and social change among the mayan refugees in the period of the Guatemalan genocide. The analysis begins with violence in the original villages, describes the exile and refuge in Mexico and ends with the return and re-settlement in Guatemala of the refugees. Social and identity changes are studied in a polítical, spatial and symbolic perspective. Este texto describe y analiza las dinámicas del cambio social y de las identidades en...

  10. Ethnic Dimensions of Guatemala's Stalled Transition: A Parity-Specific Analysis of Ladino and Indigenous Fertility Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Sweeney, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    In some contemporary populations, fertility levels appear to plateau, with women maintaining a consistently high level of fertility for a relatively extended period. Because this plateau does not reflect the historical patterns observed in Europe, the focus of most studies on fertility patterns, mechanisms underlying the plateau and the reinstatement of a decline have not been fully explored and are not fully understood. Through the construction of fertility histories of 25,000 women using multiple years of health survey data, we analyze some of the components of stalled fertility as they pertain to Guatemala, the only Central American country to have experienced a stalled fertility decline.

  11. The role of ethnic and rural discrimination in the relationship between income inequality and health in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand in the ways in which income inequality can affect children's health (z-score of stunting) in Guatemala. We postulate that there are several transmission channels through which income inequality can affect health and that the children's ethnic and rural origins influence the size and direction of this effect. The methodology employed is systems of simultaneous equations (three-stage least squares and generalized method of moments). Our results highlight the importance of rural and indigenous characteristics in the relationship between income inequality and child health and indicate that the most important transmission channels are household income levels and maternal education.

  12. La bioética durante la era Obama : Los casos de Guatemala y Pakistán

    OpenAIRE

    López Baroni, Manuel Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Durante el mandato de Obama han coincidido dos sucesos distantes en el tiempo pero interrelacionados en su naturaleza. Por un lado, se descubrió que en los años cuarenta EEUU había estado realizando experimentos con enfermedades de transmisión sexual en Guatemala, de forma similar a como ya lo hiciera con población afroamericana en Tuskegee, Alabama. Por otro, la CIA organizó una falsa campaña de vacunación en Pakistán con niños para poder obtener el ADN de los hijos de Osam...

  13. El consumo de drogas y su tratamiento desde la perspectiva de familiares y amigos de consumidores: Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz C,Jorge Bolívar; Brands,Bruna; Adlaf,Edward; Giesbrecht,Norman; Simich,Laura; Wright,Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    Actualmente Guatemala cuenta con una población de 13.344.770 personas que tiene una elevada tasa de población migrante, tanto nacional como internacional. Relacionado con el abuso de drogas, el país presenta la más alta tasa de consumo de mariguana en Centroamérica, y el consumo de cocaína se reconoce como un serio problema, que afecta mayoritariamente a los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes (15-30 años). Este estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo, describe la perspectiva de familias y familiares s...

  14. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidaefrom Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceaein the semiarid region of Guatemala

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    Ricardo Marroquín M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas diseasein a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3.The insects were mainly found (52.4%in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X² =26.0,PEn Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3.Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X ²=26.0,p<0.00001,el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%. El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie.Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.

  15. Molecular Insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths from a Facility-Based Surveillance System in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Daniel E.; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A.; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Roellig, Dawn M.; Kahn, Geoffrey D.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the β-tubulin mutation described for benzimidazole resistance, suggesting potential usefulness in mass drug administration campaigns. PMID:22144459

  16. El consumo de drogas y su tratamiento desde la perspectiva de familiares y amigos de consumidores: Guatemala O consumo de drogas e seu tratamento sob a perspectiva de familiares e amigos de consumidores: Guatemala Drug consumption and treatment from a family and friends perspectives: Guatemala

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    Jorge Bolívar Díaz C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente Guatemala cuenta con una población de 13.344.770 personas que tiene una elevada tasa de población migrante, tanto nacional como internacional. Relacionado con el abuso de drogas, el país presenta la más alta tasa de consumo de mariguana en Centroamérica, y el consumo de cocaína se reconoce como un serio problema, que afecta mayoritariamente a los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes (15-30 años. Este estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo, describe la perspectiva de familias y familiares sobre los adictos a drogas ilícitas en Guatemala. La información recolectada proviene de personas referidas por la Línea de Crisis para drogas 1545. El estudio describe a la mariguana, seguida de cocaína y benzodiacepinas como las drogas de mayor consumo. Se detectó a la familia como el factor de protección más importante. Por otro lado, la respuesta de los servicios de salud es insuficiente; no existe en el país disponibilidad de iniciativas preventivas. Se recomienda realizar, en el futuro, otros estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos sobre este tema.Na Guatemala, a maioria das pessoas dependentes, afetadas pelo problema, é composta por multiusuários. A cocaína e maconha, seguidas por benzodiazepínicos, são as drogas de maior abuso. Este estudo quantitativo e qualitativo descreve a perspectiva das famílias e dos membros das famílias dos dependentes sobre o uso de drogas ilegais, em sete países latino-americanos. Dos respondentes, 46% entende que o consumo de droga é questão de decisão pessoal. Também reconhecem a família como o fator mais importante para a proteção. Os amigos que usam drogas e a pressão dos pares foram identificados como os principais fatores de risco. A população reconhece que a resposta dos serviços de saúde é insuficiente, não há disponibilidade de iniciativas preventivas e as abordagens existentes são consideradas inadequadas. Esses resultados ressaltam a necessidade de mais estudos para atualizar o

  17. Conocimiento de seis especies arbustivas utilizadas como plantas nodrizas en el occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En la restauración de ecosistemas, una técnica es utilizar arbustos de la sucesión como nodriza. En la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, se ha recurrido al menos a seis de ellos en el establecimiento de pino y pinabete: arrayán (Baccharis vaccinoides Kunth, salvia (Buddleia megalocephala Donn. Sm., mozote (Acaena elongata L., chicajol (Stevia polycephala Bertol, mora (Rubus trilobus Ser. y malacate (Symphoricarpos microphyllus Kunth. Se carece de la documentación de su comportamiento y características que puedan servir para utilizarlas ampliamente como plantas protectoras. En esta investigación se estudió características in situ y reproductivas de estas especies. Entre los principales resultados está que la altura de plantas es de 1.17 a 2.64 m y cobertura de 0.34 a 2.77 m2, con una amplia variación entre y dentro de especies. La cantidad de frutos/planta va desde 90 en S. microphyllus a 59,400 en B. vaccinioides. La propagación vegetativa en campo estuvo entre 48 a 92 %, mayor que cuando se realizó en vivero, donde B. vaccinoides, S. microphyllus y R. trilobus tuvieron mejor respuesta. La propagación por semilla muestra que las seis especies pueden reproducirse adecuadamente. Estos resultados permiten su reproducción en viveros para su uso en restauración ecológica.

  18. Intervención educativa en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus en Guatemala

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    José Manuel Contreras Tejeda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención comunitaria, con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos en pacientes diabéticos adultos mayores, pertenecientes al Departamento Alta Verapaz, Cobán, Guatemala; en el período comprendido desde junio de 2011 hasta junio de 2012. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por los pacientes diabéticos dispensarizados por el médico y la enfermera en el área periférica, conformándose la muestra con 46 de ellos, a los cuales se les evaluó el grado de conocimientos previo y posterior a la aplicación de la intervención para modificar estilos de vida, empleando para ello técnicas participativas. Para obtener la información se revisaron las historias clínicas individuales, se realizaron entrevistas y se aplicaron cuestionarios a los pacientes, antes y después de aplicadas las técnicas educativas. Los resultados fueron procesados por métodos estadísticos. En la muestra predominaron los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo II. Después de la intervención hubo un incremento en las respuestas correctas en un 63.04%, haciéndose más marcado a medida que aumenta el nivel de escolaridad y en los que tienen más de diez años de evolución de la enfermedad. El estado nutricional se mejoró en un 50%. Se logró un mejor control de las complicaciones crónicas, así como del control metabólico en un 78.26%. Las charlas educativas en la comunidad resultaron efectivas para la incorporación de elementos educativos que incidieron en el mejor autocuidado de los pacientes diabéticos

  19. Energy-related influences on variation in breastfeeding duration among indigenous Maya women from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra J; Collard, Mark; Altman, Rachel M; Sellen, Daniel; Nepomnaschy, Pablo A

    2017-04-01

    The causes of variation in breastfeeding duration in humans are poorly understood, but life history factors related to maternal energetics drive much of the variation in lactation duration in nonhuman animals. With this in mind, we investigated whether four energy-related factors influence variation in breastfeeding duration in a non-industrial human population: (1) mortality risk during mother's development (assessed via mother's adult height), (2) reliance on nutrient-dense weaning foods, (3) access to and need for help with infant feeding and care ("allomaternal care"), and (4) maternal tradeoffs between current and future reproduction (measured via child's birth order). The data pertain to 51 Kakchiquel-speaking Maya mothers and 283 children from a village in rural Guatemala. We developed a linear mixed model to evaluate the relationships between breastfeeding duration and the energy-related factors. Duration of breastfeeding was associated with two of the energy-related factors in the ways we predicted but not with the other two. Contrary to predictions, taller mothers breastfed for shorter periods and we found no evidence that weanling diet quality impacts breastfeeding duration. As predicted, women who had more help with infants breastfed for shorter periods, and later-born infants breastfed longer than earlier-born ones. The results regarding allomaternal care suggest that help reduces mothers' lactation demands. The energy saved may be redirected to increasing fecundity or investment in other children. The birth order result suggests that children born to mothers nearing reproductive senescence receive higher levels of investment, which likely impacts children's fitness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo'lin? Mapping children's respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Diaz, Anaite; Bruce, Nigel; Balmes, John

    2007-10-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under or over reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children's respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as nxwisen or ntzarrin, "breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest." The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale population surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of