WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcanoes academic press

  1. IDEAL: ACADEMIC PRESS JOURNALS ONLINE

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    All Academic Press journals are available online to CERN users for a test period which will last until the end of July. The service 'IDEALIBRARY' includes 174 scientific journals that cover several domains, ranging from engineering to mathematics, computing and physics. Titles covered are among others 'Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables', 'Nuclear Data Sheets', 'Annals of Physics', 'Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing'. Reference citations present in each article are linked to the corresponding full text, when the latter is published by a member of the CrossRef consortium (members are: Elsevier, APS, AIP and others). Therefore, the navigation between articles and references is uninterrupted. A search engine allows queries by author, title and publication year. See http://www.idealibrary.com. At present the Library is evaluating a site license offer proposed by the publisher.

  2. Academic integrity: "accepted," "in press," or unacceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushlin, Stuart B; Katz, Joel T

    2013-11-01

    In this issue, Grimm and Maxfield report the results of an analysis of the outcomes of manuscripts listed as "provisionally accepted," "accepted," "in press," and "submitted" on applications to a university radiology residency program. Their surprising finding that one-third of manuscripts listed as "accepted" or "in press" were not published two years after being included on an application raises questions about the reasons for these discrepancies.The authors of this commentary argue that one explanation for these findings is that some applicants deliberately misrepresented facts in order to be seen as more attractive candidates. After examining the professionalism implications of the study by Grimm and Maxfield, the authors offer recommendations for addressing lapses in students' professionalism early on. They recommend that medical school admissions and teaching faculty establish clear and unshakable expectations that untruths will not be tolerated regardless of the difficult administrative challenges that may ensue. Further, medical school admissions committees should select entrance criteria that reward collaborative behaviors and honesty in addition to academic achievement. The authors encourage more longitudinal, systematic analyses of potential fabrications in residency applications, with the goal of fostering a culture of trust in medicine.

  3. The small academic press in the land of giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Pinter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions, for example the merger of Macmillan Science and Education with Springer Science+Business Media, might suggest that large is the future for academic publishing.  It might seem that giant players will dominate the future of scholarly publishing, but, at the same time, this year has seen the launch of UCL Press, the University’s in-house publishing arm. Goldsmiths, University of London, has also announced it is preparing to launch Goldsmiths Press, a new university press built on digital-first publishing, especially around unconventional projects traditionally excluded by publishers. Some of the more established university presses also seem to be increasing their scope. For example, Stanford University Press launched a new trade imprint and Manchester University Press has announced it has acquired forward titles from Bloomsbury Publishing.  'Insights 'asked two experts if there really is scope for the small academic press in the modern scholarly publishing environment. Frances Pinter has provided the perspective of the small university press. She is realistic about the challenges small academic publishers face, but concludes that there is space and opportunity for them to coexist with the giants. Michael Magoulias is equally realistic about the challenges of small, but sees the university press as a necessary, not to say, vital, alternative to commercial publishing.

  4. Student Press Protected by Faculty Academic Freedom under Contract Law at Private Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John; Ciofalo, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Absent the constitutional rights enjoyed by the student press at state institutions of higher education, the administration at a private institution is legally free to control the content of its student press. Explores a theory that shifts the focus to academic freedom protected by contracts between faculty and institutions. (MLF)

  5. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more from a volcano. Before a Volcanic Eruption The following are things you can do to ... in case of an emergency. During a Volcanic Eruption Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and ...

  6. Psychometric Reevaluation of Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Samantha; Ball, Annahita; Wilks, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychometric details of the Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale (PPS), developed by Chicago Consortium of Chicago School Research, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the properties of this 7-item measure. Method: The study utilized cross-sectional, self-reported data from 100…

  7. Volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the past thousand years,volcanoes have claimed more than 300,000 lives. Volcanology is ayoung and dangerous science that helps us against the power of the Earth itself.We live on a fiery planet. Nearly 2000 miles beneath our feet, the Earth's inner core reachestemperatures of 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Molten rock or magma, rises to the earth's surface. Acold, rigid crust fractured into some twenty plates. When magma breaks through crust it becomes

  8. Contrasting academic and lay press print coverage of the 2013-2016 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieh, Mark D.; Cho, Elim M.

    2017-01-01

    Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance. However, no media analysis had yet been performed on the 2013–2016 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak. This study compared the EVD information relayed by lay press sources with general review articles in the academic literature through a mixed-methods analysis. These findings suggest that comprehensive review articles could not serve as a source to clarify and contextualize the uncertainties around the EVD outbreak, perhaps due to adherence to technical accuracy at the expense of clarity within the context of outbreak conditions. This finding does not imply inferiority of the academic literature, nor does it draw direct causation between confusion in review articles and public misunderstanding. Given the erosion of the barriers siloing academia, combined with the demands of today’s fast-paced media environment, contemporary researchers should realize that no study is outside the public forum and to therefore consider shifting the paradigm to take personal responsibility in the process of accurately translating their scientific words into public policy actions to best serve as a source of clarity. PMID:28640889

  9. Does the Press Ganey Survey Correlate to Online Health Grades for a Major Academic Otolaryngology Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy; Specht, Jessica; Smith, Sarah; DelGaudio, John M

    2016-09-01

    Analyze the correlation between online-based review websites and the Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey (PGPSS) in an academic otolaryngology department. Retrospective cross sectional. Tertiary academic institution. All available data were collected for Vitals.com and Healthgrades.com, along with PGPSS data for 16 otolaryngology attending physicians from 2012 to 2014. A mean rating was calculated for each topic category for online websites and compared with 7 PGPSS content questions using zero-order correlations. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the PGPSS and online scores. There were no statistically significant correlations between time spent with the patient (r = 0.391, P = .208) and overall provider scores (r = 0.193, P = .508) when compared between Vitals.com and the PGPSS. The correlations were not statistically significant when Healthgrades.com was compared with the PGPSS in the items "probability of recommending the provider" (r = -0.122, P = .666) and "trust in provider" (r = -0.025, P = .929). The most important factors in a patient recommending the provider were as follows, per resource: time spent with the patient for Vitals.com (r = 0.685, P = .014), listening for Healthgrades.com (r = 0.981, P ≤ .001), and trust in the provider for the PGPSS (r = 0.971, P ≤ .001). This study suggests that online-based reviews do not have statistically significant correlations with the widely used PGPSS and may not be an accurate source of information for patients. Patients should have access to the most reliable and least biased surveys available to the public to allow for better-informed decisions regarding their health care. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  10. Visual Persuasion: A Comparison of Visuals in Academic Texts and the Popular Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Visual elements in articles in "Science" and "Newsweek" magazines are analyzed and compared using linguistic concepts of interpersonal, ideational, and textual meta-functions. Relationships between text and visual, between gloss and visual, and among the visuals themselves are examined. Visuals in academic text are mainly…

  11. 亚东图书馆与学界名人%The Yadong Press and Academic Celebrities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段金萍

    2012-01-01

    亚东图书馆是民国时期的一家中小出版机构,在中国近代新兴出版业中具有重要地位,许多名人学者都与其有着密切的合作关系。文章通过阐述亚东图书馆与陈独秀、胡适、章士钊等名人学者的交往,分析出版界与名人学者之间的互动关系。%The Yadong press is a small press in the period of Republic of China, but it plays an important role in the emerging publishing industry because famous scholars have close connection and cooperation with it. The author deliberates on the intercourse between the Yadong press and celebrities like Chen Du-xiu, Hu Shi, Zhang Shi-zhao and analyzes the interaction between scholars and the publishing industry.

  12. Volcano Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You might feel better to learn that an ‘active’ volcano is one that has erupted in the past ... miles away. If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, following these tips will help you ...

  13. Steinar Imsen (ed., The Norwegian Dominion and the Norse World c. 1100-c1400 & Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages (Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press, 2010 & 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bakker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Steinar Imsen (ed., The Norwegian Dominion and the Norse World c. 1100-c1400 and Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages (Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press, 2010 & 2011

  14. Vanishing Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树仁

    1995-01-01

    Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano,is sinking into the Pacific Ocean——and it’s taking the main island of Hawaii with it! The problem:The mighty volcano has gained too much weight, says Peter Lipman of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  15. Dante's volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  16. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  17. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  18. Remote Sensing of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Rothery, David

    The synoptic coverage offered by satellites provides unparalleled opportunities for monitoring active volcanoes, and opens new avenues of scientific inquiry. Thermal infrared radiation can be used to monitor levels of activity, which is useful for automated eruption detection and for studying the emplacement of lava flows. Satellite radars can observe volcanoes through clouds or at night, and provide high-resolution topographic data. In favorable conditions, radar inteferometery can be used to measure ground deformation associated with eruptive activity on a centimetric scale. Clouds from explosive eruptions present a pressing hazard to aviation; therefore, techniques are being developed to assess eruption cloud height and to discriminate between ash and meterological clouds. The multitude of sensors to be launched on future generations of space platforms promises to greatly enhance volcanological studies, but a satellite dedicated to volcanology is needed to meet requirements of aviation safety and volcano monitoring.

  19. Santorini Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  20. The Present Situation, Problems and Countermeasures of Social Sciences Academic Press in the Digital Transformation%社会科学文献出版社数字化转型现状、问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰珊

    2016-01-01

    本文基于社会科学文献出版社在数字出版领域,尤其是在智库平台建设方面取得的成就,以皮书数据库为例,主要介绍了社会科学文献出版社数字化转型的现状,着重分析了它在数字出版过程中遇到的问题及挑战,结合国外优秀的出版经验,提出了一系列针对数字出版人才培养、盈利模式、数字版权保护方面的创新策略,以期能够为其他出版社更好更快地进行数字化转型提供一些参考意见。%The age of academic publishing has set in. Based on the great achievements Social Sciences Academic Press has achieved in the digital published field, especially in the construction of think-tank platform, taking the “pishu”database as an example, this paper introduces current situation of the press and emphatically analyzes those problems and the challenges the press has encountered in digital published process. Combining the foreign excellent publishing experi-ence, it proposes a series of innovative strategies in the digital publishing talents, the profit pattern, and the digital copyright protection, in order to provide a few more ideas for the other publishing houses.

  1. Hizb ut-Tahrir in the press II: Exploring differences between academic discourses and editorial choices in Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Volf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes academic discourses on Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (HT in various disciplines, provides an overview of media frames applied to HT in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers, and examines the differences between the conclusions of scholars and mass media representations of HT. The introductory section of the paper briefly presents a group of selected authors and texts, illustrates the importance of drawing parallels between academic and journalistic discourses on HT, and explains the choice of the countries used in the study. The methodological section specifies the questions, sources and methods of research. Finally, there is a detailed presentation and discussion of the findings, followed by a summary of the conclusions.

  2. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  3. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  4. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  5. 读书与大学阶段的专业学习--基于新闻传播学专业的思考%Reading and Academic Pursuit in University---A Reflection Based on Press and Communications Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积玉

    2015-01-01

    The basic task in the undergraduate stages is professional learning, which means learning and mastering the fundamental theory, knowledge and capability. Different from the learning style in the middle school, class is just one of channels to gain the knowledge in the undergraduate stage, especially in the graduate or the PhD stage, the attentively reading, thinking and writing has become the basic and more important methods. In the undergraduate and graduate stages, the reading scale cannot just limit in the textbook. It must combine with major direction and research orientation, try to expand the reading scale, widely reading the representative book, dissertation in the major. The reading in the undergraduate and graduate stage should revolve around the course study as well as around the course research and academic writing. The Reading should be hard, pay attention to the method, thinking, self-cultivated, suspicious and critical. Meanwhile, reading should value the professional practice, focus on the reform and development in our country'press and communication industries, actively engage in and response for the basic work in the press and communication industries, research and writing the professional theory and practical issues. Academic norms should be strictly observed, and integrity and honesty should be advocated, voluntarily practice the academic research regulation.%大学阶段最基本的任务是专业学习,即要学习、掌握本专业的基本理论、基本知识和基本能力。与中学学习方式大不相同,大学阶段尤其是硕士、博士阶段,课堂仅是学习获取知识的途径之一,而静静地坐在教室或图书馆里读书、思考、写作成为基本的更为重要的方式。在大学和研究生阶段,读书的范围决不应局限于教科书。必须结合自己的专业兴趣和研究方向,努力扩大阅读范围,广泛涉猎本专业领域里具有代表性的专著、论文。大学生、研究

  6. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  7. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  8. Foci of Volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, I.

    1974-01-01

    One may assume a center of volcanic activities beneath the edifice of an active volcano, which is here called the focus of the volcano. Sometimes it may be a ''magma reservoir''. Its depth may differ with types of magma and change with time. In this paper, foci of volcanoes are discussed from the viewpoints of four items: (1) Geomagnetic changes related with volcanic activities; (2) Crustal deformations related with volcanic activities; (3) Magma transfer through volcanoes; and (4) Subsurface structure of calderas.

  9. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  10. The Global University Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  11. Chronology, Eruption Duration, and Atmospheric Contribution of the Martian Volcano Apollinaris Patera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Wu, S.S.C.; Ablin, K.K.; Howington-Kraus, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Geologic mapping, thermal inertia measurements, and an analysis of the color (visual wavelengths) of the martian volcano Apollinaris Patera indicate the existence of two different surface materials, comprising an early, easily eroded edifice, and a more recent, competent fan on the southern flank. A chronology of six major events that is consistent with the present morphology of the volcano has been identified. We propose that large scale explosive activity occurred during the formation of the main edifice and that the distinctive fan on the southern flank appears to have been formed by lavas of low eruptive rate similar to those that form compound pahoehoe flow fields on Earth. A basal escarpment typically 500 m in relief and morphologically similar to the one surrounding Olympus Mons was produced between the formation of the main edifice and the fan, indicating multistage eruptions over a protracted period of time. Contact relations between the volcanic units and the adjacent chaotic material indicate that formation of the chaotic material occurred over an extended period of time and may be related to the volcanic activity that formed Apollinaris Patera. Stereophotogrammetric measurements permit the volume of the volcano to be estimated at 105 km3. From this volume measurement and an inferred eruption rate (1.5 ?? 10-2 km3 yr-1) we estimate the total eruption duration for the main edifice to be ???107 yrs. Plausible estimates of the exsolved volatile content of the parent magma imply that greater than 1015 kg of water vapor was released into the atmosphere as a consequence of this activity. This large amount of water vapor as well as other exsolved gases must have had a significant impact on local, and possibly global, climatic conditions. ?? 1993 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  12. New Realities for Scholarly Presses in Trying Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, David

    2014-01-01

    The author explains that Parlor Press is an independent publisher and distributor of scholarly and trade books in print and digital formats. It was founded in 2002 to address the need for an alternative scholarly, academic press attentive to emergent ideas and forms while maintaining the highest possible standards of quality, credibility, and…

  13. Volcanoes - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  14. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  15. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  16. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  18. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  19. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  20. Design of jigs, fixtures and press tools

    CERN Document Server

    Venkataraman, K

    2015-01-01

    Textbook presenting the fundamentals of tool design with special focus on jigs, fixtures and die design Covers sections on sheet metal forming processes; turning, grinding, broaching, welding and modular fixtures; principles of clamping; and an Introduction to Presses and Auxiliary Equipment Author has many years' experience in both academic and industrial environments, and presents this work in an easily-accessible style End of chapter questions and answers assist the learning process for both practicing tooling designers and engineers, and manufacturing en

  1. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  2. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  3. Volcano-rift interaction on Venus: initial results from the Beta-Atla-Themis region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, I.; Martin-Gonzalez, F.; Marquez, A.; de Pablo, M. A.; Carreno, F.

    . Academic Press. - Crumpler, L.S., J.W. Head and J.C. Aubele (1993). Relation of mayor volcanic center concentration on Venus to global tectonic patterns. Science, 261, p.591-595. - Head, J.W., L.S. Crumpler, J.C. Aubele, J.E. Guest and R.S. Saunders (1992). Venus volcanism: Classification of volcanic features and structures, associations, and global 1 distribution from Magellan data. J. Geophys. Res., 97, p.13153-13197. - Solomon S.C., S.E. Smrekar, D.L. Bindschadler, R.E. Grimm, W.M. Kaula, G.E. McGill, R.J. Phillips, R.S. Saunders, G. Schubert, S.W, Squyres and E.R. Stofan (1992). Venus tectonics: An overview of Magellan observations. J. Geophys. Res., 97, p.13199-13255. 2

  4. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  5. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “W

  6. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  7. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  8. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  9. bbPress complete

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A concise guide, written in an easy-to-follow format.This book is aimed at ambitious website or blog owners looking to add a forum to their site quickly and easily. Basic experience in WordPress and with managing a website is expected. Knowledge of HTML and PHP will be a bonus, though it isn't necessary.

  10. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  11. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  12. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  13. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  14. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  15. 4D volcano gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  16. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  17. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  18. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. ISS Expedition 02 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 02 from 03/2001-08/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  1. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  9. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 35 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 35 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. ISS Expedition 20 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 20 from 05/2009-10/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  14. ISS Expedition 30 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 30 from 11/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  17. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  18. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 32 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 32 from 05/2012-09/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  1. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 17 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 17 from 04/2008-10/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 26 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 26 from 10/2010-05/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 40 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 40 from 03/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 31 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 31 from 12/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 18 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 18 from 10/2008-04/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. Press rate card: Paralympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This catalogue provides a general overview of the press rate card programme, in an effort to make it as user-friendly as possible for the accredited written and photographic press and non-rights-holding broadcasters.

  9. ISS Expedition 25 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 25 from 06/2010-03/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 27 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 27 from 12/2010-09/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  13. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  14. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  15. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  16. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  17. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  18. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3,053-meter-high, ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano in the southwestern Cook Inlet region about 225 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 100 kilometers northwest of Homer. Historical eruptions of Iliamna Volcano have not been positively documented; however, the volcano regularly emits steam and gas, and small, shallow earthquakes are often detected beneath the summit area. The most recent eruptions of the volcano occurred about 300 years ago, and possibly as recently as 90-140 years ago. Prehistoric eruptions have generated plumes of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. Rock avalanches from the summit area have occurred numerous times in the past. These avalanches flowed several kilometers down the flanks and at least two large avalanches transformed to cohesive lahars. The number and distribution of known volcanic ash deposits from Iliamna Volcano indicate that volcanic ash clouds from prehistoric eruptions were significantly less voluminous and probably less common relative to ash clouds generated by eruptions of other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Plumes of volcanic ash from Iliamna Volcano would be a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International Airport and other local airports, and depending on wind direction, could drift at least as far as the Kenai Peninsula and beyond. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Because Iliamna Volcano has not erupted for several hundred years, a future eruption could involve significant amounts of ice and snow that could lead to the formation of large lahars and downstream flooding. The greatest hazards in order of importance are described below and shown on plate 1.

  19. Elementary analysis of data from Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-ming; ZHANG Heng-rong; KONG Qing-jun; WU Cheng-zhi; GUO Feng; ZHANG Chao-fan

    2004-01-01

    Tianchi Volcano is the largest potential erupticve volcano in China. Analyzing these data on seismic monitoring, deformation observation and water chemistry investigation gained from the Tianchi Volcano Observatory (TVO), the authors consider that the Tianchi Volcano is in going into a new flourishing time.

  20. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  1. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  2. Repetitious-Hot-Pressing Technique in Hot-Pressing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixue SONG; Xing AI; Wei GAO; Jun ZHAO

    2003-01-01

    A new pressing method was proposed for hot-pressing process. Experimental results indicated that the porosity in Al2O3/TiC/Ni/Mo (hereafter called Al2O3/TiC composite) composite compacts decreases by 6% after adopting this new technique,compared to traditional hot-pressing technique under the same sintering temperature. The flexural strength and Vickerhardness increase from 883 MPa to 980 MPa and from 16 GPa to 21.1 GPa, respectively. A theoretical model was given toanalyze the densification mechanism of the composite in the process of repetitious-hot-pressing.

  3. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  4. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  5. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  6. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  7. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  8. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  9. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  10. USGS Volcano Notification Service (VNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides a subscription service to receive an email when changes occur in the activity levels for monitored U.S. volcanoes and/or when information releases...

  11. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  12. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  13. Indre spenninger og ytre press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af bogen 'Norsk idrett. Indre spenninger og ytre press' redigeret af Dag Vidar Hanstad, Gunnar Breivik, Mari Kristin Sisjord og Hans B. Skaset og udgivet af forlaet akilles.......Anmeldelse af bogen 'Norsk idrett. Indre spenninger og ytre press' redigeret af Dag Vidar Hanstad, Gunnar Breivik, Mari Kristin Sisjord og Hans B. Skaset og udgivet af forlaet akilles....

  14. The CIA and the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Bernardo A.

    The involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with both United States and foreign news media has been recorded in numerous publications. This report reviews the important aspects of the CIA-press relationships as they have appeared in print and discusses the implications of these relationsihps for the credibility of the press. Media…

  15. Warpage of rubber pressed composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; van de Ven, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The rubber pressing process is applied for the rapid production of thermoplastic composite products. However, rubber pressed products show geometrical distortions, such as warpage, due to process-induced residual stresses. It is believed that these stresses build up as a result of the large thermal

  16. BuddyPress theme development

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on tutorial guide to using BuddyPress.This book is great for designers and developers who are looking to learn how to develop BuddyPress themes. It's assumed that the reader has some understanding of Wordpress and is familiar with CSS and HTML.

  17. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  18. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  19. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  20. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided.

  1. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  2. Mount Rainier: A decade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Samora, Barbara A.

    Mount Rainier, the highest (4392 m) volcano in the Cascade Range, towers over a population of more than 2.5 million in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, and its drainage system via the Columbia River potentially affects another 500,000 residents of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon (Figure 1). Mount Rainier is the most hazardous volcano in the Cascades in terms of its potential for magma-water interaction and sector collapse. Major eruptions, or debris flows even without eruption, pose significant dangers and economic threats to the region. Despite such hazard and risk, Mount Rainier has received little study; such important topics as its petrologic and geochemical character, its proximal eruptive history, its susceptibility to major edifice failure, and its development over time have been barely investigated. This situation may soon change because of Mount Rainier's recent designation as a “Decade Volcano.”

  3. The Press Research Centre, 1956-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press Research Centre, Krakow (Poland).

    In 1956, the Press Research Centre was established in Cracow, Poland by a group of journalists and publishers, for the purpose of instituting press research that would have practical applications. The aims of the Centre were to conduct studies on the history of the Polish press, the contemporary press, press readership, and editorial techniques.…

  4. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration - Phase I Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, William L. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Petty, Susan [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Cladouhos, Trenton T. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Iovenitti, Joe [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nofziger, Laura [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Callahan, Owen [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Perry, Douglas S. [Davenport Newberry Holdings LLC, Stamford, CT (United States); Stern, Paul L. [PLS Environmental, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-10-23

    Phase I of the Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration included permitting, community outreach, seismic hazards analysis, initial microseismic array deployment and calibration, final MSA design, site characterization, and stimulation planning. The multi-disciplinary Phase I site characterization supports stimulation planning and regulatory permitting, as well as addressing public concerns including water usage and induced seismicity. A review of the project's water usage plan by an independent hydrology consultant found no expected impacts to local stakeholders, and recommended additional monitoring procedures. The IEA Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems was applied to assess site conditions, properly inform stakeholders, and develop a comprehensive mitigation plan. Analysis of precision LiDAR elevation maps has concluded that there is no evidence of recent faulting near the target well. A borehole televiewer image log of the well bore revealed over three hundred fractures and predicted stress orientations. No natural, background seismicity has been identified in a review of historic data, or in more than seven months of seismic data recorded on an array of seven seismometers operating around the target well. A seismic hazards and induced seismicity risk assessment by an independent consultant concluded that the Demonstration would contribute no additional risk to residents of the nearest town of La Pine, Oregon. In Phase II of the demonstration, an existing deep hot well, NWG 55-29, will be stimulated using hydroshearing techniques to create an EGS reservoir. The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is allowing geothermal industry and academic experts to develop, validate and enhance geoscience and engineering techniques, and other procedures essential to the expansion of EGS throughout the country. Successful development will demonstrate to the American public that EGS can play a significant role

  5. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  6. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  7. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  8. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  9. Student Academic Optimism: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Bankole, Regina A.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Moore, Dennis M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to add to the literature on Academic Optimism, a composite measure composed of teacher perceptions of trust in students, academic press, and collective efficacy by exploring a similar set of constructs from the student perceptive. The relationships between student trust in teachers, student perceptions of academic…

  10. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. (Univ. of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  11. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  12. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  13. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  14. Local and international press digest

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The following are the top stories in the Maltese and the international press today. The Times gives prominence to the Prime Minister's flying visit to Geneva yesterday, where he signed a research cooperation agreement with CERN, the European nuclear research organisation.

  15. Law and the Student Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  16. A new approach to determine press stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure is proposed for measuring press stiffness, including separated horizontal and vertical loading of the press frame. The load can be eccentrically positioned for measuring rotational stiffnesses. Two loading devices and corresponding measuring equipment for registration of press...... deflections are designed. The press stiffness is presented as a 6 by 6 flexibility matrix. The approach has been tested by measuring the stiffness of a 5000 kN O-frame, ring element, hydraulic press, a 10000 kN O-frame, pillar element, hydraulic press and a 10000 kN O-frame, ring element mechanical press...

  17. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  18. Dead Academics: What Can We Learn about Academic Work and Life from Obituaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the obituaries of 100 academics published in the British quality press in 2007 to see what they tell us about the changing nature of contemporary academic work, and how it is presented in this particular genre of writing. It concludes that the influence of Oxbridge and the American higher education system, and the dominance…

  19. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  20. Modeling eruptions of Karymsky volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerov, A.; Ispolatov, I.; Lees, J.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain temporal patterns of activity in a class of periodically exploding Strombolian-type volcanos. These patterns include major events (explosions) which follow each other every 10-30 minutes and subsequent tremor with a typical period of 1 second. This two-periodic activity is thought to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of accumulation of the elastic energy in the moving magma column: compressibility of the magma in the lower conduit and viscoelastic response of...

  1. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  2. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  3. Campgrounds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides campground locations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Information about facilities, water availability, permit requirements and type of...

  4. Research on Methods for Building Volcano Disaster Information System--taking Changbai Mountain as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuexia; BO Liqun; LU Xingchang

    2001-01-01

    Volcano eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters in the world. There are volcanoes in every territory on the earth, about a thousand in China, among which Changbai Mountain Volcano, Wudalianchi Volcano and Tengchong Volcano are the most latent catastrophic eruptive active volcanoes. The paper, following an instance of Changbai Mountain Volcano, expounds that monitoring, forecasting and estimating volcano disaster by building Volcano Disaster Information System (VDIS) is feasible to alleviate volcano disaster.

  5. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  6. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress, from the world's most popular resource for web designers and developers As one of the hottest tools on the web today for creating a blog, WordPress has evolved to be much more that just a blogging platform and has been pushed beyond its original purpose. With this new edition of a perennially popular WordPress resource, Smashing Magazine offers you the information you need so you can maximize the potential and power of WordPress. WordPress expert Thord Daniel Hedengren takes you beyond the basic blog to show you how to leverage the capabilities of WordPress to

  7. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  8. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  9. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  10. Prediction of Pressing Quality for Press-Fit Assembly Based on Press-Fit Curve and Maximum Press-Mounting Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict pressing quality of precision press-fit assembly, press-fit curves and maximum press-mounting force of press-fit assemblies were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA. The analysis was based on a 3D Solidworks model using the real dimensions of the microparts and the subsequent FEA model that was built using ANSYS Workbench. The press-fit process could thus be simulated on the basis of static structure analysis. To verify the FEA results, experiments were carried out using a press-mounting apparatus. The results show that the press-fit curves obtained by FEA agree closely with the curves obtained using the experimental method. In addition, the maximum press-mounting force calculated by FEA agrees with that obtained by the experimental method, with the maximum deviation being 4.6%, a value that can be tolerated. The comparison shows that the press-fit curve and max press-mounting force calculated by FEA can be used for predicting the pressing quality during precision press-fit assembly.

  11. Academic Jibberish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  12. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  13. Predictability of Volcano Eruption: lessons from a basaltic effusive volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, J R

    2003-01-01

    Volcano eruption forecast remains a challenging and controversial problem despite the fact that data from volcano monitoring significantly increased in quantity and quality during the last decades.This study uses pattern recognition techniques to quantify the predictability of the 15 Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) eruptions in the 1988-2001 period using increase of the daily seismicity rate as a precursor. Lead time of this prediction is a few days to weeks. Using the daily seismicity rate, we formulate a simple prediction rule, use it for retrospective prediction of the 15 eruptions,and test the prediction quality with error diagrams. The best prediction performance corresponds to averaging the daily seismicity rate over 5 days and issuing a prediction alarm for 5 days. 65% of the eruptions are predicted for an alarm duration less than 20% of the time considered. Even though this result is concomitant of a large number of false alarms, it is obtained with a crude counting of daily events that are available fro...

  14. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  15. WordPress Website Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lassila, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to develop a WordPress mobile-first style website for the customer, Pohjois-Suomen Pesis. The main purpose of the development was to learn website designing principles and create a responsive website for the mobile and desktop platforms. The development process began defining the requirements of the website and creating the requirements document. Then next step was learning how to design a website layout and to choose the colour scheme for the site. T...

  16. 7 CFR 58.421 - Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press. 58.421 Section 58.421 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.421 Press. The cheese press should be constructed of stainless steel and all joints welded and all surfaces, seams...

  17. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  18. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  19. Yale University Press: Disseminating "Lux et Veritas"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, John B.

    2010-01-01

    America's university presses are situated within a network of over one hundred universities, learned societies, and scholarly associations. According to a pamphlet put out by the American Association of University Presses, these presses "make available to the broader public the full range and value of research generated by university faculty."…

  20. The Small Book Press: A Cultural Essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bill

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of small literary book publishers notes works of small-press authors (Thomas Paine, Washington Irving, Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, Upton Sinclair, Anais Nin); today's outstanding presses (Creative Arts Book Company, Persea Books, Full Court Press, Reed and Cannon Company, Tuumba Books); and role of little magazines. Thirty-seven…

  1. Professional WordPress design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Stern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    The highest rated WordPress development and design book on the market is back with an all new third edition. Professional WordPress is the only WordPress book targeted to developers, with advanced content that exploits the full functionality of the most popular CMS in the world. Fully updated to align with WordPress 4.1, this edition has updated examples with all new screenshots, and full exploration of additional tasks made possible by the latest tools and features. You will gain insight into real projects that currently use WordPress as an application framework, as well as the basic usage a

  2. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  3. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPACTING PRESSURE AND CONDITIONS IN PRESSING CHAMBER DURING BIOMASS PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conditions in pressing chambers during the pressing of wooden briquettes. The conditions in pressing chambers can significantly impact the resulting compacting pressure required for the pressing of briquettes. In the introduction, we show which parameters of the pressing chamber during pressing can impact the resulting compacting pressure. The experiment results which are shown in this paper described the detected impact of some important pressing chamber parameters. This experiment aims to detect the pressing chamber length impact and the impact of the way of pressing. By setting the pressing conditions, we will be able to achieve the suitable resulting compacting pressure with respect to the required final briquettes quality.

  5. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  6. Redoubt Volcano: 2009 Eruption Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a 3110-m glaciated stratovolcano located 170 km SW of Anchorage, Alaska, on the W side of Cook Inlet. The edifice comprises a oil production in Cook Inlet was halted for nearly five months. Unrest began in August, 2008 with reports of H2S odor. In late September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)’s seismic network recorded periods of volcanic tremor. Throughout the fall, AVO noted increased fumarolic emissions and accompanying ice- and snow-melt on and around the 1990 dome, and gas measurements showed elevated H2S and CO2 emissions. On January 23, seismometers recorded 48 hrs of intermittent tremor and discrete, low-frequency to hybrid events. Over the next 6 weeks, seismicity waxed and waned, an estimated 5-6 million m3 of ice were lost due to melting, volcanic gas emissions increased, and debris flows emerged repeatedly from recently formed ice holes near the 1990 dome, located on the crater’s N (“Drift”) side. On March 15, a phreatic explosion deposited non-juvenile ash from a new vent in the summit ice cap just S of the 1990 dome. Ash from the explosion rose to ~4500 m above sea level (asl). The plume was accompanied by weak seismicity. The first magmatic explosion occurred on March 22. Over the next two weeks, more than 19 explosions destroyed at least two lava domes and produced ash plumes that reached 6-18 km asl. Tephra was deposited along variable azimuths including trace to minor amounts on Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula communities, and reached Fairbanks, ~800 km to the N. Several lahars were produced by explosive disruption and melting of the “Drift” glacier. The largest lahars followed explosions on March 23 and April 4 and inundated the Drift River valley to the coast, causing temporary evacuation of the Drift River Oil Terminal, ~40 km from the vent. Time-lapse images captured pyroclastic flows and lahars in the “Drift” glacier valley during several of the explosions. Ballistics and pyroclastic flow deposits were

  7. [The press and family planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.

  8. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  9. Community Satisfaction of Sundanese Language Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parulian Sitompul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s could be called the golden age of Sunda press. At the present time the press Sunda suffered a setback in a various of activities. While in the middle of advancements in printing and layout technology, Sundanese language press is currently lagging far behind the national press. The research problem is how people's satisfaction to Sundanese language press. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the motive, knowledge, and community satisfaction of the Sundanese language press. Method used is descriptive quantitative. Sample of 50 respondents which is 10% of the entire community reading Sundanese language press in the two districts of Bogor City. The results showed that the communitiy's motivation to read the Sundanese language press because of the Sundanese language used, and used by all members of the family. In addition, community already knows the function of the Sundanese language press. Eventhough it has not met their expectations, but the people are satisfied with the existence of Sundanese language press that they read.

  10. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  11. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  12. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Osvaldo; Mineo, Teresa; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energ...

  13. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  14. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  15. Determination of 6 stiffnesses for a press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    2000-01-01

    the workpiece will result in deflections of the press, which will decrease the tolerances of the component. At present, it is possible to measure the reaction forces from the workpiece, for instance by use of the model material technique as described in [1-2]. If the stiffness and clearances of the press...... is known too, the final dimensions can be predicted by divide the force by the stiffness and add the clearance. If the stiffness of the press is known, it is possible to optimize the orientation of the workpiece too, so the direction, in which the best tolerances is demanded, is equal to the direction...... in which the press has the highest stiffness. Furthermore, knowledge about the stiffnesses of all presses in a production system makes it possible to choose the press which best fit to a specific process....

  16. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

  17. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  18. WordPress 3.7 complete

    CERN Document Server

    Król, Karol

    2013-01-01

    WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition is a comprehensive and step-by-step tutorial packed with screenshots and examples to make it easy and quick to pick it up.This WordPress book is a guide to WordPress for online publishers and web developers. If you are new to blogging and want to create your own blog or website from scratch, then ""WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition"" is for you. No prior knowledge of HTML/CSS or PHP is required.

  19. Activation of Selected Core Muscles during Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Nesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two ground-based lifts: overhead press and push-press. Surface EMG was recorded from 4 muscles on the right side of the body (Rectus Abdominus (RA, External Oblique (EO, Transverse Abdominus (TA, and Erector Spinae (ES. Results: Paired sample T-tests identified significant muscle activation differences between the overhead press and the push-press included ES and EO. Average and peak EMG for ES was significantly greater in push-press (P<0.01. Anterior displacement of COP was significantly greater in push-press compared to overhead press during the eccentric phase. Conclusion: The push-press was identified as superior in core muscle activation when compared to the overhead pressing exercise. Keywords: torso, stability, weight lifting, resistance training

  20. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  1. Towards a more responsible press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur ul Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Pakistan’s newspapers’ performance with regard to civil society in2003 by using content analysis approach. There is no gainsaying that a strong civil society guaranteesa strong democracy. In Pakistan, spells of military rule have stunted the growth of democracy,adversely affecting civil society. Media too has suffered as a result. Normative theories of media callfor laying down norms and conventions for media. In democracy, all sections of society should berepresented in media. In Pakistan’s case, due to military regimes and quasi democratic governments,combined with the demands of market economy, the media have largely not been able to fulfill thisresponsibility towards society. Social Responsibility demands that the media must fulfill itsresponsibility towards society, while giving a free space to all voices of society. In Pakistan, whethernewspapers played that role in 2003 when civil society had accelerated its campaign to end honorkillings and crimes against women is investigated. The findings show that newspapers did supportcivil society, showing a gradual movement towards a more responsible press.

  2. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  3. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  4. The seismicity of Marapi volcano, West Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    Marapi is one of the active volcanoes in West Sumatra. It is a stratovolcano with an edifice that is elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. Its elevation is about 2,900 m a.s.l. The summit area is characterized by a caldera that contains some active craters aligned along the ENE-WSW direction. The Marapi volcano is an attractive region for tourists and hosts many small communities its surrounding areas. The recent history of Mt. Marapi is characterized by explosive activity at the summit craters. No lava flows have passed the rim of the summit caldera in recent times. The last eruption occurred on August 5, 2004, and consisted of moderate explosive activity from the central crater. In 1975 an eruption with magmatic and phreatic explosive phases and mudflows and lahars occurred that caused fatalities in the surrounding areas. Since 1980 other eruptions have occurred at Marapi volcano. Even if the explosive intensities of those eruptions have been small to moderate, in some cases, there were fatalities. A cooperation project started between Italy and Indonesia (COVIN) for the monitoring of volcanoes in West Sumatra. In the context of this project a monitoring centre has been set up at the Bukittinggi Observatory and a seismological monitoring system for Marapi volcano has been realized. This system is based on a broadband seismic network including 4 three-component stations. The data acquired by the broadband network of Marapi volcano are continuous recordings of the seismic signals starting from 19/10/2006. Volcano-Tectonic and Long Period events of Marapi volcano together with regional and teleseismic earthquakes are recorded. Several events of high magnitude located at short distances from the network were also recorded such as on March 6, 2007, when two events of Magnitudes Mw 6.4 and 6.3 were recorded with the epicentres near the Marapi volcano. During the following days, there was a sequence of hundreds of aftershocks. The preliminary analysis of the seismicity of

  5. In the Stocks: Perilous Press Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Linda P.; Loving, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Reviews some of the legal responsibilities of public relations practitioners in the preparation of press releases. Discusses legal criteria for judging the fraudulence of press releases and discusses the timeframe for fraudulent action. Concludes with lessons that practitioners need to understand. (SR)

  6. Evaluating the aluminum content of pressed dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkijan, V.

    2002-02-01

    Pressing of skimmed hot drosses in a press is a very popular technology for cooling hot dross and obtaining the maximum in-house recovery of aluminum alloy. As a result of the pressing action, part of the molten aluminum alloy is squeezed out, while the rest of the free metal remains in the pressed skulls. Thus, pressed skulls are a valuable waste product, consisting of 30 70 wt.% free aluminum. Other constituents are aluminum oxide and oxides of alloying metals. Pressed skulls are generally valued on a free-metal recovery basis, which necessarily involves practical determination of their free aluminum content. Because most analytical methods are limited to the laboratory level and representative sub-samples, there is a practical interest in developing a routine, cost-effective, and non-destructive method to predict the free aluminum content in entire pressed skulls, based on their density. To develop such a method, a relation between the bulk density, porosity, and free aluminum content of pressed skulls was established. This article offers a review of those experiments and an analysis of their results.

  7. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Scores on performance avoidance and ... of academic rules and regulations, assessment practices, faculty, and university attended predicted .... Second, it identifies those factors that predict various ..... The higher the students' GPA, the lower.

  8. Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  9. Fiction and scientific communication about volcanoes for the young public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonach, H.; Drouin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Since January 2002, I have developed a new type of interactive web site for scientific news and communications about volcanic activities on the Earth and in our solar system. With the help of a small team (including an illustrator) based in GEOTOP at the University of Quebec in Montreal, I have created a monthly French language site on volcanoes including ongoing activity. Our multimedia site www.vickivolka.uqam.ca, combines open-style scientific news, including texts and pictures with scientific explanations. The originality lies in both the content and site structure. The monthly renewals inform the public on volcanic news but also on academic research and scientific experiments that young people can perform at home. We thus link breaking volcanic news with a deeper understanding of the processes and knowledge. Another original aspect is the use of fictional characters (Vicki and Anaky) who present the news and describe their adventures during the volcanic trips (volcanological, geographical, historic contents). Additional sections include interactive functions. Based on the success of this web site (published at the moment in French) - as evidenced notably by numerous primary school visits - we are planning to translate it in English very soon. This mixture of fiction with real world stories and scientific knowledge is an unusual effort by practising researchers and collaborators to strengthen links between the academic world and the general public, especially with children and educators.

  10. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  11. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  12. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  13. USGS U.S. Volcanoes with Elevated Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides list of elevated status volcanoes with access to activity updates and/or information releases for changes in activity at the volcanoes. activity at...

  14. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses. Progress report, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  15. WordPress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2013-01-01

    An extensive, practical guide that explains how to adapt WordPress features, both conventional and trending, for web applications.This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who have the desire to go beyond conventional website development to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Experienced web developers who are looking for a framework for rapid application development will also find this to be a useful resource. Prior knowledge with of WordPress is preferable as the main focus will be on explaining methods for adapting WordPres

  16. Teach yourself visually complete WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Take your WordPress skills to the next level with these tips, tricks, and tasks Congratulations on getting your blog up and running with WordPress! Now are you ready to take it to the next level? Teach Yourself VISUALLY Complete WordPress takes you beyond the blogging basics with expanded tips, tricks, and techniques with clear, step-by-step instructions accompanied by screen shots. This visual book shows you how to incorporate forums, use RSS, obtain and review analytics, work with tools like Google AdSense, and much more.Shows you how to use mobile tools to edit a

  17. WordPress 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2011-01-01

    The eagerly anticipated second edition, completely updated for WordPress 3.1 As an open source content management system, WordPress allows users to easily build feature-rich web sites with no programming experience. This unique book-and-video package is a friendly, self-paced beginners guide to the latest release of WordPress. Lessons are focused on practical, everyday tasks that users will need to create and maintain their sites: entering new content, creating new pages, managing menus, making content search-engine friendly. Plus you'll find lots of tips based on years of experience teaching

  18. Professional WordPress Plugin Development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Tadlock, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Taking WordPress to the next level with advanced plugin developmentWordPress is used to create self-hosted blogs and sites, and it's fast becoming the most popular content management system (CMS) on the Web. Now you can extend it for personal, corporate and enterprise use with advanced plugins and this professional development guide. Learn how to create plugins using the WordPress plugin API: utilize hooks, store custom settings, craft translation files, secure your plugins, set custom user roles, integrate widgets, work with JavaScript and AJAX, create custom post types. You'll find a practic

  19. WordPress web design for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Updated, full-color guide to creating dynamic websites with WordPress 3.6 In this updated new edition, bestselling For Dummies author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson makes it easy for anyone with a basic knowledge of the WordPress software to create a custom site using complementary technologies such as CSS, HTML, PHP, and MySQL. You'll not only get up to speed on essential tools and technologies and further advance your own design skills, this book also gives you pages of great case studies, so you can see just how other companies and individuals are creating compelling, customized, a

  20. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  1. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  2. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  3. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  4. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  5. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  6. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  7. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  8. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fill...... some of the gaps. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics occupying regular positions in science faculty departments in universities in northern Europe. Findings – Results showed that job clarity was the dominating job factor with strong...... relationships with all of the five investigated work outcome variables, work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and time to proficiency. Job conflict and job freedom had an association with some of the work outcome variables but not with all of them. Neither workload nor job...

  9. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  10. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  11. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  12. Determination of 6 stiffnesses for a press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    2000-01-01

    The industry is increasingly demanding for better tolerances at cold forged products caused by the tough competition at the market. Near net-shape or net-shape production save resources for machining and reduce therefore also the material costs. During the forming process, the reaction forces fro...... in which the press has the highest stiffness. Furthermore, knowledge about the stiffnesses of all presses in a production system makes it possible to choose the press which best fit to a specific process....... is known too, the final dimensions can be predicted by divide the force by the stiffness and add the clearance. If the stiffness of the press is known, it is possible to optimize the orientation of the workpiece too, so the direction, in which the best tolerances is demanded, is equal to the direction...

  13. Denmark, Democracy and the Free Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2006-01-01

    What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world.......What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world....

  14. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  15. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  16. Denmark, Democracy and the Free Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2006-01-01

    What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world.......What's important to Danish people in Denmark and in the world - most will argue for the importance of a free critical press, solidarity with people who need help and a peaceful world....

  17. Research on Web Press Tension Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Sheng Jiang; Zhang Chun Feng; Wang Zhong You; Li Qing Lin

    2016-01-01

    Tension control of press is a key and difficult point of the whole machine control. The stand or fall of tension is directly related to the quality of the products. According to the characteristics of the web press tension control, this paper expounds the main factors influencing tension and the purpose of tension control, researches on the tension control principle of web tape, analyzes control rule and control circuit of tension control system, illustrates the advantages of PID control law ...

  18. WordPress 3 For Business Bloggers

    CERN Document Server

    Thewlis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on book based around a fictitious case study blog, which you will build on a development server using WordPress. The case study grows chapter by chapter, from installing your local development server, right up to the finished blog. This book is for anybody running or starting a business blog using WordPress, whether you plan to use your blog for PR and marketing, or want to profit directly from blogging.

  19. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  20. Volcano shapes, entropies, and eruption probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-05-01

    We propose that the shapes of polygenetic volcanic edifices reflect the shapes of the associated probability distributions of eruptions. In this view, the peak of a given volcanic edifice coincides roughly with the peak of the probability (or frequency) distribution of its eruptions. The broadness and slopes of the edifices vary widely, however. The shapes of volcanic edifices can be approximated by various distributions, either discrete (binning or histogram approximation) or continuous. For a volcano shape (profile) approximated by a normal curve, for example, the broadness would be reflected in its standard deviation (spread). Entropy (S) of a discrete probability distribution is a measure of the absolute uncertainty as to the next outcome/message: in this case, the uncertainty as to time and place of the next eruption. A uniform discrete distribution (all bins of equal height), representing a flat volcanic field or zone, has the largest entropy or uncertainty. For continuous distributions, we use differential entropy, which is a measure of relative uncertainty, or uncertainty change, rather than absolute uncertainty. Volcano shapes can be approximated by various distributions, from which the entropies and thus the uncertainties as regards future eruptions can be calculated. We use the Gibbs-Shannon formula for the discrete entropies and the analogues general formula for the differential entropies and compare their usefulness for assessing the probabilities of eruptions in volcanoes. We relate the entropies to the work done by the volcano during an eruption using the Helmholtz free energy. Many factors other than the frequency of eruptions determine the shape of a volcano. These include erosion, landslides, and the properties of the erupted materials (including their angle of repose). The exact functional relation between the volcano shape and the eruption probability distribution must be explored for individual volcanoes but, once established, can be used to

  1. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    12, 13, 14, March LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 POSTPONED! - Modern Project Management Methods - POSTPONED! By G. Vallet / Ed. Highware, Paris, F. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  2. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  3. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.


    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  4. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  5. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  6. The reawakening of Alaska's Augustine volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Wessels, Rick L.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Dehn, Jon; Wallace, Kristi L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Doukas, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Augustine volcano, in south central Alaska, ended a 20-year period of repose on 11 January 2006 with 13 explosive eruptions in 20 days. Explosive activity shifted to a quieter effusion of lava in early February, forming a new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows by late March (Figure 1).

  7. Volcano hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Matías, O.; Rose, William I.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fuego-Acatenango massif comprises a string of five or more volcanic vents along a north-south trend that is perpendicular to that of the Central American arc in Guatemala. From north to south known centers of volcanism are Ancient Acatenango, Yepocapa, Pico Mayor de Acatenango, Meseta, and Fuego. Volcanism along the trend stretches back more than 200,000 years. Although many of the centers have been active contemporaneously, there is a general sequence of younger volcanism, from north to south along the trend. This massive volcano complex towers more than 3500 meters (m) above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north. The volcano complex comprises remnants of multiple eruptive centers, which periodically have collapsed to form huge debris avalanches. The largest of these avalanches extended more than 50 kilometers (km) from its source and covered more than 300 square km. The volcano has potential to produce huge debris avalanches that could inundate large areas of the Pacific coastal plain. In areas around the volcanoes and downslope toward the coastal plain, more than 100,000 people are potentially at risk from these and other flowage phenomena.

  8. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  9. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  10. Degassing and differentiation in subglacial volcanoes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Within the neovolcanic zones of Iceland many volcanoes grew upward through icecaps that have subsequently melted. These steep-walled and flat-topped basaltic subglacial volcanoes, called tuyas, are composed of a lower sequence of subaqueously erupted, pillowed lavas overlain by breccias and hyaloclastites produced by phreatomagmatic explosions in shallow water, capped by a subaerially erupted lava plateau. Glass and whole-rock analyses of samples collected from six tuyas indicate systematic variations in major elements showing that the individual volcanoes are monogenetic, and that commonly the tholeiitic magmas differentiated and became more evolved through the course of the eruption that built the tuya. At Herdubreid, the most extensively studies tuya, the upward change in composition indicates that more than 50 wt.% of the first erupted lavas need crystallize over a range of 60??C to produce the last erupted lavas. The S content of glass commonly decreases upward in the tuyas from an average of about 0.08 wt.% at the base to crystallization that generates the more evolved, lower-temperature melts during the growth of the tuyas, apparently results from cooling and degassing of magma contained in shallow magma chambers and feeders beneath the volcanoes. Cooling may result from percolation of meltwater down cracks, vaporization, and cycling in a hydrothermal circulation. Degassing occurs when progressively lower pressure eruption (as the volcanic vent grows above the ice/water surface) lowers the volatile vapour pressure of subsurface melt, thus elevating the temperature of the liquidus and hastening liquid-crystal differentiation. ?? 1991.

  11. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  12. Academic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen

    Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive......Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt...

  13. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  14. [Smallpox is a dormant volcano].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Zverev, V V; Gintsburg, A L; Marennikova, S S; Pal'tsev, M A

    2008-01-01

    The presence of rodent-associated natural foci containing at least 6 of the known 11 viruses belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus (Poxviridae, Chordopoxvirinae) within the equatorial, tropical, subtropical, temperate, and subarctic climatic zones; the increasing aggravation of the monkey pox epidemic situation in equatorial Africa with an increase in human mortality by an average of 9.8% with a possibility of 2 to 8 passages in 30-70% of patients; the possible persistence of a virus in the human cadavers buried in the permafrost of Eurasia and America; bioterrorism threat due to the unaccounted viral reserves persisting somewhere or somebody; no postvaccinal human immunity since vaccination and vaccine manufacture stopped 30 years ago as recommended by the WHO, make the risk of the deteriorating epidemic situation with disastrous effects greater now and in the foreseeable future than it was 20-30 years ago. Health care academic circles and bodies do not know methods for rapid diagnosis in the field conditions of species-specific identification smallpox virus or preventive (low-reactogenic, effective vaccines, and those accessible for mass production) and therapeutic (nontoxic drugs, those satisfactory for mass production, inexpedient, effective ones when orally used) agents. Basic studies of biodiversity, functional properties of viral DNA and proteins, pathogenesis, and evolution are required. Live smallpox virus should be used at certain and particularly final stages for these studies that are of scientific and applied significance.

  15. Serbian press about refugees: 1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Serbian press’ approach toward refugees as a topic, for period of last fifteen years is analyzed. The analyses is built up on huge database of all articles about refugees published in progovernment and independent daily and weekly Serbian press, in mentioned period. Results of this research are crushing: differences of approaches in pro-government and independent press are minor; both press profiles, despite of what was expected, were shown equal lack of understanding toward the topic, contributing to social marginalization of refugees. Professional ethical codex have been remarkably violated all the time. These findings are part of a forthcoming book "Political framing of refugees: 1990. – 2005.".

  16. CSR-communication in the Business Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Langer, Roy

    is systematically maintained in the business press. We refer to this process as strategic ambiguity. The paper discusses the potential value and limitations of framing CSR in a state of strategic ambiguity in the context of the concurrent rethinking of the role of business in modern welfare societies.......In this paper we analyze the construction of corporate social responsibility in the business press as an act of strategic ambiguity. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally evokes positive associations in public opinion, this paper demonstrates that these associations are based...... on a broadly encompassing and ambiguous definition of CSR. Our empirical data shows how the business press in its discourse on CSR provides no clarity on the definition of CSR in terms of a coherent motive, a dominant stakeholder or a consistent issue, but rather maintains ambiguity and imprecision about...

  17. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  18. The Merapi Interactive Project: Offering a Fancy Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Understanding of Merapi Volcano to a Wide Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, J.; Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Merapi volcano is of great interest to a wide audience as it is one of the most dangerous volcanoes worldwide and a beautiful touristic spot. The scientific literature available on that volcano both in Earth and Social sciences is rich but mostly inaccessible to the public because of the scientific jargon and the restricted database access. Merapi Interactive aims at developing clear information and attractive content about Merapi for a wide audience. The project is being produced by the Art and Media Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, and it takes the shape of an e-book. It offers a consistent, comprehensive, and jargon-filtered synthesis of the main volcanic-risk related topics about Merapi: volcanic mechanisms, eruptive history, associated hazards and risks, the way inhabitants and scientists deal with it, and what daily life at Merapi looks like. The project provides a background to better understand volcanoes, and it points out some interactions between scientists and society. We propose two levels of interpretation: one that is understandable by 10-year old kids and above and an expert level with deeper presentations of specific topics. Thus, the Merapi Interactive project intends to provide an engaging and comprehensive interactive book that should interest kids, adults, as well as Earth Sciences undergraduates and academics. Merapi Interactive is scheduled for delivery in mid-2016.

  19. Bullying the media : Cultural and climato-economic readings of press repression versus press freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.

    Journalists and media assistants in many places are murdered, imprisoned, censored, threatened, and similarly harrassed. Here I document that, and explain why, there are three climato-economic niches of press repression versus press freedom as part of broader syndromes of national culture. A

  20. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  1. UCL Press: the UK’s 'first fully open access' university press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to set in context the launch of University College London Press (UCL Press, which describes itself as the UK’s first fully open access (OA university press. The drivers for this launch are bound up with the global movement towards open access and open science – developments in which UCL is acknowledged as a European leader. The first part of the article looks at these movements and relates them to the relaunch in May 2015 of the UCL Press imprint as an OA imprint. This analysis has been undertaken by Dr Paul Ayris, Director of UCL Library Services and Chief Executive of UCL Press.  The second half of the article is a personal account by Lara Speicher, Publishing Manager at UCL Press, of the relaunch of the Press. This section looks at staffing structures, business models, technical infrastructures, publishing programmes and content.  In the final part of the article, Paul Ayris draws some conclusions from the history of the relaunch of UCL Press and sets these in the context of the global open science discussion.

  2. THE ROLE OF PRESS FABRIC PRESSURE UNIFORMITY AND PORE SIZE ON DEWATERING AND REWET DURING PRESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Fan; Mary Toney; Jorgen Gullbrand; Fawaad Qamar

    2004-01-01

    New procedures for measuring the pressure uniformity and pore size of press fabrics have been developed to study their role in the dewatering efficiency of a wet paper sheet and fabric system during pressing. The press nip profile of a single nip can be simulated in the laboratory using a custom built Servo-hydraulic Press Nip Simulator (SPNS) and is used to evaluate the final dryness and rewet of a handsheet with press fabric(s). Pressure uniformity can be measured with a flexible high-resolution transducer and pore size; both tests measured using water as the fluid are performed on compressed press fabric samples. A strong correlation is found between pressure uniformity parameters, mean flow pore size and final dryness for different sheets. Rewet is measured "directly" using a tracer fluid in the press fabric in our SPNS tester. Preliminary results indicate a significant reduction in rewet for some sheets with the use of an anti-rewet layer in combination withcertain press fabric designs.

  3. Speaking of a Free Press: 200 Years of Notable Quotations about Press Freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Intended to summarize the ideals underlying the struggle for freedom of the press and to reinforce the basic Constitutional principles upon which the United States functions, this collection of quotations reflects the beliefs of prominent people throughout history who have championed press freedom, as well as the ideas of some who have opposed it.…

  4. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  5. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  6. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  7. Internet Marketing with WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, David

    2011-01-01

    The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

  8. Research on Web Press Tension Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension control of press is a key and difficult point of the whole machine control. The stand or fall of tension is directly related to the quality of the products. According to the characteristics of the web press tension control, this paper expounds the main factors influencing tension and the purpose of tension control, researches on the tension control principle of web tape, analyzes control rule and control circuit of tension control system, illustrates the advantages of PID control law adopted in the tension control system, and concludes the influencing factors of paper tape tension control system and the corresponding problems needed to solve in the control.

  9. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  10. A Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Jun Jaegyu Volcano: An active undersea volcano in Antarctic Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, G.; Brachfeld, S.; Gorring, M.; Prezant, R. S.; Domack, E.

    2005-12-01

    Jun Jaegyu volcano, an Antarctic submarine volcano, was dredged in May 2004 during cruise 04-04 of the RV Laurence M. Gould to determine rock, sediment composition and marine macroinvertebrate diversity. The objectives of this study are to examine the benthic assemblages and biodiversity present on a young volcano. The volcano is located on the continental shelf of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula, where recent changes in surface temperature and ice shelf stability have been observed. This volcano was originally swath-mapped during cruise 01-07 of the Research Vessel-Ice Breaker Nathaniel B. Palmer. During LMG04-04 we also studied the volcano using a SCUD video camera, and performed temperature surveys along the flanks and crest. Both the video and the dredge indicate a seafloor surface heavily colonized by benthic organisms. Indications of fairly recent lava flows are given by the absence of marine life on regions of the volcano. The recovered dredge material was sieved, and a total of thirty-three invertebrates were extracted. The compilation of invertebrate community data can subsequently be compared to other benthic invertebrate studies conducted along the peninsula, which can determine the regional similarity of communities over time, their relationship to environmental change and health, if any, and their relationship to geologic processes in Antarctic Sound. Twenty-two rock samples, all slightly weathered and half bearing encrusted organisms, were also analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Except for one conglomerate sample, all are alkali basalts and share similar elemental compositions with fresh, unweathered samples from the volcano. Two of the encrusted basalt samples have significantly different compositions than the rest. We speculate this difference could be due to water loss during sample preparation, loss of organic carbon trapped within the vesicles of the samples and/or elemental uptake by the

  11. Scholarly publishing : The challenges facing the African university press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngobeni, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the challenges that face the university press in Africa in general and South Africa in particular. It will start by examining the state of the university press in Africa, the state of the university press in South Africa, the challenges that face university presses, such

  12. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  13. Vulcan's fury: Man against the volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    I read this book on an 11-hour flight back from a field trip in the Andes, where I got first-hand insight into how people live with a volcano that now and then explodes. Appropriate reading, I felt, especially as the fascination of the human world with volcanoes and eruptive disasters is indeed long standing. This book is a recent addition to a list of titles in this genre (e.g., the new book by Sigurdsson to be reviewed in Eos shortly). The scope of the book is summarized in the introductory sentence of the preface: “This book is about an unequal contest. It describes human reactions to volcanic eruptions.” This is the perspective of the book's descriptions of 16 large and not-so-large eruptions over the last two millennia.

  14. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  15. Brownsville: The Reaction of the Negro Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Lewis N.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the events that followed subsequent to the assignment of an all-black regimental unit to the Fort Brown military installation on the outskirts of Brownsville, Texas, in 1906, with reference to the reactions of the Brownsville residents, the Negro press, and white champions of the black cause, and to the actions of President Theodore…

  16. World Press Photo'98 / Priit Brennel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brennel, Priit

    1998-01-01

    Pressifoto ülemaailmsest konkursist ja aastaringselt järgnevatest üritustest, mida korraldab World Press Photo Foundation (peakorter Amsterdamis) 1955. aastast. 1998. a. peapreemia - France Pressi fotograafi Hocine'i töö 23. septembri ööl toimunud massimõrvast Alžeerias, Benthalas. Eestist osalesid Tiit Räis, Viktor Vesterinen.

  17. TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOUR IN PARTICLEBOARD DURING PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the behaviour of core and face temperatures of particleboard glued with 8% tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. The boards were manufactured with three replication per treatment, with density of 0,7 g/cm³ and 27 kgf/cm² of pressing specific pressure. Pine flakes (40, 75 and 110 mm long and 0,5 and 1,0 mm thick and eucalypt particles were used and two pressing temperatures (140 and 180ºC along with two mat moisture content (17 and 21% were employed. The curves of temperature rise with pressing time indicated a fast temperature rise during the first 100 seconds of pressing, remaining at a plateau possible after reaching water boiling temperature. The temperature increased again, but on a more gradual form, after the lost mat moisture. It was possible to observe that mat formed by flakes of larger thicknesses showed faster initial temperature rise. The main factor that influenced the temperature behaviour at the board core was the mat moisture content. The higher the mat moisture content, the faster the temperature rise.

  18. An Introduction to Bibliographical Press Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    This guide to the literature of bibliographical press work is comprised of brief introductory notes on the field and this bibliography, followed by citations listed in seven categories: (1) book production, (2) handmade paper, (3) printer's ink, (4) type design, (5) book design, (6) hand printing, and (7) hand bookbinding. Introductory as well as…

  19. World Press Photo'98 / Priit Brennel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brennel, Priit

    1998-01-01

    Pressifoto ülemaailmsest konkursist ja aastaringselt järgnevatest üritustest, mida korraldab World Press Photo Foundation (peakorter Amsterdamis) 1955. aastast. 1998. a. peapreemia - France Pressi fotograafi Hocine'i töö 23. septembri ööl toimunud massimõrvast Alžeerias, Benthalas. Eestist osalesid Tiit Räis, Viktor Vesterinen.

  20. Metrics for Offset Printing Press Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of offset printing press operation students, this instructional package is one of six for the communication media occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  1. The Press, Privacy, and Community Mores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Theodore L.

    Because of judicial indifference and legislative inaction, the conflict between the right of privacy and the freedom of the press is no closer to a resolution than it was a century ago. William Prosser's reduction of the common law of privacy into four separate torts has not solved the problem. The concept of "newsworthiness" has not been helpful…

  2. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  3. Neo-Lysenkoism, IQ, and the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bernard D.

    1983-01-01

    In "The Mismeasure of Man," a history of efforts to measure intelligence, Stephen Jay Gould is highly selective in his account, and tests for scientific truth by the standards of his own social and political convictions. Specifically, to combat racist approaches to theories of intelligence, Gould presses for equal and opposite bias.…

  4. When should you press the reload button?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.

    2009-01-01

    While surfing on the Internet, you may have observed the following. If a webpage takes a long time to download and you press the reload button then often the page promptly appears on your screen. Hence, the download was not hindered by congestion — then you’d better try again later — but by some

  5. Research Review: The Specialized Business Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Kathleen L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews scholarly research (from journalism, communication, business, and the humanities) on the specialized business press. Notes the lack of theory building and ties across disciplines, and anticipates that new advances in CD-ROM technology may increase research into the field as well as strengthen ties across disciplines. (SR)

  6. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  7. The Moral Universes of Libertarian Press Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuliger, Gregory T.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Kantian logic to analyze the statement of Libertarian press theory "Truth beats falsehood in a free marketplace of ideas" as a definition, an observation, and a universal truth. Notes three corresponding moral universes, with differing ethical obligations. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of each. Cautions media ethics analysts against…

  8. An installation for pressing pasted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudzava, S.; Sugimoto, K.

    1983-07-13

    The active mass is placed on the current outlet and the electrode is pressed and its thickness is regulated by passing it through rollers. The water and the adhering particles of the active mass are continuously sucked off during rotation of the rollers.

  9. A Journalist's Guide to the Free Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelhart, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the content of the federal constitution and various state constitutions regarding freedom of the press. Examines certain borderline issues, including actions and expressions, pornography, defamation, libel, and copyrighted material. States that regulation of unprotected material must be reasonable, specific, and clear. Discusses what…

  10. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  11. On the morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low angle edifices that have convex up topographic profiles and are built primarily by the accumulation of lava flows. This generic view of shields' morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galapagos). Here, the morphometry of over 150 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes, identified inthe Global Volcanism Network database, are analysed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 20 volcanoes identified as stratovolcanoes but having low slopes and being dominantly built up by accumulation of lava flows are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes range from 0.1 to >1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width ratios range from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients, elongation and summit truncation. Correlation and principal component analysis of the obtained quantitative database enables to identify 4 key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Using these descriptors through clustering analysis, a new classification scheme is proposed. It highlights the control of the magma feeding system - either central, along a linear structure, or spatially diffuse - on the resulting shield volcano morphology. Genetic relationships and evolutionary trends between contrasted morphological end-members can be highlighted within this new scheme. Additional findings are that the Galapagos-type morphology with a central deep caldera and steep upper flanks are characteristic of other shields. A series of large oceanic shields have slopes systematically much steeper than the low gradients (<4-8°) generally attributed to large Hawaiian-type shields. Finally, the continuum of morphologies from flat shields to steeper complex volcanic constructs considered as stratovolcanoes calls for a revision of this oversimplified

  12. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  13. Publications of the Volcano Hazards Program 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2016-04-08

    The Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Natural Hazards activity, as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out by the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of Hawaiʻi Mānoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all of these institutions.

  14. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  15. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  16. Seismic and infrasound monitoring at Cotopaxi volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Troncoso, L.; Mothes, P.; Kumagai, H.

    2012-04-01

    Cotopaxi is an active ice-capped volcano (5967m) located 60 km SE from Quito and is one of the largest and more hazardous volcanoes in the Northern Andes. Monitoring of Cotopaxi, using seismic and infrasound techniques has improving significantly since 1976, when three short-period stations were deployed temporarily in response to an increase of fumarolic activity. Later in May 1977, a short-period vertical seismometer was installed on the NW flank at 7 km from the crater. Since 1986 a short-period seismic station is working at the northern flank of Cotopaxi and transmitting analog data to the Instituto Geofisico. In 1993 a network of 4 short-period seismic stations were installed on all flanks of the volcano. Between March 1996 and June 1997 a temporal network of 16 stations were deployed for several months in order to study local seismicity and internal structure (Metaxian et al., 1999). Since 2006, a network of five broad band stations (0.02-60 s) and low-frequency infrasound sensors (0.01-10 s) were installed through a JICA Cooperation Project (Kumagai et al., 2007). Data is transmitted to the Instituto Geofisico via a digital radio system. Through this network, LP and VLP events have been recorded and analyzed (Molina et al., 2008). VLP events were located beneath the north and north-eastern flank using waveform inversion and amplitude distribution methods (Kumagai et al., 2010).

  17. Detecting Blackholes and Volcanoes in Directed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhongmou; Liu, Yanchi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a novel problem for finding blackhole and volcano patterns in a large directed graph. Specifically, a blackhole pattern is a group which is made of a set of nodes in a way such that there are only inlinks to this group from the rest nodes in the graph. In contrast, a volcano pattern is a group which only has outlinks to the rest nodes in the graph. Both patterns can be observed in real world. For instance, in a trading network, a blackhole pattern may represent a group of traders who are manipulating the market. In the paper, we first prove that the blackhole mining problem is a dual problem of finding volcanoes. Therefore, we focus on finding the blackhole patterns. Along this line, we design two pruning schemes to guide the blackhole finding process. In the first pruning scheme, we strategically prune the search space based on a set of pattern-size-independent pruning rules and develop an iBlackhole algorithm. The second pruning scheme follows a divide-and-conquer strategy to fur...

  18. Accuracy of Press Reports in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Hurley, K.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Branch, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Schaefer, M. W.; Consolmagno, G. J.; McSween, H.; Strom, R.

    1999-12-01

    Most Americans learn about modern science from press reports, while such articles have a bad reputation among scientists. We have performed a study of 403 news articles on three topics (gamma-ray astronomy, supernovae, and Mars) to quantitatively answer the questions 'How accurate are press reports of astronomy?' and 'What fraction of the basic science claims in the press are correct?' We have taken all articles on the topics from five news sources (UPI, NYT, S&T, SN, and 5 newspapers) for one decade (1987-1996). All articles were evaluated for a variety of errors, ranging from the fundamental to the trivial. For 'trivial' errors, S&T and SN were virtually perfect while the various newspapers averaged roughly one trivial error every two articles. For meaningful errors, we found that none of our 403 articles significantly mislead the reader or misrepresented the science. So a major result of our study is that reporters should be rehabilitated into the good graces of astronomers, since they are actually doing a good job. For our second question, we rated each story with the probability that its basic new science claim is correct. We found that the average probability over all stories is 70%, regardless of source, topic, importance, or quoted pundit. How do we reconcile our findings that the press does not make significant errors yet the basic science presented is 30% wrong? The reason is that the nature of news reporting is to present front-line science and the nature of front-line science is that reliable conclusions have not yet been reached. So a second major result of our study is to make the distinction between textbook science (with reliability near 100%) and front-line science which you read in the press (with reliability near 70%).

  19. Nanoscale volcanoes: accretion of matter at ion-sculpted nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Stein, Derek; Kim, Young-Rok; Hoogerheide, David; Golovchenko, J A

    2006-01-27

    We demonstrate the formation of nanoscale volcano-like structures induced by ion-beam irradiation of nanoscale pores in freestanding silicon nitride membranes. Accreted matter is delivered to the volcanoes from micrometer distances along the surface. Volcano formation accompanies nanopore shrinking and depends on geometrical factors and the presence of a conducting layer on the membrane's back surface. We argue that surface electric fields play an important role in accounting for the experimental observations.

  20. Citizen empowerment in volcano monitoring, communication and decision-making at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, B. A.; Mothes, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to more than 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants conducted in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities; engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel; builds community; and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  1. July 1973 ground survey of active Central American volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground survey has shown that thermal anomalies of various sizes associated with volcanic activity at several Central American volcanoes should be detectable from Skylab. Anomalously hot areas of especially large size (greater than 500 m in diameter) are now found at Santiaguito and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala and San Cristobal in Nicaragua. Smaller anomalous areas are to be found at least seven other volcanoes. This report is completed after ground survey of eleven volcanoes and ground-based radiation thermometry mapping at these same points.

  2. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  3. Geologic map of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

  4. Magma Supply System at Batur Volcano Inferred from Volcano-Tectonic Earthquakes and Their Focal Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.159The Volcano-Tectonic (VT earthquakes occurring during September - November 2009 were analyzed. The result shows that the epicentres aligning in NE- SW direction coincided with the weak zone of Batur Volcano Complex. The focal zone is located at the depth around 1.5 - 5.5 km beneath the summit. Migration of magma was detected by ground deformation measured by GPS and focal mechanism. Mechanism of VT earthquake shows mostly normal fault types during the swarm in November 2009.

  5. The petrological relationship between Kamen volcano and adjacent volcanoes of Klyuchevskaya group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana; Gordeychik, Boris; Wörner, Gerhard; Ivanov, Boris; Maximov, Alexander; Lebedev, Igor; Griban, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    The Klyuchevskaya Group (KG) of volcanoes has the highest magma production rate across the Kamchatka arc and in fact for any arc worldwide. However, modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano, which is located between Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes, were not carried out and its relation and petrogenesis in comparison to other KG volcanoes is unknown. Space-time proximity of KG volcanoes and the common zone of seismicity below them may suggest a common source and genetic relationship. However, the lavas of neighboring volcanoes are rather different: high-Mg and high-Al basalts occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny and medium-high-K subalkaline rocks at Ploskie Sopky volcano. Moreover, previously it was shown that distinct fluid signatures were observed in different KG volcanoes. In this report we present geological, petrographical, mineralogical and petrochemical data on the rocks of Kamen volcano in comparison with other KG volcanoes. Three consecutive periods of volcano activity were recognized in geological history of Kamen volcano: stratovolcano formation, development of a dike complex and formation of numerous cinder and cinder-lava monogenetic cones. The rock series of volcano are divided into four groups: olivine-bearing (Ol-2Px and Ol-Cpx), olivine-free (2Px-Pl, Cpx-Pl and abundant Pl), Hb-bearing and subaphyric rocks. While olivine-bearing rocks are observed in all volcanic stages, olivine-free lavas are presented only in the stratovolcano edifice. Lavas of the monogenetic cones are presented by olivine-bearing and subaphyric rocks. Dikes are olivine-bearing and hornblende-bearing rocks. Olivines of the Kamen stratovolcano and dikes vary from Fo60 to Fo83, clinopyroxenes are augites in composition and plagioclases have a bimodal distribution with maximum modes at An50 and An86. Oxides are represented by high-Al spinel, magnetite and titaniferous magnetite. Mineral compositions of the

  6. Analysis of Institutional Press Releases and its Visibility in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba-Hernando, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between institutional communication and media communication influence the shaping of social representations of public issues. This research article analyses these relationships based on the case study of the external communication of a public institution, the press releases of Spain’s Youth Institute (Instituto de la Juventud, aka, Injuve, during three years and their repercussion in the press during the same period of time. The results obtained in this research allowed drawing conclusions on the types of communication production of the aforementioned institution and the news treatment of such pieces of information by the printed and digital media. The press releases and the news items were studied using quantitative media content analysis which focused, especially, in referential issues like the information treatment, the thematic analysis, youth representations in the case of the releases; and the visibility of the press releases in the making of news

  7. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  8. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  9. Condition monitoring of multistage printing presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Golnaraghi, F.; Ismail, F.

    2004-03-01

    The main concern in printing quality in multistage presses is doubling. Doubling is caused by imperfections either within stages (units) or in links connecting different stages, mainly resulting from machine vibration, gear damage, and excessive run-out. In this paper, we propose new means for printing quality control via geared system health condition monitoring. The diagnosis is based on the signals acquired from inexpensive magnetic pickups. A new technique is developed to monitor the gear rotation synchronization among different stages in order to isolate possible sources of the doubling problem. A new approach is proposed to determine the gear run-out. Moreover, gear tooth damage detection is conducted using the beta kurtosis and the continuous wavelet transform based on the overall residual signal. The beta kurtosis of original signal average is also shown here to be useful in detecting excessive gear run-out. Test results from printing presses demonstrated the viability of the proposed methods.

  10. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  11. Press Freedom on the Media Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Maria de Carvalho Cruz Pires

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to present a refl ection on the meanings constructed by the Brazilian written press regarding media and democracy. For this, it was necessary to recompose a specifi c journalistic event: the submission to the Brazilian Congress of a bill to create the Federal Journalism Council by the Brazilian President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, at the request of the National Journalists Federation in August, 2004. This procedure gave rise to something rarely seen: the media were in the spotlight and thus it caused a controversial debate to emerge on the public scene regarding the journalist profession, journalism and press freedom, involving a diversity of political subjects.

  12. ACTIVATED HOT PRESSING BEHAVIOR OF WC NANOPOWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin GEVORKYAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of consolidation of nanopowders concerning hot compaction by pressing activated by electric current action are considered. Mechanisms of grain boundary creep-sliding which are sequentially prevalent in a forming of compacted structures under influence of temperature factor and in the presence of a direct electric heating are discussed. Structural-transformational sources and conditions of forming of high physical-mechanical properties of nanopowder refractory solid-state products are described.

  13. Magellan Press Conference (2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Live footage shows the speakers participating in the Magellan Press Conference question and answer session. Speakers include Huntress, Spear, Ledbetter, Johnson, McCarthy, and Saunders. The speakers are shown answering questions from various NASA Centers, and participating audience members from many different industries. They discuss the start and stop date for the mapping. Also shown are animation and radar images of Venus and Artemis. This is tape 2 of 2; tape 1 has a report number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036552.

  14. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  15. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  16. WordPress all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Top WordPress guide, now fully updated for the latest WordPress release! This updated new edition comprises one of the largest collections of practical intermediate to advanced information on WordPress. Fully updated for the latest WordPress release, this in-depth book covers it all, from setting up your software to publishing your site, using SEO and social media, developing and using plug-ins, running multiple sites with WordPress, and more. Veteran author Lisa Sabin-Wilson is a top authority on WordPress, and she and her co-authors pack this book with essential and easy-to-follo

  17. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  18. SO2 camera measurements at Lastarria volcano and Lascar volcano in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Dinger, Florian; Klein, Angelika; Kuhn, Jonas; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The SO2 camera is a remote-sensing technique that measures volcanic SO2 emissions via the strong SO2 absorption structures in the UV using scattered solar radiation as a light source. The 2D-imagery (usually recorded with a frame rate of up to 1 Hz) allows new insights into degassing processes of volcanoes. Besides the large advantage of high frequency sampling the spatial resolution allows to investigate SO2 emissions from individual fumaroles and not only the total SO2 emission flux of a volcano, which is often dominated by the volcanic plume. Here we present SO2 camera measurements that were made during the CCVG workshop in Chile in November 2014. Measurements were performed at Lastarria volcano, a 5700 m high stratovolcano and Lascar volcano, a 5600 m high stratovolcano both in northern Chile on 21 - 22 November, 2014 and on 26 - 27 November, 2014, respectively. At both volcanoes measurements were conducted from a distance of roughly 6-7 km under close to ideal conditions (low solar zenith angle, a very dry and cloudless atmosphere and an only slightly condensed plume). However, determination of absolute SO2 emission rates proves challenging as part of the volcanic plume hovered close to the ground. The volcanic plume therefore is in front of the mountain in our camera images. An SO2 camera system consisting of a UV sensitive CCD and two UV band-pass filters (centered at 315 nm and 330 nm) was used. The two band-pass filters are installed in a rotating wheel and images are taken with both filter sequentially. The instrument used a CCD with 1024 x 1024 pixels and an imaging area of 13.3 mm x 13.3 mm. In combination with the focal length of 32 mm this results in a field-of-view of 25° x 25°. The calibration of the instrument was performed with help of a DOAS instrument that is co-aligned with the SO2 camera. We will present images and SO2 emission rates from both volcanoes. At Lastarria gases are emitted from three different fumarole fields and we will attempt

  19. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  20. Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.

    2003-04-01

    Tungurahua Volcano (Lat. 01^o28'S; Long. 78^o27'W), located in the central Ecuadorian Andes, is an active edifice that rises more than 3 km above surrounding topography. Since European settlement in 1532, Tungurahua has experienced four major eruptive episodes: 1641-1646, 1773-1781, 1886-1888 and 1916-1918 (Hall et al, JVGR V91; p1-21, 1999). In September 1999, Tungurahua began a new period of activity that continues to the present. During this time, the volcano has erupted daily, depositing ash and blocks on its steep flanks. A pattern of continuing eruptions, coupled with rainfall up to 28 mm in a 6 hour period (rain data collected in Baños at 6-hr intervals, 3000 meters below Tungurahua’s summit), has produced an environment conducive to lahar mobilization. Tungurahua volcano presents an immediate hazard to the town of Baños, an important tourist destination and cultural center with a population of about 25,000 residents located 8 km from the crater. During the current eruptive episode, lahars have occurred as often as 3 times per week on the northern and western slopes of the volcano. Consequently, the only north-south trending highway on the west side of Tungurahua has been completely severed at the intersection of at least ten drainages, where erosion has exceeded 10 m since 1999. The La Pampa quebrada, located 1 km west of Baños, is the most active of Tungurahua's drainages. At this location, where the slope is moderate, lahars continue to inundate the only highway linking Baños to the Pan American Highway. Because of steep topography, the conventional approach of measuring planimetric inundation areas to determine the scale of lahars could not be employed. Instead, cross sections were measured in the channels using volume/cross-sectional inundation relationships determined by (Iverson et al, GSABull V110; no. 8, p972-984, 1998). After field observations of the lahars, LAHARZ, a program used in a geographic information system (GIS) to objectively map

  1. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  2. A Probabilistic Approach for Real-Time Volcano Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.; Di Grazia, G.; Maronno, P.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Privitera, E.; Gambino, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous evaluation of the state of potentially dangerous volcanos plays a key role for civil protection purposes. Presently, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavorably, the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, we present a probabilistic graphical model to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. The model consists of a Bayesian network able to represent a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. The model variables are both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano through the time. The model output is an estimation of the probability distribution of the feasible volcano states. We tested the model on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross-validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision making purposes.

  3. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  4. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  5. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  6. VALVE: Volcano Analysis and Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, D. P.; Cervelli, P.; Miklius, A.; Krug, R.; Lisowski, M.

    2002-12-01

    Modern volcano observatories collect data using a wide variety of instruments. Visualizing these disparate data on a common time base is critical to interpreting and reacting to geophysical changes. With this in mind, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) created Valve, the Volcano Analysis and Visualization Environment. Valve integrates a wide range of both continuous and discontinuous data sources into a common, internet web-browser based interface that allows scientists to interactively select and visualize these data on a common time base and, if appropriate, in three dimensions. Advances in modern internet browser technology allow for a truly interactive user-interface experience that could previously only be found in stand-alone applications--all while maintaining client platform independence and network portability. This system aids more traditional in-depth analysis by providing a common front-end to retrieving raw data. In most cases, the raw data are being served from an SQL database, a system that lends itself to quickly retrieving, logically arranging, and safely storing data. Beyond Valve's visualization capabilities, the system also provides a variety of tools for time series analysis and source modeling. For example, a user could load several tilt and GPS time series, estimate co-seismic or co-intrusive deformation, and then model the event with an elastic point source or dislocation. From the source model, Coulomb stress changes could be calculated and compared to pre- and post-event hypocenter distribution. Employing a heavily object-oriented design, Valve is easily extensible, modular, portable, and remarkably cost efficient. Quickly visualizing arbitrary data is a trivial matter, while implementing methods for permanent, continuous data streams requires only minimal programming. Portability is ensured by using software that is readily available on a wide variety of operating systems; cost efficiency is achieved by using software that is open

  7. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  8. Mechanical coupling between earthquakes, volcanos and landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K. L.; Retina Team

    2003-04-01

    "The eruption began as a large earthquake that triggered a massive landslide that culminated in a violent lateral explosion" [Malone et al., USGS 1981]. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens taught a very powerful lesson -- that one natural hazard can trigger another. For example, earthquakes have triggered landslides in Papua New Guinea. Similarly, eruptions of Vesuvius are mechanically coupled to earthquakes in the Appenines, just as an inflating magma chamber can trigger earthquakes near Hengill volcano in SW Iceland and on the Izu Peninsula in Japan. The Luzon earthquake may have triggered the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. In many of these cases, the second triggered event caused more damage than the initial one. If we can better understand the mechanical coupling underlying the temporal and spatial correlation of such events, we will improve our assessments of the hazards they pose. The RETINA project has been funded by the European Commission's 5th Framework to study couplings between three classes of natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes. These three phenomena are linked to and by the stress field in the crust. If the stress increases enough, the material will fail catastrophically. For example, magma injection beneath a volcano can trigger an earthquake by increasing stress on a fault. Increasing shear stress on unconsolidated materials on steep slopes can trigger landslides. Such stress change triggers may also be tectonic (from plate driving forces), hydrological (from heavy rain), or volcanic (magmatic injection). Any of these events can perturb the stress field enough to trigger another event. Indeed, stress changes as small as 0.1 bar (0.01 MPa) suffice to trigger an earthquake. If the medium is close to failure, this small change can increase the Coulomb stress beyond the yield threshold, breaking the material. This quantity is the primary means we will use for describing mechanical coupling. In this paper, we will review several case

  9. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs One of the most famous journals about Chinese herbal medicines in China.The journal started publication monthly since January 1970,is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research.The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of

  10. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, W.A.; Tilling, R.I.; Canul, R.

    1984-01-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho??n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chicho??n is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chicho??n is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chicho??n consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chicho??n in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent

  11. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  12. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  13. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-03-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  14. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  15. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Slow slip event at Kilauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Wilson, J. David; Okubo, Paul G.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Segall, Paul; Brooks, Benjamin; Foster, James; Wolfe, Cecily; Syracuse, Ellen; Thurbe, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Early in the morning of 1 February 2010 (UTC; early afternoon 31 January 2010 local time), continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt instruments detected a slow slip event (SSE) on the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The SSE lasted at least 36 hours and resulted in a maximum of about 3 centimeters of seaward displacement. About 10 hours after the start of the slip, a flurry of small earthquakes began (Figure 1) in an area of the south flank recognized as having been seismically active during past SSEs [Wolfe et al., 2007], suggesting that the February earthquakes were triggered by stress associated with slip [Segall et al., 2006].

  17. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  18. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  19. Water in volcanoes: evolution, storage and rapid release during landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, Audray; Roberti, Gioachino; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes can store and drain water that is used as a valuable resource by populations living on their slopes. The water drainage and storage pattern depend on the volcano lithologies and structure, as well as the geological and hydrometric settings. The drainage and storage pattern will change according to the hydrometric conditions, the vegetation cover, the eruptive activity and the long- and short-term volcano deformation. Inspired by our field observations and based on geology and structure of volcanic edifices, on hydrogeological studies, and modelling of water flow in opening fractures, we develop a model of water storage and drainage linked with volcano evolution. This paper offers a first-order general model of water evolution in volcanoes.

  20. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  1. Inclination of Nations to Control Press and Attitudes on Professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviews official representatives of 58 nations to investigate their "inclination to control" the press. Finds the region most inclined to control the press is the Middle East, whereas regions least inclined are Western Europe and North America. (RS)

  2. Tjekkoslovakisk presse år 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Prevratil

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Danske teleselskaber overvejer at etablere sig som kabeloperatører i Polen, mens et amerikansk selskab allerede er igang i Warszawa og Krakow. Franske lokalradionetworks opretter filialer i Polen og Tjekko- slovakiet. Den tjekkiske statsradio stiller sendenet til rådighed for Radio Free Europe. Springer-koncernen opretter en "østtysk" pendant til Bild, hvis redaktionelle hovedlinje lægger sig op ad de dybe sociale frustrati- oner, der fulgte med DDR's indlemmelse i BDR. Maxwell, Hersant og Berlusconi m.fl. etablerer sig alene eller med lokale konstellationer inden for trykt presse i flere øst- og mellemeuropæiske stater. Samtidig for- søger den tidligere undergrundspresse at vinde økonomisk og politisk fodfæste inden for markedets og "det legale samfunds" rammer, i kon- kurrence med fortidens mediemutanter og vestlige mediekoncerner. Rudolf Prevratils artikel er en refleksion over en del af de problemer, primært af økonomisk og politisk art, som har tårnet sig op for den tjek- koslovakiske presse efter fløjlsrevolutionen i november 1989. Den giver et billede af dagens situation og får gennem sine analyser påvist, at etab- lingen af en demokratisk presse i Tjekkoslovakiet ikke alene er afhængig af "hjælp udefra", men i nok så høj grad forudsætter et net af sociale og kulturelle udviklingsprocesser, som både anerkender opgøret med for- tiden og vedkender sig den historiske arv. Artiklen er oversat fra engelsk af Per Jauert.

  3. Thermal Test on Target with Pressed Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gromov, Roman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowden, Rick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-27

    A thorough test of the thermal performance of a target for Mo99 production using solid Mo100 target to produce the Mo99 via a gamma-n reaction has previously been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results are reported in “Zero Degree Line Mo Target Thermal Test Results and Analysis,” LANL report Number LA-UR-15-23134 dated 3/27/15. This target was comprised of 25 disks 1 mm thick and 12 mm in diameter, separated by helium coolant gaps 0.5 mm wide. The test reported in the above referenced report was conducted with natural Mo disks all cut from commercial rod. The production plant will have Mo100 disks pressed and sintered using a process being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural integrity of press-and-sinter disks is of some concern. The test reported herein included 4 disks made by the ORNL process and placed in the high heat, and therefore high thermal stress, region of the target. The electron beam energy was 23 MeV for these tests. Beam spot size was 3.5 mm horizontal and 3 mm vertical, FWHM. The thermal stress test of pressed-and-sintered disks resulted in no mechanical failures. The induced thermal stresses were below yield stress for natural Mo, indicating that up to that stress state no inherent deficiencies in the mechanical properties of the fabricated disks were evident.

  4. The volcanoes and clouds of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, R. G.

    1985-03-01

    One of the earth's most intriguing features is its geologic activity. However, volcanic eruptions have not been observed on any other body in the solar system, except for a detection of such eruptions on Jupiter's moon Io. As in a number of respects Venus is similar to earth, questions arise regarding the presence of active volcanoes on Venus. In the past, the study of such questions was made difficult or impossible by the layer of clouds surrounding the Venusian surface. In the past half decade the situation has changed. These changes are mainly related to studies based on a utilization of radio waves and microwaves which can pass through the cloud layer. Such studies have been conducted with the aid of terrestrial radio telescopes, the Pioneer Venus satellite orbiting Venus, and two Russian spacecraft. The results of these studies are discussed in detail. It appears that there are active volcanoes on Venus. This volcanism is a key link in the chemical cycle which produces the clouds. The levels of volcanic activity on Venus and earth seem to be roughly comparable.

  5. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.

    1979-01-01

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar composition. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick.

  6. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  7. Volume Stamping on Hydraulic Presses (Selected Portions),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-02

    equipment. Appears need in the criation of tho presses cf even groater efforts/forces than being in the industry . In thq USA are published the s...PAGE 1 IT Fi 0 pesbyt, e ~t frE -00 ffim-l-a , Page- 35.- F--:!.n L vi ceatrt the cr-J .*a contrut icndssig o poerli/tic stmigfahrseil .,-tr /euir-isc...the sate time, that also ir t e USA , were created thq prrssqE with effort/force 30000 and 75000 T. TIs ccnstruction cf these oress-s oreceded

  8. Shape optimization of the modular press body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabiszczak Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A paper contains an optimization algorithm of cross-sectional dimensions of a modular press body for the minimum mass criterion. Parameters of the wall thickness and the angle of their inclination relative to the base of section are assumed as the decision variables. The overall dimensions are treated as a constant. The optimal values of parameters were calculated using numerical method of the tool Solver in the program Microsoft Excel. The results of the optimization procedure helped reduce body weight by 27% while maintaining the required rigidity of the body.

  9. Through the Looking Glass: Press Responses to Genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstadt, Deborah E.

    1991-01-01

    Examines press coverage of the Holocaust to analyze the response of the United States and the world to the Jewish extermination. Compares this coverage to earlier press responses to the Armenian genocide and Ukraine famines. Argues the press was unwilling to face the Holocaust's magnitude. Urges teachers to teach about the Holocaust and similar…

  10. Lesquerella Press Cake as an Organic Fertilizer for Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella press cake is a co-product generated during the processing of the new oilseed crop lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gray) S. Wats.]. As with other new crops, developing commercial uses for the press cake would increase the profitability of growing lesquerella. The press cake conta...

  11. Graphic Arts: The Press and Finishing Processes. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on printing presses and the finishing process for publications. Seven units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) offset press systems; (2) offset inks and dampening chemistry; (3) offset press operating procedures; (4) preventive maintenance…

  12. Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this image red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the image is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the image in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce

  13. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  14. Igneous Petrogenesis of Tequila Volcano, Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.

    2011-12-01

    Tequila volcano belongs to a Quaternary volcanic chain that runs in parallel to the Middle American Trench, but that have been constructed within the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift: an extensional tectonic structure that has been active for the past 3.5 Ma. This unusual tectonic setting, and the existence of a high-resolution stratigraphy for the Tequila Volcanic Field (Lewis-Kenedi, 2005, Bull Volcanol), provide an excellent opportunity to study andesite petrogenesis. New comprehensive geochemical data allow the recognition of at least four different magmatic series around Tequila: 1) The Santa Rosa intraplate basalts (1.0 - 0.2 Ma), a volcanic plateau constructed along the Santiago River Fault north of Tequila volcano. These Na-alkaline basalts are olivine-phyric, have negligible subduction signatures (Ba/Nb= 11.75 - 49.36), and display Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions that correlate with fractionation indexes, probably indicating melt-crust interactions. 2) A group of vitreous domes and flows of dacitic to rhyolitic compositions, mostly contemporaneous to the Santa Rosa basalts, that were emplaced on the periphery of Tequila volcano. These rocks can have very low Sr and Eu contents but their isotopic compositions are remarkably constant and similar to the Santa Rosa basalts, probably indicating a genetic link through low pressure fractionation in the stability field of plagioclase. 3) The main edifice of Tequila volcano (~0.2 Ma) is made of two pyroxene andesites and dacites with strong subduction signatures (Ba/Nb= 53-112), that inversely correlate with MgO contents, but that follow a diverging evolutionary trend as the rest of the sequences. The isotopic compositions of Tequila main edifice can extend to slightly more enriched values, but do not correlate with fractionation indexes, thus indicating provenance from a different source. 4) The youngest activity on Tequila volcano (~0.09 Ma) is represented by amphibole bearing andesites that erupted through the

  15. Ground survey of active Central American volcanoes in November - December 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thermal anomalies at two volcanoes, Santiaguito and Izalco, have grown in size in the past six months, based on repeated ground survey. Thermal anomalies at Pacaya volcano have became less intense in the same period. Large (500 m diameter) thermal anomalies exist at 3 volcanoes presently, and smaller scale anomalies are found at nine other volcanoes.

  16. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs The journal started publication monthly since January 1970, is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research. The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of research papers, brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of the basic study, production, quality

  17. Where is the British national press?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, John; Rosie, Michael; Petersoo, Pille; Condor, Susan; Kennedy, James

    2007-06-01

    Although globalization has highlighted the danger of conflating state, society and nation, sociologists remain insufficiently alert to such banal nationalism. Newspapers offer a strong test case of the extent of diversity in the construction of state, national and social boundaries, since Billig and Anderson have argued they comprise a special case where their orientation to an audience simultaneously located in a state, society and nation allows them to reproduce a sense of national identity. However, despite the commonsense obviousness of the term, it proves remarkably difficult to define what the 'British national press' might comprise. Circulation density of titles varies substantially across different parts of the UK and editorial copy is altered to address diverse 'national' readerships. 'British' newspapers also circulate in other states, especially the Republic of Ireland. After reviewing how newspapers might be defined as 'national' and/or 'British', we conclude that both Anderson and Billig over-estimate the congruence, relevance and obviousness of state, society and national boundaries. If the conceptualization of such boundaries is problematic in the case of the press, it follows that it must be still more so for most other objects of sociological analysis, including that of 'society' itself.

  18. A metaphor corpus in business press headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honesto Herrera Soler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In linguistics a corpus typically involves a finite body of texts which are considered to be representative of a particular variety of language at a specific time (McEnery & Wilson, 2001. Those are the assumptions we have had in mind in this metaphor corpus based on business press headlines. Our body of texts is a finite number of headlines drawn from the specific field of the business sections of three newspapers: Financial Times, El País and El Mundo, published over a period running from January to July 2003. Compiling a small corpus of non-literal instantiations as different authors have done (Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Kövecses, 2002; Charteris-Black, 2003; Koller, 2004; Deignan, 2005; and others will enable us first to identify whether the contextual meaning of a word or a multiword unit of headline contrasts with its basic meaning and whether the contextual meaning can be understood by comparison with that basic meaning, and then to categorize, both in the Spanish and in the British press, the different linguistic realizations of a headline in terms of their syntactic structure, metaphor foci and source domains.

  19. Press Conference: LHC Restart, Season 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    PRESS BRIEFING ON THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC) RE-START, SEASON 2 AT CERN, GLOBE OF SCIENCE AND INNOVATION Where :   http://cern.ch/directions   at the Globe of Science and Innovation When : Thursday, 12 March from 2.30 to 3.30pm - Open seating as from 2.15pm Speakers : CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer and Director of Accelerators, Frédérick Bordry, and representatives of the LHC experiments Webcast : https://webcast.web.cern.ch/webcast/ Dear Journalists, CERN is pleased to invite you to the above press briefing which will take place on Thursday 12 March, in the Globe of Science and Innovation, 1st floor, from 2.30 to 3.30pm. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is ready to start up for its second three-year run. The 27km LHC is the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world operating at a temperature of -217 degrees Centigrade and powered to a current of 11,000 amps. Run 2 of the LHC follows a two-year technical s...

  20. A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH ON PRESS CONFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A press conference is an important tool of public relations. The primary role of public relations is to manage a company’s reputation and help build public consent for its enterprises. The goal of PR is to develop and maintain goodwill with most, if not all, of its publics. Failure to do so may mean loss of customers and revenues, time lost dealing with complaints or lawsuits, and loss of esteem. A company’s publics change constantly. Well-executed public relations is an ongoing process that molds good long-term relationships and plays an important role in relationship marketing and integrated communications. Companies often call press conference when they have significant news to announce, such as the introduction of a new product or advertising campaign. Although used less often by organizations and corporations, this form of delivery can be very effective. The topic must be of major interest to a specific group before it is likely to gain coverage.

  1. Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the philosophy and evolution of volcanological science in recent years, particularly in relation to the growth of volcanic hazard and risk science. It uses the lens of Science and Technology Studies to examine the ways in which knowledge generation is controlled and directed by social forces, particularly during eruptions, which constitute landmarks in the development of new technologies and models. It also presents data from a survey of volcanologists carried out during late 2008 and early 2009. These data concern the felt purpose of the science according to the volcanologists who participated and their impressions of the most important eruptions in historical time. It demonstrates that volcanologists are motivated both by the academic science environment and by a social concern for managing the impact of volcanic hazards on populations. Also discussed are the eruptions that have most influenced the discipline and the role of scientists in policymaking on active volcanoes. Expertise in volcanology can become the primary driver of public policy very suddenly when a volcano erupts, placing immense pressure on volcanologists. In response, the epistemological foundations of volcanology are on the move, with an increasing volume of research into risk assessment and management. This requires new, integrated methodologies for knowledge collection that transcend scientific disciplinary boundaries.

  2. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  3. Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2006-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.

  4. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  5. Development of volcano monitoring technique using repeating earthquakes observed by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kimura, H.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

    2012-12-01

    After the Grate East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011, the M6.4 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. Fuji on March 15, 2011. Although the hypocenter seemed to be very close to an assumed magma chamber of Fuji volcano, no anomalies in volcanic activity have been observed until August 2012. As an example, after the M6.1 earthquake occurred in 1998 at southwest of Iwate volcano, a change of seismic velocity structure (e.g. Nishimura et al., 2000) was observed as well as active seismicity and crustal deformation. It had affected waveforms of repeating earthquakes occurring at a plate subduction zone, that is, the waveform similarities were reduced just after the earthquake due to upwelling of magma. In this study, first we analyzed for Mt. Fuji where such changes are expected by the occurrence of the earthquake to try to develop a tool for monitoring active volcanoes using the Volcano Observation network (V-net) data. We used seismic waveform data of repeating earthquakes observed by short period seismometers of V-net and the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan (Hi-net) stations near Fuji volcano after 2007. The seismic data were recorded with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, and we applied 4-8 Hz band pass filter to reduce noise. The repeating earthquakes occurred at the plate subduction zone and their catalog is compiled by Hi-net data (Kimura et al., 2006). We extracted repeating earthquake groups that include earthquakes before and after the M6.4 earthquake on March 15, 2011. A waveform of the first event of the group and waveforms of the other events are compared and calculated cross-correlation coefficients. We adjusted P wave arrivals of each event and calculate the coefficients and lag times of the latter part of the seismic waves with the time window of 1.25 s. We searched the best fit maximizing the cross-correlation coefficients with 0.1 s shift time at each time window. As a result we found three remarkable points at this time. [1] Comparing lag times

  6. Hierarchical and Multidimensional Academic Self-Concept of Commercial Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung; Chui; Lau

    1999-10-01

    Adapting the Marsh (1990) Academic Self-Description Questionnaire (ASDQ), this study examined the academic self-concept of students in a school of commerce in Hong Kong (N = 212). Confirmatory factor analysis found that students clearly distinguished among self-concept constructs in English, Chinese, Math and Statistics, Economics, and Principles of Accounting, and each of these constructs was highly associated with a global Academic self-concept construct, reflecting the validity of each construct in measuring an academic component of self-concept. Domain-specific self-concepts were more highly related with students' intention of course selection in corresponding areas than in nonmatching areas, further supporting the multidimensionality of the students' academic self-concept. Students' self-concepts in the five curriculum domains can be represented by the global Academic self-concept, supporting the hierarchical structure of students' academic self-concept in an educational institution with a specific focus, such as commercial studies. The academic self-concepts of the commercial students are both multidimensional and hierarchical. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Volcano instability induced by strike-slip faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, A. M. F.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Kerle, N.; Pyle, D. M.

    2000-09-01

    Analogue sand cone experiments were conducted to study instability generated on volcanic cones by basal strike-slip movement. The results of the analogue models demonstrate that edifice instability may be generated when strike-slip faults underlying a volcano move as a result of tectonic adjustment. This instability occurs on flanks of the volcano above the strike-slip shear. On the surface of the volcano this appears as a pair of sigmoids composed of one reverse and one normal fault. In the interior of the cone the faults form a flower structure. Two destabilised regions are created on the cone flanks between the traces of the sigmoidal faults. Bulging, intense fracturing and landsliding characterise these unstable flanks. Additional analogue experiments conducted to model magmatic intrusion show that fractures and faults developed within the volcanic cone due to basal strike-slip motions strongly control the path of the intruding magma. Intrusion is diverted towards the areas where previous development of reverse and normal faults have occurred, thus causing further instability. We compare our model results to two examples of volcanoes on strike-slip faults: Iriga volcano (Philippines), which underwent non-magmatic collapse, and Mount St. Helens (USA), where a cryptodome was emplaced prior to failure. In the analogue and natural examples, the direction of collapse takes place roughly parallel to the orientation of the underlying shear. The model presented proposes one mechanism for strike-parallel breaching of volcanoes, recently recognised as a common failure direction of volcanoes found in regions with transcurrent and transtensional deformation. The recognition of the effect of basal shearing on volcano stability enables prediction of the likely direction of eventual flank failure in volcanoes overlying strike-slip faults.

  8. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  9. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  10. New Hypocenter Relocation Results From Volcano-Tectonic Events (1995-2006) at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.; Nava, F. A.; Valdes-Gonzalez, C.

    2008-12-01

    Popocatepetl, one of the most active strato-volcanoes in Mexico, started a fumarolic and seismic reactivation in December 1994. New hypocenter relocation results have been calculated for some 1,800 volcano-tectonic (VT) events recorded by the seismic network operating at Popocatepetl during 1995-2006, and previously located by the National Center for Disasters Prevention (CENAPRED). We used two location programs to determine hypocenter relocation. One is a recently developed genetic algorithm program, Disloca, which adjusts the differences in arrival times between the recording seismic stations. The second is HypoDD, which uses the double difference earthquake location algorithm. Disloca allowed evaluation of station corrections, plus location of non-clustered hypocenters, while HypoDD refined the locations of clustered ones. Thus, for a given velocity model, hypocenters of clustered events varied slightly depending on the location program. For both programs, four different crustal velocity models were used, two of which include a low velocity zone (LVZ) below 6 km depth. This LVZ represents the presence of magma, which has been suggested to exist at this depth. The spatial distribution of the relocated hypocenters varies from one model to another, but a carefully considered combination of features common to the four distributions, allows a new characterization of the VT activity at Popocatepetl. The distribution of the relocated hypocenters found in this study differs from that of former investigations at Popocatépetl, and gives new insights into the volcano's structures. Hypocenters occur mainly above 10 km depth, with a horizontal range of about 5 km. Features of the spatial distribution allow a tentative interpretation of several internal volcanic structures. Chief among these are branched dike complexes and different sized zones free of volcano-tectonic events, which are in turn surrounded by zones of magma-rock interaction, as indicated by the presence of

  11. The volcano in a gravel pit: Volcano monitoring meets experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scarlato, P. G.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Wagner, R.; Walk, F.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. During explosive eruptions, gas and pyroclasts are ejected at high speed over variable time spans and at variable intensity. As magma fragmentation inside a volcanic edifice defies direct observation, our mechanistic and quantitative understanding of the syn-eruptive processes is still incomplete. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we used a supra-disciplinary approach and combined experimental volcanology and volcano monitoring devices. We performed 34 field-based fragmentation experiments using cylindrical samples, drilled from natural volcanic rock samples. Decompression and particle ejection were monitored with (1) Doppler Radar (DR), (2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, (3) high-speed thermal camera, (4) acoustic and infrasound sensors and (5) pressure transducers. The experiments were performed at controlled sample porosity (25 to 75 vol.%) and size (60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively), confinement geometry, applied pressure (4 to 18 MPa) and temperature (25 and 850 °C). We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast ejection, giving coherent results of up to 130 m/s. Close and high-resolution volcano monitoring, spiced with results from our experiments, will allow for "calibrating volcanoes". An enhanced understanding of the pressurisation state of a volcano is an essential factor in ballistic hazard evaluation and eruption energy estimation and will contribute to adequate risk mitigation.

  12. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  13. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.

    2014-12-01

    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  14. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly generates a viscous plug, pressurizes the magma beneath the plug, and

  15. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Loa volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, M.D.; Kammer, D.P. (Chemistry Dept., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    In an effort to understand the temporal helium isotopic variations in Mauna Loa volcano, we have measured helium, strontium and lead isotopes in a suite of Mauna Loa lavas that span most of the subaerial eruptive history of the volcano. The lavas range in age from historical flows to Ninole basalt which are thought to be several hundred thousand years old. Most of the samples younger than 30 ka in age (Kau Basalt) are radiocarbon-dated flows, while the samples older than 30 ka are stratigraphically controlled (Kahuku and Ninole Basalt). The data reveal a striking change in the geochemistry of the lavas approximately 10 ka before present. The lavas older than 10 ka are characterized by high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ({approx equal} 16-20 times atmospheric), higher {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ({approx equal} 18.2), and lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr({approx equal} 0.70365) ratios than the younger Kau samples (having He, Pb and Sr ratios of approximately 8.5 x atmospheric, 18.1 and 0.70390, respectively). The historical lavas are distinct in having intermediate Sr and Pb isotopic compositions with {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios similar to the other young Kau basalt ({approx equal} 8.5 x atmospheric). The isotopic variations are on a shorter time scale (100 to 10,000 years) than has previously been observed for Hawaiian volcanoes, and demonstrate the importance of geochronology and stratigraphy to geochemical studies. The data show consistency between all three isotope systems, which suggests that the variations are not related to magma chamber degassing processes, and that helium is not decoupled from the other isotopes. However, the complex temporal evolution suggests that three distinct mantle sources are required to explain the isotopic data. Most of the Mauna Loa isotopic variations could be explained by mixing between a plume type source, similar to Loihi, and an asthenospheric source with helium isotopic composition close to MORB and elevated Sr isotopic values. (orig./WL).

  16. Multibeam Bathymetry of Haleakala Volcano, Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, B. W.; Robinson, J.

    2002-12-01

    The submarine northeast flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui was mapped in detail during the summers of 2001 and 2002 by a joint team from the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Hawaii, and the U.S. Geological Survey. JAMSTEC instruments used included SeaBeam 2112 hull-mounted multibeam sonar (bathymetry and sidescan imagery), manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and ROV Kaiko (bottom video, photographs and sampling of Hana Ridge), gravimeter, magnetometer, and single-channel seismic system. Hana Ridge, Haleakala's submarine east rift zone, is capped by coral-reef terraces for much of its length, which are flexurally tilted towards the axis of the Hawaiian Ridge and delineate former shorelines. Its deeper, more distal portion exhibits a pair of parallel, linear crests, studded with volcanic cones, that suggest lateral migration of the rift zone during its growth. The northern face of the arcuate ridge terminus is a landslide scar in one of these crests, while its southwestern prong is a small, constructional ridge. The Hana slump, a series of basins and ridges analogous to the Laupahoehoe slump off Kohala Volcano, Hawaii, lies north of Hana Ridge and extends down to the Hawaiian moat. Northwest of this slump region a small, dual-crested ridge strikes toward the Hawaiian moat and is inferred to represent a fossil rift zone, perhaps of East Molokai Volcano. A sediment chute along its southern flank has built a large submarine fan with a staircase of contour-parallel folds on its surface that are probably derived from slow creep of sediments down into the moat. Sediments infill the basins of the Hana slump [Moore et al., 1989], whose lowermost layers have been variously back-tilted by block rotation during slumping and flexural loading of the Hawaiian Ridge; the ridges define the outer edges of those down-dropped blocks, which may have subsided several kilometers. An apron of volcaniclastic debris shed from

  17. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma.

  18. ANCIENT VOLCANOES AND TECTONIC STRUCTURES OF A RELIEF OF MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the basic geological and morphological features of a volcanic relief of a surface of a planet Mars are considered. The volcanic relief of a planet represents relic ancient shield volcanoes, linear forms of volcanic mountains, areal and central lava flooding, radial and concentric breaks. Results of researches of morphology of volcanic and tectonic formations of a relief of Mars are given in article. On materials of shooting of a surface of Mars spacecrafts constructed hypsometric high-rise profiles of volcanoes and average steepness of slopes are defined. The relative age of volcanoes and volcanic plains is estimated on density of shock craters.

  19. Monitoring Thermal Activity of Eastern Anatolian Volcanoes Using MODIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Caner; Ulusoy, Inan

    2014-05-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument is used for imaging atmosphere, land and ocean with 36 bands. Both AQUA and TERRA platforms acquire 2 images daily (daytime and nighttime). Low temperature anomalies on volcanoes comprise important clues. Low temperature anomalies on Holocene volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia were investigated for these clues using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) images. A total of 16800 daily LST images dated between 2001 and 2012 have been processed using a code written in IDL (Interactive Data Language). Factors like shadow, ice/snow and clouds that are affecting the reflectance data are masked. The mask is derived from MODIS reflectance data state image. Various LST images are calculated: Two nested region of interest (ROI) windows (square/rectangular) have been selected on the images. First is the bigger window, which covers the whole area of the volcano (Total volcano area). Second one is a smaller window which circumference the summit (crater and/or caldera) of the volcano (Summit cone) where thermal output is generally higher when compared to the flanks. Two data sets have been calculated using the ROI's for each volcano. The first set contains daytime and nighttime raw data without any correction. The second set contains topographically corrected images; daytime images are corrected using Cosine and Minnaert methods and nighttime images are corrected using three step normalization method. Calculated surface temperatures (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean) are plotted annually. On Nemrut Volcano as an example, maximum and minimum temperatures are between 26.31oC and -44.87oC on nighttime data for twelve years period. Temperature difference between total volcano area ROI and summit cone ROI are calculated (ΔT). High ΔT indicates that there is an increase of temperature at the summit cone when compared to the total volcano area. STA/LTA (Short Term Average/Long Term Average) filter was applied to maximum temperature and

  20. Progresses in geology and hazards analysis of Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-quan; JIN Bo-lu; LIU Yong-shun

    2004-01-01

    A number of different lahars have been recognized from a systematic survey of a mapping project. The high setting temperature feature of the deposits indicates a relationship between the lahar and the Millennium eruption event of Tianchi Volcano. The lahars caused a dramatic disaster. Recognize of the huge avalanche scars and deposits around Tianchi Volcano imply another highly destructive hazard. Three types of different texture of the avalanche deposits have been recognized. There was often magma mixing processes during the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano, indicating a mixing and co-eruption regime of the eruption.

  1. Effects of press sizes on internal steam pressure during particleboard hot-pressing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael Birkeland; James M. Wescott; Jane O' Dell; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2009-01-01

    Internal steam pressure produced during the hot-pressing cycle in particleboard production is critical to the newly developed bond strength that will determine the overall performance of particleboard. The difference between the accumulation of internal steam pressure for small panels made in the laboratory and that of large commercial-sized panels makes it difficult...

  2. Actes illocutoires et discours de la presse ecrite (Illocutionary Acts and the Press).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Richard

    This study investigates the applicability of the speech act theory to written discourse, specifically that of the press. A survey of Searle's taxonomy leads to the suggestion that the constituent statements of most newspaper articles belong to the class of illocutionary acts he calls "representatives." In consideration of the basic characteristic…

  3. Actes illocutoires et discours de la presse ecrite (Illocutionary Acts and the Press).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Richard

    This study investigates the applicability of the speech act theory to written discourse, specifically that of the press. A survey of Searle's taxonomy leads to the suggestion that the constituent statements of most newspaper articles belong to the class of illocutionary acts he calls "representatives." In consideration of the basic characteristic…

  4. Volcano-tectonic evolution of the polygenetic Kolumbo submarine volcano/Santorini (Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Christian; Ruhnau, M.; Nomikou, P.

    2015-01-01

    Here we show for the first time the 3D-structural evolution of an explosive submarine volcano by means of reflection seismic interpretation. Four to five vertically stacked circular and cone-shaped units consisting mainly of volcaniclastics build the Kolumbo underwater volcano which experienced its first eruption > 70 ka ago and its last explosive eruption 1650 AD, 7 km NE of Santorini volcano (southern Aegean Sea). The summed volume of volcaniclastics is estimated to range between 13-22 km3. The entire Kolumbo volcanic complex has a height of ≥ 1 km and a diameter of ≥ 11 km. All volcaniclastic units reveal the same transparent reflection pattern strongly suggesting that explosive underwater volcanism was the prevalent process. Growth faults terminate upwards at the base of volcaniclastic units, thus representing a predictor to an eruption phase. Similarities in seismic reflection pattern between Kolumbo and near-by volcanic cones imply that the smaller cones evolved through explosive eruptions as well. Hence, the central Aegean Sea experienced several more explosive eruptions (≥ 23) than previously assumed, thus justifying further risk assessment. However, the eruption columns from the smaller volcanic cones did not reach the air and- consequently - no sub-aerial pyroclastic surge was created. The Anydros basin that hosts Kolumbo volcanic field opened incrementally NW to SE and parallel to the Pliny and Strabo trends during four major tectonic pulses prior to the onset of underwater volcanism.

  5. The Effects of the Teacher-Student Relationship and Academic Press on Student Engagement and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' perceptions of the school social environment and student outcomes, using U.S. data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (OECD, 2000). The sample comprised 3748 fifteen-year-old 9th and 10th graders from 147 schools. The two-dimensional approach of parenting typology was here…

  6. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  7. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    response program described in this chapter also improves the temporal resolution of the ASTER instrument. ASTER has been acquiring images of volcanic eruptions since soon after its launch in December 1999. An early example included the observations of the large pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. The first images in March 2000, just weeks after the eruption, revealed the extent, composition, and cooling history of this large deposit and of the active lava dome (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). The initial results from these early datasets spurred interest in using ASTER data for expanded volcano monitoring in the north Pacific. It also gave rise to the multi-year NASA-funded programs of rapid response scheduling and imaging throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatka and Kurile arcs. Since the formal establishment of the programs, the data have provided detailed descriptions of the eruptions of Augustine, Bezymianny, Kliuchevskoi and Sheveluch volcanoes over the past nine years (Wessels et al., in press; Carter et al., 2007, 2008; Ramsey et al., 2008; Rose and Ramsey, 2009). The initial research focus of this rapid response program was specifically on automating the ASTER sensor’s ability for targeted observational scheduling using the expedited data system. This urgent request protocol is one of the unique characteristics of ASTER. It provides a limited number of emergency observations, typically at a much-improved temporal resolution and quicker turnaround with data processing in the United States rather than in Japan. This can speed the reception of the processed data by several days to a week. The ongoing multi-agency research and operational collaboration has been highly successful. AVO serves as the primary source for status information on volcanic activity, working closely with the National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), military and other state and federal emergency services. Collaboration with the Russian

  8. Thermoelectric properties of pressed bismuth nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostler, Stephen R.; Qu, Yu Qiao; Demko, Michael T.; Abramson, Alexis R.; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Burda, Clemens

    2008-03-01

    Theory predicts a substantial increase in the dimensionless figure of merit as the dimensionality and characteristic size of a material are decreased. We explore the use of bismuth nanoparticles pressed into pellets as potential increased efficiency thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit of these pellets is determined by independently measuring the electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. The results from the nanoparticle sample are compared to microparticle-based samples. Both sample types show a slight reduction in thermal conductivity relative to bulk bismuth and a Seebeck coefficient near or slightly larger in magnitude than bulk bismuth. These changes are dwarfed by a hundred-fold decrease in the electrical conductivity due to porosity and an oxide layer on the particles. The low conductivity leads to figures of merit at least two orders of magnitude smaller than bulk bismuth. Oxide layer removal and reduced pellet porosity will be required to increase the figure of merit.

  9. Hot Isostatic Pressing of 60-Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varying the time, temperature and pressure during consolidation of 60-Nitinol (Nickel Titanium alloy) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) were examined. Six HIP cycles with a cycle time of either 2 or 20 hours, temperature of 900 or 1000 degrees Centigrade, and a chamber pressure of either 100 or 200 millipascals were used. The cycle representing the shortest cycle time at the highest temperature and pressure (2 hours/1000 degrees Centigrade/200 millipascals) produced material with the highest hardness (720 Vickers Pyramid Number (HV)). A modest increase in average grain size and significant porosity reduction were observed in material subjected to the longest cycle time at the highest temperature, regardless of the pressure applied. The intent of this study is to facilitate the technology transfer involved in the processing of this material.

  10. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This press conference, attended by representatives from the national, Florida, and aerospace media, addresses launch, weather, and safety issues related to Space Shuttle Discovery prior to its launch on the STS-114 Return to Flight mission. The Master of Ceremonies is George Diller from NASA Public Affairs, and the panelists are: Space Shuttle Program Manager Bill Parsons, ISS Program Manager (JSC) Bill Gerstenmaier, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager Wayne Hale, Director of Shuttle Processing Mike Wetmore, ISS Program Manager (JAXA) Dr. Kuniaki Shiraki, and Launch Weather Officer (USAF) Mindy Chavez. Questions included the following topics: predicted weather conditions at launch, contingency rescue plans, countdown procedures, and risk management, as well as implications of the Return to Flight for the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. STS-114: Post Launch Press Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs hosted this post launch press conference. Present were Mike Griffin, NASA Administrator; William Ready, Associate Administrator for Space Operations; Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager; Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director; and Wayne Hill, Deputy Program Manager for Space Shuttle Program. Each expressed thanks to all of NASA Officials and employees, contractors, vendors and the crew for their hard work the past two and a half years that resulted the successful and pristine launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. The Panel emphasized that through extensive technical analysis, thorough planning and tremendous amount of public support brought them full circle again to return to flight. Flight safety, debris during rocket separation, sensors, observations from the mission control, launch conditions were some of the topics discussed with the News media.

  12. STS-114: Discovery Launch Postponement Press Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This press briefing addresses the problem that occurred prior to the launch of the STS-114. Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs, introduces the panel which consists of Dr. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, William Readdy, Associate Administrator for Space Operations, Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Deputy Manager, Steve Poulas, Orbiter Project Manager, Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director, and Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager. Wayne Hale expresses that a problem occurred with one of the low level sensors in the hydrogen tank and that the cause of the problem must be identified and rectified. Steve Poulos talks about establishing a troubleshooting plan as a part of the scrub effort and Mike Leinbach describes the process of draining the external tank. Wayne Hale answers questions about the sensors and if the Space Shuttle Discovery is safe to fly and Steve Poulos answers questions about the possible suspects for this problem.

  13. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  14. Shallow velocity imaging of an active volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B.; Chardot, L.; Jolly, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    We use a linear array of temporary seismometers to derive a shear-wave velocity model of the upper ~1000m of the crater area of White Island, an active volcano in New Zealand. We use noise interferometry to generate dispersion curves and invert these dispersion curves to obtain a layered 1D model. By exploiting the varying interstation distances along the array, we are able to define a strong shallow impedance contrast in the upper 10 meters as well as a depth to 'effective' bedrock at about 100m. We limit the bandwidth of the measured dispersion using a 2-wave cycle approximation and construct a composite dispersion curve. We then invert the dispersion curves with two separate inversion algorithms in an effort to test the validity of using this broadband approach for monitoring active volcanoes. The first method is a non-linear approach and is useful when an a-priori starting model is poorly known or if a velocity inversion is likely. Unfortunately, this type of non-linear inversion is more sensitive to small perturbations in the recovered Green's Functions, which may be due to non-equipartitioning of the wavefield as well as to velocity changes. The second is a linearized and damped LSQR approach which we envision will be more useful for routine monitoring in situations in which the starting model is well defined. In this case, selective regularization can be used to stablize moving time-window inversion. Lastly, our results will be used as input for hydrothermal fluid flow modelling conducted in a concurrent study.

  15. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  16. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris

    2013-06-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  17. Embedded multiparametric system for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro A.; Meletlidis, Stavros; Lopez, Carmen; José Blanco, María

    2014-05-01

    A low cost and low power consumption multiparametric system designed for volcano monitoring is presented. Once tested with various sensors, at present it is installed in two locations in Tenerife, Canary Islands, acquiring and transmitting data in real time. The system is based on a commercial board (Raspberry Pi®, RPi®) that uses an embedded ARMTM processor with a Debian (Wheezy-Raspbian) Linux Operating System. This configuration permits different standard communication systems between devices as USB and ETHERNET, and also communication with integrated circuits is possible. The whole system includes this platform and self-developed hardware and software. Analog signals are acquired at an expansion board with an ADC converter with three 16 bits channels. This board, which is powered directly from the RPi®, provides timing to the sampling data using a Real Time Clock (RTC). Two serial protocols (I2C and SPI) are responsible for communications. Due to the influence of atmospheric phenomena on the volcano monitoring data, the system is complemented by a self-developed meteorological station based on ArduinoCC and low cost commercial sensors (atmospheric pressure, humidity and rainfall). It is powered with the RPi® and it uses a serial protocol for communications. Self-developed software run under Linux OS and handles configuration, signal acquisition, data storage (USB storage or SD card) and data transmission (FTP, web server). Remote configuration, data plotting and downloading is available through a web interface tool. Nowadays, the system is used for gravimetric and oceanic tides data acquisition in Tenerife and soon it will be applied for clinometric data.

  18. Fluctuation analysis of the hourly time variability of volcano-magnetic signals recorded at Mt. Etna Volcano, Sicily (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currenti, Gilda [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania (Italy); Del Negro, Ciro [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lapenna, Vincenzo [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, IMAA-CNR, C.da S.Loja 5, 85050 Tito, PZ (Italy); Telesca, Luciano [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, IMAA-CNR, C.da S.Loja 5, 85050 Tito, PZ (Italy)]. E-mail: ltelesca@imaa.cnr.it

    2005-03-01

    The time-correlation properties in the hourly time variability of volcano-magnetic data measured at the active volcano Mt. Etna, Sicily (southern Italy), are investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). DFA is a data processing method that allows for the detection of scaling behaviors in observational time series even in the presence of nonstationarities. The procedure adopted has revealed unambiguous link between the dynamics of the measured data and the recent eruptive episode of the volcano occurred on October 27, 2002.

  19. Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of magma supply, storage, and transport are among the most critical parameters governing volcanic activity, yet they remain largely unconstrained because all three processes are hidden beneath the surface. Hawaiian volcanoes, particularly Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, offer excellent prospects for studying subsurface magmatic processes, owing to their accessibility and frequent eruptive and intrusive activity. In addition, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, founded in 1912, maintains long records of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data. As a result, Hawaiian volcanoes have served as both a model for basaltic volcanism in general and a starting point for many studies of volcanic processes.

  20. Integrated Library System (ILS) Challenges and Opportunities: A Survey of U.S. Academic Libraries with Migration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghong

    2009-01-01

    An online survey was sent to academic libraries and consortia with an integrated library system (ILS) migration project, based on review of press releases from major U.S. ILS vendors. This study takes a systematic approach to provide a snapshot of the academic ILS market and key factors affecting the outcome of an ILS migration project. It reveals…

  1. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  2. Distribution of acidic groundwater around quaternary volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asamori, Koichi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2002-06-01

    One important key issue in the understanding of the long-term stability of the geological environment is the influence of magmatism. In this study, we examined the general spatial distribution of acidic groundwater around Quaternary volcanoes in Japan using a database of groundwater geochemistry. The results may be summarized as follows: Acidic groundwater with pH < 4.8 mainly occur in present volcanic regions and are distributed from several kilometers to about 20 km from Quaternary volcanoes. The pH value of groundwater tends to decrease with increasing distance from a volcano. However, these results may be affected by inhomogeneity of groundwater data distribution and the characteristic activity of each volcano. In order to assess a specific volcanic region, a detailed analysis that considers volcanic activity, using a data set with high spatial density is necessary. (author)

  3. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  4. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  5. Mount Rainier: living safely with a volcano in your backyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Scott, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Majestic Mount Rainier soars almost 3 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level and looms over the expanding suburbs of Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. Each year almost two million visitors come to Mount Rainier National Park to admire the volcano and its glaciers, alpine meadows, and forested ridges. However, the volcano's beauty is deceptive - U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research shows that Mount Rainier is one of our Nation's most dangerous volcanoes. It has been the source of countless eruptions and volcanic mudflows (lahars) that have surged down valleys on its flanks and buried broad areas now densely populated. To help people live more safely with the volcano, USGS scientists are working closely with local communities, emergency managers, and the National Park Service.

  6. Coping with Academic Stressors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-20

    trends in theory and research (Vol. 2) N.Y.: Academic Press, 1972. Sarason, 1. G. Te’,, anxiety, attention and the general problem of anxiety. In C. D...34Gordon Allport could best be described as a: A. Freudian B. Gestalt Psychologist C. Behaviorist D. None of the above Lets see, Allport did a lot of...writing about traits of personality, how about A. No, Freud believed In psychoanalytic principles. Freudians aren’t big on the idea of traits. B. Gestalt

  7. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  8. Sulfur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R E; Jepsen, A

    1973-11-01

    The first extensive measurements by remote-sensing correlation spectrometry of the sulfur dioxide emitted by volcanic plumes indicate that on the order of 10(3) metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas enter the atmosphere daily from Central American volcanoes. Extrapolation gives a minimum estimate of the annual amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from the world's volcanoes of about 10(7) metric tons.

  9. Three-dimensional shallow velocity structure beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shuei-Huei; Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Gung, Yuancheng; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-01

    Based on its numerous historical explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of millions, Taal Volcano is one of the most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. To provide better investigation on local seismicity and seismic structure beneath Taal Volcano, we deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of eight stations from March 2008 to March 2010. In the preliminary data processing stage, three periods showing linear time-drifting of internal clock were clearly identified from noise-derived empirical Green's functions. The time-drifting errors were corrected prior to further data analyses. By using VELEST, 2274 local earthquakes were manually picked and located. Two major earthquake groups are noticed, with one lying beneath the western shore of Taal Lake showing a linear feature, and the other spreading around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island at shallower depths. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using the LOTOS algorithm. Some interesting features are revealed from the tomographic results, including a solidified magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, indicated by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a large potential hydrothermal reservoir beneath the center of Taal Volcano Island, suggested by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Furthermore, combining earthquake distributions and tomographic images, we suggest potential existence of a hydrothermal reservoir beneath the southwestern corner of Taal Lake, and a fluid conduit extending to the northwest. These seismic features have never been proposed in previous studies, implying that new hydrothermal activity might be formed in places away from the historical craters on Taal Volcano Island.

  10. The Curious Case of Academic Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Quinn Dudley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent controversy over The Edwin Mellen Press lawsuit against McMaster University librarian Dale Askey is considered a symptom of a larger problem: the unsustainable demands from the academy itself which have created a market for publishers like Edwin Mellen. The overproduction of doctorates combined with the relentless demand faculties place upon their members to produce publishable research — as well as sometimes rigid gatekeeping of acceptable scholarship — have contributed to the creation of a lucrative market for “alternative” publishing venues — many of them of questionable quality and reputation. Until academic culture changes to admit fewer doctoral students and to judge quality over quantity when conducting tenure reviews, the market for academic publishing will only continue to grow, thereby presenting librarians with an increasingly complex collection management problem.

  11. Geomorphometric comparative analysis of Latin-American volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiz, Sergio; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Roverato, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    The geomorphometric classifications of three groups of volcanoes situated in the Andes Cordillera, Central America, and Mexico are performed and compared. Input data are eight local topographic gradients (i.e. elevation differences) obtained by processing each volcano raster ASTER-GDEM data. The pixels of each volcano DEM have been classified into 17 classes through a K-means clustering procedure following principal component analysis of the gradients. The spatial distribution of the classes, representing homogeneous terrain units, is shown on thematic colour maps, where colours are assigned according to mean slope and aspect class values. The interpretation of the geomorphometric classification of the volcanoes is based on the statistics of both gradients and morphometric parameters (slope, aspect and elevation). The latter were used for a comparison of the volcanoes, performed through classes' slope/aspect scatterplots and multidimensional methods. In this paper, we apply the mentioned methodology on 21 volcanoes, randomly chosen from Mexico to Patagonia, to show how it may contribute to detect geomorphological similarities and differences among them. As such, both its descriptive and graphical abilities may be a useful complement to future volcanological studies.

  12. Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2006-06-01

    Effective natural hazard mitigation requires that the science surrounding geophysical events be thoroughly explored. With millions of people living on the flanks of volcanoes, understanding the parameters that effect volcanic behavior is critically important. In particular, basements can influence the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and landslides. This control by the substrate on volcano behavior usually has been considered questionable or less important than the conditions of the deep magma source. However, due to recent findings, this view is changing, specifically with regard to approaches in assessing volcanic hazards. The November 2005 AGU Chapman Conference ``Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior'' brought together geologists and geophysicists from North and South America, Europe, and Asia to discuss the results of their research on the reciprocal effects of the interaction between volcanos and their basements. The conference also highlighted the importance of holding Chapman conferences in developing countries such as the Philippines because many hazardous volcanos are situated in these countries. Apart from having natural field laboratories, these are the very same places that need to promote scientific discourse on volcano research, which can lead to more effective hazard mitigation programs.

  13. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island

  14. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Study of the petrology of Hawaiian volcanoes, in particular the historically active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, has long been of worldwide scientific interest. When Dr. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in 1912, detailed observations on basaltic activity at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes increased dramatically. The period from 1912 to 1958 saw a gradual increase in the collection and analysis of samples from the historical eruptions of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa and development of the concepts needed to evaluate them. In a classic 1955 paper, Howard Powers introduced the concepts of magnesia variation diagrams, to display basaltic compositions, and olivine-control lines, to distinguish between possibly comagmatic and clearly distinct basaltic lineages. In particular, he and others recognized that Kīlauea and Mauna Loa basalts must have different sources.

  15. Press self-regulation in Britain: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the history of press self-regulation in Britain, from the 1947 Ross Commission to the 2012 Leveson Inquiry Commission. It considers the history of the Press Council and the Press Complaints Commission, analysing the ways they developed, their work, and how they have reached their current non-status. It is argued that the existing situation in Britain is far from satisfactory, and that the press should advance more elaborate mechanisms of self-control, establishing a new regulatory body called the Public and Press Council that will be anchored in law, empowering the new regulator with greater and unprecedented authority, and equipping it with substantive sanctioning abilities. The Public and Press Council should be independent and effective, with transparent policies, processes and responsibilities. Its adjudication should be made in accordance with a written, detailed Code of Practice.

  16. Direct drive digital servo press with high parallel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chikara; Yabe, Jun; Endou, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Direct drive digital servo press has been developed as the university-industry joint research and development since 1998. On the basis of this result, 4-axes direct drive digital servo press has been developed and in the market on April of 2002. This servo press is composed of 1 slide supported by 4 ball screws and each axis has linearscale measuring the position of each axis with high accuracy less than μm order level. Each axis is controlled independently by servo motor and feedback system. This system can keep high level parallelism and high accuracy even with high eccentric load. Furthermore the 'full stroke full power' is obtained by using ball screws. Using these features, new various types of press forming and stamping have been obtained by development and production. The new stamping and forming methods are introduced and 'manufacturing' need strategy of press forming with high added value and also the future direction of press forming are also introduced.

  17. Press conference of the 15 october 2002; Conference de presse du 15 octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Facing the public hostile purposes of october 2002, concerning the renewable energies, Andre Antolini, President of the renewable energies syndicate, proposed a press conference to give information, data and realizations on the renewable energies. The text of the conference is presented, as data on employment, biofuels, the wind energy, the hydro-electricity the greenhouse effect fight, the public opinion, the solar heating, the photovoltaic and the future projects and electric power supply for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  18. Concentration in the French Press Media Industry: Quantitative Analysis. The Case of the French Press Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Badillo, Patrick-Yves; Lesourd, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at studying the concentration of the French press industry, using as quantitative benchmarks several concentration indexes, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, and the diversity index adapted to the media sector recently introduced by Noam (2003). This Noam index has, so far, not been used extensively, at least to our knowledge. Our paper is organised as follows. The second part begins by a media industry-oriented discussion various statistical indexes of concentration, and...

  19. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  20. Selling a Story: How to Write a Successful Press Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Press releases are an important part of communicating new discoveries with the general public. However, if they are confusing or difficult to read then they are unlikely to be picked up by media outlets. This article details how to create a successful press release by addressing a series of points: learning how to identify the audience; writing text that is both eye catching and clear; including multimedia and contact details; getting your press release to the media; and timing.

  1. Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride by Guangli Hu, C. Q. Chen, K. T. Ramesh, and J. W. McCauley ARL-RP-0487...Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-RP-0487 June 2014 Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2010–January 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride 5a

  2. 2006-2008 Eruptions and Volcano Hazards Of Soputan Volcano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendratno, K.; Pallister, J. S.; McCausland, W. A.; Kristianto, M.; Bina, F. R.; Carn, S. A.; Haerani, N.; Griswold, J.; Keeler, R.

    2010-12-01

    Soputan is a basalt volcano located in North Sulawesi near the southern margin of the Quaternary Tondano Caldera. Unusual for a basalt volcano, Soputan produces summit lava domes and explosive eruptions, as well as voluminous basaltic tephra deposits and lava flows. Soputan erupted five times during 2006-2008: on 14 December, 2006, 12-15 August, 2007, 25-26 October, 2007, 5-6 June, 2008, and 5-6 October, 2008. The 2006-2007 eruptions destroyed a lava dome at the volcano’s summit and exposed the conduit, resulting in Vulcanian eruptions and St. Vincent type pyroclastic flows from an open vent structure. We used high-resolution satellite images and digital elevation models to make photo-geologic maps of the deposits from the 2006, 2007 and 2008 eruptions, to estimate volumes of deposits using GIS and to model potential flow hazards. In March, 2008 and in March 2009 we conducted reconnaissance geologic field investigations at Soputan. This work was done to field-check our photo-geologic mapping, to reconstruct the sequence of eruptive events in 2006-2008 and to collect samples for geochemical and petrographic analysis. We also analyzed seismic records and SO2 emission data from the eruptions and we interpreted these data in the context of our geologic and geochemical data to provide insights into the ascent and degassing of magmas. On the basis of the eruptive history and modeling of potential lahar inundation areas we present an updated assessment of volcano hazards and a forecast for future eruptions at Soputan. Our analysis of field and petrologic data indicates that Soputan is an open-system volcano, which taps basalt magma from great depth, apparently with little shallow storage of this magma. Degassing of the magma as it rises within the conduit results in growth of micro-phenocrysts, evolution of the matrix melt and a commensurate increase in the viscosity of the magma. This, in turn, results in growth of lava domes and more explosive eruptions than are

  3. Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Hayman, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes host major ore deposits but have been largely ignored in the volcanology literature, especially for the diatreme portion of the system. Here, we use two Mexican tuff rings as analogs for the maar ejecta ring, new observations from one diatreme, and the economic geology literature on four other mineralized felsic maar-diatremes to produce an integrated picture of this type of volcano. The ejecta rings are up to 50 m+ thick and extend laterally up to ˜1.5 km from the crater edge. In two Mexican examples, the lower part of the ejecta ring is dominated by pyroclastic surge deposits with abundant lithic clasts (up to 80% at Hoya de Estrada). These deposits display low-angle cross-bedding, dune bedforms, undulating beds, channels, bomb sags, and accretionary lapilli and are interpreted as phreatomagmatic. Rhyolitic juvenile clasts at Tepexitl have only 0-25% vesicles in this portion of the ring. The upper parts of the ejecta ring sequences in the Mexican examples have a different character: lithic clasts can be less abundant, the grain size is typically coarser, and the juvenile clasts can be different in character (with some more vesicular fragments). Fragmentation was probably shallower at this stage. The post-eruptive maar crater infill is known at Wau and consists of reworked pyroclastic deposits as well as lacustrine and other sediments. Underneath are bedded upper diatreme deposits, interpreted as pyroclastic surge and fall deposits. The upper diatreme and post-eruptive crater deposits have dips larger than 30° at Wau, with approximately centroclinal attitudes. At still lower structural levels, the diatreme pyroclastic infill is largely unbedded; Montana Tunnels and Kelian are good examples of this. At Cerro de Pasco, the pyroclastic infill seems bedded despite about 500 m of post-eruptive erosion relative to the pre-eruptive surface. The contact between the country rocks and the diatreme is sometimes characterized by country rock

  4. WordPress all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa; Palmer, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A convenient how-to guide for maximizing your WordPress experience. WordPress is a state-of-the-art blog publishing platform with nearly ten million active installations. Eight minibooks provide you with expanded coverage of the most important topics to the WordPress community, such as WordPress basics, theme designs, plug-in development, social media integration, SEO, customization, and running multiple sites. Veteran author Lisa Sabin-Wilson leads an authoritative team of authors who offer their unique knowledge and skillset while sharing invaluable advice for maximizing your site's potentia

  5. Legal Protection To The Infotainment Of Press Development In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Fuadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the socio-political life the press has become an integral part in democratic life. The press has become one of the means for citizens to bring their thoughts and opinions. Nowadays there is a tendency to increase the quantity of press publications sharp but not accompanied by a statement of the quality of journalism. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the infotainment liability as a mass media in order to construct a freedom of the press principle which has legitimacy within the legal system of the press in Indonesia. The type of research used in this paper is normative research or also known as doctrinal research by reviewing the legal protection to the infotainment as a mass media in Indonesia. The outcomes of the research indicate that the role of infotainment in the legal system of the press in Indonesia refers to the legal construction of institutional and infotainment organizers itself. Legal liability of Infotainment essentially can be seen from the press obligations stipulated in the Law No. 40 of 1999 regarding the Press Law No. 32 of 2002 regarding Broadcasting as well as the Journalists Code of Ethics which support freedom of the press and expression.

  6. Autonomy supported, learner-controlled or system-controlled learning in hypermedia environments and the influence of academic self-regulation style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, C. J. J., Kester, L., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Martens, R. (in press). Autonomy supportive, learner-controlled or system-controlled learning in hypermedia environments and the influence of academic self-regulation style. Interactive Learning Environments.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Volcanoes at Convergent Margins on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R. V.; de Silva, S. L.; Meyers, M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most obvious patterns seen on the surface of the terrestrial planets is the distribution of volcanoes. On Earth, most volcanoes are distributed in volcanic “arcs” that signal the primary relationship between subduction and volcanism. The distributions of major composite volcanoes in volcanic arcs are thought to reflect the primary magmatic pathways from source to surface. Understanding these patterns therefore may allow fundamental controls on the organization of magmatic plumbing in arcs to be identified. Using a control dataset from the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes (de Silva and Francis, 1991; Springer-Verlag) we have examined several popular approaches to spatial analysis of volcano distribution in several volcanic arcs (Aleutian, Alaskan, Central American, Northern and Southern volcanic zones of the Andes). Restricting our analysis to major volcanoes of similar age, we find that while clustering is visually obvious in many volcanic arcs it has been rejected as a primary signal by previous analytical efforts (e.g. Bremont d'Ars et al (1995)). We show that the fractal box or grid counting method used previously does not detect clusters and statistical methods such as the Kernel Density Analysis or Single-link Cluster Analysis are better suited for cluster detection. Utilizing both ARC GIS and Matlab to conduct density analyses in combination with statistical software SPlus for the appropriate hypothesis testing methods such as the pooled variance t-test, the Welch Modified two sample t-test, and the f-test we find evidence of clustering in four volcanic arcs whose crustal thickness is greater than or equal to 40 kilometres (Central America, CVZ, NVZ, SVZ). We suggest that clustering is the surface manifestation of upper crustal diffusion of primary magmatic pathways, which in other places manifests as a single volcano. The inter-cluster distance is a thus reflection of primary magmatic pathways and thus equivalent to inter-volcano distance

  8. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  9. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  10. [Gender and health in the daily press].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gemma; Alonso, Inma; Tomás, Sonia; Guerrero, Marcela; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2004-05-01

    To have a better understanding on the role of the press in the communication of gender and health issues, the content of the five most spread newspapers in Spain was studied (El País, ABC, El Mundo, La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Catalunya) for five years (1997-2001) and the electronic version of The New York Times of the period 1990-1999. An unequal distribution was observed in the responsibility as for the information related to three aspects: positions of responsibility in the newspapers (out of 71 main posts, 67 were men and 4 women); the authors of the articles on health issues (61.2% men and 38,8% women, among the articles that include the author) and the mentioned information sources (81.43% men and 17.77% women). Among the 120 health issues that were covered during the period of the study, only 20 explicitly mentioned a woman (16.67%). Those subjects that included more frequently explicit references were: ablation, iatrogenics, sterilization, sexual and reproductive health, incontinence, beauty and domestic violence. The analysis of the approach to these subjects helped to identify the stereotypes of gender inequality, in the language as well as in the approach.

  11. [Health information in the daily local press].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta Zamalloa, L; Najarro Ajuria, G; Mendíbil Crespo, I; Galán Morales, F; Garay Narvarte, F J

    1998-04-15

    To know how much health-related information is published in the daily local press, type of information; pathologies; practical help offered, and sources. Crossover descriptive study. Community. Health articles (events and publicity excluded) published in the newspapers of Bizkaia: Deia, Egin, Egunkaria, El Correo and El Mundo; sample included all issues from one fortnight of June and one fortnight of September of 1996. 501 articles, which occupied 1.57% of the impressed surface, were published. 90% of the issues had health articles. 19.8% appeared in once-weekly health sections. Subjects considered as health culture were 49.9% scientific and technical information and 9.8% health habits and vaccinations. When compared with the rest of the newspaper, health sections gave more explicit advice (p = 0.04) and diferred in sources of information (p < 0.01). Health articles are almost daily published. The most frequent type was the spread of scientific and technical information. Current information topics are dominant. A few articles give explicit advice or referred to health habits. Acknowledgement of the sources could be improved. It would be desirable to investigate the quality of contents.

  12. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Katharine F.; Cameron, Cheryl; Coombs, Michelle L.; Diefenbach, Angie; Lopez, Taryn; McNutt, Steve; Neal, Christina; Payne, Allison; Power, John A.; Schneider, David J.; Scott, William E.; Snedigar, Seth; Thompson, Glenn; Wallace, Kristi; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Webley, Peter; Werner, Cynthia A.; Schaefer, Janet R.

    2012-01-01

    Redoubt Volcano, an ice-covered stratovolcano on the west side of Cook Inlet, erupted in March 2009 after several months of escalating unrest. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano shares many similarities with eruptions documented most recently at Redoubt in 1966–68 and 1989–90. In each case, the eruptive phase lasted several months, consisted of multiple ashproducing explosions, produced andesitic lava and tephra, removed significant amounts of ice from the summit crater and Drift glacier, generated lahars that inundated the Drift River valley, and culminated with the extrusion of a lava dome in the summit crater. Prior to the 2009 explosive phase of the eruption, precursory seismicity lasted approximately six months with the fi rst weak tremor recorded on September 23, 2008. The first phreatic explosion was recorded on March 15, and the first magmatic explosion occurred seven days later, at 22:34 on March 22. The onset of magmatic explosions was preceded by a strong, shallow swarm of repetitive earthquakes that began about 04:00 on March 20, 2009, less than three days before an explosion. Nineteen major ash-producing explosions generated ash clouds that reached heights between 17,000 ft and 62,000 ft (5.2 and 18.9 km) ASL. During ash fall in Anchorage, the Ted Stevens International Airport was shut down for 20 hours, from ~17:00 on March 28 until 13:00 on March 29. On March 23 and April 4, lahars with fl ow depths to 10 m in the upper Drift River valley inundated parts of the Drift River Terminal (DRT). The explosive phase ended on April 4 with a dome collapse at 05:58. The April 4 ash cloud reached 50,000 ft (15.2 km) and moved swiftly to the southeast, depositing up to 2 mm of ash fall in Homer, Anchor Point, and Seldovia. At least two and possibly three lava domes grew and were destroyed by explosions prior to the final lava dome extrusion that began after the April 4 event. The fi nal lava dome ceased growth by July 1, 2009, with an estimated volume of 72

  13. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  14. Structural and Electrical Properties of PZT/PVDF Piezoelectric Nanocomposites Prepared by Cold-Press and Hot-Press Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De-Qing; WANG Da-Wei; YUAN Jie; ZHAO Quan-Liang; WANG Zhi-Ying; CAO Mao-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 0-3 PZT/PVDF piezoelectric composites are prepared separately by hot-press and cold-press processes. The effects of the PZT content and the shaping-process on the composites are studied. The experimental results indicate that composites with 70% PZT nanopowders prepared by the hot-press method exhibit excellent piezo-electric and dielectric properties. The maxima of daa and e of the composites prepared by hot-press method are about 30% and 65% higher than those prepared by the cold-press method, respectively. This is mainly attributed to the favourable coupling of the two materials in the process of the hot press and the formation of the β-type PVDF, which possesses better electric properties.

  15. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives.

  16. Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Yuri; Fischer, Tobias P.; Pokrovsky, Boris; Sano, Yuji; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Macias, Jose Luis

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano ejected more than 1km3 of anhydrite-bearing trachyandesite pyroclastic material to form a new 1-km-wide and 300-m-deep crater and uncovered the upper 500m of an active volcano-hydrothermal system. Instead of the weak boiling-point temperature fumaroles of the former lava dome, a vigorously boiling crater spring now discharges / 20kg/s of Cl-rich ( 15 000mg/kg) and sulphur-poor ( / 200mg/kg of SO4), almost neutral (pHup to 6.7) water with an isotopic composition close to that of subduction-type magmatic water (δD=-15‰, δ18O=+6.5‰). This spring, as well as numerous Cl-free boiling springs discharging a mixture of meteoric water with fumarolic condensates, feed the crater lake, which, compared with values in 1983, is now much more diluted ( 3000mg/kg of Cl vs 24 030mg/kg), less acidic (pH=2.6 vs 0.56) and contains much lower amounts of S ( / 200mg/kg of SO4, vs 3550mg/kg) with δ34S=0.5-4.2‰ (+17‰ in 1983). Agua Caliente thermal waters, on the southeast slope of the volcano, have an outflow rate of approximately 100kg/s of 71 °C Na-Ca-Cl water and are five times more concentrated than before the eruption (B. R. Molina, unpublished data). Relative N2, Ar and He gas concentrations suggest extensional tectonics for the El Chichón volcanic centre. The 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne ratios in gases from the crater fumaroles (7.3Ra, 2560) and Agua Caliente hot springs (5.3Ra, 44) indicate a strong magmatic contribution. However, relative concentrations of reactive species are typical of equilibrium in a two-phase boiling aquifer. Sulphur and C isotopic data indicate highly reducing conditions within the system, probably associated with the presence of buried vegetation resulting from the 1982 eruption. All Cl-rich waters at El Chichón have a common source. This water has the appearence of a "partially matured" magmatic fluid: condensed magmatic vapour neutralized by interaction with fresh volcaniclastic deposits and depleted in S

  17. Academic publishing in Portugal: threats and major opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfim Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the current state of scientific publication in Portugal, with reference to the impact of the open access (OA policies of commercial and academic publishers. It then explores the relationship between academic publishing and institutional repositories, discussing the way they should complement one another, taking as reference the activities of the Portuguese Association of Higher Education Publishers (APEES. Final remarks deal more specifically with the UC Digitalis project from Coimbra University Press (CUP, and the way it is committed to the goal of fostering science produced in Portuguese-speaking countries.

  18. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  19. Hydrothermal reservoir beneath Taal Volcano (Philippines): Implications to volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, T.; Alanis, P. B.; Yamaya, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Bornas, M. V.; Cordon, J. M.; Puertollano, J.; Clarito, C. J.; Hashimoto, T.; Mogi, T.; Sasai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Taal Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. The first recorded eruption was in 1573. Since then it has erupted 33 times resulting in thousands of casualties and large damages to property. In 1995, it was declared as one of the 15 Decade Volcanoes. Beginning in the early 1990s it has experienced several phases of abnormal activity, including seismic swarms, episodes of ground deformation, ground fissuring and hydrothermal activities, which continues up to the present. However, it has been noted that past historical eruptions of Taal Volcano may be divided into 2 distinct cycles, depending on the location of the eruption center, either at Main Crater or at the flanks. Between 1572-1645, eruptions occurred at the Main Crater, in 1707 to 1731, they occurred at the flanks. In 1749, eruptions moved back to the Main Crater until 1911. During the 1965 and until the end of the 1977 eruptions, eruptive activity once again shifted to the flanks. As part of the PHIVOLCS-JICA-SATREPS Project magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric surveys were conducted on Volcano Island in March 2011 and March 2012. Two-dimensional (2-D) inversion and 3-D forward modeling reveals a prominent and large zone of relatively high resistivity between 1 to 4 kilometers beneath the volcano almost directly beneath the Main Crater, surrounded by zones of relatively low resistivity. This anomalous zone of high resistivity is hypothesized to be a large hydrothermal reservoir filled with volcanic fluids. The presence of this large hydrothermal reservoir could be related to past activities of Taal Volcano. In particular we believe that the catastrophic explosion described during the 1911 eruption was the result of the hydrothermal reservoir collapsing. During the cycle of Main Crater eruptions, this hydrothermal reservoir is depleted, while during a cycle of flank eruptions this reservoir is replenished with hydrothermal fluids.

  20. SUBMARINE VOLCANO CHARACTERISTICS IN SABANG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  1. Research drilling in young silicic volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-06-30

    Magmatic activity, and particularly silicic magmatic activity, is the fundamental process by which continental crust forms and evolves. The transport of magma from deep crustal reservoirs to the surface is a neglected but important aspect of magmatic phenomena. It encompasses problems of eruptive behavior, hydrothermal circulation, and ore deposition, and must be understood in order to properly interpret deeper processes. Drilling provides a means for determining the relationship of shallow intrusive processes to eruption processes at young volcanoes where eruptions are best understood. Drilling also provides a means for directly observing the processes of heat and mass transfer by which recently emplaced intrusions approach equilibrium with their new environment. Drilling in the Inyo Chain, a 600-year-old chain of volcanic vents in California, has shown the close relationship of silicic eruption to shallow dike emplacement, the control of eruptive style by shallow porous-flow degassing, the origin of obsidian by welding, the development of igneous zonation by viscosity segregation, and the character and size of conduits in relation to well-understood magmatic and phreatic eruptions. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Deep Stimulation at Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Garrison, G. H.; Nordin, Y.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is a 5 year field project designed to demonstrate recent technological advances for engineered geothermal systems (EGS) development. Advances in reservoir stimulation, diverter, and monitoring are being tested in a hot (>300 C), dry well (NWG 55-29) drilled in 2008. These technologies could reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The project began in 2010 with two years of permitting, technical planning, and development of a project-specific Induced Seismicity Mitigation Plan (ISMP), and is funded in part by the Department of Energy. In 2012, the well was hydraulically stimulated with water at pressures below the principle stress for 7 weeks, resulting in hydroshearing. The depth of stimulation was successfully shifted by injection of two pills of Thermally-degradable Zonal Isolation Materials (TZIMs). Injectivity changes, thermal profiles and seismicity indicate that fracture permeability in well NWG 55-29 was enhanced during stimulation. This work successfully demonstrated the viability of large-volume (40,000 m3), low-pressure stimulation coupled with non-mechanical diverter technology, and microseismic monitoring for reservoir mapping. Further analysis and field testing in 2013 indicates further stimulation will be required in order to develop an economically viable reservoir, and is scheduled in 2014. The 2014 stimulation will use improved stimulation and monitoring equipment, better knowledge based on 2012 outcomes, and create a deep EGS reservoir in the hottest part of the wellbore.

  3. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Stimulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenton T. Cladouhos, Matthew Clyne, Maisie Nichols,; Susan Petty, William L. Osborn, Laura Nofziger

    2011-10-23

    As a part of Phase I of the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration project, several data sets were collected to characterize the rock volume around the well. Fracture, fault, stress, and seismicity data has been collected by borehole televiewer, LiDAR elevation maps, and microseismic monitoring. Well logs and cuttings from the target well (NWG 55-29) and core from a nearby core hole (USGS N-2) have been analyzed to develop geothermal, geochemical, mineralogical and strength models of the rock matrix, altered zones, and fracture fillings (see Osborn et al., this volume). These characterization data sets provide inputs to models used to plan and predict EGS reservoir creation and productivity. One model used is AltaStim, a stochastic fracture and flow software model developed by AltaRock. The software's purpose is to model and visualize EGS stimulation scenarios and provide guidance for final planning. The process of creating an AltaStim model requires synthesis of geologic observations at the well, the modeled stress conditions, and the stimulation plan. Any geomechanical model of an EGS stimulation will require many assumptions and unknowns; thus, the model developed here should not be considered a definitive prediction, but a plausible outcome given reasonable assumptions. AltaStim is a tool for understanding the effect of known constraints, assumptions, and conceptual models on plausible outcomes.

  4. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  5. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  6. Lessons learnt from Volcanoes' Night I-II-III - a Marie Curie Researchers' Night project series dedicated to geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseko, Adrienn; Bodo, Balazs; Ortega Rodriguez, Ariadna

    2017-04-01

    European Researchers' Nights (ERNs) are a pan-European series of events funded by the European Commission, organised on the last Friday of every September since 2005. ERNs mobilise scientific, academic and research organisations with the aim of giving the public the opportunity to meet researchers in an informal setting. The overall objective of ERNs is to achieve better awareness among the general public concerning the importance of science in everyday life and to combat stereotypes about researchers. The longer-term strategic objective of ERNs is to encourage young people to embark on a scientific career. Volcanoes' Night I-II-III has been an ERN project series funded by the EC FP7 and H2020 programmes between 2012-2015 (EC contract No. 316558, 610050, 633310, www.nochedevolcanes.es). The concept of Volcanoes' Night was created by researchers from the Canary Islands, Spain, where both the researchers and the public live in the close vicinity of volcanoes. The objective of the project was to use volcanoes as a background against which the role of geoscientists could be explained to the public. The scope of Volcanoes' Night was exclusively dedicated to geoscience, and in this respect it stands out among all other ERN projects, which are always more general in scope. During its four years of EC funding, the geographical coverage of Volcanoes' Night expanded substantially from a single location in 2012 (Fuencaliente de La Palma, Spain) to a dozen locations in 2015, mobilising multiple scientific organisations, researchers, and public authorities for engagement with the public. The last EC-funded project, Volcanoes' Night III, which was organised in 2014 and 2015, engaged approximately 21,000 visitors through its outreach activities, which included experiments, science cafés, volcano movies, My Day presentations, excursions, science workshops and more. The impact of the project was carefully assessed via surveys and social studies during its lifetime, and an Impact

  7. Letting The Nasa Press Engine Work For You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.

    2006-09-01

    You have an amazing result based on NASA data or a NASA mission, you have written your seminal paper and submitted it to your favorite journal. You believe it has press potential and maybe you've even gotten help from your PR folks in writing a press release. Now you would really like NASA to issue this as a press release. But how do you do that? This presentation will illustrate the steps required to engage NASA in helping promote your story. What are NASA's requirements for newsworthiness? Should your news be released as a web feature story or in the local media? Does your news rise to the level of a full-blown press conference or will it be a media teleconference? How do you obtain approval for a NASA press event? Once your result is scheduled to be issued as a press release, how can you improve your chances of getting the best possible coverage for your story? I will discuss the NASA press process and suggest how to consider factors like timing, working with your collaborating institutions in an efficient way, and not letting the cat out of the bag until the press event.

  8. University Presses See Opportunities in Shakeup in the Publishing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1997-01-01

    Recent closings in the commercial publishing industry and reduction in serious nonfiction publications may open doors for university presses to fill the gap. University presses are already anticipating the changing market, reviewing book lists, and looking at new areas for publication development. Changes in the commercial publishing industry are…

  9. Coeducation and the Women's Rights Press, 1849-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Patricia Smith

    The role of the women's rights press in reporting on and advancing coeducation in the United States is considered. The women's rights press was linked to the women's rights movement and articulated the goal that women should enjoy full participation in all aspects of U.S. life, including higher education. This analysis is based on 12 of the most…

  10. Criticism of the Press: Its Social, Psychological and Political Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    This study examines data from several national polls about press coverage during the Watergate scandal, in order to assess the origins of press criticism. The polls were conducted between 28 September and 6 October 1973, during June 1974, and in August 1974. The data suggest that political variables--particularly support of Nixon, party…

  11. Press Releases vs. Newspaper Coverage of California Supreme Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, F. Dennis

    1978-01-01

    A study comparing the coverage in newspapers and press releases regarding one year's decisions of the California Supreme Court revealed that the press releases influenced the kinds of decisions that were reported but not the quantity of coverage by the newspapers. (GT)

  12. Multiple Measures in the Study of Press Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Carol

    1979-01-01

    Surveys measures of press behavior; reports on the testing of J. Galtung and M. Ruge's theory about the structure of news. Concludes that there are three major dimensions to press response to events: the decision to record the event, and considerations regarding space allocation and reader attention. (GT)

  13. The printed press and the Tunisian revolution: issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb TOUATI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our presentation will show the minor role played by the Tunisian printed press during the revolutionary process of 2011. We will also raise the main evolutions that have taken place in that field. Issues raised by the new situation and the challenges faced by the press will also be examined..

  14. Raman spectra of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite hot pressing being the most popular method of consolidating B6O powder, the Raman spectrum of polycrystalline hot-pressed B6O was until now poorly understood. Yet, recent reports have contributed to the understanding of only high...

  15. Studying monogenetic volcanoes with Terrestrial Laser Scanner: Case study at Croscat volcano (Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer Traver, A.; Garcia-Selles, D.; Peddrazzi, D.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Marti, J.; Muñoz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monogenetic basaltic zones are common in many volcanic environments and may develop under very different geodynamic conditions. Despite existing clear similarities between the eruptive activity of different monogenetic volcanic fields, important distinctions may arise when investigating in detail the individual eruptive sequences. Interpretation of the deposits and consequently, the reconstruction and characterization of these eruptive sequences is crucial to evaluate the potential hazard in case of active areas. In diverse occasions, erosional processes (natural and/or anthropogenic) may partly destroy these relatively small-sized volcanic edifices exposing their internal parts. Furthermore, despite human activity in volcanic areas is sometimes unimportant due to the remote location of the monogenetic cones, there are places where this form of erosion is significant, e.g. Croscat volcano (Catalan Volcanic Field, Spain). In any case, when studying monogenetic volcanism, it is usual to find outcrops where the internal structure of the edifices is, for one or other reason, well exposed. However, the access to these outcrops may be extremely difficult or even impossible. During the last years, it has been demonstrated that the study of outcrops with problematic or completely restricted access can be carried out by means of digital representations of the outcrop surface. Digital outcrops make possible the study of those areas with natural access limitations or safety issues and may facilitate visualization of the features of interest over the entire outcrop, as long as the digital outcrop can be analysed while navigated in real- time, with optional displays for perspective, scale distortions, and attribute filtering. In particular, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TSL) instruments using Light Detection And Ranging technology (LIDAR) are capable of capturing topographic details and achieve modelling accuracy within a few centimetres. The data obtained enables the creation of

  16. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  17. News from the Library: PressDisplay on mobile devices!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    You are probably already using PressDisplay to read newspapers online, but for those of you who are not yet aware of this service, PressDisplay is an online portal where you can browse and read online articles from more than 1,900 newspapers from 95 countries, as soon as they are published.   Whether you are an experienced user or a beginner, we have good news concerning PressDisplay: our license now permits you to download complete newspaper issues to your mobile devices and read them offline wherever you like. To do that, you have to use the mobile app PressReader. Instructions on how to install the PressReader app are available here: For Ipad For Android smartphone For Android tablet For Windows 8 devices For BlackBerry Playbook For Android eReader Your feedback is welcome! Please contact us by e-mail.

  18. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Principal Component Analysis for pattern recognition in volcano seismic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, Katharina; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2016-04-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we have developed a pattern recognition technique based on a combination of Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical clustering applied to volcano seismic spectra. This technique can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of volcano seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. Preliminary results from applying our method to volcanic tremor from a range of volcanoes including K¯ı lauea, Okmok, Pavlof, and Redoubt suggest that spectral patterns from K¯ı lauea and Okmok are similar, whereas at Pavlof and Redoubt spectra have their own, distinct patterns.

  20. Machine Learning Method for Pattern Recognition in Volcano Seismic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, V.; Unglert, K.; Jellinek, M.

    2016-12-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity related to changes in volcanic activity are commonly identified manually in spectrograms. However, long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require tools to facilitate automated and rapid processing. Techniques such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering methods can help to quickly and automatically identify important patterns related to impending eruptions. In this study we develop and evaluate an algorithm applied on a set of synthetic volcano seismic spectra as well as observed spectra from Kılauea Volcano, Hawai`i. Our goal is to retrieve a set of known spectral patterns that are associated with dominant phases of volcanic tremor before, during, and after periods of volcanic unrest. The algorithm is based on training a SOM on the spectra and then identifying local maxima and minima on the SOM 'topography'. The topography is derived from the first two PCA modes so that the maxima represent the SOM patterns that carry most of the variance in the spectra. Patterns identified in this way reproduce the known set of spectra. Our results show that, regardless of the level of white noise in the spectra, the algorithm can accurately reproduce the characteristic spectral patterns and their occurrence in time. The ability to rapidly classify spectra of volcano seismic data without prior knowledge of the character of the seismicity at a given volcanic system holds great potential for real time or near-real time applications, and thus ultimately for eruption forecasting.

  1. Hunting remnants of maar-diatreme-volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Corinna; Kämpf, Horst; Matthes, Heidrun; Jahr, Thomas; Markwart, David; Hermann, Tobias; Mrlina, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In the area of the Rostock-Leipzig-Regensburg fault zone (Germany) several centres of seismic activity are found with seismicity manifesting itself in swarm earthquakes. The occurrence of these earthquakes is globally linked to ascending magma and magmatic fluids. Information is scarce regarding the depth and geometry of the magmatic source, dynamics in the sub-Moho/lower crust region and fluid-tectonic processes in the upper crust in this area. From studies of maar structures located in the seismic active section of the fault zone magma-tectonic phenomena can be reconstructed. For this purpose two relicts of maar volcanoes of different age within a distance of 60 km are investigated by geophysical surveys. Both structures are located in a distance of a few 10 km from recent swarm earthquake centres. The diatreme structure near Ebersbrunn/W-Saxony which is probably of tertiary age is known for several years, the late Quaternary, volcanic palaeo-lake near Mýtina close to the Czech-German border was only recently discovered. Both structures are characterized by distinct gravimetric and magnetic anomalies of about -2 mGal and several 100 nT resp. indicating steeply dipping structures as well as electrical conductivity anomalies. The magnetic total field anomaly of the Ebersbrunn structure has an uncommon rugged appearance. The hypothesis of an origin related to a redistribution of material with high magnetic susceptibility values and saponification of magnetic minerals due to melt water run-off after the last glacial period could not be confirmed. Thus the heterogeneous anomaly character appears to be mainly associated with the degree of weathering of the volcanic material within the diatreme with depth. From 3D gravimetric and magnetic modelling information is gained on geometry and structural composition. Drilling results were used as additional boundary conditions. In both cases modelling reveals an inner zone of significantly reduced density and increased

  2. Dynamics of degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Jaupart, Claude

    1990-03-01

    At Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, the recent long-lived eruptions of Mauna Ulu and Pu'u O'o have occurred in two major stages, defining a characteristic eruptive pattern. The first stage consists of cyclic changes of activity between episodes of "fire fountaining" and periods of quiescence or effusion of vesicular lava. The second stage consists only of continuous effusion of lava. We suggest that these features reflect the dynamics of magma degassing in a chamber which empties into a narrow conduit. In the volcano chamber, gas bubbles rise through magma and accumulate at the roof in a foam layer. The foam flows toward the conduit, and its shape is determined by a dynamic balance between the input of bubbles from below and the output into the conduit. The foam thickness is proportional to (μlQ/ɛ2 ρl g)1/4, where μ l and ρl are the viscosity and density of magma, ɛ is the gas volume fraction in the foam, g is the acceleration of gravity, and Q is the gas flux. The bubbles in the foam deform under the action of buoyancy, and the maximum permissible foam thickness is hc = 2σ/ɛρlgR, where σ is the coefficient of surface tension and R is the original bubble radius. If this critical thickness is reached, the foam collapses into a large gas pocket which erupts into the conduit. Foam accumulation then resumes, and a new cycle begins. The attainment of the foam collapse threshold requires a gas flux in excess of a critical value which depends on viscosity, surface tension, and bubble size. Hence two different eruption regimes are predicted: (1) alternating regimes of foam buildup and collapse leading to the periodic eruption of large gas volumes and (2) steady foam flow at the roof leading to continuous bubbly flow in the conduit. The essential result is that the continuous process of degassing can lead to discontinuous eruptive behavior. Data on eruption rates and repose times between fountaining phases from the 1969 Mauna UIu and the 1983-1986 Pu'u O'o eruptions yield

  3. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  4. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  5. Dynamics of degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergniolle, S.; Jaupart, C. (Univ. Paris 7 (France))

    1990-03-10

    In the volcano chamber, gas bubbles rise through magma and accumulate at the roof in a foam layer. The foam flows toward the conduit, and its shape is determined by a dynamic balance between the input of bubbles from below and the output into the conduit. The bubbles in the foam deform under the action of buoyancy. If the critical thickness is reached, the foam collapses into a large gas pocket which erupts into the conduit. Foam accumulation then resumes, and a new cycle begins. The attainment of the foam collapse threshold requires a gas flux in excess of a critical value which depends on viscosity, suface tension, and bubble size. Hence two different eruption regimes are predicted: (1) alternating regimes of foam buildup and collapse leading to the periodic eruption of large gas volumes and (2) steady foam flow at the roof leading to continuous bubbly flow in the conduit. Data on eruption rates and repose times between fountaining phases from the 1969 Mauna Ulu and the 1983-1986 Pu'u O'o eruptions yield constraints on three key variables. The area of the chamber roof must be a few tens of square kilometers, with a minimum value of about 8 km{sup 2}. Magma reservoirs of similar dimensions are imaged by seismic attenuation tomography below the east rift zone. Close to the roof, the gas volume fraction is a few percent, and the gas bubbles have diameters lying between 0.1 and 0.6 mm. These estimates are close to the predictions of models for bubble nucleation and growth in basaltic melts, as well as to the observations on deep submarine basalts. The transition between cyclic and continuous activity occurs when the mass flux of gas becomes lower than a critical value of the order of 10{sup 3} kg/s. In this model, changes of eruptive regime reflect changes in the amount and size of bubbles which reach the chamber roof.

  6. Digging into Augustine Volcano's Silicic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Activity at Augustine Volcano, Alaska, has been marked by intermediate composition domes, flows, and tephras during the Holocene. Erosive lahars associated with the 2006 eruption exposed voluminous rhyolite pumice fall beneath glacial tills. The rhyolite is both petrologically and mineralogically different from more recent eruptions, with abundant amphibole (both calcium-amphiboles and cummingtonite) and quartz, both rare in more recent products. Three distinct lithologies are present, with textural and chemical variations between the three. Fe-Ti oxide equilibria indicate temperatures of ~765°C and oxygen fugacities of NNO +1.5. Melt inclusions indicate that the stratigraphically lowest lithology began crystallizing isobarically at ~260 MPa with the contemporary mixed H2O-CO2 fluid phase becoming progressively H2O-rich. The other lithologies were likely crystallized under more H2O-dominated conditions, as indicated by the presence of cummingtonite. Apatites and melt inclusions have generally lower chlorine contents than more recently erupted material, which is typically high in chlorine. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene in two of the three lithologies contain mafic (basalt to basaltic andesite) melt inclusions that indicate the likelihood of mixing and/or mingling of magmas as an eruption trigger. We interpret the three lithologies as representative of a smaller pumiceous rhyolite eruption, with subsequent extrusion of a rhyodacite banded lava dome or flow. This was followed by a large-scale rhyolitic pumice eruption that entrained portions of the banded flow as lithic inclusions. The unique qualities of this pre-glacial rhyolite and the potential hazards of a similarly large eruption in modern times indicate that further study is warranted.

  7. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska: a spatter eruption at an ice- and snow-clad volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Fee, David; Schneider, David J.; Wech, Aaron G.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska began on 13 May and ended 49 days later on 1 July. The eruption was characterized by persistent lava fountaining from a vent just north of the summit, intermittent strombolian explosions, and ash, gas, and aerosol plumes that reached as high as 8 km above sea level and on several occasions extended as much as 500 km downwind of the volcano. During the first several days of the eruption, accumulations of spatter near the vent periodically collapsed to form small pyroclastic avalanches that eroded and melted snow and ice to form lahars on the lower north flank of the volcano. Continued lava fountaining led to the production of agglutinate lava flows that extended to the base of the volcano, about 3–4 km beyond the vent. The generation of fountain-fed lava flows was a dominant process during the 2013 eruption; however, episodic collapse of spatter accumulations and formation of hot spatter-rich granular avalanches was a more efficient process for melting snow and ice and initiating lahars. The lahars and ash plumes generated during the eruption did not pose any serious hazards for the area. However, numerous local airline flights were cancelled or rerouted, and trace amounts of ash fall occurred at all of the local communities surrounding the volcano, including Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove.

  8. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  9. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  10. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

  11. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  12. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  13. Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy

    2012-05-25

    Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology.

  14. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  15. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  16. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Bruno; D'Auria, Luca; Cristiano, Elena; De Matteo, Ada

    2016-11-01

    Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs), Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs) and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs). The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  17. "Humanitas" and Academic Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hazard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the political dynamics, hierarchy, and rituals of a typical college humanities department. Proposes reorganizing this academic structure, replacing the "humanities" with a philosophy of liberal education. (MM)

  18. Essence of Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    依田, 博; Hiroshi, YODA; 京都文教大学人間学部現代社会学科; KYOTO BUNKYO UNIVERSITY Department of Social Design Studies

    2012-01-01

    This essay is an academic writing skills text for teachers who teach any field of social sciences, and guide university students in an academic writing. This type of guidance is not an easy process at universities, because of the lack of it prior to tertiary education in Japan. Many books on how to write an academic essay have been published by various authors. These are difficult for most students who have not used to read academic essays, and not been trained how to write them. Therefore, t...

  19. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya

    2015-04-01

    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  20. Interactive Volcano Studies and Education Using Virtual Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2006-12-01

    Internet-based virtual globe programs such as Google Earth provide a spatial context for visualization of monitoring and geophysical data sets. At the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Google Earth is being used to integrate satellite imagery, modeling of volcanic eruption clouds and seismic data sets to build new monitoring and reporting tools. However, one of the most useful information sources for environmental monitoring is under utilized. Local populations, who have lived near volcanoes for decades are perhaps one of the best gauges for changes in activity. Much of the history of the volcanoes is only recorded through local legend. By utilizing the high level of internet connectivity in Alaska, and the interest of secondary education in environmental science and monitoring, it is proposed to build a network of observation nodes around local schools in Alaska and along the Aleutian Chain. A series of interactive web pages with observations on a volcano's condition, be it glow at night, puffs of ash, discolored snow, earthquakes, sounds, and even current weather conditions can be recorded, and the users will be able to see their reports in near real time. The database will create a KMZ file on the fly for upload into the virtual globe software. Past observations and legends could be entered to help put a volcano's long-term activity in perspective. Beyond the benefit to researchers and emergency managers, students and teachers in the rural areas will be involved in volcano monitoring, and gain an understanding of the processes and hazard mitigation efforts in their community. K-12 students will be exposed to the science, and encouraged to participate in projects at the university. Infrastructure at the university can be used by local teachers to augment their science programs, hopefully encouraging students to continue their education at the university level.

  1. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  2. A Study of the Source Processes of Colima Volcano Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Vargas-Bracamontes, D.; Sanchez, J. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2007-12-01

    Colima volcano, considered as Mexico's most active volcano, has presented several intermittent effusive and explosive phases in recent years. During 2005, a sequence of explosive events with VEI less than or equal to 3 occurred. This activity presented the most intense explosions since the seismic network was deployed. Many of the explosive events were recorded by the digital three-component seismic stations operated by the University of Guadalajara and Jalisco State Civil Defense. These signals were recorded not only by stations located on the volcanic edifice, but also by stations on the northern coast of Jalisco (MCUJ, BSSJ) and Ceboruco Volcano at 184, 182 and 200 km distance, respectively. A study of these signals will be presented. Each explosion was preceded by a seismic event. Nevertheless, the located earthquakes preceding the explosions did not show a common source under the volcano structure, which suggests the existence of a complex structure with possibly more than one conduit, this is also confirmed from a first motion analysis for station F03J, located 12 km at north of the volcano. From analysis of the first ten seconds of the seismic signal on F03J using different representations of the seismic signals, such as waveforms, spectra, time-frequency and time-scale analysis, it is suggested that the source processes are non-stationary, implying that for the case of this period, a general model of the source process of the Colima volcano explosions can not be formulated. The size of the events is evaluated using different criteria. A clear relation between the magnitude of the seismic signals and the amplitude of the sonic and infrasonic waves was not observed.

  3. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  4. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  5. Volcanic Activities of Hakkoda Volcano after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake of 11 March 2011 generated large deformation in and around the Japanese islands, and the large crustal deformation raises fear of further disasters including triggered volcanic activities. In this presentation, as an example of such potential triggered volcanic activities, we report the recent seismic activities of Hakkoda volcano, and discuss the relation to the movement of volcanic fluids. Hakkoda volcano is a group of stratovolcanoes at the northern end of Honshu Island, Japan. There are fumaroles and hot springs around the volcano, and phreatic eruptions from Jigoku-numa on the southwestern flank of Odake volcano, which is the highest peak of the volcanic group, were documented in its history. Since just after the occurrence of the Tohokui Earthquake, the seismicity around the volcano became higher, and the migration of hypocenters of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes was observed.In addition to these VT earthquakes, long-period (LP) events started occurring beneath Odake at a depth of about 2-3 km since February, 2013, and subtle crustal deformation caused by deep inflation source was also detected by the GEONET GNSS network around the same time. The spectra of LP events are common between events irrespective of the magnitude of events, and they have several spectral peaks at 6-7 sec, 2-3 sec, 1 sec, and so on. These LP events sometimes occur like a swarm with an interval of several minutes. The characteristics of observed LP events at Hakkoda volcano are similar to those of LP events at other active volcanoes and hydrothermal area in the world, where abundant fluids exist. Our further analysis using far-field Rayleigh radiation pattern observed by NIED Hi-net stations reveals that the source of LP events is most likely to be a nearly vertical tensile crack whose strike is NE-SW direction. The strike is almost perpendicular to the direction of maximum extensional strain estimated from the geodetic analysis, and is almost parallel to

  6. Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, G.

    1980-01-01

    For part of their historic records, nine of the most active volcanoes on earth have each erupted magma at a nearly constant rate. These output rates are very similar and range from 0.69 to 0.26 cu m/s. The volcanoes discussed - Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nyamuragira, Hekla, Piton de la Fournaise, Vesuvius and Etna - represent almost the whole spectrum of plate tectonic settings of volcanism. A common mechanism of buoyantly rising magma-filled cracks in the upper crust may contribute to the observed restricted range of the rates of output.

  7. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  8. Experimental simulation and morphological quantification of volcano growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu; Gallland, Olivier; Delcamp, Audray; Poppe, Sam

    2016-04-01

    Volcanoes display very diverse morphologies as a result of a complex interplay of several constructive and destructive processes. Here the role played by the spatial distribution of eruption centre and by an underlying strike-slip fault in controlling the long term growth of volcanoes is investigated with analogue models. Volcano growth was simulated by depositing loads of granular material (sand-kaolin mixtures) from a point source. An individual load deposited at a fixed location produces a simple symmetrical cone with flank slopes at the angle of repose of the granular material (~33°) that can be considered as the building-block for the experiments. Two sets of experiments were undertaken: (1) the location of deposition of the granular material (i.e. the volcano growth location) was shifted with time following specific probability density functions simulating shifts or migrations in vent location; (2) the location of deposition was kept fixed, but the deposition rate (i.e. the volcano growth rate) was varied coupled with the movement of a basal plate attached to a step-motor simulating a strike-slip displacement under the growing cone (and hence deformation of the cone). During the progression of the experiments, the models were photographed at regular time intervals using four digital cameras positioned at slightly different angles over the models. The photographs were used to generate synthetic digital elevation models (DEMs) with 0.2 mm spatial resolution of each step of the models by applying the MICMAC digital stereo-photogrammetry software. Morphometric data were extracted from the DEMs by applying two IDL-language algorithms: NETVOLC, used to automatically calculate the volcano edifice basal outline, and MORVOLC, used to extract a set of morphometric parameters that characterize the volcano edifice in terms of size, plan shape, profile shape and slopes. Analysis of the DEM-derived morphometric parameters allows to quantitatively characterize the growth

  9. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  10. Analysis of active volcanoes from the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Rowland, Scott; Crisp, Joy; Glaze, Lori; Jones, Kenneth; Kahle, Anne; Pieri, David; Zebker, Howard; Krueger, Arlin; Walter, Lou

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled for launch in 1997 and 1999 is briefly described, and the EOS volcanology investigation objectives are discussed. The volcanology investigation will include long- and short-term monitoring of selected volcanoes, the detection of precursor activity associated with unanticipated eruptions, and a detailed study of on-going eruptions. A variety of instruments on the EOS platforms will enable the study of local- and regional-scale thermal and deformational features of volcanoes, and the chemical and structural features of volcanic eruption plumes and aerosols.

  11. Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Eruption – A Brief Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN I.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the main aspects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in Iceland. The process ispresented in the context of Iceland location on tectonic plates’ distribution. Aspects concerning Eyjafjallajökull positionon volcanic landscape of Iceland, both eruption phases and ash composition are briefly described. There are alsoemphasized the effects of the event on main common life aspects it affected (aircraft in Europe and farming in Iceland.The influence of the volcano eruption on the climate change is also discussed.

  12. Tracking Pyroclastic Flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Poggi, Pasquale; Williams, Carlisle; Marchetti, Emanuele; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo

    2009-07-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions typically show a huge column of ash and debris ejected into the stratosphere, crackling with lightning. Yet equally hazardous are the fast moving avalanches of hot gas and rock that can rush down the volcano's flanks at speeds approaching 280 kilometers per hour. Called pyroclastic flows, these surges can reach temperatures of 400°C. Fast currents and hot temperatures can quickly overwhelm communities living in the shadow of volcanoes, such as what happened to Pompeii and Herculaneum after the 79 C.E. eruption of Italy's Mount Vesuvius or to Saint-Pierre after Martinique's Mount Pelée erupted in 1902.

  13. 把握学术发展脉搏打造科技专著精品--以上海交通大学出版社医学专著的策划出版为例%Feeling the Pulse of Academic Development and Making Excellent Science and Technology Monographs---Illustrated by the Case of Planning and Publishing of Medical Monographs in Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金宏滨

    2016-01-01

    本文着重介绍了策划选题前期准备过程中,通过经常参加学术会议等多角度多渠道学习,把握学术发展的前沿。同时,作者分享了利用这些方法、渠道策划实施医学专著项目的成功经验。本文将具体的理论与策划项目实践相结合,可操作性强,期望为编辑在策划实践过程中提供一些指导和帮助。%This paper mainly introduces how to master the advance of academic development in a variety of ways such as attending academic conferences during the preparation of selected topics planning.Furthermore, the author shares the experiences of planning and performing the projects of medical monographs utilizing dif-ferent ways.This paper is practical,which combines concrete theories with the practice of planning selected topics,aiming at providing some guidance and assistance to editors during their topic planning.

  14. DESIGN OF A BUSH PRESSING MACHINE FOR PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMITH KALEKAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are among the most important components in the vast majority of machines. Bush is an independent plain bearing that is inserted into a housing to provide a bearing surface for rotary applications. Bushes are fitted either by pressing for less interference or by heating the frame or cooling the bushes using dry ice or liquid nitrogen. In the present case, due to uneven cooling using liquid nitrogen or other problems, bush is not fitting easily in some of the pump frames. So there is a need of a bush pressing machine. A ‘C’ frame type hydraulic bush pressing machine is designed in this work.

  15. Mannes of Forging and Perspectives of Knuckle Joint Presses Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Antsifirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raises an issue to enhance technological forging capabilities on the known knuckle joint presses. It provides an illustrated overview of main design types of presses with crank-knuckle, toggle-knuckle, and knuckle joint mechanisms. The article also shows the advantages of the modernization way and improvement just of the active press equipment in terms of quality-to-price ratio, for example, as compared to the similar new foreign press equipment.It gives an overview of features, which provide forging processes owing to kinetic energy accumulated with the moving parts of the known designs of the knuckle joint presses depending on the drive actuating mechanism. Focused attention is drawn to forging on the knuckle joint presses for a time of contact with a work piece to be comparable with the duration of the work piece deformation process on hydraulic forging hammers. This allows us to forge thin-wall products with process automation compared to the forging hammers.Analysis of accumulating processes of kinetic energy by the moving parts of the knuckle joint presses has shown that presses driven by hydraulic cylinders or two screw hydraulic cylinder are the most optimal for technological operations as evidenced by references to domestic and foreign invention certificates and patents. The article presents disadvantages of forging on presses with hydraulic or pneumatic drive. It is a dependence of the deformation force, caused, mainly, by a force of the drive cylinder. The article gives linear movement rate quantities of press moving members depending on the drives of the actuating mechanism. Based on the above analysis of the features to manufacture work pieces on the knuckle joint presses, the article gives the rationale for the relevance of forging in a short period of time, provided that the moving parts of the press accumulate the required kinetic energy. This can be achieved only through modernization and improvement of forging

  16. Monitoring quiescent volcanoes by diffuse He degassing: case study Teide volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Alonso, Mar

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife (2,034 km2), the largest of the Canary Islands, is the only island that has developed a central volcanic complex (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes), characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. This central volcanic complex has been built in the intersection of the three major volcanic rift-zones of Tenerife, where most of the historical volcanic activity has taken place. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide (Pérez et al., 2013). Diffuse emission studies of non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases such as helium have recently provided promising results to detect changes in the magmatic gas component at surface related to volcanic unrest episodes (Padrón et al., 2013). The geochemical properties of He minimize the interaction of this noble gas on its movement toward the earth's surface, and its isotopic composition is not affected by subsequent chemical reactions. It is highly mobile, chemically inert, physically stable, non-biogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions, almost non-adsorbable, and highly diffusive with a diffusion coefficient ˜10 times that of CO2. As part of the geochemical monitoring program for the volcanic surveillance of Teide volcano, yearly surveys of diffuse He emission through the surface of the summit cone of Teide volcano have been performed since 2006. Soil He emission rate was measured yearly at ˜130 sampling sites selected in the surface environment of the summit cone of Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands), covering an area of ˜0.5 km2, assuming that He emission is governed by convection and diffusion. The distribution of the sampling sites was carefully chosen to homogeneously cover the target area, allowing the computation of the total He emission by sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs). Nine surveys have been

  17. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rontogianni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  18. Differences and approaches from the readers of national and regional press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nunomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth in rural Brazil and the decentralization policy of official funds for propaganda have attracted more interest from researchers on regional or local media. Academic studies use surveys to project the reality of the richest and most populous regions as a reflection of the entire Brazilian press. With access to a microdata base, a first reading on the main results of the Brazilian Media Research (PBM, in Portuguese, in its two editions, 2014 and 2015, will be presented. Published by the Department of Social Communication of the Presidency, the PBM reveals the media consumption habits of 18.312 Brazilians, a representative sample of the population. This article works on a subset of 4.064 and 3.766 interviews. This study shows that there are large differences in the way readers consume media in major urban centers and elsewhere.

  19. ACTIVITY AND Vp/Vs RATIO OF VOLCANO-TECTONIC SEISMIC SWARM ZONES AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño B. John Makario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  20. Collective academic supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    are interconnected. Collective Academic Supervision provides possibilities for systematic interaction between individual master students in their writing process. In this process they learn core academic competencies, such as the ability to assess theoretical and practical problems in their practice and present them...

  1. An academic writing paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    A key to understanding academic writing for publication lies in the tension between the need for scholars to demonstrate originality, and the need for academic discourse communities to continue using their shared repetoire1 of concepts, vocabulary, and genre structures. This tension can be highli...

  2. English At Academic Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2008-01-01

    This article is to help students to notice that academic writing is the essential part of university study and setting,audience,purpose and also discourse community and its expectations are all its concerns.Through academic writing,students may begin to learn how to make sense in their particular field of study.

  3. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate...

  4. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  5. Arbitration in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  6. Promptness and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Novarese, Marco; Di Giovinazzo, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article uses university administration data to investigate the relation between student behavior (rapid response in finalizing enrolment procedures) and academic performance. It shows how student promptness in enrolling, or lack of it, can prove a useful forecast of academic success. Several explanations can be given, including simply the greater or lesser tendency to procrastinate.

  7. Networking into Academic Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschauer, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Examines the experiences of three instructors in Hawaii who have attempted to integrate online communication into their academic writing courses. Emphasizes that the underlying assumptions of what academic writing constitutes are fundamental in influencing how teachers integrate technology in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  8. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  9. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  10. Doing the ideal academic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca

    This thesis explores how notions of what constitutes good academic work and the valuable academic are changing shaped by capitalism and neoliberalism. Taking the standpoint of junior female scholars the thesis explores how the “ideal academic” is constructed and how gendered social relations...

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions during hot-pressing of southern pine particleboard : panel size effects and trade-off between press time and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlong Wang; Douglas J. Gardner; Melissa G.D. Baumann

    2002-01-01

    In previous research, it was shown that decreasing either press temperature or press time generally resulted in decreased volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during the hot-pressing of southern pine particleboard. However, because it is impossible to reduce both pressing time and temperature while maintaining panel physical and mechanical properties, this study...

  12. Viietärni sisekujundaja Meelis Press / Kristjan Arunurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arunurm, Kristjan

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Tornimäe kaksiktornides asuva Swissotel'i sisekujundusest. Sisekujundaja Meelis Press, tema ja hoone arhitekti Meeli Truu kommentaarid. Swissotel'i kett otsustas Meelis Pressile teha pakkumise kujundada peagi Türgi Swissotel. 8 ill

  13. Fabrication and properties of hot pressed bismuth tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streicher, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Bi/sub 2/WO/sub 6/ is a synthetic polar material that is a possible candidate for energy conversion and detection systems. Previous research on this material has been concerned with crystal growth and sintering characteristics of polycrystalline compacts. This study involves itself with the fabrication of polycrystalline compacts by hot pressing techniques. Densities approaching theoretical crystal density were achieved by hot pressing at 850/sup 0/C for one hour with pressures exceeding 35 MPa. Before hot pressing, the sintering range was determined by high temperature dilatometry of unfired Bi/sub 2/WO/sub 6/ ceramics. Hot pressed discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by dc resistivity, capacitance, and conductance measurements, ac poling, dc poling, and current-voltage measurements.

  14. Desenvolvimento de um regulador de pressão microprocessado

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Lucena Martins

    2012-01-01

    Dentre os fatores que afetam a uniformidade de aplicação de água, cita-se a variação de pressão no sistema, causada principalmente pela topografia do terreno e pela inexistência ou operação inadequada de reguladores de pressão. Nesse sentido, têm-se empregado válvulas reguladoras de pressão nos projetos de irrigação com variações topográficas. Contudo, a pressão de saída na válvula nem sempre será correspondente a apresentada no catálogo do fabricante. Com o avanço da eletrônica e a moderniza...

  15. HYBRID CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE BASED ON ROBUST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yu; YANG Jian; CHAI Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    A robust control algorithm is proposed to focus on the non-linearity and variables of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve. The proposed robust controller does not need to design stable compensator in advance, which is simple in design and has large scope of uncertainty applications. The feedback gains of the proposed robust controller are small, so it is easily implemented in engineering applications. The theoretical and experimental research on the position and speed control of the hydraulic press machine is carried out. The control requirements of the hydraulic press machine during the working process are met in the position and speed at the same time. Experimental results show that the proposed controller has better robustness subject to load variables and adaptability of parameter variations of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve.

  16. Optical and mechanical properties of hot-pressed cesium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Metals and Ceramics Div.)

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports on polycrystalline CsI disks fabricated by hot-pressing in a nitrogen-purged glove box. Densification during hot-pressing occurred by plastic flow resulting from lattice dislocation glide. Primary recrystallization and extensive grain growth were observed. Both the optical and mechanical properties of this material were significantly affected by grain growth, but in opposite ways. Transmittance increased and strength decreased as grain size increased. The hot-pressed CsI had transmittance of about 85% in the extra-long-wavelength infrared range, a value equivalent to that of single-crystal CsI. The flexural strengths of the CsI that was hot-pressed under conditions that minimized grain growth was about 8 times higher than that of single-crytal CsI.

  17. Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Craig H.

    1983-01-01

    Compares the reactions of photojournalists and the public to hypothetical ethical dilemmas confronting press photographers. Concludes that the two groups disagree significantly in their reactions to 17 of 19 ethical situations. (FL)

  18. Concept Design of Movable Beam of Hydraulic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yancong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic press movable beam is one of the key components of the hydraulic press; its design quality impacts the accuracy of the workpiece that the press suppressed. In this paper, first, with maximum deflection and material strength as constraints, mechanical model of the movable beam is established; next, the concept design model of the moveable beam structure is established; the relationship among the force of the side cylinder, the thickness of the inclined plate, outer plate is established also. Taking movable beam of the 100MN type THP10-10000 isothermal forging hydraulic press as an example, the conceptual design result is given. This concept design method mentoned in the paper has general meaning and can apply to other similar product design.

  19. Differential Suppression by Punishment of Nonconsummatory Licking and Lever Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gary C.; Herring, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the differential effects of shock punishment on nonconsummatory licking (dry licking) and lever pressing. Results support a motivationally based theory of punishment involving the role of incentive stimuli associated with the particular responses studied. (Editor/RK)

  20. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by United States... GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.2 Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations. In order to obtain a Department of State press building pass, press...