WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcano research station

  1. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  2. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  3. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  4. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  5. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  6. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  7. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more from a volcano. Before a Volcanic Eruption The following are things you can do to ... in case of an emergency. During a Volcanic Eruption Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and ...

  8. Volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the past thousand years,volcanoes have claimed more than 300,000 lives. Volcanology is ayoung and dangerous science that helps us against the power of the Earth itself.We live on a fiery planet. Nearly 2000 miles beneath our feet, the Earth's inner core reachestemperatures of 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Molten rock or magma, rises to the earth's surface. Acold, rigid crust fractured into some twenty plates. When magma breaks through crust it becomes

  9. Ceboruco Volcano Seismicity Study using a 3D Single Digital Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, M. C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacític composition lava flows along the southeast side. We use data recorded from March 2003 to July 2008 at the CEBN triaxial short period digital station located at the southwest side of the volcano. Our final data set consist of 139 volcanic earthquakes. We classified them according waveform characteristics of the east-west horizontal component. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, the hypocenters are below the volcanic building within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. The epicenters show similar directions as the tectonic structures of the area (Tepic-Zacoalco Graben and regional faults). Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities.

  10. Research drilling in young silicic volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-06-30

    Magmatic activity, and particularly silicic magmatic activity, is the fundamental process by which continental crust forms and evolves. The transport of magma from deep crustal reservoirs to the surface is a neglected but important aspect of magmatic phenomena. It encompasses problems of eruptive behavior, hydrothermal circulation, and ore deposition, and must be understood in order to properly interpret deeper processes. Drilling provides a means for determining the relationship of shallow intrusive processes to eruption processes at young volcanoes where eruptions are best understood. Drilling also provides a means for directly observing the processes of heat and mass transfer by which recently emplaced intrusions approach equilibrium with their new environment. Drilling in the Inyo Chain, a 600-year-old chain of volcanic vents in California, has shown the close relationship of silicic eruption to shallow dike emplacement, the control of eruptive style by shallow porous-flow degassing, the origin of obsidian by welding, the development of igneous zonation by viscosity segregation, and the character and size of conduits in relation to well-understood magmatic and phreatic eruptions. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  11. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  12. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  13. Earthquake prediction using extinct monogenetic volcanoes: A possible new research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Alexandru

    2011-04-01

    Volcanoes are extremely effective transmitters of matter, energy and information from the deep Earth towards its surface. Their capacities as information carriers are far to be fully exploited so far. Volcanic conduits can be viewed in general as rod-like or sheet-like vertical features with relatively homogenous composition and structure crosscutting geological structures of far more complexity and compositional heterogeneity. Information-carrying signals such as earthquake precursor signals originating deep below the Earth surface are transmitted with much less loss of information through homogenous vertically extended structures than through the horizontally segmented heterogeneous lithosphere or crust. Volcanic conduits can thus be viewed as upside-down "antennas" or waveguides which can be used as privileged pathways of any possible earthquake precursor signal. In particular, conduits of monogenetic volcanoes are promising transmitters of deep Earth information to be received and decoded at surface monitoring stations because the expected more homogenous nature of their rock-fill as compared to polygenetic volcanoes. Among monogenetic volcanoes those with dominantly effusive activity appear as the best candidates for privileged earthquake monitoring sites. In more details, effusive monogenetic volcanic conduits filled with rocks of primitive parental magma composition indicating direct ascent from sub-lithospheric magma-generating areas are the most suitable. Further selection criteria may include age of the volcanism considered and the presence of mantle xenoliths in surface volcanic products indicating direct and straightforward link between the deep lithospheric mantle and surface through the conduit. Innovative earthquake prediction research strategies can be based and developed on these grounds by considering conduits of selected extinct monogenetic volcanoes and deep trans-crustal fractures as privileged emplacement sites of seismic monitoring stations

  14. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  15. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  16. Vhub: a knowledge management system to facilitate online collaborative volcano modeling and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palma, Jose L; Courtland, Leah; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Tortini, Riccardo; Valentine, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    ... ) is a community cyberinfrastructure platform designed for collaboration in volcanology research, education, outreach, and discovery that complements existing volcano databases and other cyberinfrastructure projects...

  17. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  18. Outline of recent research on ice-volcano interactions in Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Bown, F.; Brock, B. W.; Burger, F.; Carrión, D.; Cisternas, S.; Gacitúa, G.; Oberreuter, J.; Silva, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Wendt, A.; Zamora, R.

    2013-05-01

    detected at Volcán Hudson, where a LIDAR survey performed before and after the most recent eruption of October 2011, yielded a maximum vertical ice loss of 74 m inside the caldera surrounding newly borne parasitic volcanic cones. This area suffered a widespread ice destruction producing several lahar pulses, generating a strong ice thinning at the main outflow tongue of Glaciar Huemules, the ice body infilling the caldera. These strong glacier changes are superimposed on a general atmospheric temperature increase and precipitation reduction detected at low altitude meteorological stations. However, very little is known about atmospheric changes at the altitude where glaciers are located, due to the lack of automatic weather stations. In spite of this problem, a couple of stations located on ice-capped volcanoes have revealed strong warming events not registered at low altitudes, indicating that atmospheric warming may be even stronger near the glacier equilibrium line altitudes. Much more research is needed to better understand the complex ice-volcano-atmosphere interactions in this region.

  19. [Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals.

  20. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  1. Research on Methods for Building Volcano Disaster Information System--taking Changbai Mountain as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuexia; BO Liqun; LU Xingchang

    2001-01-01

    Volcano eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters in the world. There are volcanoes in every territory on the earth, about a thousand in China, among which Changbai Mountain Volcano, Wudalianchi Volcano and Tengchong Volcano are the most latent catastrophic eruptive active volcanoes. The paper, following an instance of Changbai Mountain Volcano, expounds that monitoring, forecasting and estimating volcano disaster by building Volcano Disaster Information System (VDIS) is feasible to alleviate volcano disaster.

  2. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  3. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  4. Geodetic Volcano Monitoring Research in Canary Islands: Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Arjona, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Seco, A.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M. R.; Lanari, R.; Blanco, P.; Mallorqui, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Canarian Archipelago is an oceanic island volcanic chain with a long-standing history of volcanic activity (> 40 Ma). It is located off the NW coast of the African continent, lying over a transitional crust of the Atlantic African passive margin. At least 12 eruptions have been occurred on the islands of Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma in the last 500 years. Volcanism manifest predominantly as basaltic strombolian monogenetic activity (whole archipelago) and central felsic volcanism (active only in Tenerife Island). We concentrate our studies in the two most active islands, Tenerife and La Palma. In these islands, we tested different methodologies of geodetic monitoring systems. We use a combination of ground- and space-based techniques. At Tenerife Island, a differential interferometric study was performed to detect areas of deformation. DInSAR detected two clear areas of deformation, using this results a survey-based GPS network was designed and optimized to control those deformations and the rest of the island. Finally, using SBAS DInSAR results weak spatial long- wavelength subsidence signals has been detected. At La Palma, the first DInSAR analysis have not shown any clear deformation, so a first time series analysis was performed detecting a clear subsidence signal at Teneguia volcano, as for Tenerife a GPS network was designed and optimized taking into account stable and deforming areas. After several years of activities, geodetic results served to study ground deformations caused by a wide variety of sources, such as changes in groundwater levels, volcanic activity, volcano-tectonics, gravitational loading, etc. These results proof that a combination of ground-based and space-based techniques is suitable tool for geodetic volcano monitoring in Canary Islands. Finally, we would like to strength that those results could have serious implications on the continuous geodetic monitoring system design and implementation for the Canary Islands which is under

  5. Nutrition Research: Basis for Station Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Shuttle program, all understanding of nutritional needs in space came from Skylab metabolic research. Because Shuttle flights were short, most less than 14 days, research focused on major nutritional issues: energy (calories), protein and amino acids, water and electrotypes, with some more general physiology studies that related to iron and calcium. Using stable isotope tracer studies and diet intake records, we found that astronauts typically did not consume adequate calories to meet energy expenditure. To monitor energy and nutrient intake status and provide feedback to the flight surgeon and the astronauts, the International Space Station (ISS) program implemented a weekly food frequency questionnaire and routine body mass measurements. Other Shuttle investigations found that protein turnover was higher during flight, suggesting there was increased protein degradation and probably concurrent increase in protein synthesis, and this occurred even in cases of adequate protein and caloric intake. These results may partially explain some of the loss of leg muscle mass. Fluid and electrolyte flight studies demonstrated that water intake, like energy intake, was lower than required. However, sodium intakes were elevated during flight and likely related to other concerns such as calcium turnover and other health-related issues. NASA is making efforts to have tasty foods with much lower salt levels to reduce sodium intake and to promote fluid intake on orbit. Red blood cell studies conducted on the Shuttle found decreased erythrogenesis and increased serum ferritin levels. Given that the diet is high in iron there may be iron storage health concerns, especially related to the role of iron in oxidative damage, complicated by the stress and radiation. The Shuttle nutrition research lead to new monitoring and research on ISS. These data will be valuable for future NASA and commercial crewed missions.

  6. Construction and Development of the Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Established by the former Ministry of Forestry in 1986, Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Research Station is one of the 14 national key sites in the field of ecosystem research. In this paper, the basic situation of Dagangshan Forest Ecosystem Station is described, including geographic location, natural conditions, biological resources, research conditions, instruments, achievement, prospects etc.

  7. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  8. Levitation Technology in International Space Station Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique multidisciplinary orbiting laboratory for science and technology research, enabling discoveries that benefit life on Earth and exploration of the universe. ISS facilities for containerless sample processing in Materials Science experiments include levitation devices with specimen positioning control while reducing containment vessel contamination. For example, ESA's EML (ElectroMagnetic Levitator), is used for melting and solidification of conductive metals, alloys, or semiconductors in ultra-high vacuum, or in high-purity gaseous atmospheres. Sample heating and positioning are accomplished through electromagnetic fields generated by a coil system. EML applications cover investigation of solidification and microstructural formation, evaluation of thermophysical properties of highly reactive metals (whose properties can be very sensitive to contamination), and examination of undercooled liquid metals to understand metastable phase convection and influence convection on structural changes. MSL utilization includes development of novel light-weight, high-performance materials. Another facility, JAXA's ELF (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace), is used to perform high temperature melting while avoiding chemical reactions with crucibles by levitating a sample through Coulomb force. ELF is capable of measuring density, surface tension, and viscosity of samples at high temperatures. One of the initial ELF investigations, Interfacial Energy-1, is aimed at clarification of interfacial phenomena between molten steels and oxide melts with industrial applications in control processes for liquid mixing. In addition to these Materials Science facilities, other ISS investigations that involve levitation employ it for biological research. For example, NASA's "Magnetic 3D Culturing and Bioprinting" investigation uses magnetic levitation for three-dimensional culturing and positioning of magnetized cells to generate spheroid assemblies

  9. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  10. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  11. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  12. Use of infrared cameras for monitoring and research at Costa Rican volcanoes and thermal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2012-12-01

    Since November 2010, the Costa Rican volcanoes and hot springs began monitored and research by 5 infrared cameras, 4 steady fixed FLIR A320 and 1 portable FLIR P660. All the A320's are located on different settings depending on the volcano or the constant use. At Turrialba volcano 2 of the cameras are set permanent at the crater rim, focused on the new vents formed on January 2010 and 2012, from there at ≈500m it is possible to monitor 24/7 the temperature of the gases from the new vents plus the direction and speed of the plumes, that data helps the improve of the use of equipment like Mini-DOAS, MultiGas or FTIR; at Poás volcano the camera is permanent fixed on a bunker structure located at ≈650m from the active hyperacid hot lagoon, from there it is possible to cover the complete crater with the use of a wide angle lens, that way is safely to track phreatic eruptions, observe convective cells from the lagoon, fumaroles activity, as well as temperature, direction and speed of the gas plume. Finally the last A320 is set for temporary set up, so far is being used on places like Arenal volcano because of the changing of the pattern of the lava flows and gas plume, also at Rincón de la Vieja crater rim because so far is difficult to set up a permanent camera, and finally to do over flights on active volcanoes. The FLIR P660, it has been used to carry out periodic measurements of specific thermal spots. At Turrialba and Poás volcanoes, it is possible to get closer views, measuring more precise inaccessible high temperature fumaroles like the new vents at Turrialba or the ones at Poás dome, places that can reach temperatures of more than 600°C, also is being a lot of support to track lagoon convection cells (61°C), fumaroles migration, lagoon phreatic eruptions (130°C), and better characterization of hot springs, small hot lagoons, and mud pools, with temperatures of ≈ 90C that allow the life of extreme organisms to survive. The use of the thermal cameras

  13. The 2007 eruptions and caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island) from tilt analysis at a single very broadband seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Muro, Andrea Di

    2014-04-01

    Seismic records from La Réunion Island very broadband Geoscope station are investigated to constrain the link between the 2007 eruptive sequence and the related caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Tilt estimated from seismic records reveals that the three 2007 eruptions belong to a single inflation-deflation cycle. Tilt trend indicates that the small-volume summit eruption of 18 February occurred during a phase of continuous inflation that started in January 2007. Inflation decelerated 24 days before a second short-lived, small-volume eruption on 30 March, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large-scale deflation of the volcano. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at relatively low level, increased anew on 1 April while no magma was erupted, followed on 2 April by a major distal eruption and on 5 April by a summit caldera collapse. Long-term tilt variation suggests that the 2007 eruptive succession was triggered by a deep magma input.

  14. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  15. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  16. Listening for Listeners: Two Educational Radio Stations Discover Audience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavitsky, Alan G.

    Two pioneering public radio stations--WOSU-AM, licensed to the Ohio State University in Columbus, and WHA-AM, licensed to the University of Wisconsin in Madison--conducted audience research as early as the 1920s. The challenge for early education broadcasters became to adapt the existing audience research paradigm to their purposes, or to develop…

  17. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  18. Summary of the 2009-2010 Season at the Mars Desert Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. V.; Westenberg, A.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station in Hanksville, Utah is the most accessible, cost-effective martian analog station available. Each year the station is host to dozens of research projects from disciplines including biology, engineering, geology, hydrology, and psychology.

  19. Life sciences research on the space station: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will provide an orbiting, low gravity, permanently manned facility for scientific research, starting in the 1990s. The facilities for life sciences research are being designed to allow scientific investigators to perform research in Space Medicine and Space Biology, to study the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, and to allow for the permanent presence of humans in space. This research, using humans, animals, and plants, will provide an understanding of the effects of the space environment on the basic processes of life. In addition, facilities are being planned for remote observations to study biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (exobiology), and Earth observations to study global ecology. The life sciences community is encouraged to plan for participation in scientific research that will be made possible by the Space Station research facility.

  20. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  1. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  2. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  3. A virtual community and cyberinfrastructure for collaboration in volcano research and risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    VHub (short for VolcanoHub, and accessible at vhub.org) is an online platform for collaboration in research and training related to volcanoes, the hazards they pose, and risk mitigation. The underlying concept is to provide a mechanism that enables workers to share information with colleagues around the globe; VHub and similar hub technologies could prove very powerful in collaborating and communicating about circum-Pacific volcanic hazards. Collaboration occurs around several different points: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) data sharing; (3) education and training; (4) volcano observatories; and (5) project-specific groups. VHub promotes modeling and simulation in two ways: (1) some models can be implemented on VHub for online execution. This eliminates the need to download and compile a code on a local computer. VHub can provide a central "warehouse" for such models that should result in broader dissemination. VHub also provides a platform that supports the more complex CFD models by enabling the sharing of code development and problem-solving knowledge, benchmarking datasets, and the development of validation exercises. VHub also provides a platform for sharing of data and datasets. The VHub development team is implementing the iRODS data sharing middleware (see irods.org). iRODS allows a researcher to access data that are located at participating data sources around the world (a "cloud" of data) as if the data were housed in a single virtual database. Education and training is another important use of the VHub platform. Audio-video recordings of seminars, PowerPoint slide sets, and educational simulations are all items that can be placed onto VHub for use by the community or by selected collaborators. An important point is that the "manager" of a given educational resource (or any other resource, such as a dataset or a model) can control the privacy of that resource, ranging from private (only accessible by, and known to, specific collaborators) to completely

  4. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  5. Multi-disciplinary Hazard Reduction from Earthquakes and Volcanoes in Indonesia - International Research Cooperation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Teruyuki

    2010-05-01

    Indonesian and Japanese researchers started a three-year (2009-2011) multi-disciplinary cooperative research project as a part of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development" supported by the Japanese government. The ultimate goal of this project is to reduce disaster from earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes by enhancing capability of forecasting hazards, reducing social vulnerability, and education and outreach activity of research outcomes. We plan to provide platform of collaboration among researchers in natural science, engineering and social sciences, as well as officials in national and local governments. Research activities are grouped into: (1) geological and geophysical surveys of past earthquakes, monitoring current crustal activity, and simulation of future ground motion or tsunamis, (2) short-term and long-term prediction of volcanic eruptions by monitoring Semeru, Guntur and other volcanoes, and development of their evaluation method, (3) studies to establish social infrastructure based on engineering technologies and hazard maps, (4) social, cultural and religious studies to reduce vulnerability of local communities, and (5) studies on education and outreach on disaster reduction and restoration of community. In addition, to coordinate these research activities and to utilize the research results, (6) application of the research and establishment of collaboration mechanism between researchers and the government officials is planned. In addition to mutual visits and collaborative field studies, it is planned to hold annual joint seminars (in Indonesia in 2009 and 2011, in Japan in 2010) that will be broadcasted through internet. Meetings with Joint Coordinating Committee, composed of representatives of relevant Indonesian ministries and institutions as well as project members, will be held annually to oversee the activities. The kick-off workshop was held in Bandung in April 2009 and the research plans from 22 different

  6. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The TOMO-ETNA experiment: an imaging active campaign at Mt. Etna volcano. Context, main objectives, working-plans and involved research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was devised to image of the crust underlying the volcanic edifice and, possibly, its plumbing system by using passive and active refraction/reflection seismic methods. This experiment included activities both on-land and offshore with the main objective of obtaining a new high-resolution seismic tomography to improve the knowledge of the crustal structures existing beneath the Etna volcano and northeast Sicily up to Aeolian Islands. The TOMO ETNA experiment was divided in two phases. The first phase started on June 15, 2014 and finalized on July 24, 2014, with the withdrawal of two removable seismic networks (a Short Period Network and a Broadband network composed by 80 and 20 stations respectively deployed at Etna volcano and surrounding areas. During this first phase the oceanographic research vessel “Sarmiento de Gamboa” and the hydro-oceanographic vessel “Galatea” performed the offshore activities, which includes the deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS, air-gun shooting for Wide Angle Seismic refraction (WAS, Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS reflection surveys, magnetic surveys and ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle dives. This phase finished with the recovery of the short period seismic network. In the second phase the Broadband seismic network remained operative until October 28, 2014, and the R/V “Aegaeo” performed additional MCS surveys during November 19-27, 2014. Overall, the information deriving from TOMO-ETNA experiment could provide the answer to many uncertainties that have arisen while exploiting the large amount of data provided by the cutting-edge monitoring systems of Etna volcano and seismogenic area of eastern Sicily.

  8. Santorini Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  9. Multidisciplinary research for the safe fruition of an active geosite: the Salse di Nirano mud volcanoes (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Albarello, Dario; Cipriani, Anna; Cantucci, Barbara; Castaldini, Doriano; Conventi, Marzia; Dadomo, Andrea; De Nardo, Maria Teresa; Macini, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mesini, Ezio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Quartieri, Simona; Ricci, Tullio; Santagata, Tommaso; Sciarra, Alessandra; Vezzalini, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are emissions of cold mud due to the ascent to the surface of salty and muddy waters mixed with gaseous (methane) and, in minor part, fluid hydrocarbons (petroleum veils) along faults and fractures. In the Northern Apennines mud volcanoes are closely linked to the active tectonic compression associated with thrusts of regional importance. They are mostly cone-shaped and show variable geometry and size, ranging from one to few metres, and are located in 19 sites in the northwestern part of the Apennines. Particularly noteworthy is the Nirano mud volcano field, located in the Fiorano Modenese district, which, with a surface area of approximately 75,000 m2, is one of the best developed and largest mud volcano field of the entire Italian territory and among the largest in Europe; it is thus protected as natural reserve (Salse di Nirano) since 1982. The Nirano mud volcanoes are found at the bottom of an elliptical depression, interpreted as a collapse-like structure (caldera) that may have developed in response to the deflation of a shallow mud chamber triggered by several ejections and evacuation of fluid sediments. There are several individual or multiple cones within the field of the mud volcanoes of Nirano, with a rather discontinuous activity; apparatuses become dormant or even extinct whereas new vents can appear in other spots. In the research here presented about 50 vents have been mapped and few of them appeared in May 2016. The mud volcanoes of the region have been known since a long time and have always aroused great interest due to their outstanding scenic value, and, in the past the mud volcano emissions have been used in many ways. Beside their cultural value, the mud volcanoes of the study area represent a tourist attractiveness as testified by the increasing number of visitors (e.g. about 70,000 visitors in 2015 in the Salse di Nirano Natural Reserve). Numerous initiatives, targeted at various potential users, have been developed in the

  10. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  11. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  12. The International Space Station Research Opportunities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the International Space Station (ISS) construction and assembly was completed to become a world-class scientific research laboratory. We are now in the era of utilization of this unique platform that facilitates ground-breaking research in the microgravity environment. There are opportunities for NASA-funded research; research funded under the auspice of the United States National Laboratory; and research funded by the International Partners - Japan, Europe, Russia and Canada. The ISS facilities offer an opportunity to conduct research in a multitude of disciplines such as biology and biotechnology, physical science, human research, technology demonstration and development; and earth and space science. The ISS is also a unique resource for educational activities that serve to motivate and inspire students to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Even though we have just commenced full utilization of the ISS as a science laboratory, early investigations are yielding major results that are leading to such things as vaccine development, improved cancer drug delivery methods and treatment for debilitating diseases, such as Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. This paper

  13. Dusty Plasma Research under Microgravity: from the Orbital Station ``Mir'' to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    Dusty, or complex plasmas are composed of a weakly ionized gas and charged microparticles. Dust and dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in space -- they are present in planetary rings, cometary tails, interplanetary and interstellar clouds, the mesosphere, thunderclouds, they are found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations, etc. Dusty plasmas formed by micronsize particles are actively investigated in many laboratories. This research has many interesting applications like nanomaterial synthesis, nanoparticle handling or particle waste removal just to mention a few. But, the most interesting application of dusty plasmas is the use as model systems for fundamental physics. It allows investigation on the most fundamental -- the kinetic level and provides insights into physics of solids and liquids with a precision not achievable in natural systems. Experiments performed on Earth are always altered or even hindered by gravity. Microgravity conditions are necessary to make investigations of large homogeneous 3-dimensional dusty plasma systems. Here we present the survey of results of the dusty plasma physics investigations under microgravity conditions with the help of experimental installations ``Plasma Crystal-1'' (PK-1) and ``PK-2'' used on the Orbital Station ``Mir'', and the unique experimental installations ``PK-3'' and ``PK-3 Plus'' used on the International Space Station. The use of these installations has given a possibility to obtain new knowledge on the dusty plasma properties. The phase transition from the isotropic liquid dusty plasma system to the so-called electrorheological plasma has been performed. The transition is the isotropic one and is fully reversible. The other interesting phenomenon is an interpenetration of two clouds of microparticles of different sizes. When a velocity of the penetrating particles is rather high the lane formation has been observed. This phenomenon is the non-equilibrium transition, depends upon peculiarities

  14. Results of microbial research of environment of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.

    Many years of exploitation of orbital space stations have moved forward ecological problems among which microbial society of the environment plays a most important role. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of microorganisms in the environment of a space object can change considerably under the influence of conditions of space flight. In the process of exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) microflora of air, interior surfaces and equipment is monitored on a regular basis to keep continuous assessment of sanitary and microbiological state of the environment. Up to the present time 32 species of microorganisms have been recovered in the ISS, namely 15species f bacteria and 17 species of moldy fungi. In the composition of microbial species mainly nonpathogenic species have been found. However, a number of bacteria discovered on the ISS, particularly some representatives of human microflora, are capable of causing different diseases when human immune system is compromised. Moreover, some bacteria and a considerable number of fungi are known to be potential biodestructors of construction materials, which leads to biodeterioration of construction materials and equipment. Results of our research show that the existing set of life-supporting systems can maintain microbial contamination within regulated levels. Furthermore, constant microbial monitoring of the environment is an integral part, which provides for the safety of space missions.

  15. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-02-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  16. Lessons learnt from Volcanoes' Night I-II-III - a Marie Curie Researchers' Night project series dedicated to geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseko, Adrienn; Bodo, Balazs; Ortega Rodriguez, Ariadna

    2017-04-01

    European Researchers' Nights (ERNs) are a pan-European series of events funded by the European Commission, organised on the last Friday of every September since 2005. ERNs mobilise scientific, academic and research organisations with the aim of giving the public the opportunity to meet researchers in an informal setting. The overall objective of ERNs is to achieve better awareness among the general public concerning the importance of science in everyday life and to combat stereotypes about researchers. The longer-term strategic objective of ERNs is to encourage young people to embark on a scientific career. Volcanoes' Night I-II-III has been an ERN project series funded by the EC FP7 and H2020 programmes between 2012-2015 (EC contract No. 316558, 610050, 633310, www.nochedevolcanes.es). The concept of Volcanoes' Night was created by researchers from the Canary Islands, Spain, where both the researchers and the public live in the close vicinity of volcanoes. The objective of the project was to use volcanoes as a background against which the role of geoscientists could be explained to the public. The scope of Volcanoes' Night was exclusively dedicated to geoscience, and in this respect it stands out among all other ERN projects, which are always more general in scope. During its four years of EC funding, the geographical coverage of Volcanoes' Night expanded substantially from a single location in 2012 (Fuencaliente de La Palma, Spain) to a dozen locations in 2015, mobilising multiple scientific organisations, researchers, and public authorities for engagement with the public. The last EC-funded project, Volcanoes' Night III, which was organised in 2014 and 2015, engaged approximately 21,000 visitors through its outreach activities, which included experiments, science cafés, volcano movies, My Day presentations, excursions, science workshops and more. The impact of the project was carefully assessed via surveys and social studies during its lifetime, and an Impact

  17. Volcano Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You might feel better to learn that an ‘active’ volcano is one that has erupted in the past ... miles away. If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, following these tips will help you ...

  18. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  19. The design of a permanent lunar research station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James R.

    The advancement of the United States' efforts in space exploration and research requires the establishment of a permanent manned lunar research station. This paper explores the possible design of such a facility. The use of a thin hedratecture dome covering a lunar depression is used to shield three multipurpose buildings and one command and control facility. Provisions for STS shuttle landings and take-off is also explored. The multipurpose buildings are designed using steel framing and cladding. The entire facility, capable of housing a team of thirty, could be transported by one shuttle. The buildings would arrive ready for erection within the completed dome. Steel was selected due to the low cost, high strength to weight ratio, long term durability, ready availability, quality control, and in-place availability of preengineering and fabrication. With the successful installation of the first facility, standardization would lower the already attractive cost for future projects. Facilities of this type could be erected quickly and inexpensively anywhere on the lunar surface.

  20. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  1. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  2. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  3. Was Einstein wrong? Space station research may find out

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using ultra-precise clocks on the International Space Station will attempt to check if Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity is correct. Future experiments may also yield evidence of string theory (1 page).

  4. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  5. Vanishing Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树仁

    1995-01-01

    Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano,is sinking into the Pacific Ocean——and it’s taking the main island of Hawaii with it! The problem:The mighty volcano has gained too much weight, says Peter Lipman of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  6. Research on network integration technology of observation stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN; Yanjun; MA; Shangchang; ZHUANG; Ting; ZHANG; Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    According to the phenomenon of "four more"and"four low "problems in the observation stations,the surface-based meteorological observing system can’t adapt to the change of the adaptive observation equipment and reduce of business intensification. A station integrated system is proposed,w hich can be configured,connected and extended to all kinds of observation equipment. And the integrated processor is designed,supporting a variety of communication interface standards. Flexible configuration,connection and expansion betw een conventional and new type of meteorological observation equipment are supported. It is capable for online calibration and maintenance of observation equipment. The effectiveness of automatic observation equipment is totally achieved to provide basic information support for disaster prevention and mitigation and national economic development.

  7. Fluid Physics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is a presentation in viewgraph format which reviews the laboratory facilities and their construction for the International Space Station(ISS). Graphic displays of the ISS are included, with special interest in the facilities available on the US Destiny module and other modules which will be used in the study of fluid physics on the ISS. There are also pictures and descriptions of various components of the Fluids and Combustion Facility.

  8. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  9. Volcano seismology from around the world: Case studies from Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) Galeras (Colombia), Mount Wrangell and Mount Veniaminof (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aguilar, John Jairo

    A compilation of research papers in volcano seismology is presented: (1) to study the configuration of magma systems beneath volcanoes, (2) to describe unexpected effects of the shaking from a regional earthquake on volcanic systems, and (3) to integrate seismicity investigations into a conceptual model for the magma system of a volcano. This work was undertaken because much research in volcano seismology is needed to help in hazard assessment. The possible configuration of magma systems beneath Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, and Galeras Volcano, Colombia, is studied with b-value mapping. We suggest models for earthquake-volcanoes interactions by studying the declines in local seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof, Alaska, following the 3 November 2002 Denali Fault Earthquake (DFE). Finally, a model for the magmatic-hydrothermal system beneath Mt. Veniaminof is proposed by deriving a velocity model and relocating the earthquakes, and by studying the temporal changes of frequencies and attenuation (Q) at the source of long-period (LP) events. Results from b-value mapping confirm that volcanoes are characterized by localized zones of high b-values, and also indicate that the internal structure of volcanoes is variable. Analyses of the background seismicity at Mt. Veniaminof suggest that earthquakes result from locally-induced stresses and that LP events may represent the response of a shallow hydrothermal system to heat input from below. The study of declines in seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof volcanoes following the DFE indicates that the dynamic shaking from regional shocks can physically damage a volcano and together with the static stress changes can affect the local seismicity for extended periods. We conclude that the use of simple methods allows a better understanding of the seismicity at volcanoes in Alaska, but most importantly in developing countries where the small number of seismograph stations puts challenging limitations for research.

  10. Microgravity research results and experiences from the NASA/MIR space station program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, R A; Trach, B L

    2003-12-01

    The Microgravity Research Program (MRP) participated aggressively in Phase 1 of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges of long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about long-duration on-orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings.

  11. Dante's volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  12. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  13. Deep research drill hole at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. [1,262 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zablocki, C.J.; Tilling, R.I.; Peterson, D.W.; Christiansen, R.L.; Keller, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    A 1262-m-deep bore hole was drilled at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to test predictions based on surface geophysical surveys and to obtain information on the hydrothermal regime above a postulated magma reservoir. Data from the drilling and geophysical borehole logs tend to confirm earlier predictions that a mound of brackish or saline water is present above the inferred magma body. Temperatures within the hydrothermal system are not sufficiently high to indicate deposits of economic interest, but the gradient toward the bottom of the hole (approximately 160 m below sea level) is high, about 370/sup 0/C per kilometer. The maximum temperature, 137/sup 0/C, is at the hole bottom.

  14. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    planned to create fully equipped complex facility possible to perform various experiments on the intensive neutron beam. Epithermal neutron beam enables development across the full spectrum of materials research for example shielding concrete tests or electronic devices construction improvement. Due to recent reports on the construction of the accelerator for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) it has the opportunity to become useful and successful method in the fight against brain and other types of cancers not treated with well known medical methods. In Europe there is no such epithermal neutron source which could be used throughout the year for training and research for scientist working on BNCT what makes the stand unique in Europe. Also our research group which specializes in mixed radiation dosimetry around nuclear and medical facilities would be able to carry out research on new detectors and methods of measurements for radiological protection and in-beam (therapeutic) dosimetry. Another group of scientists from National Centre for Nuclear Research, where MARIA research reactor is located, is involved in research of gamma detector systems. There is an idea to develop Prompt-gamma Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (Pg- SPECT). This method could be used as imaging system for compounds emitting gamma rays after nuclear reaction with thermal neutrons e.g. for boron concentration in BNCT. Inside the room, where H2 channel is located, there is another horizontal channel - H1 which is also unused. Simultaneously with the construction of the H2 stand it will be possible to create special pneumatic horizontal mail inside the H1 channel for irradiation material samples in the vicinity of the core i.e. in the distal part of the H1 channel. It might expand the scope of research at the planned neutron station. Secondly it is planned to equip both stands with moveable positioning system, video system and facilities to perform animal experiments (anaesthesia, vital

  15. International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System Photos: 2013-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) acquired images of the Earth's surface from the International Space Station (ISS). The goal...

  16. International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System Photos: 2013-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) acquired images of the Earth's surface from the International Space Station (ISS). The goal...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  18. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  19. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  20. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  1. Applicability of NASA Polar Technologies to British Antarctic Survey Halley VI Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    From 1993 through 1997 NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed a variety of environmental infrastructure technologies for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The objective of this program was to reduce the cost of operating the South Pole Station, reduce the environmental impact of the Station, and to increase the quality of life for Station inhabitants. The result of this program was the development of a set of sustainability technologies designed specifically for Polar applications. In the intervening eight years many of the technologies developed through this program have been commercialized and tested in extreme environments and are now available for use throughout Antarctica and circumpolar north. The objective of this document is to provide information covering technologies that might also be applicable to the British Antarctic Survey s (BAS) proposed new Halley VI Research Station. All technologies described are commercially available.

  2. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  3. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “W

  4. Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems

  5. Research and practice: The European High Speed Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triggianese, M.

    2014-01-01

    The practices of planning and architecture are undergoing considerable transformation especially for urban developments asso-ciated to infrastructural changes. This paper considers the proliferation of high-speed railways in Europe as a research opportunity to better understand the practice of compl

  6. A solar observing station for education and research in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaname, José Iba, Ishitsuka; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Trigoso Avilés, Hugo; Takashi, Sakurai; Yohei, Nishino; Miyazaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Maeda, George

    2007-12-01

    Since 1937 Carnegie Institution of Washington made observations of active regions of the Sun with a Hale type spectro-helioscope in Huancayo observatory of the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP). IGP has contributed significantly to geophysical and solar sciences in the last 69 years. Now IGP and the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA) are planning to refurbish the coelostat at the observatory with the support of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is also planned to install a solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) at UNICA, from Hida observatory of Kyoto University. Along with the coelostat, the FMT will be useful to improve scientific research and education.

  7. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  8. Development of Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Networks, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, G.; Paskievitch, J. F.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The number and quality of seismic stations and networks on Alaskan volcanoes have increased dramatically in the 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Starting with 28 stations on six volcanoes in 1988, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) now operates 194 stations in networks on 33 volcanoes spanning the 2000 km Aleutian Arc. All data are telemetered in real time to laboratory facilities in Fairbanks and Anchorage and recorded on digital acquisition systems. Data are used for both monitoring and research. The basic and standard network designs are driven by practical considerations including geography and terrain, access to commercial telecommunications services, and environmental vulnerability. Typical networks consist of 6 to 8 analog stations, whose data can be telemetered to fit on a single analog telephone circuit terminated ultimately in either Fairbanks or Anchorage. Towns provide access to commercial telecommunications and signals are often consolidated for telemetry by remote computer systems. Most AVO stations consist of custom made fiberglass huts that house the batteries, electronics, and antennae. Solar panels are bolted to the south facing side of the huts and the seismometers are buried nearby. The huts are rugged and have allowed for good station survivability and performance reliability. However, damage has occurred from wind, wind-blown pumice, volcanic ejecta, lightning, icing, and bears. Power is provided by multiple isolated banks of storage batteries charged by solar panels. Primary cells are used to provide backup power should the rechargable system fail or fall short of meeting the requirement. In the worst cases, snow loading blocks the solar panels for 7 months, so sufficient power storage must provide power for at least this long. Although primarily seismic stations, the huts and overall design allow additional instruments to be added, such as infrasound sensors, webcams, electric field meters, etc. Yearly maintenance visits are desirable, but some

  9. Upgrading the seismic and geodetic network of the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Iglesias Mendoza, Arturo; Legrand, Denis; Valdés González, Carlos Miguel; Perez Campos, Xyoli

    2017-04-01

    The Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and is located only 70 km from Mexico City, populated by more than 20 millions of people, and only 35 km from the Puebla municipality with almost 1.5 millions of people living. The recent activity of the volcano is generally marked by explosions emitting ash plumes often reaching the densely populated regions. In the framework of the Mexican Fund for Prevention of Natural Disasters (FOPREDEN) we are renovating and upgrading the existing geodetic and seismic networks monitoring the volcano. In this project we are installing 10 broadband seismic stations (120s-050Hz) in shallow boreholes (3-5m depth) and 4 GPS with real time sampling rate of 1 Hz. All instruments are equipped with continuous recording systems for real time monitoring purposes and research. The Popocatépetl exceeds 5400m, and the altitude of the stations ranges from 2200 m to 4300 m making it difficult their installation and maintenance. Because of ash emissions and the hard working condition, the real-time transmission is split into two systems in order to ensure the monitoring of the volcano also during the highest expected activity. Therefore we set up a network of "first order", consisting of four stations located about 20 km from the crater and equipped with satellite transmission. These stations, being far enough from the crater, ensure the real time monitoring of the major events also during intense periods of activity of the volcano. The remaining six stations are installed near to the crater (less than 10 km) and take part of the "second order" network equipped with a telemetered radio system transmitting the data either directly to the National Center of Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) and National Seismological Service (SSN) or to the first order stations (for the sites that have not direct visible line with the monitoring centers). The four GPS sensors are all installed in the second order sites in order to monitor the largest

  10. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  11. NASA Human Research Program (HRP). International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the various flight investigations performed on the International Space Station as part of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The evaluations include: 1) Stability; 2) Periodic Fitness Evaluation with Oxygen Uptake Measurement; 3) Nutrition; 4) CCISS; 5) Sleep; 6) Braslet; 7) Integrated Immune; 8) Epstein Barr; 9) Biophosphonates; 10) Integrated cardiovascular; and 11) VO2 max.

  12. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  13. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Meteor detections at the Metsähovi Fundamental Geodetic Research Station (Finland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Halli, A.; Gritsevich, M.; Näränen, J.; Moreno-Ibáñez, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Virtanen, J.; Zubko, N.; Peltoniemi, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview and present some spectacular examples of the recent meteor observations at the Metsähovi Geodetic Research Station. In conjunction with the Finnish Fireball Network the all-sky images are used to reconstruct atmospheric trajectories and to calculate the pre-impact meteor orbits in the Solar System. In addition, intensive collaborative work is pursued with the meteor research groups worldwide. We foresee great potential of this activity also for educational and outreach purposes.

  15. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Hlotov, Volodymyr; Holubinka, Yuriy; Marusazh, Khrystyna

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station "Academician Vernadsky". Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  16. In Brief: Underwater volcano gets real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    A real-time underwater earthquake monitoring system was installed on the top of Kick'em Jenny, an underwater volcano located off the north coast of Grenada, on 6 May. The Real Time Offshore Seismic Station (RTOSS) consists of an ocean-bottom seismometer connected by a stretchy hose to a buoy on the ocean surface. The buoy is powered by solar panels and transmits seismic data by high-frequency radio to an observatory in Sauteurs, Grenada. The RTOSS research team, led by scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is coordinating with the Grenadian National Disaster Management Agency and the Seismic Unit of the University of the West Indies to incorporate the RTOSS data into existing regional monitoring. Kick'em Jenny, the only `live' submarine volcano in the West Indies, last erupted in 2001.

  17. [Summary of research works on viruses in the Vietnam Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University (NEKKEN) and National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vietnam (NIHE) jointly conducted a project from 2006 on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (ERID) granted by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. Fifteen independent researches have been carried out by 7 scientists who stationed in the Vietnam Research Station (VRS), and by approximately 60 visiting scientists. A wide variety of viruses have been studied in the research activities in the VRS, of those, topics of'' Nipah virus infection in bats in Vietnam'', ''Nam Dinh virus, a newly discovered insect nidovirus'', and'' Risk factors of dengue fever in southern Vietnam'' were summarized. It is important to develop a mechanism to facilitate young scientists to use the VRS in their research works, and then a scope to establish the VRS as a gateway to a successful career path for young scientists in the field of the infectious diseases would be realized.

  18. Life Sciences Space Station planning document: A reference payload for the Life Sciences Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station, projected for construction in the early 1990s, will be an orbiting, low-gravity, permanently manned facility providing unprecedented opportunities for scientific research. Facilities for Life Sciences research will include a pressurized research laboratory, attached payloads, and platforms which will allow investigators to perform experiments in the crucial areas of Space Medicine, Space Biology, Exobiology, Biospherics and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). These studies are designed to determine the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, with particular emphasis on assuring the permanent presence of humans in space. The applied and basic research to be performed, using humans, animals, and plants, will increase our understanding of the effects of the space environment on basic life processes. Facilities being planned for remote observations from platforms and attached payloads of biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (Exobiology) will permit exploration of the relationship between the evolution of life and the universe. Space-based, global scale observations of terrestrial biology (Biospherics) will provide data critical for understanding and ultimately managing changes in the Earth's ecosystem. The life sciences community is encouraged to participate in the research potential the Space Station facilities will make possible. This document provides the range and scope of typical life sciences experiments which could be performed within a pressurized laboratory module on Space Station.

  19. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  20. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  1. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  2. Global Distribution and Research Progress of Mud Volcanoes%泥火山的全球分布和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华谷; 邸鹏飞; 陈多福

    2011-01-01

    本文系统介绍了泥火山的全球分布特征、分类、成矿、成因特征和机制、生物地球化学和地质灾害.泥火山是盆地地层深部含水的泥质物在高压作用下喷出地表形成的锥状沉积体,主要发育在沉积速率较快和有横向挤压构造作用的盆地中.全球陆地有超过40个泥火山发育区,海底有超过20个泥火山发育区,每个发育区有几座到200多座泥火山不等,陆地和浅海区共有2000多个泥火山.各地泥火山有不同的喷发周期,喷发物也各有不同的形态、成分、来源和年龄.尽管泥火山的成因机制尚颇有争议,但较快的沉积速率和活动大陆边缘横向构造挤压作用无疑是两个最为关键的因素.由于泥火山对大地构造属性、油气勘探、生物地球化学、地质灾害和全球气候变化等问题的研究有着重要的意义,已逐渐成为地球科学一个新的研究热点.%This paper reviews the domestic and international research progress on mud volcanoes. Their formation features and mechanisms, global distribution characteristics, classification, mineralization, biogeochemistry and geological hazards have been systematically reviewed. Mud volcanoes are the vertebral-shaped sedimentary bodies that were formed by the erupting of water containing muddy material from deep buried formations to the surface under high basin pressure. They widely distribute in the basin areas of having both high sediment accumulation rate and lateral tectonic compression. Mud volcanoes are documented at more than 40 onshore locations and more than 20 offshore locations worldwide, and the number of mud volcanoes in the onshore and the shallow water areas is more than 2000. Each of the mud volcanoes may have different eruption cycle and its effusive materials may have different forms, compositions, sources and ages. The formation mechanism of mud volcanoes is still a wide range of arguments, but high sedimentation rate and the

  3. Design and development of a Space Station proximity operations research and development mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity operations (Prox-Ops) on-orbit refers to all activities taking place within one km of the Space Station. Designing a Prox-Ops control station calls for a comprehensive systems approach which takes into account structural constraints, orbital dynamics including approach/departure flight paths, myriad human factors and other topics. This paper describes a reconfigurable full-scale mock-up of a Prox-Ops station constructed at Ames incorporating an array of windows (with dynamic star field, target vehicle(s), and head-up symbology), head-down perspective display of manned and unmanned vehicles, voice- actuated 'electronic checklist', computer-generated voice system, expert system (to help diagnose subsystem malfunctions), and other displays and controls. The facility is used for demonstrations of selected Prox-Ops approach scenarios, human factors research (work-load assessment, determining external vision envelope requirements, head-down and head-up symbology design, voice synthesis and recognition research, etc.) and development of engineering design guidelines for future module interiors.

  4. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station - A New Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Cotronei, Vittorio; Jean, Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011 (Expeditions 0 through 30). International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results. From 2000-2011 is a collection of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/iss- science) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated by cooperation and linking with the results tracking activities of each partner. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. This content is obtained through extensive and regular journal and patent database searches, and input provided by the ISS international partners ISS scientists themselves. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It rejects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a

  5. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  6. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  7. 长白山火山构造与火山喷发研究进展%Research Progress in Tectonic and Eruption of Changbai Mountain Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜会石; 冯恒栋; 陈智文

    2014-01-01

    长白山火山是世界著名的具有潜在灾害性喷发危险的火山之一,对长白山火山的研究是目前地质灾害研究的重要内容。梳理和总结了近期国内有关长白山火山构造、喷发机制、火山喷发物等方面的研究,初步确定长白山天池火山岩浆囊处于火山口下方10~40 km处,天池火山口西南对火山喷发熔岩流向有控制作用,该区地质构造受西太平洋板块俯冲作用的影响,火山区地壳和地幔双层岩浆房具有互动式喷发特点。同时提出火山内部岩浆结构、位置、演化和喷发机制等内容仍是今后深入探究的课题。%Changbai M ountain volcano is fam ous w ith potentially catastrophic eruption of the volcano dangerous in w orld. T he study of Changbai M ountain volcano is an im portant part of the research on geological disaster. It sum m arized and carded recent research w hat is relevant dom estic Changbai M ountain V olcanic structure, eruption m echanism s, volcanic eruptions and other aspects of the study. T ianchi volcanomagmachamberwasinitiallyidentifiedinthecrateratthebottom of10~40km.Iteruptioncratercouldcontrolsouthwestlavaflows. The geologic ofthe region is influenced by the actions ofthe W estern Pacific’ pitch dow n.A nd volcanic crustand m antle m agm a cham ber has a double eruption interactive feature. It is still a subject w hat we export deeply that bring up inside the volcano of m agm a, location, evolution and eruption m echanism in the future.

  8. Research on the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pedestrian Dynamics in Walkway of Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.

  9. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  11. The Use of Water During the Crew 144, Mars Desert Research Station, Utah Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Well. from November 29th to December 14th, 2014, the author conducted astrobiological and geological surveys, as analog astronaut member of the international Crew 144, at the site of the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station, located at a remote location in the Utah desert, United States. The use of water for drinking, bathing, cleaning, etc., in the crew was a major issue for consideration for a human expedition to the planet Mars in the future. The author would like to tell about the factors of the rationalized use of water.

  12. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  13. 长白山火山研究进展%Research Advances in the Mt.Changbai Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉麒; 陈双双; 郭文峰; 孙春青; 张茂亮; 郭正府

    2015-01-01

    The Mt.Changbai volcano lies in the boundary of China and DPR Korea(Democratic People's Republic of Ko-rea),covers an area of 1 2,000km 2 and is characterized by hundreds of volcanic cones and vast lava tableland,consisting predominantly of Wangtian'e volcano in China,Tianchi volcano on the China-DPR Korea border,and Namphothe volcano in DPR Korea.Compositionally,all volcanisms appear to share a common multi-stage magma evolution that involved the early building shield of trachy basaltic magma and followed by the building cone of trachy and esitic-trachytic magma,and finally the eruption of pantellerite and pyroclastic deposits.The initiation of volcanic activities in the Mt.Changbai area occurred in the Miocene period.During the period of recent history the Mt.Changbai volcano has had several major eruptions.The Cenozoic volcanism in Mt.Changbai has been controlled by Northeast Asia plate system,which is closely related with the subduction of the western Pacific Plate and the East Asian continental rift.The Mt.Changbai volcano is dormant currently and the dormant period has been hundreds of years,which is consistent with the volcanic eruption cycle,implying the po-tential of a future eruption.%长白山火山位于中朝边界,由数以百计的火山锥和广袤的熔岩台地组成,是一个庞大的火山群,总面积达12000km2;它有天池、望天鹅、炮台山3个喷发中心和以基性玄武岩岩流造盾,中性粗面岩熔岩筑锥,酸性碱流岩质火山碎屑、火山灰等随后空降堆积3个主要火山喷发旋回,构成板内巨型层状复式火山。自中新世以来有10个火山幕,近代历史期间仍有过多次喷发,现为处于休眠状态的活火山;该火山受东北亚板块体系制约,与太平洋板块俯冲和东亚大陆裂谷系密切相关。目前适逢地质构造的活动期和千年大喷发、百年小喷发周期的节点,存在着潜在的再喷发危险。

  14. Concepts of bioisolation for life sciences research on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Glenn A.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1991-01-01

    The risk concepts related to biological research in space are defined with attention given to the design and operation of experimental hardware for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory (BFRL). The definitions are set forth to describe safety measures for the use of nonhuman specimens in microgravity environments and the direct application of the risk-control concepts. Bioisolation is the process by which biological systems can coexist productively by means of physical, chemical, or biological methods; bioisolation requirements are given for mammals, plants, and microspecimens. The BRFL provides two levels of containment based on the complete sealing of all joints and interfaces in the Modular Habitat and an airflow system designed to provide net negative pressure of at least 0.13 kPa. The requirements are designed to assure a safe working environment for conducting nonhuman life-sciences research in the Space Station Freedom.

  15. Using data from automatic planetary stations for solving problems in astronomy and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey; Bojurova, Eva

    The specific nature of the Astronomy and Space Physics problems promote students' interest in the relevant sciences and provoke their creativity. It is illustrated by numerous examples of positive response from the participants in the Astronomy Olympiad to extraordinary moments in problems, especially those related to space flight and scientific data and photographs from satellites and automatic interplanetary stations (AIS). Jupiter's satellite Io is one of the satellites with the highest volcano activity in the solar system. So far, the volcanoes of Io were photographed for a short time only by the interplanetary stations Voyager 1 and Galileo - sent by NASA, and New Horizons of ESA. By monitoring these often erupting volcanoes, however, one can quickly gather detailed information and establish methods for prediction of eruptions, including the Earth's volcanoes. This could push forward research on volcanism in the Solar system. Therefore, this issue was used for creation conditions for problems in astronomy. The report shows how through measurements on images of Io taken with AIS heights of the jets emitted by volcanoes are defined. Knowing the mass and radius of the satellite initial speed of the emitted particles is evaluated. Similarly, the initial rate of discharge of earth volcanoes and ice geysers on Saturn's satellite Enceladus are also evaluated. An attempt is made to explain the rings of ejection around the volcanoes on Io. The ratio of the diameter of the dispersion of the substance to the height of the stream is studied. Actually, maximum speed of the particles is evaluated as the boundaries of the volcanic "fountain" are determined by the fast moving particles reaching maximal height. The observed ratio is compared with the theoretical one derived by the students. The results show that although the volcanoes of Io , Earth's volcanoes and even ice geysers of Enceladus operate under very different conditions and arise from different causes, the initial

  16. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  17. Next-Generation Real-Time Geodetic Station Sensor Web for Natural Hazards Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Fang, P.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Kedar, S.; Laber, J. L.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.; Webb, F.; Yu, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a NASA AIST project focused on better forecasting, assessing, and mitigating natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station, and a Geodetic Sensor Web to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. The project encompasses the following tasks, including hardware and software components: (1) Development of a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a MEMS accelerometer package, and a MEMS meteorological sensor package, for deployment at 26 existing continuous GPS stations in southern California. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. (2) Estimation of new on-the-fly data products with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional broadband displacements and precipitable water, by new software embedded in the Geodetic Module's processor, rather than at a central processing facility. (3) Development of a Geodetic Sensor Web to allow the semi-autonomous sensors to transmit and receive information in real time by means of redundant sensor proxy

  18. Gaseous Non-Premixed Flame Research Planned for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Hickman, J. Mark; Suttles, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, studies of gaseous diffusion flames on the International Space Station (ISS) have been limited to research conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in mid-2009 and early 2012. The research was performed with limited instrumentation, but novel techniques allowed for the determination of the soot temperature and volume fraction. Development is now underway for the next experiments of this type. The Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) project consists of five independent experiments that will be conducted with expanded instrumentation within the stations Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). ACMEs goals are to improve our understanding of flame stability and extinction limits, soot control and reduction, oxygen-enriched combustion which could enable practical carbon sequestration, combustion at fuel lean conditions where both optimum performance and low emissions can be achieved, the use of electric fields for combustion control, and materials flammability. The microgravity environment provides longer residence times and larger length scales, yielding a broad range of flame conditions which are beneficial for simplified analysis, e.g., of limit behaviour where chemical kinetics are important. The detailed design of the modular ACME hardware, e.g., with exchangeable burners, is nearing completion, and it is expected that on-orbit testing will begin in 2016.

  19. NASA's plans for life sciences research facilities on a Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, R.; Heinrich, M.; Mascy, A.

    1984-01-01

    A Life Sciences Research Facility on a Space Station will contribute to the health and well-being of humans in space, as well as address many fundamental questions in gravitational and developmental biology. Scientific interests include bone and muscle attrition, fluid and electrolyte shifts, cardiovascular deconditioning, metabolism, neurophysiology, reproduction, behavior, drugs and immunology, radiation biology, and closed life-support system development. The life sciences module will include a laboratory and a vivarium. Trade-offs currently being evaluated include (1) the need for and size of a 1-g control centrifuge; (2) specimen quantities and species for research; (3) degree of on-board analysis versus sample return and ground analysis; (4) type and extent of equipment automation; (5) facility return versus on-orbit refurbishment; (6) facility modularity, isolation, and system independence; and (7) selection of experiments, design, autonomy, sharing, compatibility, and integration.

  20. The International Space Station as a Research Laboratory: A View to 2010 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uri, John J.; Sotomayor, Jorge L.

    2007-01-01

    Assembly of International Space Station (ISS) is expected to be complete in 2010, with operations planned to continue through at least 2016. As we move nearer to assembly complete, replanning activities by NASA and ISS International Partners have been completed and the final complement of research facilities on ISS is becoming more certain. This paper will review pans for facilities in the US On-orbit Segment of ISS, including contributions from International Partners, to provide a vision of the research capabilities that will be available starting in 2010. At present, in addition to research capabilities in the Russian segment, the United States Destiny research module houses nine research facilities or racks. These facilities include five multi-purpose EXPRESS racks, two Human Research Facility (HRF) racks, the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), and the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI), enabling a wide range of exploration-related applied as well as basic research. In the coming years, additional racks will be launched to augment this robust capability: Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), Window Observation Rack Facility (WORF), Microgravity Science Research Rack (MSRR), Muscle Atrophy Research Exercise System (MARES), additional EXPRESS racks and possibly a second MELFI. In addition, EXPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) will provide attach points for external payloads. The European Space Agency s Columbus module will contain five research racks and provide four external attach sites. The research racks are Biolab, European Physiology Module (EPM), Fluid Science Lab (FSL), European Drawer System (EDS) and European Transport Carrier (ETC). The Japanese Kibo elements will initially support three research racks, Ryutai for fluid science, Saibo for cell science, and Kobairo for materials research, as well as 10 attachment sites for external payloads. As we look ahead to assembly complete, these new facilities represent

  1. Improving GNSS time series for volcano monitoring: application to Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; Sevilla, Miguel J.; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The number of permanent GNSS stations has increased significantly in recent years for different geodetic applications such as volcano monitoring, which require a high precision. Recently we have started to have coordinates time series long enough so that we can apply different analysis and filters that allow us to improve the GNSS coordinates results. Following this idea we have processed data from GNSS permanent stations used by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) for volcano monitoring in Canary Islands to obtained time series by double difference processing method with Bernese v5.0 for the period 2007-2014. We have identified the characteristics of these time series and obtained models to estimate velocities with greater accuracy and more realistic uncertainties. In order to improve the results we have used two kinds of filters to improve the time series. The first, a spatial filter, has been computed using the series of residuals of all stations in the Canary Islands without an anomalous behaviour after removing a linear trend. This allows us to apply this filter to all sets of coordinates of the permanent stations reducing their dispersion. The second filter takes account of the temporal correlation in the coordinate time series for each station individually. A research about the evolution of the velocity depending on the series length has been carried out and it has demonstrated the need for using time series of at least four years. Therefore, in those stations with more than four years of data, we calculated the velocity and the characteristic parameters in order to have time series of residuals. This methodology has been applied to the GNSS data network in El Hierro (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 eruption and the subsequent magmatic intrusions (2012-2014). The results show that in the new series it is easier to detect anomalous behaviours in the coordinates, so they are most useful to detect crustal deformations in volcano monitoring.

  2. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  3. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  4. Seismic and infrasound monitoring at Cotopaxi volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Troncoso, L.; Mothes, P.; Kumagai, H.

    2012-04-01

    Cotopaxi is an active ice-capped volcano (5967m) located 60 km SE from Quito and is one of the largest and more hazardous volcanoes in the Northern Andes. Monitoring of Cotopaxi, using seismic and infrasound techniques has improving significantly since 1976, when three short-period stations were deployed temporarily in response to an increase of fumarolic activity. Later in May 1977, a short-period vertical seismometer was installed on the NW flank at 7 km from the crater. Since 1986 a short-period seismic station is working at the northern flank of Cotopaxi and transmitting analog data to the Instituto Geofisico. In 1993 a network of 4 short-period seismic stations were installed on all flanks of the volcano. Between March 1996 and June 1997 a temporal network of 16 stations were deployed for several months in order to study local seismicity and internal structure (Metaxian et al., 1999). Since 2006, a network of five broad band stations (0.02-60 s) and low-frequency infrasound sensors (0.01-10 s) were installed through a JICA Cooperation Project (Kumagai et al., 2007). Data is transmitted to the Instituto Geofisico via a digital radio system. Through this network, LP and VLP events have been recorded and analyzed (Molina et al., 2008). VLP events were located beneath the north and north-eastern flank using waveform inversion and amplitude distribution methods (Kumagai et al., 2010).

  5. Seminar | "Managing Italian research stations at the Poles" by Roberto Sparapani | 19 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Polar areas are an ideal place to study climate change and other research fields. However, living and working at the Poles is a challenge for all the researchers involved. This presentation by Roberto Sparapani, who led the Italian research station Dirigibile Italia at Ny-Ålesund from 1997 to 2014, will take a short trip through the research and history of polar science - with a focus on the human factor, which makes a difference in a natural environment that leaves no room for improvisation.   The seminar will be held on 19 February at 4.30 p.m. in the Main Auditorium. It will be followed by a screening of Paola Catapano’s documentary for RAIWORLD “A Nord di Capo nord” (North of Cape North), in Italian with English subtitles. The documentary was given the "Artistic Direction Special Award" at the Rome Scientific Documentary Festival in December 2014. Ny-Ålesund is a small international research village located in the northwest ...

  6. CACAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) GENETIC RESOURCES RESEARCH AT THE USDA-ARS TROPICAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current USDA ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station’s cacao (Theobroma cacao) collection consists of 154 clonally propagated accessions. Each accession is represented by six individual trees grafted on Amelonado rootstocks and planted in a completely randomized block design with three blocks...

  7. A Solar Station for Education and Research on Solar Activity at a National University in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    pepe@geo.igp.gob.pe Beginning in 1937, the Carnegie Institution of Washington made active regional observations with a spectro-helioscope at the Huancayo Observatory. In 1957, during the celebration of the International Geophysical Year Mutsumi Ishitsuka arrived at the Geophysical Institute of Peru and restarted solar observations from the Huancayo Observatory. Almost 69 years have passed and many contributions for the geophysical and solar sciences have been made. Now the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), in cooperation with the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA), and with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, are planning to construct a solar station refurbishing a coelostat that worked for many years at the Huancayo Observatory. A 15 cm refractor telescope is already installed at the university, for the observation of sunspots. A solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) from Hida Observatory of Kyoto University could be sent to Peru and installed at the solar station at UNICA. As the refurbished coelostat, FMT will become a good tool to improve education and research in sciences.

  8. Technical progress report of biological research on the Volcanic Island Surtsey and environment for the year 1976. [Recovery of terrestrial ecosystem on volcanic island following volcano eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.

    1976-01-01

    The study involves the terrestrial biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, off the coast of Iceland and the neighbouring islands and environs of the Westman Islands, which are situated on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. An eruption of the volcano in 1973 is studied. The topographical changes on Surtsey were studied in August 1976. It is evident that the southwestern side is constantly being eroded and that the island decreases in area of some 7.5 hectares per year. Results are reported from studies of microorganisms, algae, lichens, moss, vascular plants, insects, birds, and soil, and the nitrogen cycle. Emphasis was placed on revegetation and recolonization of plants, insects, and sea birds.

  9. Research on International Space Station - Building a Partnership for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl, Heinz; Scheimann, Jens; Shirakawa, Masaki; Suvorov, Vadim; Uri, John J.

    2004-01-01

    As its name implies, the International Space Station is a platform where the research programs of 16 partner nations are conducted. While each partner pursues its own research priorities, cooperation and coordination of the various national and agency research programs occurs at multiple levels, from strategic through tactical planning to experiment operations. Since 2000, a significant number of experiments have been carried out in the Russian ISS utilization program, which consists of the Russian national program of fundamental and applied research in 11 research areas and international cooperative programs and contract activities. The US research program began with simple payloads in 2000 and was significantly expanded with the addition of the US Laboratory module Destiny in 2001, and its outfitting with seven research racks to date. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have made use of international cooperative arrangements with both the US and Russia to implement a variety of investigations in diverse research areas, and in the case of ESA included the flights of crewmembers to ISS as part of Soyuz Science Missions. In the future, ESA and JAXA will add their own research modules, Columbus and Kibo, respectively, to expand research capabilities both inside and outside ISS. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident and the temporary grounding of the Space Shuttle fleet, all ISS logistics have relied on Russian Progress and Sopz vehicles. The Russian national program has continued as before the Shuttle accident, as have international cooperative programs and contract activities, both during long-duration expeditions and visiting taxi missions. In several instances, Russian international cooperative activities with JAXA and ESA have also involved the use of US facilities and crewmembers in successful truly multilateral efforts. The US research program was rapidly refocused after the

  10. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  11. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  12. A Closed Mars Analog Simulation: The Approach of Crew 5 At the Mars Desert Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For twelve days in April 2002 we performed a closed simulation in the Mars Desert Research Station, isolated from other people, as on Mars, while performing systematic surface exploration and life support chores. Email provided our only means of contact; no phone or radio conversations were possible. All mission-related messages were mediated by a remote mission support team. This protocol enabled a systematic and controlled study of crew activities, scheduling, and use of space. The analysis presented here focuses on two questions: Where did the time go-why did people feel rushed and unable to complete their work? How can we measure and model productivity, to compare habitat designs, schedules, roles, and tools? Analysis suggests that a simple scheduling change-having lunch and dinner earlier, plus eliminating afternoon meetings-increased the available productive time by 41%.

  13. Causes of Rabbit Mortality at Mankon Research Station, Cameroon (1983-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nfi, AN.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the causes of mortality in rabbits raised at the Institute of Zootechnical and Veterinary Research Station (IRZV Mankon between 1983-1987. Three breeds of rabbits the Californian, the New Zealand White and their crosses with local rabbits were used in the study. Within the period under review, all dead animals were necropsied and faecal and gastro-intestinal tract samples were examined in the laboratory. It was shown that high mortalities in rabbits were due to snuffles, pneumonia, mucoid enteritis, coccidiosis, mange, enterotoxaemia and Tyzzer's disease. 3060 rabbits died of various diseases comprising 1591 (52 % kittens, 1220 (39.7 % fryers and 280 (9.2 % adults. Kitten mortality compared to fryer and adult was highest ail through the period of study.

  14. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  15. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  16. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  17. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  18. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  19. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... and to conduct scoping for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). SUMMARY: NASA intends to conduct... Project located near Sandusky, Ohio, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as...

  20. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  1. Development and User Research of a Smart Bedside Station System toward Patient-Centered Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Baek, Hyunyoung; Ryu, Borim; Chung, Eunja; Kim, Kidong; Yi, Jay Chaeyong; Park, Soo Beom; Hwang, Hee

    2015-09-01

    User experience design that reflects real-world application and aims to support suitable service solutions has arisen as one of the current issues in the medical informatics research domain. The Smart Bedside Station (SBS) is a screen that is installed on the bedside for the personal use and provides a variety of convenient services for the patients. Recently, bedside terminal systems have been increasingly adopted in hospitals due to the rapid growth of advanced technology in healthcare at the point of care. We designed user experience (UX) research to derive users' unmet needs and major functions that are frequently used in the field. To develop the SBS service, a service design methodology, the Double Diamond Design Process Model, was undertaken. The problems or directions of the complex clinical workflow of the hospital, the requirements of stakeholders, and environmental factors were identified through the study. The SBS system services provided to patients were linked to the hospital's main services or to related electronic medical record (EMR) data. Seven key services were derived from the results of the study. The primary services were as follows: Bedside Check In and Out, Bedside Room Service, Bedside Scheduler, Ready for Rounds, My Medical Chart, Featured Healthcare Content, and Bedside Community. This research developed a patient-centered SBS system with improved UX using service design methodology applied to complex and technical medical services, providing insights to improve the current healthcare system.

  2. A solar station in Ica - Mutsumi Ishitsuka: a research center to improve education at the university and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Ramos, Raúl

    2012-07-01

    The San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica has built a solar station, in collaboration with the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and the Hida Observatory. The Solar Station has the following equipment: a digital Spectrograph Solar Refractor Telescope Takahashi 15 cm aperture, 60 cm reflector telescope aperture, a magnetometer-MAGDAS/CPNM and a Burst Monitor Telescope Solar-FMT (Project CHAIN). These teams support the development of astronomical science and Ica in Peru, likewise contributing to science worldwide. The development of basic science will be guaranteed when university students, professors and researchers work together. The Solar Station will be useful for studying the different levels of university education and also for the general public. The Solar Station will be a good way to spread science in the region through public disclosure.

  3. Insights on volcanic behaviour from the 2015 July 23-24 T-phase signals generated by eruptions at Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Lynch, L.; Stewart, R.; Smith, P.; Ramsingh, C.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, H.; Ash, C.

    2015-12-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny volcano (KeJ) is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Since 1939, the year it revealed itself, and until the volcano-seismic unrest of 2015 July 11-25 , the volcano has erupted 12 times. Only two eruptions breached the surface: 1939, 1974. The volcano has an average eruption cycle of about 10-11 years. Excluding the Montserrat, Soufrière Hills, KeJ is the most active volcano in the Lesser Antilles arc. The University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) has been monitoring KeJ since 1953. On July 23 and 24 at 1:42 am and 0:02 am local time, respectively, the SRC recorded T-phase signals , considered to have been generated by KeJ. Both signals were recorded at seismic stations in and north of Grenada: SRC seismic stations as well as the French volcano observatories in Guadeloupe and Martinique, Montserrat Volcano Observatory, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. These distant recordings, along with the experience of similar observations in previous eruptions, allowed the SRC to confirm that two explosive eruptions occurred in this episode at KeJ. Up to two days after the second eruption, when aerial surveillance was done, there was no evidence of activity at the surface. During the instrumental era, eruptions of the KeJ have been identified from T-phases recorded at seismic stations from Trinidad, in the south, to Puerto Rico, in the north. In the 2015 July eruption episode, the seismic station in Trinidad did not record T-phases associated with the KeJ eruptions. In this study we compare the T-phase signals of 2015 July with those recorded in KeJ eruptions up to 1974 to explore possible causative features for the T-phase recording pattern in KeJ eruptions. In particular, we investigate the potential role played by the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) layer in influencing the absence of the T-phase on the Trinidad seismic station during this eruption.

  4. NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

  5. Foci of Volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, I.

    1974-01-01

    One may assume a center of volcanic activities beneath the edifice of an active volcano, which is here called the focus of the volcano. Sometimes it may be a ''magma reservoir''. Its depth may differ with types of magma and change with time. In this paper, foci of volcanoes are discussed from the viewpoints of four items: (1) Geomagnetic changes related with volcanic activities; (2) Crustal deformations related with volcanic activities; (3) Magma transfer through volcanoes; and (4) Subsurface structure of calderas.

  6. Comparison of antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and conjugative transfer of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates from International Space Station and Antarctic Research Station Concordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiwon, Katarzyna; Arends, Karsten; Rogowski, Katja Marie; Fürch, Svea; Prescha, Katrin; Sakinc, Türkan; Van Houdt, Rob; Werner, Guido; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are confined and isolated habitats in extreme and hostile environments. The human and habitat microflora can alter due to the special environmental conditions resulting in microbial contamination and health risk for the crew. In this study, 29 isolates from the ISS and 55 from the Antarctic Research Station Concordia belonging to the genera Staphylococcus and Enterococcus were investigated. Resistance to one or more antibiotics was detected in 75.8 % of the ISS and in 43.6 % of the Concordia strains. The corresponding resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 86 % of the resistant ISS strains and in 18.2 % of the resistant Concordia strains. Plasmids are present in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 78.2 % of the Concordia strains. Eight Enterococcus faecalis strains (ISS) harbor plasmids of about 130 kb. Relaxase and/or transfer genes encoded on plasmids from gram-positive bacteria like pIP501, pRE25, pSK41, pGO1 and pT181 were detected in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 52.7 % of the Concordia strains. Most pSK41-homologous transfer genes were detected in ISS isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci. We demonstrated through mating experiments that Staphylococcus haemolyticus F2 (ISS) and the Concordia strain Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis G2 can transfer resistance genes to E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Biofilm formation was observed in 83 % of the ISS and in 92.7 % of the Concordia strains. In conclusion, the ISS isolates were shown to encode more resistance genes and possess a higher gene transfer capacity due to the presence of three vir signature genes, virB1, virB4 and virD4 than the Concordia isolates.

  7. Research Opportunities on the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Adriaans, Mary Jayne; Pensinger, John; Israelsson, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a state-of-the-art facility for long duration science Investigations whose objectives can only be achieved in microgravity and at low temperature. LTMPF consists of two reusable, cryogenic facilities with self-contained electronics, software and communication capabilities. The Facility will be first launched by Japanese HIIA Rocket in 2003 and retrieved by the Space Shuttle, and will have at least five months cryogen lifetime on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) of the International Space Station. A number of high precision sensors of temperature, pressure and capacitance will be available, which can be further tailored to accommodate a wide variety of low temperature experiments. This paper will describe the LTMPF and its goals and design requirements. Currently there are six candidate experiments in the flight definition phase to fly on LTMPF. Future candidate experiments will be selected through the NASA Research Announcement process. Opportunities for utilization and collaboration with international partners will also be discussed. This work is being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was funded by NASA Microgravity Research Division.

  8. Development of an Ozone UV DIAL System at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlome, M.; Simeonov, V.; Parlange, M.; van den Bergh, H.

    2009-04-01

    An ozone UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is developed and added to the existing multi-wavelength Lidar operated at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ, 3580 m ASL, 46.55° N, 7.98° E). The system is based on a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (Continuum Powerlite 8000) providing the laser emission of 266 nm at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The initial radiation is focused through a high pressure Nitrogen-Raman cell responsible for the generation of the DIAL wavelengths suitable for ozone detection (284, 304 nm) by the stimulated Raman scattering technique. The 76 cm diameter Cassegrain telescope in the HARSJ's astronomical dome is used as receiver for measurements up to the tropopause. The existing multi-wavelength polychromator fixed at the telescopes rear end is equipped with the additional ozone detection channel. The performance of the system is illustrated by inter-comparison with an ECC ozone sonde launched by the Swiss Meteorological Institute at Payerne (SMI, 491 m ASL, 46.83°N, 6.96 E). The retrieved data are found to be in good agreement with the balloon sounding and cover an altitude range of 2 to 10 km above the HARSJ. Since the scientific community disagrees about the real amount of air mass exchange driven by stratosphere troposphere exchange (STE), this new instrument is capable to supply the STE research with remote sensing data from an unique location.

  9. Research Opportunities on the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Adriaans, Mary Jayne; Pensinger, John; Israelsson, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a state-of-the-art facility for long duration science Investigations whose objectives can only be achieved in microgravity and at low temperature. LTMPF consists of two reusable, cryogenic facilities with self-contained electronics, software and communication capabilities. The Facility will be first launched by Japanese HIIA Rocket in 2003 and retrieved by the Space Shuttle, and will have at least five months cryogen lifetime on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) of the International Space Station. A number of high precision sensors of temperature, pressure and capacitance will be available, which can be further tailored to accommodate a wide variety of low temperature experiments. This paper will describe the LTMPF and its goals and design requirements. Currently there are six candidate experiments in the flight definition phase to fly on LTMPF. Future candidate experiments will be selected through the NASA Research Announcement process. Opportunities for utilization and collaboration with international partners will also be discussed. This work is being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was funded by NASA Microgravity Research Division.

  10. The seismicity of Marapi volcano, West Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    Marapi is one of the active volcanoes in West Sumatra. It is a stratovolcano with an edifice that is elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. Its elevation is about 2,900 m a.s.l. The summit area is characterized by a caldera that contains some active craters aligned along the ENE-WSW direction. The Marapi volcano is an attractive region for tourists and hosts many small communities its surrounding areas. The recent history of Mt. Marapi is characterized by explosive activity at the summit craters. No lava flows have passed the rim of the summit caldera in recent times. The last eruption occurred on August 5, 2004, and consisted of moderate explosive activity from the central crater. In 1975 an eruption with magmatic and phreatic explosive phases and mudflows and lahars occurred that caused fatalities in the surrounding areas. Since 1980 other eruptions have occurred at Marapi volcano. Even if the explosive intensities of those eruptions have been small to moderate, in some cases, there were fatalities. A cooperation project started between Italy and Indonesia (COVIN) for the monitoring of volcanoes in West Sumatra. In the context of this project a monitoring centre has been set up at the Bukittinggi Observatory and a seismological monitoring system for Marapi volcano has been realized. This system is based on a broadband seismic network including 4 three-component stations. The data acquired by the broadband network of Marapi volcano are continuous recordings of the seismic signals starting from 19/10/2006. Volcano-Tectonic and Long Period events of Marapi volcano together with regional and teleseismic earthquakes are recorded. Several events of high magnitude located at short distances from the network were also recorded such as on March 6, 2007, when two events of Magnitudes Mw 6.4 and 6.3 were recorded with the epicentres near the Marapi volcano. During the following days, there was a sequence of hundreds of aftershocks. The preliminary analysis of the seismicity of

  11. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  12. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  13. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  14. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of

  15. Research on Quantitative Models of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Principle of Energy Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to adapt the matching and planning requirements of charging station in the electric vehicle (EV marketization application, with related layout theories of the gas stations, a location model of charging stations is established based on electricity consumption along the roads among cities. And a quantitative model of charging stations is presented based on the conversion of oil sales in a certain area. Both are combining the principle based on energy consuming equivalence substitution in process of replacing traditional vehicles with EVs. Defined data are adopted in the example analysis of two numerical case models and analyze the influence on charging station layout and quantity from the factors like the proportion of vehicle types and the EV energy consumption at the same time. The results show that the quantitative model of charging stations is reasonable and feasible. The number of EVs and the energy consumption of EVs bring more significant impact on the number of charging stations than that of vehicle type proportion, which provides a basis for decision making for charging stations construction layout in reality.

  16. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  17. The Spectrumof the Cosmic Background Radiation: Early and RecentMeasurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model.

  18. Morphological and physio-chemical characterization of five Canistel accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five canistel cultivars, 'Fairchild','E11', 'Keisau', 'TREC#3' and 'TREC 3680' were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clonal accessions during July and August, ...

  19. Heterogeneity in genetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our long-term objective is to develop genomic prediction strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and non-genetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle....

  20. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  1. Socialization into science: An ethnographic study in a field research station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calovini, Theresa Ann

    While the place of language in building the tasks and activities of the science classroom has received attention in the education literature, how students do the work of affiliation building through language remains poorly understood. This dissertation is based on ethnographic research in an apprenticeship learning situation at a biological field research station. I carried out this research with five undergraduates apprentices. I focus on how the language used in this apprenticeship situation positioned the apprentices with science. Issues of access and diversity in science education have motivated this research but this point can be missed because the five apprentices were all fairly successful in university science. They had all secured their job for the summer as paid research assistants. Yet, even with these successful students, science had a complicated place in their lives. I draw on Gee's (1999) notion of Discourse to understand this complexity. I focus on four Discourses--- Science, Knowing about the Animals, Senior Projects and RAships, and Relationships ---which were important in the apprentices' learning about and socialization with science. I try to understand the inter-workings of these four Discourses through a detailed analysis of three conversations involving one of the participants, Michelle. Michelle's use of narrative emerged as a linguistic resource which she used to explore dilemmas she experienced in the tensions between these four Discourses. Michelle was in many ways an ideal apprentice. She did her job well and she sought and received expert advice on her Senior project. Nonetheless, Michelle faced obstacles in her pursuit of a career in science and these obstacles related to language use and her use of narrative. I show how her use of narrative either facilitated or impeded her learning, depending on the context of the interaction. My analysis of Discourse points to important issues in language use by both students and teachers, with

  2. Research on reform schemes of control methods of inlet gate in Jiaxin Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The simple gate control system which is made of traditional manual or proximity switch cannot meet the requirements of connecting with the computer monitoring system of hydropower station, it must be reformed. On the basis of the integrated analysis for small hydropower station, the paper discussed the singlechip as the core to realize the methods of gate automatic control system in small hydropower station. The designs for hardware and software of gate control system were introduced. And the control system was reformed from customary manual control to computer automatic control. The simulation experiment shows that this scheme is feasible.

  3. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  4. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station “Academician Vernadsky” (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station “Academician Vernadsky”. Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penol...

  5. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station “Academician Vernadsky” (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak Kornyliy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station “Academician Vernadsky”. Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  6. Research on Converter Valve Overvoltage Mechanism and Calculation Conditions of ± 800 kV Converter Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dongju; DENG Xu; ZHOU Hao; CHEN Xilei; XU Anwen; SHEN Yang

    2012-01-01

    The thyristor converter valve is the key equipment of commutation in ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) transmission systems. Owing to the limited voltage and current overload capacity, any transient overvoltage may cause permanent damage to the thyristor converter valve. In order to specify the converter valves' overvoltage levels of the ±800 kV UHVDC transmission system, the mechanisms of its generation and development are discussed in detail, from which the calculation conditions for the highest stresses of the converter valves are given. Finally, the converter valve's overvoltage of Xiluodu UHV converter station is simulated. The research results show that the overvoltages of the converter valves in the upper 3-pulse group of the high voltage(HV) and low voltage(LV) 12-pulse converter are generated jointly by the DC line voltage and the converter transformer's voltage at its valve side. Calculation conditions for this overvoltage are: DC system in bipolar operation mode, converter station operating as rectifier, maximum DC system operating voltage, minimum DC current, minimum AC system voltage of the converter station. Furthermore, the other converter valves' overvoltage is caused by the phase-to-phase switching surge generated at the converter station's AC side, penetrating into the valve hall. Overall, the maximum overvoltages of Xiluodu converter station in the upper 3-pulse group of the HV and LV 12-pulse converter are 379.1 kV and 384.9 kV, for other converter valves the maximum overvoltage is 375.3 kV.

  7. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Jose Luis; Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  8. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  9. Biomolecular Analysis Capability for Cellular and Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) assembly complete ushered a new era focused on utilization of this state-of-the-art orbiting laboratory to advance science and technology research in a wide array of disciplines, with benefits to Earth and space exploration. ISS enabling capability for research in cellular and molecular biology includes equipment for in situ, on-orbit analysis of biomolecules. Applications of this growing capability range from biomedicine and biotechnology to the emerging field of Omics. For example, Biomolecule Sequencer is a space-based miniature DNA sequencer that provides nucleotide sequence data for entire samples, which may be used for purposes such as microorganism identification and astrobiology. It complements the use of WetLab-2 SmartCycler"TradeMark", which extracts RNA and provides real-time quantitative gene expression data analysis from biospecimens sampled or cultured onboard the ISS, for downlink to ground investigators, with applications ranging from clinical tissue evaluation to multigenerational assessment of organismal alterations. And the Genes in Space-1 investigation, aimed at examining epigenetic changes, employs polymerase chain reaction to detect immune system alterations. In addition, an increasing assortment of tools to visualize the subcellular distribution of tagged macromolecules is becoming available onboard the ISS. For instance, the NASA LMM (Light Microscopy Module) is a flexible light microscopy imaging facility that enables imaging of physical and biological microscopic phenomena in microgravity. Another light microscopy system modified for use in space to image life sciences payloads is initially used by the Heart Cells investigation ("Effects of Microgravity on Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Human Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery"). Also, the JAXA Microscope system can perform remotely controllable light, phase-contrast, and fluorescent observations. And upcoming confocal microscopy

  10. International Space Station as Analog of Interplanetary Transit Vehicle For Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Astronaut missions lasting up to six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common with interplanetary flights, especially the outbound, Earth-to-Mars transit portion of a Mars mission. Utilization of ISS and other appropriate platforms to prepare for crewed expeditions to planetary destinations including Mars has been the work of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) since 2005. HRP is charged specifically to understand and reduced the risks to astronaut health and performance in space exploration missions: everything HRP does and has done is directly related to that responsibility. Two major categories of human research have capitalized on ISS capabilities. The first category centers on the biomedical aspects of long-duration exposure to spaceflight factors, including prolonged weightlessness, radiation exposure, isolation and confinement, and actual risk to life and limb. These studies contribute to astronaut safety, health and efficiency on any long-duration missions, whether in low Earth orbit (LEO) or beyond. Qualitatively, weightlessness is weightlessness, whether in LEO or en route to Mars. The HRP sponsors investigations into losses in muscle and bone integrity, cardiovascular function, sensory-motor capability, immune capacity and psychosocial health, and development and demonstration of appropriate treatments and preventative measures. The second category includes studies that are focused on planetary expeditions beyond LEO. For these, ISS offers a high fidelity analog to investigate the combined effects of spaceflight factors (described above) plus the isolation and autonomy associated with simulated increasing distance from Earth. Investigations address crew cohesion, performance and workload, and mission control performance. The behavioral health and performance and space human factors aspects of planetary missions dominate this category. Work has already begun on a new investigation in this category which will examine the

  11. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  12. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  13. Assessment of soil fertility status of Agriculture Research Station, Belachapi, Dhanusha, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil test-based fertility management is important for sustainable soil management. This study was carried out to determine the soil fertility status of the Agriculture Research Station, Belachapi, Dhanusha, Nepal. Using soil sampling auger 25 soil samples were collected randomly from a depth of 0-20 cm. Soil sampling points were identified using GPS device. Following standard methods adopted by Soil Science Division laboratory, Khumaltar, the collected soil samples were analyzed to find out their texture, pH, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and organic matter status. The soil fertility status maps were made using Arc-GIS 10.1 software. The observed data revealed that soil was grayish brown in colour and sub-angular blocky in structure. The sand, silt and clay content were 36.03±3.66%, 50.32±2.52% and 25.42±2.25%, respectively and categorized as eight different classes of texture. The soil was acidic in pH (5.61±0.14. The available sulphur (0.73±0.09 ppm status was very low, whereas organic matter (1.34±0.07%, available boron (0.56±0.10 ppm, available zinc (0.54±0.22 ppm and available copper (0.30±0.01 ppm were low in status. The extractable potassium (95.52±13.37 ppm and extractable calcium (1264.8±92.80ppm exhibited medium in status. In addition, available phosphorus (33.25±6.97 ppm, available magnesium (223.20±23.65 ppm and available manganese (20.50±2.43 ppm were high in status. Furthermore, available iron (55.80±8.89 ppm status was very high. To improve the potentiality of crops (maize, rice, wheat etc. for studied area, future research strategy should be made based on its soil fertility status.

  14. Seasonal variations in aerosol particle composition at the puy-de-Dôme research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Freney

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigations of the chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed at the puy-de-Dôme (pdD research station (1465 m in autumn (September and October 2008, winter (February and March 2009, and summer (June 2010 using a Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Over the three campaigns, the average mass concentrations of the non-refractory submicron particles ranged from 10 μg m−3 up to 27 μg m−3. Highest nitrate and ammonium mass concentrations were measured during the winter and during periods when marine modified airmasses were arriving at the site, whereas highest concentrations of organic particles were measured during the summer and during periods when continental airmasses arrived at the site. The measurements reported in this paper show that atmospheric particle composition is strongly influenced by both the season and the origin of the airmass. The total organic mass spectra were analysed using positive matrix factorisation to separate individual organic components contributing to the overall organic particle mass concentrations. These organic components include a low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol particle (LV-OOA and a semi-volatile organic aerosol particle (SV-OOA. Correlations of the LV-OOA components with fragments of m/z 60 and m/z 73 (mass spectral markers of wood burning during the winter campaign suggest that wintertime LV-OOA are related to aged biomass burning emissions, whereas organic aerosol particles measured during the summer are likely linked to biogenic sources. Equivalent potential temperature calculations, gas-phase, and LIDAR measurements define whether the research site is in the planetary boundary layer (PBL or in the free troposphere (FT/residual layer (RL. We observe that SV-OOA and nitrate particles are associated with air masses arriving from the PBL where as particle composition measured from RL/FT airmasses

  15. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  16. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Segall, Paul; Owen, Susan

    2001-09-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/√h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours.

  18. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  19. Research on determination of the scale of parking space on High Speed Rail Station, using East Ji’nan Station as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jie; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid growth of High-Speed Railway network in China, more and more stations has been designed. Based on the work of planning practice, this article has analyzed the influencing factors of proper supplement of parking space in High-Speed Railway Stations with analogy and parking turnover method, and taking East Ji’nan High-Speed Railway Station as an example to give recommended values.

  20. Volcanoes - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  1. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  2. Heterogeneity in genetic and nongenetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, R J; Spurlock, D M; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K A; de Haas, Y; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Lu, Y; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop breeding strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and nongenetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle. Specifically, the heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated and heterogeneous relationships between RFI and traits relating to energy utilization were characterized across research stations. Milk, fat, protein, and lactose production converted to megacalories (milk energy; MilkE), dry matter intakes (DMI), and body weights (BW) were collected on 6,824 lactations from 4,893 Holstein cows from research stations in Scotland, the Netherlands, and the United States. Weekly DMI, recorded between 50 to 200 d in milk, was fitted as a linear function of MilkE, BW0.75, and change in BW (ΔBW), along with parity, a fifth-order polynomial on days in milk (DIM), and the interaction between this polynomial and parity in a first-stage model. The residuals from this analysis were considered to be a phenotypic measure of RFI. Estimated partial regression coefficients of DMI on MilkE and on BW0.75 ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 kg/Mcal for MilkE across research stations, whereas estimated partial regression coefficients on BW0.75 ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 kg/kg0.75. Estimated partial regression coefficients on ΔBW ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 across stations. Heritabilities for country-specific RFI were based on fitting second-stage random regression models and ranged from 0.06 to 0.24 depending on DIM. The overall heritability estimate across all research stations and all DIM was 0.15±0.02, whereas an alternative analysis based on combining the first- and second-stage model as 1 model led to an overall heritability estimate of 0.18±0.02. Hence future genomic selection programs on feed efficiency appear to be promising; nevertheless, care should be taken to allow for potentially

  3. Modeling and Simulation Research on Lightning Over-voltage of 500kV Hydroelectric Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wang-jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning over-voltage amplitude of equipments on different branch nodes of the arterials has been obtained after the modeling and simulation analysis based on the EMTP (electromagnetic transients program were done on the lightning over-voltage of a 500kV hydroelectric station was with the system’s worst working condition (single-line, single-transforming, and the line tower on the near side of 500kv hydroelectric station’s GIS was struck by lightning. Thus, precise data have been acquired to select suitable equipments and verify the resisting lightning performance of the station. Finally, reasonable measures (such as reducing pulse resistance of line tower are proposed to improve the comprehensive lightning resisting level of hydroelectric stations.

  4. Research on Layout Optimization of Urban Circle Solid Waste Transfer and Disposal Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Systematic Layout Planning theory and the analysis of transfer stations’ technological processes, a layout optimization model for solid waste transfer and disposal stations was made. The operating units’ layout of the solid waste transfer and disposal stations was simulated and optimized using the genetic algorithm, which could achieve reasonable technological processes, the smallest floor space and the lowest construction cost. The simulation result can also direct the initial engineering design and can also provide reference for similar engineering design methods.

  5. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  6. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  7. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  8. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  9. Activities of the wintering party at Showa Station by the 31st Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiko

    1992-03-01

    JARE (Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition) dispatched two wintering parties to Showa and Asuka Stations in Antarctica. The report describes the activities of the JARE-31 wintering party at Showa Station. A total of 30 members, including 15 scientists and 15 logistics, had stayed at the station 1 Feb. 1990 - 31 Jan. 1991. The major tasks assigned to the wintering party by the JARE headquarters were to conduct more than 60 items of the observation including launching of the ozone sonde and total ozone observation as a routine meteorological observation, STS (Space Transportation System) earthquake observation, and field experiments of ACR (Active Cavity Radiometer) program with major focus on the interaction between sea ice and atmosphere. EXOS-D (Exospheric Satellite-D) and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) observation and the experiments on penguin foraging ecology were also important programs. All these scientific experiments were performed successfully. The particular success of the field experiments of ACR was partly due to the better sea ice condition that guaranteed safe activities on sea ice throughout the year. Regarding the maintenance of the station, a new program on the waste disposal has started in relation to the conservation of the Antarctic environment. A large amount of the disposed waste was brought back to the country.

  10. Rethinking the railway station area : Research by design in architecture and urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da conceicao, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Railway stations and their urban surroundings are undergoing a ‘renaissance’ for some years now. The movement towards rethinking and renewing these places in cities is based on concerns with sustainability on economical, social and environmental dimensions. In Europe, a great boost to it was given b

  11. Influence of Soil Characteristics and Proximity to Antarctic Research Stations on Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chai, Benli; Yang, Luxi; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Dockyu; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hashsham, Syed A; Tiedje, James M; Sul, Woo Jun

    2016-12-06

    Soil is an important environmental reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are increasingly recognized as environmental contaminants. Methods to assess the risks associated with the acquisition or transfer of resistance mechanisms are still underdeveloped. Quantification of background levels of antibiotic resistance genes and what alters those is a first step in understanding our environmental resistome. Toward this goal, 62 samples were collected over 3 years from soils near the 30-year old Gondwana Research Station and for 4 years before and during development of the new Jang Bogo Research Station, both at Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica. These sites reflect limited and more extensive human impact, respectively. A qPCR array with 384 primer sets targeting antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was used to detect and quantify these genes. A total of 73 ARGs and MGEs encompassing eight major antibiotic resistance gene categories were detected, but most at very low levels. Antarctic soil appeared to be a common reservoir for seven ARGs since they were present in most samples (42%-88%). If the seven widespread genes were removed, there was a correlation between the relative abundance of MGEs and ARGs, more typical of contaminated sites. There was a relationship between ARG content and distance from both research stations, with a significant effect at the Jang Bogo Station especially when excluding the seven widespread genes; however, the relative abundance of ARGs did not increase over the 4 year period. Silt, clay, total organic carbon, and SiO2 were the top edaphic factors that correlated with ARG abundance. Overall, this study identifies that human activity and certain soil characteristics correlate with antibiotic resistance genes in these oligotrophic Antarctic soils and provides a baseline of ARGs and MGEs for future comparisons.

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  13. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  14. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  15. Understanding Abiotic Triggers For Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lakes Using a Long Term In-situ Monitoring Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Salomon, Christine; Missaghi, Shahram; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are ubiquitous ecological and public health hazards. HAB are made up of potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacteria. The occurrences of toxic HAB are unpredictable and highly spatially/temporary variable in freshwater ecosystems. To study the abiotic triggers for toxic HAB, a research station has been deployed in a eutrophic lake from June-October 2016. This station provides hourly water quality profiles and meteorological (every 5 minutes) monitoring with real time access. Water quality monitoring is performed by an autonomously traversed sonde that provides chemical, physical and biological measurements; including phycocyanin, a light-absorbing pigment distinct to cyanobacteria. The research station is a sentinel for HAB accumulation, prompting focused HAB analysis, including: phytoplankton and toxin composition/concentration, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates. We will discuss how mixing conditions, temperature stratification, light intensity, surface wind magnitude and energy dissipation mediate a)HAB formation/composition b)toxicity and c)cyanobacteria stratification.The results will help illuminate abiotic processes that trigger HAB accumulation/toxicity, which can direct timely toxic HAB prediction and prevention efforts.

  16. A Study of the Source Processes of Colima Volcano Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Vargas-Bracamontes, D.; Sanchez, J. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2007-12-01

    Colima volcano, considered as Mexico's most active volcano, has presented several intermittent effusive and explosive phases in recent years. During 2005, a sequence of explosive events with VEI less than or equal to 3 occurred. This activity presented the most intense explosions since the seismic network was deployed. Many of the explosive events were recorded by the digital three-component seismic stations operated by the University of Guadalajara and Jalisco State Civil Defense. These signals were recorded not only by stations located on the volcanic edifice, but also by stations on the northern coast of Jalisco (MCUJ, BSSJ) and Ceboruco Volcano at 184, 182 and 200 km distance, respectively. A study of these signals will be presented. Each explosion was preceded by a seismic event. Nevertheless, the located earthquakes preceding the explosions did not show a common source under the volcano structure, which suggests the existence of a complex structure with possibly more than one conduit, this is also confirmed from a first motion analysis for station F03J, located 12 km at north of the volcano. From analysis of the first ten seconds of the seismic signal on F03J using different representations of the seismic signals, such as waveforms, spectra, time-frequency and time-scale analysis, it is suggested that the source processes are non-stationary, implying that for the case of this period, a general model of the source process of the Colima volcano explosions can not be formulated. The size of the events is evaluated using different criteria. A clear relation between the magnitude of the seismic signals and the amplitude of the sonic and infrasonic waves was not observed.

  17. International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

  18. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  19. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  20. A preliminary application GIS in glaciological research along the traverse route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温家洪; 孙波; 康建成; 李院生

    2003-01-01

    GIS is applied in glaciological research along the traverse route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, one of the key routes in ITASE project, to display, process, manage and analyze the data obtained mainly by the 3rd Chinese Inland Expedition, together with Antarctic databases provided by ADD and BEDMAP project.The ways of ADD data merging and clipping, and coordinate projection transformation of field data and BEDMAP data are introduced.Elevation data derived by GPS navigator are corrected using ADD and ArcView's contour interpolation.Sub-ice topography and ice thickness along the route are extracted from BEDMAP database.Slope and aspect data are derived at each positioning station.GIS is a convenient and useful tool for us to record, query and display a variety of data in detail along the traverse route.

  1. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  2. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  3. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  4. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  5. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  6. The 2014 Submarine Eruption of Ahyi Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, M. M.; Chadwick, W.; Merle, S. G.; Buck, N. J.; Butterfield, D. A.; Coombs, M. L.; Evers, L. G.; Heaney, K. D.; Lyons, J. J.; Searcy, C. K.; Walker, S. L.; Young, C.; Embley, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    On April 23, 2014, Ahyi Volcano, a submarine cone in the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), ended a 13-year-long period of repose with an explosive eruption lasting over 2 weeks. The remoteness of the volcano and the presence of several seamounts in the immediate area posed a challenge for constraining the source location of the eruption. Critical to honing in on the Ahyi area quickly were quantitative error estimates provided by the CTBTO on the backazimuth of hydroacoustic arrivals observed at Wake Island (IMS station H11). T-phases registered across the NMI seismic network at the rate of approximately 10 per hour until May 8 and were observed in hindsight at seismic stations on Guam and Chichijima. After May 8, sporadic T-phases were observed until May 17. Within days of the eruption onset, reports were received from NOAA research divers of hearing explosions underwater and through the hull on the ship while working on the SE coastline of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas), a distance of 20 km NW of Ahyi. In the same area, the NOAA crew reported sighting mats of orange-yellow bubbles on the water surface and extending up to 1 km from the shoreline. Despite these observations, satellite images showed nothing unusual throughout the eruption. During mid-May, a later cruise leg on the NOAA ship Hi'ialakai that was previously scheduled in the Ahyi area was able to collect some additional data in response to the eruption. Preliminary multibeam sonar bathymetry and water-column CTD casts were obtained at Ahyi. Comparison between 2003 and 2014 bathymetry revealed that the minimum depth had changed from 60 m in 2003 to 75 m in 2014, and a new crater ~95 m deep had formed at the summit. Extending SSE from the crater was a new scoured-out landslide chute extending downslope to a depth of at least 2300 m. Up to 125 m of material had been removed from the head of the landslide chute and downslope deposits were up to 40 m thick. Significant particle plumes were detected at all three

  7. Development of volcano monitoring technique using repeating earthquakes observed by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kimura, H.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

    2012-12-01

    After the Grate East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011, the M6.4 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. Fuji on March 15, 2011. Although the hypocenter seemed to be very close to an assumed magma chamber of Fuji volcano, no anomalies in volcanic activity have been observed until August 2012. As an example, after the M6.1 earthquake occurred in 1998 at southwest of Iwate volcano, a change of seismic velocity structure (e.g. Nishimura et al., 2000) was observed as well as active seismicity and crustal deformation. It had affected waveforms of repeating earthquakes occurring at a plate subduction zone, that is, the waveform similarities were reduced just after the earthquake due to upwelling of magma. In this study, first we analyzed for Mt. Fuji where such changes are expected by the occurrence of the earthquake to try to develop a tool for monitoring active volcanoes using the Volcano Observation network (V-net) data. We used seismic waveform data of repeating earthquakes observed by short period seismometers of V-net and the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan (Hi-net) stations near Fuji volcano after 2007. The seismic data were recorded with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, and we applied 4-8 Hz band pass filter to reduce noise. The repeating earthquakes occurred at the plate subduction zone and their catalog is compiled by Hi-net data (Kimura et al., 2006). We extracted repeating earthquake groups that include earthquakes before and after the M6.4 earthquake on March 15, 2011. A waveform of the first event of the group and waveforms of the other events are compared and calculated cross-correlation coefficients. We adjusted P wave arrivals of each event and calculate the coefficients and lag times of the latter part of the seismic waves with the time window of 1.25 s. We searched the best fit maximizing the cross-correlation coefficients with 0.1 s shift time at each time window. As a result we found three remarkable points at this time. [1] Comparing lag times

  8. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  10. Development of the Finse Alpine Research Station towards a platform for multi-disciplinary research on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments (LATICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, John F.; Decker, Sven; Filhol, Simon; Hulth, John; Nesje, Atle; Schuler, Thomas V.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2017-04-01

    The Finse Alpine Research Station provides convenient access to the Hardangervidda mountain plateau in Southern Norway (60 deg N, 1222 m asl). The station is located above the tree-line in vicinity to the west-eastern mountain water divide and is easily accessible by train from Bergen and Oslo. The station itself offers housing and basic laboratory facilities and has been used for ecological monitoring. Over the past years, studies on small-scale snow distribution and ground temperature have been performed and accompanied by a suite of meteorological measurements. Supported by strategic investments by the University of Oslo and ongoing research projects, these activities are currently expanded and the site is developed towards a mountain field laboratory for studies on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments, facilitated by the LATICE project (www.mn.uio.no/latice). Additional synergy comes from close collaborations with a range of institutions that perform operational monitoring close to Finse, including long-term time series of meteorological data and global radiation. Through our activities, this infrastructure has been complemented by a permanent tower for continuous Eddy-Covariance measurements along with associated gas fluxes. A second, mobile covariance system is in preparation and will become operational in 2017. In addition, a wireless sensor network is set up to grasp the spatial distributions of basic meteorological variables, snow depth and glacier mass balance on the nearby Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. While the research focus so far was on small scale processes (snow redistribution), this is now being expanded to cover hydrological processes on the catchment and regional scale. To this end, two discharge stations have been installed to gauge discharge from two contrasting catchments (glacier dominated and non-glacierized). In this presentation, we provide an overview over existing and planned infrastructure, field campaigns and research

  11. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  12. From high quality seismic data acquisition in remote volcanic area to fast data distribution to scientific community: The UnderVolc project on Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, Florent; Kowalski, Philippe; Pequegnat, Catherine; Lauret, Frédéric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Boissier, Patrice; Catherine, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Piton de la Fournaise basaltic volcano (La Réunion island, France) is one of the most active volcano in the world with an average of one eruption every year. This volcano is thus an ideal case study for research projects focusing on studying magmatic, seismic and deformation processes occurring in volcanic areas. The UNDERVOLC (UNDERstanding VOLCanic Processes) research project main goal is to provide high quality 3-component broadband continuous seismic data to an amount of about 30 volcano-seismologists from different international research teams (including Japan and New-Zealand). This data acquisition system is moreover dedicated to the monitoring of Piton de la Fournaise volcano by providing real-time seismic data to the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological Observatory/IPGP. The network consists of 21 fully autonomous stations composed of CMG40-T seismometers associated to high dynamic digitizers and linked to wireless digital radio stations. The seismic signal is sent by UDP protocol to the observatory through a network of wireless LAN over large distances (~10 km) and possibly through the internet to the Observatory. The acquisition system at the observatory is composed of: 1-An Earthworm system (USGS - ISTI - CERI) with a Q330 to Earthworm data acquisition module (6 permanent stations from the observatory) 2-An Apollo server system (Nanometrics) for 15 stations (for which seismometers and digitizers belong to the French national pool of portable seismic instruments Sismob, INSU-CNRS) In both case, requests are sent back to the stations in case of loss of udp packets. This system allows us producing miniseed files every hour. Since September 2009, the full dataset has less then 1 % of gaps. In order to provide a fast data access to the scientific community, we synchronize our dataset every night with the SISMOB datacenter located in France (LGIT, Grenoble). After a quality check, seed data volumes are produced and distributed by standard NETDC requests from

  13. Locating the timacum maius station on the roman road lissus-naissus-ratiaria: New archaeological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the exact location of two Timacum stations remains an open issue, the results of the latest archaeological investigations in the environs of Svrljig, southeast Serbia, seem to offer some corroborative evidence for the hypothesis proposed in our previous contribution that this might be the location of Roman Timacum Maius. A small-scale trial excavation was undertaken on the Roman site at Kalnica in the Niševac village area in July 2008. A trench 4 by 2m was opened in the zone of the site that had yielded plentiful fragments of building debris as well as small finds. A massive wall over 1m thick was found immediately beneath the surface. Built of bro­ken limestone and pebbles bound with lime mortar, it obviously was part of a larger structure. To the northeast of the wall was an area covered with fragmented roof tiles. The discovery of two ceramic tumuli embedded in the wall, indicating a wall-heating system so far unregistered on the representative Roman urban and settlement sites in Serbia, gives additional grounds to presume that this was a larger Roman settlement extending over an area of more than 5ha, possibly Timacum Maius, a station on the Roman road Lissus-Ratiaria-Naissus.

  14. Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting at the Raleigh Hydrogeologic Research Station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station, located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from May 2005 through September 2007 are presented in this report. Three well clusters and four piezometers were installed at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station along an assumed flow path from recharge to discharge areas. Each well cluster includes four wells to monitor the regolith, transition zone, and shallow and deep bedrock. Borehole, surface, and waterborne geophysics were conducted to examine the lithology and physical properties of the bedrock and to determine the aerial extent of near vertical diabase dikes. Slug tests were conducted in the wells at each cluster to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the formation tapped by each well. Periodic water-level altitudes were measured in all wells and in four piezometers. Continuous hourly water levels were measured in wells for variable periods of time during the study, and a surface-water gage collected 15-minute stage data from April to June 2006. In October 2005 and April 2006, water-quality samples were collected from a tributary and in all wells at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station. Continuous water-quality data were collected hourly in three wells from December 2005 through January 2007 and every 15 minutes in the tributary from May to June 2006. In August 2006, streambed temperatures and drive-point ground-water samples were collected across lines of section spanning the Neuse River.

  15. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  16. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  17. International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years: An Analysis of Results from 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Crespo-Richey, Jessica; Baumann, David; Rhatigan, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first 15 Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating and inspiring the next generation even when these do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These investigations on the ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.

  18. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is

  19. Research on H2 speed governor for diesel engine of marine power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Man-lei

    2007-01-01

    The frequency stability of a marine power system is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulation system in a marine power station. In order to reduce the effect of load disturbances and improve the dynamic precision of a diesel engine speed governor, a controller was designed for a diesel engine speed regulation system using H2 control theory. This transforms the specifications of the system into a standard H2 control problem. Firstly, the mathematical model of a diesel engine speed regulation system using an H2 speed governor is presented. To counter external disturbances and model uncertainty, the design of an H2 speed governor rests on the problem of mixed sensitivity. Computer simulation verified that the H2 speed governor improves the dynamic precision of a system and the ability to adapt to load disturbances, thus enhancing the frequency stability of marine power systems.

  20. Higher and colder: The success and failure of boundaries in high altitude and Antarctic research stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    This article offers a series of case studies of field stations and field laboratories based at high altitudes in the Alps, Himalayas and Antarctica, which have been used by Western scientists (largely physiologists and physicists) from circa 1820 to present. It rejects the common frame for work on such spaces that polarizes a set of generalizations about practices undertaken in 'the field' versus 'the laboratory'. Field sites are revealed as places that can be used to highlight common and crucial features of modern experimental science that are exposed by, but not uniquely the properties of, fieldwork. This includes heterogeneity of population and practice, diverse afterlives, the manner in which spaces of science construct individual and group expertise, and the extensive support and funding structures needed for modern scientific work.

  1. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  2. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  3. Three-dimensional shallow velocity structure beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shuei-Huei; Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Gung, Yuancheng; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-01

    Based on its numerous historical explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of millions, Taal Volcano is one of the most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. To provide better investigation on local seismicity and seismic structure beneath Taal Volcano, we deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of eight stations from March 2008 to March 2010. In the preliminary data processing stage, three periods showing linear time-drifting of internal clock were clearly identified from noise-derived empirical Green's functions. The time-drifting errors were corrected prior to further data analyses. By using VELEST, 2274 local earthquakes were manually picked and located. Two major earthquake groups are noticed, with one lying beneath the western shore of Taal Lake showing a linear feature, and the other spreading around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island at shallower depths. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using the LOTOS algorithm. Some interesting features are revealed from the tomographic results, including a solidified magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, indicated by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a large potential hydrothermal reservoir beneath the center of Taal Volcano Island, suggested by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Furthermore, combining earthquake distributions and tomographic images, we suggest potential existence of a hydrothermal reservoir beneath the southwestern corner of Taal Lake, and a fluid conduit extending to the northwest. These seismic features have never been proposed in previous studies, implying that new hydrothermal activity might be formed in places away from the historical craters on Taal Volcano Island.

  4. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  5. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  6. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    -tectonic interactions, and loss of volatiles plus densification of magma. The Cascade Range thus offers an outstanding opportunity for investigating a wide range of volcanic processes. Indeed, there may be areas of geodetic change that have yet to be discovered, and there is good potential for addressing a number of important questions about how arc volcanoes work before, during, and after eruptions by continuing geodetic research in the Cascade Range.

  7. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    -tectonic interactions, and loss of volatiles plus densification of magma. The Cascade Range thus offers an outstanding opportunity for investigating a wide range of volcanic processes. Indeed, there may be areas of geodetic change that have yet to be discovered, and there is good potential for addressing a number of important questions about how arc volcanoes work before, during, and after eruptions by continuing geodetic research in the Cascade Range.

  8. Research on Optimal Operation by Adjusting Blade Angle in Jiangdu No. 4 Pumping Station of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Zhang; Jilin, Chang; Rentian, Zhang; Yi, Gong

    2010-06-01

    A Nonlinear Programming Model for the optimal day-operation of multi-units pump in one pumping station by adjusting blade angle has been put out, where the peak-valley electricity prices is considered in this paper. The model takes the minimal operation cost of pump assembly as objective function. In the meantime, the periods are defined as stage variables. The blade angle and the number of the working-pumps are expressed as decision variables and the water volume pumped in one day as constraint condition. The problem is very difficult to be settled by regular methods. This paper presents a new method which adopts experimental optimization method of adjusting blade angle in different periods and linear integral programming method to select the number of pumps. After applying the method to the optimal operation of Jiangdu No.4 pumping station, which is the source pump station of Eastern Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion(Where there are seven pumps and the design flow rate of single-unit is 30.0m3/sec), we get the results which are as follows:(1) With the constraint conditions of typical tidal process which are average tidal levels from December to February of next year, designed average pumping head of 7.8m, and the operation load at 100%,80%,60% of full-load(the water volume when the pumps working with the blade angle of 0 degree and the speed of 150r/min in full day), the relative energy-saving reaches 5.18%˜33.02% comparing with the state of keeping the pump operating at its designed blade angle which is 0 degree when considering peak-valley electricity prices. While not considering the peak-valley electricity prices, the number is 1.96%˜9.71%, and less load corresponds to more cost-saving. (2) The key factory on deciding the operation state of pumps is electricity price when we consider the peak-valley electricity prices. All the pumps should be working and the blade angle should be in the largest state when at the valley price, while the number

  9. Observed inflation-deflation cycles at Popocatepetl volcano using tiltmeters and its possible correlation with regional seismic activity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G., Sr.; Jimenez Velazquez, J. C., Sr.; Valdes Gonzalez, C. M., Sr.; Reyes Pimentel, T. A.; Galaviz Alonso, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Popocatepetl, the smoking mountain, is a stratovolcano located in central Mexico with an elevation of 5450 masl. The active volcano, close to some of the largest urban centers in Mexico - 60 km and 30 km far from Mexico City and Puebla, respectively - poses a high hazard to an estimated population of 500 thousand people living in the vicinity of the edifice. Accordingly, in July 1994 the Popocatepetl Volcanological Observatory (POVO) was established. The observatory is operated and supported by the National Center for Disaster Prevention of Mexico (CENAPRED), and is equipped to fully monitor different aspects of the volcanic activity. Among the instruments deployed, we use in this investigation two tiltmometers and broad-band seismometers at two sites (Chipiquixtle and Encinos), which send the information gathered continuously to Mexico City.In this research, we study the characteristics of the tiltmeters signals minutes after the occurrence of certain earthquakes. The Popocatepetl volcano starts inflation-deflation cycles due to the ground motion generated by events located at certain regions. We present the analysis of the tiltmeters and seismic signals of all the earthquakes (Mw>5) occurred from January 2013 to June 2014, recorded at Chipiquixtle and Encinos stations. First, we measured the maximum tilt variation after each earthquake. Next, we apply a band-pass filter for different frequency ranges to the seismic signals of the two seismic stations, and estimated the total energy of the strong motion phase of the seismic record. Finally, we compared both measurements and observed that the maximum tilt variations were occurring when the maximum total energy of the seismic signals were in a specific frequency range. We also observed that the earthquake records that have the maximum total energy in that frequency range were the ones with a epicentral location south-east of the volcano. We conclude that our observations can be used set the ground for an early

  10. Dense Local Seismic Network at Villarrica Volcano (Southern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.

    2013-12-01

    Villarrica volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes. It has been presenting constant fumarole activity and seismicity since its last eruption in 1984-85. A local network was installed at Villarrica volcano (Southern Chile) during the first two weeks of March, 2012. In total, 75 DSS-Cube short-period stations (30 3-Component, 45 1-Component) were deployed at and around the volcano area, covering approx. 63 km x 55 km. The average station spacing is 1.5 km for stations inside the perimeter of the volcanic edifice, and 5km outside this perimeter. The network recorded ca. 94 volcano tectonic (VT) events located SSW, SSE and North of the crater, with clear P- and S-wave arrivals. Many others, ca.73 events, could be classified as 'hybrid' events (HB), which present high frequencies at the beginning of the signal, and a sharp and notorious S-wave at the crater stations, but a strong scattering, lower frequency content, and elongated coda on the stations along the volcanic edifice. This strong scattering effect is probably caused by the heterogeneous ash layers on the edifice structure. Few long period events (LP), with main frequencies between 2-4 Hz, were observed. From the tectonic regional events, three sets of events can be distinguished. One coming from the southern end of the focal plane of the Maule earthquake (2010), with S-P wave travel time difference of ca. 30 s or more. Another closer group with S-P wave travel time difference between 10 s and 20 s, and the last group with S-P wave travel time difference of 10 s or less. A cross-correlation analysis to the travel times of the regional events and a teleseismic event from Argentina was applied in order to determine the average velocity structure of the volcano, and obtained an average P-wave velocity of 3.6 km/s for the volcanic edifice inside a radius of 6.5 km, and 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area outside this radius. This model serves as a starting point for local earthquake

  11. ANCIENT VOLCANOES AND TECTONIC STRUCTURES OF A RELIEF OF MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the basic geological and morphological features of a volcanic relief of a surface of a planet Mars are considered. The volcanic relief of a planet represents relic ancient shield volcanoes, linear forms of volcanic mountains, areal and central lava flooding, radial and concentric breaks. Results of researches of morphology of volcanic and tectonic formations of a relief of Mars are given in article. On materials of shooting of a surface of Mars spacecrafts constructed hypsometric high-rise profiles of volcanoes and average steepness of slopes are defined. The relative age of volcanoes and volcanic plains is estimated on density of shock craters.

  12. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  13. The research about TD-LTE base station planning%TD-LTE新建站站址规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐连雷; 邱剑

    2015-01-01

    In order to guarantee the quality after the completion of the TD-LTE network, the research work of the new base station site planning should be carried out in advance. By analyzing the TD-LTE coverage performance and capacity estimation ,according to the results of the link budget and the full consideration to the effective coverage of the base station, this essay gives a recommended value of a different coverage scene station appropriately. At the same time, combining the resources of the business distribution and now web site, through field survey and assessment of site environment and network topology structure to determine the site layout and to provide reference for the TD-LTE site planning.%为保证TD-LTE网络建成后的质量,需提前进行新建站站址规划的研究工作。本文通过分析TD-LTE覆盖性能和容量估算,依据链路预算的结果,充分考虑基站的有效覆盖范围,给出不同覆盖场景的站距建议值,并结合业务分布及现网站址资源情况,通过实地勘察评估建站环境和网络拓扑结构确定站址布局,为TD-LTE的站址规划提供参考。

  14. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  15. New Hypocenter Relocation Results From Volcano-Tectonic Events (1995-2006) at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.; Nava, F. A.; Valdes-Gonzalez, C.

    2008-12-01

    Popocatepetl, one of the most active strato-volcanoes in Mexico, started a fumarolic and seismic reactivation in December 1994. New hypocenter relocation results have been calculated for some 1,800 volcano-tectonic (VT) events recorded by the seismic network operating at Popocatepetl during 1995-2006, and previously located by the National Center for Disasters Prevention (CENAPRED). We used two location programs to determine hypocenter relocation. One is a recently developed genetic algorithm program, Disloca, which adjusts the differences in arrival times between the recording seismic stations. The second is HypoDD, which uses the double difference earthquake location algorithm. Disloca allowed evaluation of station corrections, plus location of non-clustered hypocenters, while HypoDD refined the locations of clustered ones. Thus, for a given velocity model, hypocenters of clustered events varied slightly depending on the location program. For both programs, four different crustal velocity models were used, two of which include a low velocity zone (LVZ) below 6 km depth. This LVZ represents the presence of magma, which has been suggested to exist at this depth. The spatial distribution of the relocated hypocenters varies from one model to another, but a carefully considered combination of features common to the four distributions, allows a new characterization of the VT activity at Popocatepetl. The distribution of the relocated hypocenters found in this study differs from that of former investigations at Popocatépetl, and gives new insights into the volcano's structures. Hypocenters occur mainly above 10 km depth, with a horizontal range of about 5 km. Features of the spatial distribution allow a tentative interpretation of several internal volcanic structures. Chief among these are branched dike complexes and different sized zones free of volcano-tectonic events, which are in turn surrounded by zones of magma-rock interaction, as indicated by the presence of

  16. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  17. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  18. 4D volcano gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  19. STAtion of Reference and rEsearch on Change of local and global Anthropogenic Pressures on Mediterranean Ecosystems Drifts: The STARECAPMED project

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Abadie, Arnaud; Marc BINARD; Biondo, Renzo; Boissery, Pierre; Borges, Alberto; Cimiterra, Nicolas; Collignon, Amandine; Champenois, Willy; Donnay, Annick; Fréjefond, Charlène; Goffart, Anne; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Lejeune, Pierre; Lepoint, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The Marine and Oceanographic Research Station STARESO in the Calvi Bay, Corsica (France), is a unique tool in a preserved natural site that includes all the characteristic ecosystems of the Mediterranean littoral. The station, established in 1970, has archived environmental data for decades. The STARECAPMED project, multidisciplinary, articulates itself around these two main features. Its objective is to understand how human activities can interact with the fundamental processes that govern t...

  20. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  1. A Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Jun Jaegyu Volcano: An active undersea volcano in Antarctic Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, G.; Brachfeld, S.; Gorring, M.; Prezant, R. S.; Domack, E.

    2005-12-01

    Jun Jaegyu volcano, an Antarctic submarine volcano, was dredged in May 2004 during cruise 04-04 of the RV Laurence M. Gould to determine rock, sediment composition and marine macroinvertebrate diversity. The objectives of this study are to examine the benthic assemblages and biodiversity present on a young volcano. The volcano is located on the continental shelf of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula, where recent changes in surface temperature and ice shelf stability have been observed. This volcano was originally swath-mapped during cruise 01-07 of the Research Vessel-Ice Breaker Nathaniel B. Palmer. During LMG04-04 we also studied the volcano using a SCUD video camera, and performed temperature surveys along the flanks and crest. Both the video and the dredge indicate a seafloor surface heavily colonized by benthic organisms. Indications of fairly recent lava flows are given by the absence of marine life on regions of the volcano. The recovered dredge material was sieved, and a total of thirty-three invertebrates were extracted. The compilation of invertebrate community data can subsequently be compared to other benthic invertebrate studies conducted along the peninsula, which can determine the regional similarity of communities over time, their relationship to environmental change and health, if any, and their relationship to geologic processes in Antarctic Sound. Twenty-two rock samples, all slightly weathered and half bearing encrusted organisms, were also analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Except for one conglomerate sample, all are alkali basalts and share similar elemental compositions with fresh, unweathered samples from the volcano. Two of the encrusted basalt samples have significantly different compositions than the rest. We speculate this difference could be due to water loss during sample preparation, loss of organic carbon trapped within the vesicles of the samples and/or elemental uptake by the

  2. Preventing volcanic catastrophe; the U.S. International Volcano Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J.W.; Murray, T.L.; Lockhart, A. B.; Miller, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    When the seismograph began to record the violent earth-shaking caused by yet another eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia, no one thought that a few hours later more than 23,000 people would be dead, killed by lahars (volcanic debris flows) in towns and villages several tens of kilometers away from the volcano. Before the fatal eruption the volcano was being monitored by scientists at a seismic station located 9 km from the summit, and information about the volcano's activity was being sent to Colombian emergency-response coordinators who were charged with alerting the public of the danger from the active volcano. Furthermore, area known to be in the pathways lahars had already been identified on maps and communities at risk had been told of their precarious locations.

  3. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  4. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Chouker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  5. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  6. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Borsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  7. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Borsa; Elena Mudura; Vlad Vasile Hadarean Munteanu; Sevastita Muste; Andruta Cerbu (Muresan); Romina Vlaic

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  8. 78 FR 42928 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management... research for a period of 25 years, supporting the strategic goals of USDA and establishing a Beginning.... If the decision is made to transfer the Property, it will be done with no monetary cost to...

  9. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  10. Semipermanent GPS (SPGPS) as a volcano monitoring tool: Rationale, method, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.

    2017-01-01

    determinations is estimated to be 0.5 mm/yr in longitude, 0.6 mm/yr in latitude, and 0.8 mm/yr in height. We conclude that an optimal approach to monitoring volcano deformation includes complementary CGPS and SPGPS networks, periodic InSAR observations, and measurements from in situ borehole sensors such as tiltmeters or strainmeters. This comprehensive approach provides the spatial and temporal detail necessary to adequately characterize a complex and evolving deformation pattern. Such information is essential to multi-parameter models of magmatic or tectonic processes that can help to guide research efforts, and also to inform hazards assessments and land-use planning decisions.

  11. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various

  12. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    We conduct a systematic survey on locally triggered earthquakes by large distant earthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano, an active intraplate volcano on the border between China and North Korea. We examine waveforms of distant earthquakes recorded at broadband station Changbaishan (CBS) near the volcano with estimated dynamic stresses over 5 kPa between 2000 and 2016. Out of 26 selected distant earthquakes, three of them show positive evidence of triggering during large-amplitude surface waves. The earthquakes that had positive or possible evidences of triggering generated larger long-period surface waves, indicating that they are more efficient in triggering microseismicity. In addition, since 2006 North Korea has conducted five underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests only 140 km away from Changbaishan Volcano. By systematically examining waveforms of these UNEs recorded at station CBS, we find that none of them have triggered microearthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano.

  13. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  14. A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Douglas C.

    1992-06-01

    A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

  15. Mount Rainier: living safely with a volcano in your backyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Scott, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Majestic Mount Rainier soars almost 3 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level and looms over the expanding suburbs of Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. Each year almost two million visitors come to Mount Rainier National Park to admire the volcano and its glaciers, alpine meadows, and forested ridges. However, the volcano's beauty is deceptive - U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research shows that Mount Rainier is one of our Nation's most dangerous volcanoes. It has been the source of countless eruptions and volcanic mudflows (lahars) that have surged down valleys on its flanks and buried broad areas now densely populated. To help people live more safely with the volcano, USGS scientists are working closely with local communities, emergency managers, and the National Park Service.

  16. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  17. Prototype Software for Future Spaceflight Tested at Mars Desert Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maaretn; Alena, Rick; Dowding, John; Garry, Brent; Scott, Mike; Tompkins, Paul; vanHoof, Ron; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    NASA scientists in MDRS Crew 49 (April 23-May 7, 2006) field tested and significantly extended a prototype monitoring and advising system that integrates power system telemetry with a voice commanding interface. A distributed, wireless network of functionally specialized agents interacted with the crew to provide alerts (e.g., impending shut-down of inverter due to low battery voltage), access md interpret historical data, and display troubleshooting procedures. In practical application during two weeks, the system generated speech over loudspeakers and headsets lo alert the crew about the need to investigate power system problems. The prototype system adapts the Brahms/Mobile Agents toolkit to receive data from the OneMeter (Brand Electronics) electric metering system deployed by Crew 47. A computer on the upper deck was connected to loudspeakers, four others were paired with wireless (Bluetooth) headsets that enabled crew members to interact with their personal agents from anywhere in the hab. Voice commands and inquiries included: 1. What is the {battery | generator} {volts | amps | volts and amps}? 2. What is the status of the {generator | inverter | battery | solar panel}? 3. What is the hab{itat} {power usage | volts | voltage | amps | volts and amps}? 4. What was the average hab{itat} {amps | volts | voltage} since {AM | PM)? 5. When did the {generator | batteries} change status? 6. Tell {me I | everyone} when{ ever} the generator goes offline. 7. Tell {me | | everyone} when the hab{itat} {amps | volts | voltage} {exceeds | drops brelow} . 8. {Send | Take | Record} {a} voice note {(for | to} } {at }. This research demonstrates the principles of design in the context of use, investigating requirements through experimental use of prototype systems in an analog setting, and use of MDRS as a research facility for designing and implementing new systems.

  18. Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2006-06-01

    Effective natural hazard mitigation requires that the science surrounding geophysical events be thoroughly explored. With millions of people living on the flanks of volcanoes, understanding the parameters that effect volcanic behavior is critically important. In particular, basements can influence the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and landslides. This control by the substrate on volcano behavior usually has been considered questionable or less important than the conditions of the deep magma source. However, due to recent findings, this view is changing, specifically with regard to approaches in assessing volcanic hazards. The November 2005 AGU Chapman Conference ``Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior'' brought together geologists and geophysicists from North and South America, Europe, and Asia to discuss the results of their research on the reciprocal effects of the interaction between volcanos and their basements. The conference also highlighted the importance of holding Chapman conferences in developing countries such as the Philippines because many hazardous volcanos are situated in these countries. Apart from having natural field laboratories, these are the very same places that need to promote scientific discourse on volcano research, which can lead to more effective hazard mitigation programs.

  19. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  20. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  1. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  2. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  5. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced

  6. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    dominant by biomass. Age-2+ Yellow Perch and White Perch diets from our western basin trawl had highest occurrences of benthic invertebrates in spring and fall. Hexagenia spp. accounted for >25% of Yellow Perch and White Perch diet composition (dry weight) in spring. We conducted an analysis using data from the past 6 years of our East Harbor survey to determine to what degree our new research vessel and trawl is affecting our ability to detect trends across the 50+ year time series. We also evaluated trends in water temperatue, dissolved oxygen, secchi depth and total Phosphorus from our LTLA sites near Vermilion, Ohio. Within the following report sections, we describe specific results from our primary surveys conducted in 2014.

  7. Local Short Period Seismic Network at Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Stock, Cindy; Thorwart, Martin; Dzieran, Laura; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Since its last eruption in 1984-85, the Villarrica volcano has been presenting both seismic and fumarolic activity, accompanied by an open vent and a refulgent lava lake. To study its activity, a local seismic network of 75 DSS-Cubes short-period stations was deployed at and around the volcano. During the first two weeks of March, 2012, 30 3-Component and 45 1-Component stations were installed in a 63 km x 55 km area, with spacing between stations of 1.5 km for stations inside the perimeter of the volcanic edifice, and 5 km outside this perimeter. In total, approximately 94 volcano tectonic (VT) events with clear P- and S- wave arrivals were located to the SSW, SSE and North of the Crater at an average depth of 3 km below sea level. At least 73 events classified as "hybrids" (HB) were observed, predominantly about 2 km above sea level near or at the conduit. They present emergent higher frequencies at the beginning of the signal, and sharp S-wave at the crater stations, but a strong scattering, lower frequency content, and elongated coda on the stations along the volcanic edifice, probably due to ash layers and heterogeneities at the edifice. A few long period events (LP) with frequencies between 2-4 Hz were observed during the two weeks. Three set of groups can be distinguished for the regional tectonic events: aftershocks on the southern end of the rupture of the Maule 2010 event, with S-P wave travel time difference of ca. 30 s or more; a second group with S-P travel time difference between 10 s and 20s; and the much closer group with S-P wave difference of 10 s or less. To determine the average velocity structure of the volcano, a cross-correlation analysis of the waves from a M6.1 event in Argentina and other regional events was performed. The model used was a cylindric model of 6.5 km radius inside the volcanic edifice, which gave a P-wave velocity of 3.6 km/s, and a region outside this radius with a velocity of 4.1 km. The network was divided into five zones

  8. Chemical composition, mixing state, size and morphology of Ice nucleating particles at the Jungfraujoch research station, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Weinbruch, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nilius, Björn; Danielczok, Anja; Bingemer, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    An intense field campaign from the Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT) was performed in January and February of 2013 at the High-Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland). Main goal was the assessment of microphysical and chemical properties of free-tropospheric ice-nucelating particles. The ice-nucleating particles were discriminated from the total aerosol with the 'Fast Ice Nucleation CHamber' (FINCH; University Frankfurt) and the 'Ice-Selective Inlet' (ISI, Paul Scherer Institute) followed by a pumped counter-stream virtual impactor. The separated ice-nucleating particles were then collected with a nozzle-type impactor. With the 'FRankfurt Ice nuclei Deposition freezinG Experiment' (FRIDGE), aerosol particles are sampled on a silicon wafer, which is than exposed to ice-activating conditions in a static diffusion chamber. The locations of the growing ice crystals are recorded for later analysis. Finally, with the ICE Counter-stream Virtual Impactor (ICE-CVI) atmospheric ice crystals are separated from the total aerosol and their water content is evaporated to retain the ice residual particles, which are then collected also by impactor sampling. All samples were analyzed in a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. By this method, for each particle its size, morphology, mixing-state and chemical composition is obtained. In total approximately 1700 ice nucleating particles were analyzed. Based on their chemical composition, the particles were classified into seven groups: silicates, metal oxides, Ca-rich particles, (aged) sea-salt, soot, sulphates and carbonaceous matter. Sea-salt is considered as artifact and is not regarded as ice nuclei here. The most frequent ice nucleating particles/ice residuals at the Jungfraujoch station are silicates > carbonaceous particles > metal oxides. Calcium-rich particles and soot play a minor role. Similar results are obtained by quasi-parallel measurements with an online single particle laser ablation

  9. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3,053-meter-high, ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano in the southwestern Cook Inlet region about 225 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 100 kilometers northwest of Homer. Historical eruptions of Iliamna Volcano have not been positively documented; however, the volcano regularly emits steam and gas, and small, shallow earthquakes are often detected beneath the summit area. The most recent eruptions of the volcano occurred about 300 years ago, and possibly as recently as 90-140 years ago. Prehistoric eruptions have generated plumes of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. Rock avalanches from the summit area have occurred numerous times in the past. These avalanches flowed several kilometers down the flanks and at least two large avalanches transformed to cohesive lahars. The number and distribution of known volcanic ash deposits from Iliamna Volcano indicate that volcanic ash clouds from prehistoric eruptions were significantly less voluminous and probably less common relative to ash clouds generated by eruptions of other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Plumes of volcanic ash from Iliamna Volcano would be a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International Airport and other local airports, and depending on wind direction, could drift at least as far as the Kenai Peninsula and beyond. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Because Iliamna Volcano has not erupted for several hundred years, a future eruption could involve significant amounts of ice and snow that could lead to the formation of large lahars and downstream flooding. The greatest hazards in order of importance are described below and shown on plate 1.

  10. Geophysical surveys on permafrost in Coropuna and Chachani volcanoes (southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Jose; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Pari, Walter; Palacios, David; Macias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Ccallata, Beto; Miranda, Rafael; Concha, Ronald; Vasquez, Pool; Cruz, Rolando

    2015-04-01

    A network of air and ground temperature sensors installed 2004-2014 has enabled the discovery of permafrost on the Coropuna (6377 m) and Chachani (6057 m) volcanoes. However, on the Misti (5820 m) volcano there is no permafrost, which can be attributed to geothermal heat. Misti and Chachani are very close to each other, near the city of Arequipa (S. Peru). Coropuna is 150 km to the west. Various volcanic eruptions have taken place on Misti and Coropuna in the last 10 ka (Úbeda et al, 2012). The volcanic activity on the Chachani seems to be much older, although it has not been researched to date. Coropuna is covered by a glacial system of ~40 km2 (23-11-2013) and the moraines surrounding the volcanic complex indicate a surface of >500 km2 >10 ka ago (Úbeda et al, 2011). On Chachani the evidence also suggests a great extent in the past although in this case there are no glaciers conserved at the present day. On Misti there are currently no glaciers either, nor is there any evidence conserved of their earlier presence, and this has also been related to geothermal heat. As well as other study areas, the CRYOPERU sensor network includes 4 stations in the sector Coropuna-NE; 3 stations in Coropuna-SE; 3 stations in Chachani-SE and 3 stations in Misti-NW. The stations are at different altitudes, in an interval of 4300-6000 m. Each station has a thermometer to measure the air temperature (at a height of 0.50 m) and three thermometers to measure the ground temperature (at depths of 0.15, 0.30 and 1.00 m). The sensors are synchronized in GPS time and record the temperature every 30 minutes. Úbeda, J. et al (2012). Glacial and volcanic evolution on Nevado Coropuna (Tropical Andes) based on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. EGU2012-3683-2. Úbeda, J. (2011). El impacto del cambio climático en los glaciares del complejo volcánico Nevado Coropuna (Cordillera Occidental de los Andes Centrales). PhD Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 594 pp. http

  11. Elementary analysis of data from Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-ming; ZHANG Heng-rong; KONG Qing-jun; WU Cheng-zhi; GUO Feng; ZHANG Chao-fan

    2004-01-01

    Tianchi Volcano is the largest potential erupticve volcano in China. Analyzing these data on seismic monitoring, deformation observation and water chemistry investigation gained from the Tianchi Volcano Observatory (TVO), the authors consider that the Tianchi Volcano is in going into a new flourishing time.

  12. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  14. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  15. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  16. Feasibility of Conducting J-2X Engine Testing at the Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station B-2 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Charles F.; Cheston, Derrick J.; Worlund, Armis L.; Brown, James R.; Hooper, William G.; Monk, Jan C.; Winstead, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A trade study of the feasibility of conducting J-2X testing in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) B-2 facility was initiated in May 2006 with results available in October 2006. The Propulsion Test Integration Group (PTIG) led the study with support from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jacobs Sverdrup Engineering. The primary focus of the trade study was on facility design concepts and their capability to satisfy the J-2X altitude simulation test requirements. The propulsion systems tested in the B-2 facility were in the 30,000-pound (30K) thrust class. The J-2X thrust is approximately 10 times larger. Therefore, concepts significantly different from the current configuration are necessary for the diffuser, spray chamber subsystems, and cooling water. Steam exhaust condensation in the spray chamber is judged to be the key risk consideration relative to acceptable spray chamber pressure. Further assessment via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other simulation capabilities (e.g. methodology for anchoring predictions with actual test data and subscale testing to support investigation.

  17. A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Susana O. L.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Marees, Andries; Staats, Martijn; Foing, Bernard; Röling, Wilfred F. M.

    2011-07-01

    Humankind's innate curiosity makes us wonder whether life is or was present on other planetary bodies such as Mars. The EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign was organized at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) to perform multidisciplinary astrobiology research. MDRS in southeast Utah is situated in a cold arid desert with mineralogy and erosion processes comparable to those on Mars. Insight into the microbial community composition of this terrestrial Mars analogue provides essential information for the search for life on Mars: including sampling and life detection methodology optimization and what kind of organisms to expect. Soil samples were collected from different locations. Culture-independent molecular analyses directed at ribosomal RNA genes revealed the presence of all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), but these were not detected in all samples. Spiking experiments revealed that this appears to relate to low DNA recovery, due to adsorption or degradation. Bacteria were most frequently detected and showed high alpha- and beta-diversity. Members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gemmatimonadetes phyla were found in the majority of samples. Archaea alpha- and beta-diversity was very low. For Eukarya, a diverse range of organisms was identified, such as fungi, green algae and several phyla of Protozoa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria but also Archaea and Eukarya. These comprised radioresistant, endolithic, chasmolithic, xerophilic, hypolithic, thermophilic, thermoacidophilic, psychrophilic, halophilic, haloalkaliphilic and alkaliphilic micro-organisms. Overall, our data revealed large difference in occurrence and diversity over short distances, indicating the need for high-sampling frequency at similar sites. DNA extraction methods need to be optimized to improve extraction efficiencies.

  18. Seismicity at Fuego, Pacaya, Izalco, and San Cristobal Volcanoes, Central America, 1973-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, S.R.; Harlow, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic data collected at four volcanoes in Central America during 1973 and 1974 indicate three sources of seismicity: regional earthquakes with hypocentral distances greater than 80 km, earthquakes within 40 km of each volcano, and seismic activity originating at the volcanoes due to eruptive processes. Regional earthquakes generated by the underthrusting and subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate are the most prominent seismic feature in Central America. Earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcanoes occur on faults that appear to be related to volcano formation. Faulting near Fuego and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala is more complex due to motion on a major E-W striking transform plate boundary 40 km north of the volcanoes. Volcanic activity produces different kinds of seismic signatures. Shallow tectonic or A-type events originate on nearby faults and occur both singly and in swarms. There are typically from 0 to 6 A-type events per day with b value of about 1.3. At very shallow depths beneath Pacaya, Izalco, and San Cristobal large numbers of low-frequency or B-type events are recorded with predominant frequencies between 2.5 and 4.5 Hz and with b values of 1.7 to 2.9. The relative number of B-type events appears to be related to the eruptive states of the volcanoes; the more active volcanoes have higher levels of seismicity. At Fuego Volcano, however, low-frequency events have unusually long codas and appear to be similar to tremor. High-amplitude volcanic tremor is recorded at Fuego, Pacaya, and San Cristobal during eruptive periods. Large explosion earthquakes at Fuego are well recorded at five stations and yield information on near-surface seismic wave velocities (??=3.0??0.2 km/sec.). ?? 1983 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

  19. ACTIVITY AND Vp/Vs RATIO OF VOLCANO-TECTONIC SEISMIC SWARM ZONES AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño B. John Makario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  20. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  1. TOMO-ETNA experiment at Etna volcano: activities on land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we describe the on-land field operations integrated in the TOMO-ETNA experiment carried out in June-November 2014 at Mt. Etna volcano and surrounding areas. This terrestrial campaign consists in the deployment of 90 short-period portable three-component seismic stations, 17 Broadband seismometers and the coordination with 133 permanent seismic station belonging to Italy’s Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. This temporary seismic network recorded active and passive seismic sources. Active seismic sources were generated by an array of air-guns mounted in the Spanish oceanographic vessel “Sarmiento de Gamboa” with a power capacity of up to 5200 cubic inches. In total more than 26,000 shots were fired and more than 450 local and regional earthquakes were recorded. We describe the whole technical procedure followed to guarantee the success of this complex seismic experiment. We started with the description of the location of the potential safety places to deploy the portable network and the products derived from this search (a large document including full characterization of the sites, owners and indication of how to arrive to them. A full technical description of the seismometers and seismic sources is presented. We show how the portable seismic network was deployed, maintained and recovered in different stages. The large international collaboration of this experiment is reflected in the participation of more than 75 researchers, technicians and students from different institutions and countries in the on-land activities. The main objectives of the experiment were achieved with great success.

  2. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  4. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  5. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  6. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  7. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  8. USGS Volcano Notification Service (VNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides a subscription service to receive an email when changes occur in the activity levels for monitored U.S. volcanoes and/or when information releases...

  9. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  10. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  11. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  12. Characteristics of the Seismicity in the San Martin Tuxtla volcano area, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M.

    2012-12-01

    San Martin Tuxtla volcano (18.572N, 95.169W, 1650 masl) is a large volcano rising in the midst of the Tuxtla volcanic field in the State of Veracruz, eastern México. The last eruption of this volcano occurred in 1793 and produced thick ash fall deposits in its vicinity. Due to increasing population in the area, the volcano poses a significant risk. To determine the seismic characteristics of the area and evaluate their possible relationship with the volcano we installed a network of three seismic stations in its surroundings. The array has recorded the seismic activity from 2007 to 2011. We present the results of the analysis of the records of this period, which in general show that the seismicity in the area is relatively low both in frequency and magnitude: only 51 events of magnitude (Mc) less than 2.5 were observed and located. Most of the earthquakes are typical volcano tectonic events occurring at shallow depths (<< 12 km) around the volcano. This low level of seismicity is probably a characteristic of the area and not of the particular period studied, as has been observed in other areas of basaltic volcanism, and could be used to establish any unusual seismicity that could be related to impending volcanic activity.

  13. Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

    2011-09-01

    Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these

  14. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  15. Volcanic Activities of Hakkoda Volcano after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake of 11 March 2011 generated large deformation in and around the Japanese islands, and the large crustal deformation raises fear of further disasters including triggered volcanic activities. In this presentation, as an example of such potential triggered volcanic activities, we report the recent seismic activities of Hakkoda volcano, and discuss the relation to the movement of volcanic fluids. Hakkoda volcano is a group of stratovolcanoes at the northern end of Honshu Island, Japan. There are fumaroles and hot springs around the volcano, and phreatic eruptions from Jigoku-numa on the southwestern flank of Odake volcano, which is the highest peak of the volcanic group, were documented in its history. Since just after the occurrence of the Tohokui Earthquake, the seismicity around the volcano became higher, and the migration of hypocenters of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes was observed.In addition to these VT earthquakes, long-period (LP) events started occurring beneath Odake at a depth of about 2-3 km since February, 2013, and subtle crustal deformation caused by deep inflation source was also detected by the GEONET GNSS network around the same time. The spectra of LP events are common between events irrespective of the magnitude of events, and they have several spectral peaks at 6-7 sec, 2-3 sec, 1 sec, and so on. These LP events sometimes occur like a swarm with an interval of several minutes. The characteristics of observed LP events at Hakkoda volcano are similar to those of LP events at other active volcanoes and hydrothermal area in the world, where abundant fluids exist. Our further analysis using far-field Rayleigh radiation pattern observed by NIED Hi-net stations reveals that the source of LP events is most likely to be a nearly vertical tensile crack whose strike is NE-SW direction. The strike is almost perpendicular to the direction of maximum extensional strain estimated from the geodetic analysis, and is almost parallel to

  16. Chemical characterization and physico-chemical properties of aerosols at Villum Research Station, Greenland during spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Iversen, L. S.; Svendsen, S. B.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Nielsen, I. E.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Zhang, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Skov, H.; Massling, A.; Bilde, M.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on the radiation balance and climate are of special concern in Arctic areas, which have experienced warming at twice the rate of the global average. As future scenarios include increased emissions of air pollution, including sulfate aerosols, from ship traffic and oil exploration in the Arctic, there is an urgent need to obtain the fundamental scientific knowledge to accurately assess the consequences of pollutants to environment and climate. In this work, we studied the chemistry of aerosols at the new Villum Research Station (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in north-east Greenland during the "inauguration campaign" in spring 2015. The chemical composition of sub-micrometer Arctic aerosols was investigated using a Soot Particle Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-ToF-AMS). Aerosol samples were also collected on filters using both a high-volume sampler and a low-volume sampler equipped with a denuder for organic gases. Chemical analyses of filter samples include determination of inorganic anions and cations using ion-chromatography, and analysis of carboxylic acids and organosulfates of anthropogenic and biogenic origin using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Previous studies found that organosulfates constitute a surprisingly high fraction of organic aerosols during the Arctic Haze period in winter and spring. Investigation of organic molecular tracers provides useful information on aerosol sources and atmospheric processes. The physico-chemical properties of Arctic aerosols are also under investigation. These measurements include particle number size distribution, water activity and surface tension of aerosol samples in order to deduct information on their hygroscopicity and cloud-forming potential. The results of this study are relevant to understanding aerosol sources and processes as well as climate effects in the Arctic, especially during the Arctic haze

  17. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Haney, Matthew M.; Parker, Tom; Searcy, Cheryl; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2012, the Alaska Volcano Observatory located 4,787 earthquakes, of which 4,211 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by a seismograph network. There was significant seismic activity at Iliamna, Kanaga, and Little Sitkin volcanoes in 2012. Instrumentation highlights for this year include the implementation of the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System hardware and software in February 2012 and the continuation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work in the summer of 2012. The operational highlight was the removal of Mount Wrangell from the list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes hypocenters, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2012 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  18. Analysis of the 2003-2005 Eruptive Process of Colima Volcano, Mexico, using Seismic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Vargas-Bracamontes, D. M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Sanchez, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The current eruptive process of Colima Volcano, which began in August 1998, has presented several intermittent effusive and explosive phases. During the period this study comprises (2003-2005), a sequence of explosive events with VEI less than or equal to 3 occurred. Many of the explosive events were recorded by the digital three-component seismic stations operated by the University of Guadalajara and Jalisco Civil Defense. These signals were recorded not only by stations located on the volcanic edifice, but also by stations on the northern coast of Jalisco and Ceboruco Volcano at 184, 182 and 200 km distance, respectively. A study of these signals is presented. Each explosion was preceded by a seismic event. Nevertheless, the localized explosions did not show a common source under the volcano structure, which suggests the existence of a complex structure with more than one conduit. On the other hand, using the waveforms, spectra, time-frequency and time-scale (wavelets) representations of the seismic signals it is suggested that the source processes are non-stationary, implying that for the case of this period, a general model of the source process of the Colima volcano explosions can not be formulated. By means of seismic record sections it was determined that the sound velocities of the shock waves vary 10 per cent around the volcano. A clear relation between the magnitude of the seismic signals and the amplitude of the sonic and subsonic waves was not observed.

  19. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dyke intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well located and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja volcano from all directions. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. The body is unlikely to be entirely melt as S-waves are still detected at stations directly above the anomaly. This low-velocity body is slightly deeper than the depth range suggested by InSAR and GPS studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the main low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with deep seismicity. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be a pathway for melt rising from the mantle.

  20. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  1. TOMO-ETNA Experiment -Etna volcano, Sicily, investigated with active and passive seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Birger-G.; Ibanez, Jesus M.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Patane, Domenico; Zieger, Toni; Cocina, Ornella; Zuccarello, Luciano; Koulakov, Ivan; Roessler, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    The TOMO-ETNA experiment, as part of the European Union project "MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV)", was devised to image the crustal structure beneath Etna by using state of the art passive and active seismic methods. Activities on-land and offshore are aiming to obtain new high-resolution seismic images to improve the knowledge of crustal structures existing beneath the Etna volcano and northeast Sicily up to the Aeolian Islands. In a first phase (June 15 - July 24, 2014) at Etna volcano and surrounding areas two removable seismic networks were installed composed by 80 Short Period and 20 Broadband stations, additionally to the existing network belonging to the "Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia" (INGV). So in total air-gun shots could be recorded by 168 stations onshore plus 27 ocean bottom instruments offshore in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. Offshore activities were performed by Spanish and Italian research vessels. In a second phase the broadband seismic network remained operative until October 28, 2014, as well as offshore surveys during November 19 -27, 2014. Active seismic sources were generated by an array of air-guns mounted in the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" with a power capacity of up to 5.200 cubic inches. In total more than 26.000 shots were fired and more than 450 local and regional earthquakes could be recorded and will be analyzed. For resolving a volcanic structure the investigation of attenuation and scattering of seismic waves is important. In contrast to existing studies that are almost exclusively based on S-wave signals emitted by local earthquakes, here air-gun signals were investigated by applying a new methodology based on the coda energy ratio defined as the ratio between the energy of the direct P-wave and the energy in a later coda window. It is based on the assumption that scattering caused by heterogeneities removes energy from direct P-waves that constitutes the earliest possible

  2. Research on Locomotive Facilities Layout of Guiyang South Marshalling Station%贵阳南编组站机务设备布局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢林

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:贵阳南编组站扩建工程是全路最复杂的编组站扩建项目之一,机务设备在编组站内的布局直接影响编组站总图布置、机车走行路径和距离,对编组站快速有效组织运输起很重要作用.本文通过对贵阳南编组站车流组织、机车作业流程和既有机务设备的研究,目的是找出编组站扩建工程中机务设备布局和工程实施的合理方案.研究结论:检修利用既有机务段,运用采用分设方案,即新建贵阳南派驻机车折返段、改建既有贵阳机务段.该方案充分利用了既有机务设备,机车作业流程顺畅、走行距离短、节省运营费、施工过渡工程实施性好、并预留了远期发展条件.%Research purposes: The Guiyang south marshalling station extension project is one of the most complicated extending works of the whole line. The locomotive facilities layout inside the marshalling station will have direct impact on the overall arrangement of the marshalling station and also on the locomotive route and distance, so it plays an important role in the quick and effective transportation organization inside the marshalling station. The study on the train organization, locomotive operation flow and existing locomotive facilities in the marshalling station is to determine a rational scheme for layout of locomotive facilities and the execution of the marshalling station extension project. Research conclusions:Through systematic analysis of marshalling station as well as study on the layout of locomotive facilities, the conclusion indicates that the existing locomotive depot should be utilized after overhaul, sub - locomotive depot should be adopted, I. E. Locomotive turnaround depot be built at Guiyang south station, and at the same time, rebuild the existing Guiyang locomotive depot. This scheme has such merits as fully utilizing existing locomotive facilities, more smooth for locomotive operation, shortening route distance, saving

  3. Characterization of culturable Paenibacillus spp. from the snow surface on the high Antarctic Plateau (DOME C) and their dissemination in the Concordia research station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Deghorain, Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Provoost, Ann; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Leys, Natalie; Perez-Morga, David; Van Melderen, Laurence; Michaud, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Culturable psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from the top snow on the high Antarctic Plateau surrounding the research station Concordia. A total of 80 isolates were recovered, by enrichment cultures, from two different isolation sites (a distant pristine site [75° S 123° E] and a site near the secondary runway of Concordia). All isolates were classified to the genus Paenibacillus by 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and belonged to two different species (based on threshold of 97 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). ERIC-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the isolates from the two different sites were not all clonal. All isolates grew well from 4 to 37 °C and were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. In addition, the isolates from the secondary runway were resistant to chromate and sensitive to chloramphenicol, contrary to those from the pristine site. The isolates were compared to 29 Paenibacillus isolates, which were previously recovered from inside the Concordia research station. One of these inside isolates showed ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprinting profiles identical to those of the runway isolates and was the only inside isolate that was resistant to chromate and sensitive to chloramphenicol. The latter suggested that dissemination of culturable Paenibacillus strains between the harsh Antarctic environment and the inside of the Concordia research station occurred. In addition, inducible prophages, which are potentially involved in horizontal dissemination of genes, were detected in Paenibacillus isolates recovered from outside and inside the station. The highest lysogeny was observed in strains harvested from the hostile environment outside the station.

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Seasonal variations in aerosol particle composition at the puy-de-Dôme research station in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Freney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigations of the chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed at the puy-de-Dôme (pdD research station (1465 m in autumn (September and October 2008, winter (February and March 2009, and summer (June 2010 using a compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cToF-AMS. Over the three campaigns, the average mass concentrations of the non-refractory submicron particles ranged from 10 μg m−3 up to 27 μg m−3. Highest nitrate and ammonium mass concentrations were measured during the winter and during periods when marine modified airmasses were arriving at the site, whereas highest concentrations of organic particles were measured during the summer and during periods when continental airmasses arrived at the site. The measurements reported in this paper show that atmospheric particle composition is strongly influenced by both the season and the origin of the airmass. The total organic mass spectra were analysed using positive matrix factorisation to separate individual organic components contributing to the overall organic particle mass concentrations. These organic components include a low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol particle (LV-OOA and a semi-volatile organic aerosol particle (SV-OOA. Correlations of the LV-OOA components with fragments of m/z 60 and m/z 73 (mass spectral markers of wood burning during the winter campaign suggest that wintertime LV-OOA are related to aged biomass burning emissions, whereas organic aerosol particles measured during the summer are likely linked to biogenic sources. Equivalent potential temperature calculations, gas-phase, and LIDAR measurements define whether the research site is in the planetary boundary layer (PBL or in the free troposphere (FT/residual layer (RL. We observe that SV-OOA and nitrate particles are associated with air masses arriving from the PBL where as particle composition measured from RL

  6. Continuous atmospheric CO2 and its δ13C measurements (2012-2014) at Environment Research Station Schneefernerhaus, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Homa; Yuan, Ye; Luepke, Marvin; Chen, Jia; Ries, Ludwig; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    This study presents continuous measurement of atmospheric CO2 and δ13C by PICARRO Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS, G1101- i) for a period of two and a half years at the remote Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site Environment Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS, Germany, 2650 m a.s.l). Both water vapor and methane concentration show spectroscopic interferences with CO2 and δ13C in this measuring device. Without analyzer upgrade to account automatically for these effects, we present approaches for corrections for δ13C and CO2 mixing ratio as well as test the precision and stability of the device. The mean annual cycle from May 2012 to November 2014 exhibited peak-to-peak amplitudes of 13.34 ppm for CO2 and 1.82 ‰ for δ13C. Regarding CO2 mean diurnal cycle, daily maxima occurred around noon and daily minima in the afternoon. However, clear seasonal differences can be observed. For δ13C, the minimum of diurnal cycle occurred in the morning and the maximum in the afternoon with peak-to peak amplitude of around 0.4 ‰ in summer, 0.2 ‰ both in spring and autumn and no diurnal cycle in winter. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) was used to calculate 96 hours backward trajectories reaching at UFS with an altitude of 1500 m a.g.l to characterize the origin of air masses transported to the site. Trajectories clustering resulted in five major directions, which were from west (41.2 %), southwest (14.8 %), northwest (19.7 %), southeast (12.5 %) and northeast (11.8 %). Wind speed and wind direction showed clear influences on CO2 mixing ratio. Higher levels of CO2 mixing ratio were measured at wind speeds higher than 6 m s-1 from the northwest, northeast and southwest. The research is financed by the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection.

  7. Management Of Competition And Besting Among Crew Members: A Study At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of competition and besting among crewmembers in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. Furthermore, the study investigates the effects associated with both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Suggestions on how to manage competition and besting within a crew were investigated by implementing preand intra-mission awareness strategies as well as group participation in the development and implementation of countermeasures to manage crewmember tendency towards competition and besting to promote the development of positive group functioning. Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research findings and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and competition and besting. Results: Anecdotal data obtained from personal interviews with crewmembers strongly showed that pre-mission discussions regarding competition and besting provided awareness that allowed crewmembers to continually self-assess to prevent this tendency from surfacing during the mission. The assessment data results showed support for recorded diary materials which indicated crewmembers felt strongly that continual reminders of the besting concept, along with being allowed to participate in the development and

  8. Analysis of Distribution of Volcanoes around the Korean Peninsula and the Potential Effects on Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-kyeong; Kim, Sung-wook

    2017-04-01

    Since the scale and disaster characteristics of volcanic eruptions are determined by their geological features, it is important not only to grasp the current states of the volcanoes in neighboring countries around the Korean Peninsula, but also to analyze the tectonic settings, tectonic regions, geological features, volcanic types, and eruption histories of these volcanoes. Volcanic data were based on the volcano information registered with the Global Volcanism Program at the Smithsonian Institute. We created a database of 289 volcanoes around Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, and the Kamchatka area in Russia, and then identified a high-risk group of 29 volcanoes that are highly likely to affect the region, based on conditions such as volcanic activity, types of rock at risk of eruption, distance from Seoul, and volcanoes having Plinian eruption history with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or more. We selected 29 hazardous volcanoes, including Baekdusan, Ulleungdo, and 27 Japanese volcanoes that can cause widespread ashfall on the Korean peninsula by potentially explosive eruptions. In addition, we identified ten volcanoes that should be given the highest priority, through an analysis of data available in literature, such as volcanic ash dispersion results from previous Japanese eruptions, the definition of a large-scale volcano used by Japan's Cabinet Office, and examination of cumulative magma layer volumes from Japan's quaternary volcanoes. We expect that predicting the extent of the spread of ash caused by this hazardous activity and analyzing its impact on the Korean peninsula will be help to predict volcanic ash damage as well as provide direction for hazard mitigation research. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  9. Large teleseismic P-wave residuals observed at the Alban Hills volcano, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mahadeva Iyer

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We collected teleseismic waveforms from a digital microseismic network deployed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, on the Alban Hills Quaternary volcano during the 1989-1990 seismic swann. About 50 events were recorded by the network, 30 of them by at least 4 stations. We analysed the data in order to image crustal heterogeneities beneath the volcano. The results show large delay time residuals up to - 1 second for stations located on the volcano with respect to station CP9 of the National Seismic Network located about 20 km to the east, on the Apennines. This suggests that the whole area overlies a broad low-velocity region. Although the ray coverage is not very dense, we model the gross seismic structure beneath the volcano by inverting the teleseismic relative residuals with the ACH technique. The main features detected by tbc inversion are a low-velocity zone beneath the southwestern fiank of tbc volcano, and a high-velocity region beneath the center. The depth extension of these anomalous zones ranges between 5 and 16 km. The correspondence between the low-velocity region and the most recent activity of the volcano (- 0.027 Ma leads us to infer the presence of a still hot magmatic body in the crust beneath the southwestern side of the volcano, whereas the central part overlies the older and colder high-velocity volcanic roots related to the previous central activity (0.7 to 0.3 Ma.

  10. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  11. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  12. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  13. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  14. Volcanic tremor and plume height hysteresis from Pavlof Volcano, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, David; Haney, Matthew M; Matoza, Robin S; Eaton, Alexa R; Cervelli, Peter; Schneider, David J; Iezzi, Alexandra M

    2017-01-06

    The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes and plume height changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data. We propose that the time-varying relationship at Pavlof arose from changes in the tremor source related to volcanic vent erosion. This relationship may improve estimates of volcanic emissions and characterization of eruption size and intensity.

  15. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  16. Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Starokozhev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1, toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1, and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1, i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1 and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1. The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C and ranged from 37% (35% for o-xylene to 93% (63% for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions.

  17. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  18. 铁路客站绿色照明及 LED 应用研究%Research on Green Lighting and LED Application in Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管亚敏

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , it conduct field research and testing for lighting condition of various railway station scale , each spatial data measured of the station house compared with the existing standards , and summarized the problems which exist in .The major factors which influence the lighting result are proposed , and the relationship related to Energy-saving is analyzed .The pros and cons of various types of light sources are compared, the sites applicable and application prospects of LED light source lighting in the station house are proposed .It can be a guide for future green lighting of railway station .%通过对各种规模铁路客站照明现状的实地调研和测试,将站房各空间实测照明数据与现行标准进行对比,总结分析了站房照明存在的问题,提出了影响照明效果的重要因素及与照明节能的关系,比较了各类光源的优劣,提出了LED光源在站房照明的适用场所和应用前景,为实现铁路站房绿色照明提供指导。

  19. [MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR EAR, NOSE AND THROAT RENDERING AND EVALUATION IN RESEARCHES ON RUSSIAN SEGMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I I; Orlov, O I; Matsnev, E I; Revyakin, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of testing some diagnostic video systems enabling digital rendering of TNT teeth and jaws. The authors substantiate the criteria of choosing and integration of imaging systems in future on Russian segment of the International space station kit LOR developed for examination and download of high-quality images of cosmonauts' TNT, parodentium and teeth.

  20. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  1. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  2. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  3. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  4. Remote Sensing of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Rothery, David

    The synoptic coverage offered by satellites provides unparalleled opportunities for monitoring active volcanoes, and opens new avenues of scientific inquiry. Thermal infrared radiation can be used to monitor levels of activity, which is useful for automated eruption detection and for studying the emplacement of lava flows. Satellite radars can observe volcanoes through clouds or at night, and provide high-resolution topographic data. In favorable conditions, radar inteferometery can be used to measure ground deformation associated with eruptive activity on a centimetric scale. Clouds from explosive eruptions present a pressing hazard to aviation; therefore, techniques are being developed to assess eruption cloud height and to discriminate between ash and meterological clouds. The multitude of sensors to be launched on future generations of space platforms promises to greatly enhance volcanological studies, but a satellite dedicated to volcanology is needed to meet requirements of aviation safety and volcano monitoring.

  5. Mount Rainier: A decade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Samora, Barbara A.

    Mount Rainier, the highest (4392 m) volcano in the Cascade Range, towers over a population of more than 2.5 million in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, and its drainage system via the Columbia River potentially affects another 500,000 residents of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon (Figure 1). Mount Rainier is the most hazardous volcano in the Cascades in terms of its potential for magma-water interaction and sector collapse. Major eruptions, or debris flows even without eruption, pose significant dangers and economic threats to the region. Despite such hazard and risk, Mount Rainier has received little study; such important topics as its petrologic and geochemical character, its proximal eruptive history, its susceptibility to major edifice failure, and its development over time have been barely investigated. This situation may soon change because of Mount Rainier's recent designation as a “Decade Volcano.”

  6. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  7. Science at the policy interface: volcano-monitoring technologies and volcanic hazard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses results from a survey of volcanologists carried out on the Volcano Listserv during late 2008 and early 2009. In particular, it examines the status of volcano monitoring technologies and their relative perceived value at persistently and potentially active volcanoes. It also examines the role of different types of knowledge in hazard assessment on active volcanoes, as reported by scientists engaged in this area, and interviewees with experience from the current eruption on Montserrat. Conclusions are drawn about the current state of monitoring and the likely future research directions, and also about the roles of expertise and experience in risk assessment on active volcanoes; while local knowledge is important, it must be balanced with fresh ideas and expertise in a combination of disciplines to produce an advisory context that is conducive to high-level scientific discussion.

  8. The added value of time-variable microgravimetry to the understanding of how volcanoes work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael; Greco, Filippo; Diament, Michel

    2017-01-01

    During the past few decades, time-variable volcano gravimetry has shown great potential for imaging subsurface processes at active volcanoes (including some processes that might otherwise remain “hidden”), especially when combined with other methods (e.g., ground deformation, seismicity, and gas emissions). By supplying information on changes in the distribution of bulk mass over time, gravimetry can provide information regarding processes such as magma accumulation in void space, gas segregation at shallow depths, and mechanisms driving volcanic uplift and subsidence. Despite its potential, time-variable volcano gravimetry is an underexploited method, not widely adopted by volcano researchers or observatories. The cost of instrumentation and the difficulty in using it under harsh environmental conditions is a significant impediment to the exploitation of gravimetry at many volcanoes. In addition, retrieving useful information from gravity changes in noisy volcanic environments is a major challenge. While these difficulties are not trivial, neither are they insurmountable; indeed, creative efforts in a variety of volcanic settings highlight the value of time-variable gravimetry for understanding hazards as well as revealing fundamental insights into how volcanoes work. Building on previous work, we provide a comprehensive review of time-variable volcano gravimetry, including discussions of instrumentation, modeling and analysis techniques, and case studies that emphasize what can be learned from campaign, continuous, and hybrid gravity observations. We are hopeful that this exploration of time-variable volcano gravimetry will excite more scientists about the potential of the method, spurring further application, development, and innovation.

  9. Embedded multiparametric system for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro A.; Meletlidis, Stavros; Lopez, Carmen; José Blanco, María

    2014-05-01

    A low cost and low power consumption multiparametric system designed for volcano monitoring is presented. Once tested with various sensors, at present it is installed in two locations in Tenerife, Canary Islands, acquiring and transmitting data in real time. The system is based on a commercial board (Raspberry Pi®, RPi®) that uses an embedded ARMTM processor with a Debian (Wheezy-Raspbian) Linux Operating System. This configuration permits different standard communication systems between devices as USB and ETHERNET, and also communication with integrated circuits is possible. The whole system includes this platform and self-developed hardware and software. Analog signals are acquired at an expansion board with an ADC converter with three 16 bits channels. This board, which is powered directly from the RPi®, provides timing to the sampling data using a Real Time Clock (RTC). Two serial protocols (I2C and SPI) are responsible for communications. Due to the influence of atmospheric phenomena on the volcano monitoring data, the system is complemented by a self-developed meteorological station based on ArduinoCC and low cost commercial sensors (atmospheric pressure, humidity and rainfall). It is powered with the RPi® and it uses a serial protocol for communications. Self-developed software run under Linux OS and handles configuration, signal acquisition, data storage (USB storage or SD card) and data transmission (FTP, web server). Remote configuration, data plotting and downloading is available through a web interface tool. Nowadays, the system is used for gravimetric and oceanic tides data acquisition in Tenerife and soon it will be applied for clinometric data.

  10. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  11. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  12. ANCESTORS OF VEGETABLE BREEDING IN ROMANIA: GLICHERIA AND EMIL TĂLPĂLARU, RESEARCHERS AT EXPERIMENTAL STATION ŞTEFĂNEŞTI- ARGEŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Scurtu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glicheria and Emil Talpalaru are two of the first breeders in our country, which during 1963-1984 worked at Stefanesti - Arges Experiment Station and has achieved remarkable results in improving vegetables. Talpalaru Emil attended the Faculty of Agronomy in Iaşi, and Mrs. Glicheria Talpalaru graduated the Faculty of Agriculture in Bucharest (1952. In 1957 both became researchers at Vegetable Experiment Station Ţigăneşti, Ilfov. From 1963 until their retirement (1984 worked at the Research Station Ştefăneşti and obtained the most important achievements . There are authors and co-authors of a series of books, papers or brochures on studying the phenomenon heterosis, hybrid tomato and seed production, vegetable technology and other issues. They are created the first F1 tomato varieties and hybrids that were cultivated many years in our country: Arges 1 (F1, Arges 450 ( F1, Arges 400 ( F1 and Arges 428 variety . In the same time Mrs. Talpalaru and she is co-author of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, but obtained, two varietes for lettuce and one for red cabbage.

  13. 汽车电站自主开发策划理论研究%The Theory Research of Automobile Power Station Independent Development Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜遥

    2014-01-01

    From the importance of independent product development in the market competition of the automo -bile power station , analysis of new product development planning theory present situation and demand , put forward from the market research , demand transformation , comprehensive evaluation three aspects to build automobile pow-er station development planning framework of theoretical system , market research , demand analysis , the conceptual design of the conversion system of the importance of , has the guiding sense to the independent development of new products of automobile power station .%从产品自主开发在市场竞争中的重要性入手,分析了汽车电站新产品开发策划理论现状和需求,提出了从市场研究、需求转换、综合评价三方面来搭建汽车电站自主开发策划理论体系架构,分析市场研究、需求转换、概念设计对该体系的重要性。对汽车电站新产品的自主开发具有指导意义。

  14. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.

    2014-12-01

    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  15. Infrasound Monitoring of the Volcanic Activities of Japanese Volcanoes in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. I.; Che, I. Y.; Shin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 when our first infrasound array station(CHNAR) has been installed at Cheolwon, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) is continuously observing infrasound signals with an infrasound array network, named KIN(Korean Infrasound Network). This network is comprised of eight seismo-acoustic array stations(BRDAR, YPDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR, TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array is 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of infrasound sensors are between 4(TJIAR) and 18(YAGAR), and 1~5 seismometers are collocated with infrasound sensors. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different type of sources, such as blasting, large earthquake, bolide, volcanic explosion are detected by KIN in the past 15 years. We have analyzed the infrasound signals possibly associated with the japanese volcanic explosions with reference to volcanic activity report published by Japanese Meteorological Agency. Analysis results of many events, for example, Asama volcano explosion in 2004 and Shinmoe volcano in 2011, are well matched with the official report. In some cases, however, corresponding infrasound signals are not identified. By comparison of the infrasound signals from different volcanoes, we also found that the characteristics of signals are distinguishing. It may imply that the specific volcano has its own unique fingerprint in terms of infrasound signal. It might be investigated by long-term infrasound monitoring for a specific volcano as a ground truth generating repetitive infrasound signal.

  16. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  17. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  18. Computer aided detection of transient inflation events at Alaskan volcanoes using GPS measurements from 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin D.; Rude, Cody M.; Blair, David M.; Gowanlock, Michael G.; Herring, Thomas A.; Pankratius, Victor

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of transient deformation events in time series data observed via networks of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) ground stations provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic processes that drive volcanic activity. Typical analyses of spatial positions originating from each station require careful tuning of algorithmic parameters and selection of time and spatial regions of interest to observe possible transient events. This iterative, manual process is tedious when attempting to make new discoveries and does not easily scale with the number of stations. Addressing this challenge, we introduce a novel approach based on a computer-aided discovery system that facilitates the discovery of such potential transient events. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by actual detections of transient deformation events at volcanoes selected from the Alaska Volcano Observatory database using data recorded by GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory network. Our technique successfully reproduces the analysis of a transient signal detected in the first half of 2008 at Akutan volcano and is also directly applicable to 3 additional volcanoes in Alaska, with the new detection of 2 previously unnoticed inflation events: in early 2011 at Westdahl and in early 2013 at Shishaldin. This study also discusses the benefits of our computer-aided discovery approach for volcanology in general. Advantages include the rapid analysis on multi-scale resolutions of transient deformation events at a large number of sites of interest and the capability to enhance reusability and reproducibility in volcano studies.

  19. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  20. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2010-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 8,829 earthquakes, of which 7,438 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. Monitoring highlights in 2009 include the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, as well as unrest at Okmok Caldera, Shishaldin Volcano, and Mount Veniaminof. Additionally severe seismograph subnetwork outages resulted in four volcanoes (Aniakchak, Fourpeaked, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being removed from the formal list of monitored volcanoes in late 2009. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2009; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2009; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2009, and a dataless SEED volume for the AVO seismograph network.

  1. Interactive Volcano Studies and Education Using Virtual Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2006-12-01

    Internet-based virtual globe programs such as Google Earth provide a spatial context for visualization of monitoring and geophysical data sets. At the Alaska Volcano Observatory, Google Earth is being used to integrate satellite imagery, modeling of volcanic eruption clouds and seismic data sets to build new monitoring and reporting tools. However, one of the most useful information sources for environmental monitoring is under utilized. Local populations, who have lived near volcanoes for decades are perhaps one of the best gauges for changes in activity. Much of the history of the volcanoes is only recorded through local legend. By utilizing the high level of internet connectivity in Alaska, and the interest of secondary education in environmental science and monitoring, it is proposed to build a network of observation nodes around local schools in Alaska and along the Aleutian Chain. A series of interactive web pages with observations on a volcano's condition, be it glow at night, puffs of ash, discolored snow, earthquakes, sounds, and even current weather conditions can be recorded, and the users will be able to see their reports in near real time. The database will create a KMZ file on the fly for upload into the virtual globe software. Past observations and legends could be entered to help put a volcano's long-term activity in perspective. Beyond the benefit to researchers and emergency managers, students and teachers in the rural areas will be involved in volcano monitoring, and gain an understanding of the processes and hazard mitigation efforts in their community. K-12 students will be exposed to the science, and encouraged to participate in projects at the university. Infrastructure at the university can be used by local teachers to augment their science programs, hopefully encouraging students to continue their education at the university level.

  2. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. (Univ. of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  3. Real-time GNSS volcano deformation monitoring (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present comparisons of the precision obtained from several alternative real-time GNSS processing methods, and show how offsets caused by snow and ice on an antenna can be automatically identified in real time using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. We monitor ground deformation using continuous GNSS stations installed on several volcanoes in the Cascade Range and elsewhere, and many of these stations transmit high-rate (1s) data in real-time. We examine real-time, high-rate station position solutions obtained with two implementations of centralized RTNet (GPS Solutions, Inc.) processing, and find that the precision is roughly the same for ambiguity-fixed network solutions and for ambiguity-fixed precise point position solutions (PPPAR). The PPPAR method uses satellite clock corrections provided by GPS Solutions from a network of Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations in western Oregon. The precision of network solutions that include GPS and GLONASS data is similar to the GPS-only solutions, except at stations with a relatively poor view of the sky. An alternative method of processing the real-time GPS data uses clock corrections transmitted directly to the receiver, which then autonomously calculates and transmits positions. We will compare our RTNet results with autonomous point position solutions calculated using Trimble's CenterPoint RTX corrections. RTX performance in repeated, controlled, large antenna-motion tests by USGS and UNAVCO indicates that it meets requirements of USGS volcano-monitoring applications; more thorough testing and performance checks on an ongoing basis would be desirable. GNSS antennas on volcanoes often become temporarily coated with ice or buried by snow in the winter. In these situations, signal delays introduce an apparent offset in the monitoring station's position. We address this problem by implementing in real time a technique developed by Kristine Larson that uses changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of GNSS signals

  4. Research and Practice on the Crustal Deformation Mobile Monitoring Network Layout in the Hydropower Station Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Hong; Liu Tianhai; Zhang Jincheng; Zhang Chengqiang; Yu Haisheng; Sun Baicheng; Yang Huaining; Du Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    According to the construction project of the crustal deformation mobile monitoring network in the cascade hydropower stations built in the lower reaches of Jinsha River,this paper analyzes the design ideas and layout principles of crustal deformation mobile monitoring used in the monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.This paper introduces three types of monitoring networks used in the Xiluodu reservoir and Xiangjiaba reservoir,as well as the work already undertaken,in order to provide a kind of reference for the reiated engineering construction and comprehensive monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.

  5. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  6. The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, began erupting on 2 May 2008. The eruption produced 3 Plinian eruption pulses between May 2 and 8. Between Plinian phases the volcano emitted a constant column of ash to approximately 10 km, gradually diminishing to approximately 3 km by the end of June. The eruption of Chaitén was remarkable on several counts--it was the first rhyolite eruption on the planet since Novarupta (Katmai) erupted in 1912, and Chaitén had apparently lain dormant for approximately 9300 years. Though Chaitén is located in a generally sparsely populated region, the eruption had widespread impacts. More than 5000 people had to be quickly evacuated from proximal areas and aviation in southern South America was disrupted for weeks. Within 10 days secondary lahars had overrun much of the town of Chaitén complicating the prospects of the townspeople to return to their homes. Prior to the eruption onset, the nearest real-time seismic station was 300 km distant, and earthquakes were not felt by local citizens until approximately 30 hours before the eruption onset. No other signs of unrest were noted. Owing to the lack of near-field monitoring, and the nighttime eruption onset, there was initial confusion about which volcano was erupting: Chaitén or nearby Michinmahuida. Lack of monitoring systems at Chaitén meant that warning time for the public at risk was extremely short, and owing to the nature of the eruption and the physical geography of the area, it was very difficult to install monitoring instruments to track its progress after the eruption started. The lack of geophysical monitoring also means that an important data set on precursory behavior for silicic systems was not collected. With more than 120 Pleistocene to Holocene-age volcanoes within its continental territory, Chile is one of the more volcanically active countries in the world. The eruption of Chaitén has catalyzed the creation of a new program within the Servicio Nacional de Geología y

  7. 2015 Volcanic activity in Alaska—Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Wallace, Kristi

    2017-09-28

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 14 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2015. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of continuing intermittent ash eruptions from Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. Two eruptive episodes, at Veniaminof and Pavlof, on the Alaska Peninsula ended in 2015. During 2015, AVO re-established the seismograph network at Aniakchak, installed six new broadband seismometers throughout the Aleutian Islands, and added a Multiple component Gas Analyzer System (MultiGAS) station on Augustine.

  8. Web-based volcano monitoring data from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai‘i) as a tool for geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, M. P.; Townson, R.; Loren, A.; Brooks, B. A.; Foster, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    A significant challenge in college and university geoscience courses is conveying the dynamic nature of the Earth to students. The Internet, however, offers an opportunity to engage classes by making accessible the best examples of current geologic activity, regardless of location. In volcanology, Kilauea, Hawai‘i, is well known as one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and the Web site for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory offers a daily update of volcanic activity that is followed by people around the globe. The Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent, on Kilauea‘s east rift zone, has been the focus of near continuous eruption since 1983, experiencing cycles of growth and collapse, high lava fountains, lava lakes, and other phenomena over the course of its existence. To track volcanic activity, various types of monitoring instruments have been installed on and around Pu‘u ‘O‘o, including (as of August 2009) two webcams, one short-period seismometer, one broadband seismometer, seven continuous GPS stations, and two continuous borehole tiltmeters. Monitoring data from Pu‘u ‘O‘o will be made available via the Internet as part of a collaborative research and education project between the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. The educational Web site is intended for use in college and university courses, from introductory science classes to graduate-level seminars. Scheduled to come on line by fall 2009, the Web site will provide tools to explore current monitoring results from the eruptive vent. Geophysical data, such as GPS, seismic, and tilt measurements, will be accessible via a time-series query tool, and the complete archive of webcam imagery will be available for examination of visual changes in volcanic activity over time. The Web site will also include background information and references concerning the 1983-present eruption, descriptions of

  9. Research and simulation on integration of station and section of railway%车站区间一体化的研究与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国; 陈光武; 苗成伟; 吴伟楷

    2011-01-01

    车站区间一体化是铁路,地铁、轻轨的发展方向.本文对铁路车站区间一体化进行研究,在此基础上进行基本功能的仿真.同时还对其拓展功能一现场安全作业防护预报进行仿真,连一步验证车站区间一体化的优越性.仿真结果表明,本方案在行车效率和维护管理方面具有显著的优势.%The integration of station and section was the developing trends of railway, subway and light railway. This paper researched on the integrative of station and section of railway, simulated the basic function and enlarged function of local safety operation defend forecast. This software was validated the scheme' s feasibility of integrative station and section of railway. The scheme was predominant in enhancing the efficiency of travelling and convenience of maintenance management aspect.

  10. A UAV System for Observing Volcanoes and Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiani, G.; Persiani, F.; Ceruti, A.; Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.; Giuletti, F.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M.; Distefano, G.; Bentini, G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Nubile, A.; Sugliani, S.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Petrini, S.; Pieri, D.

    2007-12-01

    Fixed or rotary wing manned aircraft are currently the most commonly used platforms for airborne reconnaissance in response to natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, oil spills, wild fires, earthquakes. Such flights are very often undertaken in hazardous flying conditions (e.g., turbulence, downdrafts, reduced visibility, close proximity to dangerous terrain) and can be expensive. To mitigate these two fundamental issues-- safety and cost--we are exploring the use of small (less than 100kg), relatively inexpensive, but effective, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for this purpose. As an operational test, in 2004 we flew a small autonomous UAV in the airspace above and around Stromboli Volcano. Based in part on this experience, we are adapting the RAVEN UAV system for such natural hazard surveillance missions. RAVEN has a 50km range, with a 3.5m wingspan, main fuselage length of 4.60m, and maximum weight of 56kg. It has autonomous flight capability and a ground control Station for the mission planning and control. It will carry a variety of imaging devices, including a visible camera, and an IR camera. It will also carry an experimental Fourier micro-interferometer based on MOEMS technology, (developed by IMM Institute of CNR), to detect atmospheric trace gases. Such flexible, capable, and easy-to-deploy UAV systems may significantly shorten the time necessary to characterize the nature and scale of the natural hazard threats if used from the outset of, and systematically during, natural hazard events. When appropriately utilized, such UAVs can provide a powerful new hazard mitigation and documentation tool for civil protection hazard responders. This research was carried out under the auspices of the Italian government, and, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  12. Seismic event classification and precursor identification at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.; Rodriguez, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the nature and origins of seismic signals generated by volcanic activity can greatly aid in hazard mitigation efforts. Systematic identification and detailed cataloging of explosive events provide a first step for this understanding, and can be even more valuable when the events span longer time periods. Beyond simply being a more useful monitoring tool, the detailed classification of events can illuminate the processes behind different conduit flow phenomena such as rheological sealing or piston-style chugging. Fuego volcano, Guatemala, is a basaltic-andesite stratovolcano that has been continually active since 1999. Activity is characterized by small-scale explosive eruptions and intermittent lava flows. In this study, we categorize different events recorded with a 10 station temporary seismic array at Fuego volcano in Guatemala in January 2012 that included infrasound and tilt sensors. Waveform analysis, along with visual and thermal characteristics captured by cameras allow us to identify precursory activity in different bandwidths that precedes some of the event types. We investigate the physical mechanisms behind these precursors to explain why some event types exhibit them while others may not, and how these mechanisms influence our conceptual models of explosion dynamics at Fuego. Finally, we compare events recorded in 2012 with other studies conducted at Fuego volcano in previous years to identify changes in the signal characteristics and their potential influences on activity styles observed during different field campaigns to highlight the importance of longitudinal studies at persistently active volcanic systems.

  13. Volcano hazards assessment for the Lassen region, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Robinson, Joel E.; Nathenson, Manuel; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The Lassen region of the southernmost Cascade Range is an active volcanic area. At least 70 eruptions have occurred in the past 100,000 years, including 3 in the past 1,000 years, most recently in 1915. The record of past eruptions and the present state of the underlying magmatic and hydrothermal systems make it clear that future eruptions within the Lassen Volcanic Center are very likely. Although the annual probability of an eruption is small, the consequences of some types of eruptions could be severe. Compared to those of a typical Cascade composite volcano, eruptive vents at Lassen Volcanic Center and the surrounding area are widely dispersed, extending in a zone about 50 km wide from the southern boundary of Lassen Volcanic National Park north to the Pit River. This report presents a discussion of volcanic and other geologic hazards in the Lassen area and delineates hazards zones for different types of volcanic activity. Owing to its presence in a national park with significant visitorship, its explosive behavior, and its proximity to regional infrastructure, the Lassen Volcanic Center has been designated a "high threat volcano" in the U.S. Geological Survey National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity and ground deformation, and the Lassen area has a network of seismometers and Global Positioning System stations in place to monitor for early warning of volcanic activity.

  14. 电动汽车换电站定址分容研究%Research on capacity planning and site allocation of EV swapping stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高赐威; 段天琪

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) swapping station is a kind of important facilities in the electric vehicle industry, but the plan⁃ning of swapping station is lack of research. This paper briefly de⁃scribes the operating mode of centralized charging and distribu⁃tion, and considers the driving time and waiting time of EV users synthetically creating the locating and sizing model of battery dis⁃tribution stations. The validity of model is verified by means of scheme comparison, and the sensitivity analysis is conducted through replacing battery demand and waiting time. The conclu⁃sion illustrates that those two both are the key facts that effect bat⁃tery distribution stations locating and sizing.%电动汽车换电站是电动汽车产业重要的配套设施,但对换电站的规划当前缺乏相应的理论指导。针对换电站的规划问题,综合考虑电动汽车用户的行驶时间和排队等待时间,建立了换电站的定址分容模型,通过方案比较验证了模型的有效性,并从更换电池需求和排队等待时间2方面对模型进行了灵敏度分析,结果表明二者均为影响换电站定址分容的关键因素。

  15. Simulation of Rainfed Wheat Yield using AquaCrop Model, Case Study: Sisab Rainfed Researches Station, Northern Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of crop growth plays an important role in evaluation of drought impacts on rainfed yield, choosing an optimum sowing date, and managerial decision-makings. Aquacrop model is a new crop model that developed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, that is a model for simulation of crop yield based on “yield response to water“ with meteorological, crop, soli and management practices data as inputs. This model has to be calibrated and validated for each crop species and each location. In this paper, the Aquacrop has been calibrated and evaluated for rainfed wheat in Sisab station (Northern Khorasan. For this purpose, daily meteorological data and historical yield data from two cropping season (2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in the Sisab station have been used to calibrate this model. Next, meteorological data and historical yield data of five cropping season (2002-2003 to 2006-2007 are used to validate the model. The result shows that the Aqucrop can accurately predict crop yield as R2, RMSE, NRMSE, ME, and D-Index are achieved 0.86, 0.062, 5.235, 0.917 and 0.877, respectively.

  16. HYDRATE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT BOTH SUPPORT AND DERIVE FROM THE MONITORING STATION/SEA-FLOOR OBSERVATORY, MISSISSIPPI CANYON 118, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  17. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  18. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  19. Hydrogeology, groundwater seepage, nitrate distribution, and flux at the Raleigh hydrologic research station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    rom 2005 to 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, conducted a study to describe the geologic framework, measure groundwater quality, characterize the groundwater-flow system, and describe the groundwater/surface-water interaction at the 60-acre Raleigh hydrogeologic research station (RHRS) located at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant in eastern Wake County, North Carolina. Previous studies have shown that the local groundwater quality of the surficial and bedrock aquifers at the RHRS had been affected by high levels of nutrients. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from 3 coreholes, 12 wells, and 4 piezometers at 3 well clusters, as well as from 2 surface-water sites, 2 multiport piezometers, and 80 discrete locations in the streambed of the Neuse River. Data collected were used to evaluate the three primary zones of the Piedmont aquifer (regolith, transition zone, and fractured bedrock) and characterize the interaction of groundwater and surface water as a mechanism of nutrient transport to the Neuse River. A conceptual hydrogeologic cross section across the RHRS was constructed using new and existing data. Two previously unmapped north striking, nearly vertical diabase dikes intrude the granite beneath the site. Groundwater within the diabase dike appeared to be hydraulically isolated from the surrounding granite bedrock and regolith. A correlation exists between foliation and fracture orientation, with most fractures striking parallel to foliation. Flowmeter logging in two of the bedrock wells indicated that not all of the water-bearing fractures labeled as water bearing were hydraulically active, even when stressed by pumping. Groundwater levels measured in wells at the RHRS displayed climatic and seasonal trends, with elevated groundwater levels occurring during the late spring and declining to a low in the late fall. Vertical

  20. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  1. Tornillo seismic events at Galeras volcano, Colombia: a summary and new information from broadband three-component measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hellweg

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-duration events have been recorded at several active, andesitic volcanoes. Their main characteristics are a single, sharp frequency peak, and an exceptionally long coda. Because their seismograms resemble a screw, these signals are called "tornillos" in Colombia. These events have been recorded during different stages of volcanic activity at various volcanoes worldwide. Tornillos have occurred for example, as a short-term precursor to eruptions at Galeras volcano, Colombia (1992-1993; and at Asama volcano, Japan, (1983. At Tokachi volcano, Japan, they were recorded after an eruption (1989. The Tornillo's dominant frequency appears to be related to the time of occurrence during an eruption cycle. It is independent of epicentral distance, azimuth, travel time, and lapse time, indicating that it is a source characteristic. Damping coefficients for the tornillo's coda range between 0.002 and 0.02. In contrast, damping coefficients for normal long-period events lies between 0.010 and 0.025 and for volcano-tectonic events between 0.010 and 0.040. In March 1996, the Galeras seismic network, which consists of short period, single-component seismometers, was augmented with a broadband, three-component station. This station, installed 1.5 km south of Galeras active cone, recorded a series of six tornillos. Narrowband and broadband tornillo records have similar characteristics in the time and frequency domains.

  2. Risk-Free Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: seismic observations near the active vent of Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Yasuda, A.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kanda, W.; Iguchi, M.; Yanagisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are important not only for understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit but also for eruption prediction and volcanic hazards mitigation. It is, however, challenging to install observation sensors near active vents because of the danger of sudden eruptions. We need safe and efficient ways of installing sensors near the summit of active volcanoes. We have been developing an volcano observation system based on an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) for risk-free volcano observations. Our UAV is an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. The UAV is 3.6m long and weighs 84kg with maximum payload of 10kg. The UAV can aviate autonomously along a previously programmed path within a meter accuracy using real-time kinematics differential GPS equipment. The maximum flight time and distance from the operator are 90 minutes and 5km, respectively. We have developed various types of volcano observation techniques adequate for the UAV, such as aeromagnetic survey, taking infrared and visible images from onboard high-resolution cameras, volcanic ash sampling in the vicinity of active vents. Recently, we have developed an earthquake observation module (EOM), which is exclusively designed for the UAV installation in the vicinity of active volcanic vent. In order to meet the various requirements for UAV installation, the EOM is very compact, light-weight (5-6kg), and is solar-powered. It is equipped with GPS for timing, a communication device using cellular-phone network, and triaxial accelerometers. Our first application of the EOM installation using the UAV is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, Sakurajima volcano. Since 2006, explosive eruptions have been continuing at the reopened Showa crater at the eastern flank near the summit of Sakurajima. Entering the area within 2 km from the active craters is prohibited, and thus there were no observation station in the vicinity

  3. Coulomb 3.3 Graphic-rich deformation and stress-change software for earthquake, tectonic, and volcano research and teaching-user guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shingi; Stein, Ross S.; Sevilgen, Volkan; Lin, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Coulomb is intended both for publication-directed research and for college and graduate school classroom instruction. We believe that one learns best when one can see the most and can explore alternatives quickly. So the principal feature of Coulomb is ease of input, rapid interactive modification, and intuitive visualization of the results. The program has menus and check-items, and dialogue boxes to ease operation. The internal graphics are suitable for publication, and can be easily imported into Illustrator, GMT, Google Earth, or Flash for further enhancements.

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  5. Geochemical evolution of Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, and Gorny Zub Volcanoes, Klyuchevskaya Group (Kamchatka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana; Gordeychik, Boris; Wörner, Gerhard; Flerov, Gleb; Hartmann, Gerald; Simon, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) located in the northern part of Kamchatka has the highest magma production rate for any arc worldwide and several of its volcanoes have been studied in considerable detail [e.g. Kersting & Arculus, 1995; Pineau et al., 1999; Dorendorf et al., 2000; Ozerov, 2000; Churikova et al., 2001, 2012, 2015; Mironov et al., 2001; Portnyagin et al., 2007, 2015; Turner et al., 2007]. However, some volcanoes of the KGV including Late-Pleistocene volcanoes Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, Ostraya Zimina, Ovalnaya Zimina, and Gorny Zub were studied only on a reconnaissance basis [Timerbaeva, 1967; Ermakov, 1977] and the modern geochemical studies have not been carried out at all. Among the volcanoes of KGV these volcanoes are closest to the arc trench and may hold information on geochemical zonation with respect to across arc source variations. We present the first major and trace element data on rocks from these volcanoes as well as on their basement. All rocks are medium-calc-alkaline basaltic andesites to dacites except few low-Mg basalts from Malaya Udina volcano. Phenocrysts are mainly olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite, Hb-bearing andesites and dacites are rarely found only in subvolcanic intrusions at Bolshaya Udina volcano. Lavas are geochemically similar to the active Bezymianny volcano, however, individual variations for each volcano exist in both major and trace elements. Trace element geochemistry is typical of island arc volcanism. Compared to KGV lavas all studied rocks form very narrow trends in all major element diagrams, which almost do not overlap with the fields of other KGV volcanoes. The lavas are relatively poor in alkalis, TiO2, P2O5, FeO, Ni, Zr, and enriched in SiO2 compared to other KGV volcanics and show greater geochemical and petrological evidence of magmatic differentiation during shallow crustal processing. Basement samples of the Udinskoe plateau lavas to the east of Bolshaya Udina volcano have

  6. Evaluation of volcanic risk management in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, S.; Stöetter, J.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Merapi (Central Java Province) and Bromo (East Java Province) volcanoes have human-environmental systems with unique characteristics, thus causing specific consequences on their risk management. Various efforts have been carried out by many parties (institutional government, scientists, and non-governmental organizations) to reduce the risk in these areas. However, it is likely that most of the actions have been done for temporary and partial purposes, leading to overlapping work and finally to a non-integrated scheme of volcanic risk management. This study, therefore, aims to identify and evaluate actions of risk and disaster reduction in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes. To achieve this aims, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify earlier studies in both areas. Afterward, the basic concept of risk management cycle, consisting of risk assessment, risk reduction, event management and regeneration, is used to map those earlier studies and already implemented risk management actions in Merapi and Bromo. The results show that risk studies in Merapi have been developed predominantly on physical aspects of volcanic eruptions, i.e. models of lahar flows, hazard maps as well as other geophysical modeling. Furthermore, after the 2006 eruption of Merapi, research such on risk communication, social vulnerability, cultural vulnerability have appeared on the social side of risk management research. Apart from that, disaster risk management activities in the Bromo area were emphasizing on physical process and historical religious aspects. This overview of both study areas provides information on how risk studies have been used for managing the volcano disaster. This result confirms that most of earlier studies emphasize on the risk assessment and only few of them consider the risk reduction phase. Further investigation in this field work in the near future will accomplish the findings and contribute to formulate integrated volcanic risk management cycles for both

  7. Search for shallow magma accumulations at Augustine Volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, J.; Lalla, D.J.; Pearson, C.F.; Barrett, S.A.

    1979-05-01

    A search was made for shallow magma accumulations beneath Augustine Volcano using primarily three geophysical techniques: (1) temperature and heat flow measurements, (2) active and passive seismic refraction, and (3) three-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic data. With these studies it was hoped to gain insight into the interval structure of Augustine Volcano, to delineate, if possible, the size and shape of near surface magma bodies and to assess the potential of the volcano as a natural laboratory for hot rock and magma geothermal energy research. Augustine was chosen because it is a very young and very active volcano with several historic eruptions in 1812, 1883, 1935, 1964/64. One of the main targets for the geophysical studies was a summit lava dome of about 0.05 km/sup 3/ volume, extruded in 1963/64 and suspected to still contain considerable residual heat, perhaps be still partially molten years after its intrusion. Five months after the field work in 1975 this dome was exploded in January 1976. One month later, a hot (about 650 to 800/sup 0/C) viscous dome was intruded into the January summit crater.

  8. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  9. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  10. The impact of Kelud Volcano eruption to food security case study: Ngantang district, Malang Regencys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Turniningtyas Ayu; Hidayat, Ar Rohman Taufiq; Wahyuningtyas, Loetvi; Rachmansyah, Arief

    2017-07-01

    Kelud volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Indonesia. Kelud volcano is located among Malang, Kediri and Blitar Regency. The last eruption occurred on February, 2014. Ngantang District, Malang Regency was the worst affected area with severe infrastructure damage including clean water, roads, and bridges, causing temporary isolation. This led to disturbance in food security that consists of aspects of food availability, food access and food utilization. Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals' access to it. This research focuses on achieving household food security by analyzing 1) disaster prone area of Kelud Volcano at Ngantang District after eruption 2014; and 2) food security that consists of the assessment of food availability, food access and food utilization at Ngantang District. This research finds that: 1) Pandansari village and Ngantru village are the worst prone area villages; and 2) The food security analysis shows that Pandansari Village is higly insecure of food security.

  11. Shear Wave Splitting Observations Beneath Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, N. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy in the upper mantle is often associated with mantle flow direction through the lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic minerals such as olivine in the upper mantle material. The flow of the mantle around subduction zones can be particularly complex, and thus difficult to explain. Because of its relationship to anisotropy, analysis of shear wave splitting measurements can help to answer questions regarding the upper mantle flow that surrounds subducting slabs. Here we present SK(K)S shear wave splitting measurements from a temporary broadband network (PLUTONS) of 33 stations deployed from April 2009 to October 2012 on the Altiplano plateau around Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The stations are spaced 10-20 km apart, providing a high spatial resolution of the region of the mantle directly below Uturuncu volcano. Despite the lack of numerous splitting results to analyze, preliminary measurements indicate a relatively consistent pattern of fast-polarization directions in a NW-SE orientation of about N80ºW. We think that it is likely that these observations come from anisotropy in the mantle wedge above the subducting Nazca plate indicating a direction of flow in the mantle wedge that is sub-parallel to the subduction direction of the Nazca plate. Although W-E flow beneath the subducting Nazca plate cannot be completely ruled out, these results appear to be consistent with the simple model of two-dimensional corner flow in the mantle wedge and slab-entrained mantle flow beneath the slab.

  12. Modeling eruptions of Karymsky volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerov, A.; Ispolatov, I.; Lees, J.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain temporal patterns of activity in a class of periodically exploding Strombolian-type volcanos. These patterns include major events (explosions) which follow each other every 10-30 minutes and subsequent tremor with a typical period of 1 second. This two-periodic activity is thought to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of accumulation of the elastic energy in the moving magma column: compressibility of the magma in the lower conduit and viscoelastic response of...

  13. Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this image red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the image is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the image in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce

  14. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  15. Developing monitoring capability of a volcano observatory: the example of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, S.; Garaebiti, E.; Jolly, G. E.; Sherburn, S.; Scott, B.; Jolly, A. D.; Fournier, N.; Miller, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Vanuatu lies on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. With 6 active subaerial and 3 submarine (identified so far) volcanoes, monitoring and following up their activities is a considerable work for a national observatory. The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory is a good example of what can be done from ‘scratch’ to develop a volcanic monitoring capability in a short space of time. A fire in June 2007 completely destroyed the old observatory building and many valuable records leaving Vanuatu with no volcano monitoring capacity. This situation forced the Government of Vanuatu to reconsider the structure of the hazards monitoring group and think about the best way to rebuild a complete volcano monitoring system. Taking the opportunity of the re-awakening of Gaua volcano (North of Vanuatu), the Vanuatu Geohazards section in partnership with GNS Science, New Zealand developed a new program including a strategic plan for Geohazards from 2010-2020, the installation of a portable seismic network with real-time data transmission in Gaua, the support of the first permanent monitoring station installation in Ambrym and the design and implementation of volcano monitoring infrastructure and protocol. Moreover the technology improvements of the last decade and the quick extension of enhanced communication systems across the islands of Vanuatu played a very important role for the development of this program. In less than one year, the implementation of this program was beyond expectations and showed considerable improvement of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory volcano monitoring capability. In response to increased volcanic activity (or unrest) in Ambae, the Geohazards section was fully capable of the installation of a portable seismic station in April 2010 and to follow the development of the activity. Ultimately, this increased capability results in better and timelier delivery of information and advice on the threat from volcanic activity to the National Disaster Management Office and

  16. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  17. Campgrounds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides campground locations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Information about facilities, water availability, permit requirements and type of...

  18. Volcanoes! Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This document is an interdisciplinary set of materials for grades 4 through 8 that reflects the goals of the National Science Education Standards developed by the National Research Council (NRC). The activities in this packet incorporate a number of related subjects including other sciences, social studies, language arts, and mathematics. Contains…

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Types of Volcanic Earthquakes and Volcanic Activity at the Changbaishan Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yuehong; Su Wei; Fang Lihua

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, a significant increase in seismicity, obvious ground deformation and geochemical anomalies have been observed in the Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic area. A series felt earthquakes occur near the caldera, causing great influence to society. In this paper, the types of volcanic earthquakes recorded by the temporal seismic network since 2002 have been classified by analyzing the spectrum, time-frequency characteristics and seismic waveforms at different stations. The risk of volcano eruptions was also estimated. Our results show that almost all earthquakes occurring in Tianchi volcano are volcanic-tectonic earthquakes. The low frequency seismic waveforms observed at a few stations may be caused by local mediums, and have no relation with long-period events. Although the level of seismicity increased obviously and earthquake swarms occurred more frequently than before, we considered that the magma activity is still in its early stage and the eruption risk of Changbaishan Tianchi volcano is still iow in the near future.

  20. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  1. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rontogianni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  2. New insights into Kilauea's volcano dynamics brought by large-scale relative relocation of microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Got, J.-L.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the microseismicity recorded in an active volcano to infer information concerning the volcano structure and long-term dynamics, by using relative relocations and focal mechanisms of microearthquakes. There were 32,000 earthquakes of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes recorded by more than eight stations of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network between 1988 and 1999. We studied 17,000 of these events and relocated more than 70%, with an accuracy ranging from 10 to 500 m. About 75% of these relocated events are located in the vicinity of subhorizontal decollement planes, at a depth of 8-11 km. However, the striking features revealed by these relocation results are steep southeast dipping fault planes working as reverse faults, clearly located below the decollement plane and which intersect it. If this decollement plane coincides with the pre-Mauna Loa seafloor, as hypothesized by numerous authors, such reverse faults rupture the pre-Mauna Loa oceanic crust. The weight of the volcano and pressure in the magma storage system are possible causes of these ruptures, fully compatible with the local stress tensor computed by Gillard et al. [1996]. Reverse faults are suspected of producing scarps revealed by kilometer-long horizontal slip-perpendicular lineations along the decollement surface and therefore large-scale roughness, asperities, and normal stress variations. These are capable of generating stick-slip, large-magnitude earthquakes, the spatial microseismic pattern observed in the south flank of Kilauea volcano, and Hilina-type instabilities. Rupture intersecting the decollement surface, causing its large-scale roughness, may be an important parameter controlling the growth of Hawaiian volcanoes.

  3. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  4. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  5. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  6. Infrasonic Influence of Volcanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, Ashley

    2014-03-01

    My presentation will consist of a poster on the use of ring laser interferometers to detect infrasound. The research was performed during the summer of 2013 and it focused on the finding infrasound emissions created by volcanic activity. I will explain how a ring laser works and discuss how I analyze the collected data using Fast Fourier Transforms. Due to the extreme distances over which infrasound can travel, I will also stress the need to compare the detected responses to specific volcanic eruptions. Finally, I will purpose practical applications of my research. One of the more promising applications is to use ring lasers to detect volcanic activity in remote areas such as parts of the Aleutian Islands. There is considerable air traffic over the Aleutian Islands. Volcanic plumes are a significant aviation hazard and can damage jet engines to the extent that they will no longer operate. Thank you to the NSF ans NASA foundations for providing funding for this reseach.

  7. Long-Period seismic events at Ubinas Volcano (Peru): their implications and potentiality as monitoring tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Inza, A.; Metaxian, J.-P.; Macedo, O.

    2012-04-01

    Ubinas volcano (Southern Peru) is an active andesitic stratovolcano, located 75 km East of Arequipa City, with an average occurrence of 6-7 eruptions per century and persistent fumarolic and phreatic activity. The most recent eruption, accompanied by explosions and by the extrusion of a lava dome, started on March 2006 with an increase of seismicity and observed fumarole occurrence followed in April by more intense explosions, recorded until May 2009. To monitor the volcanic activity, the Geophysical Institute of Peru and the Institut de Recherche pour le Développment (France), built up a seismic network around the volcano, installing 4 permanent stations and deploying 8 supplementary temporary broadband seismometers. In addition, in the period May to July 2009, a seismic experiment was carried out on the volcano flanks with 2 cross-shaped dense antennas with broadband seismometers. As the seismic activity was characterized by recurring low-frequency waveforms, we identify their pattern of occurrence through waveform cross-correlation technique, with respect to major eruptive phases and other observations (as volcano ground deformation from tiltmeters, volcanic product composition, etc). Once established their likely association with the eruptive sequence, we utilize both local network and dense-array data and analyze their location, changes in location, spectral content variations and possible physical explanation. The final aim is to introduce this kind of analysis as quantitative tool to understand ongoing eruptive phases at andesitic volcanoes and possibly to forecast magma/fluid significant movements.

  8. Development of an early-warning system for monitoring remote volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sauvage

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Many andesitic volcanoes are quiescent for long time periods: usually (but not always an increase in seismic activity and in deformation precedes an eruption by a few months or a few days. A UNESCO panel has put forward the concept of an early warning system for monitoring dormant volcanoes in remote regions. Simple seismic or deformation measuring devices can in principle be built for monitoring remote volcanoes. These instruments are composed of two units: 1 a processor that measures the baseline «activity» of the volcano and decides when the activity increases above a certain threshold; 2 a transmitter for long distance communication. For slow parameters like tilt or extensometry, the signal can be transmitted every few minutes or hours. For seismology, signals include a large quantity of data and therefore they are usually not transmitted. The processing unit is not easy to design because a single seismic station can record noises that are very similar to «volcanic events». Average noise level on a given time interval, event detection counters and high amplitude ground motion counters are a simple (but not exhaustive way to summarize seismic activity. The transmission of data from the field to a monitoring center is feasible by present and future satellite telemetry. We present our attempt to develop an early warning system for remote volcano monitoring with data transmission by satellite.

  9. Contiuous gas monitoring at the volcano Galeras, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2003-04-01

    (1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (e.faber@bgr.de), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a

  10. Somma Vesuvius volcano: ground deformations from CGPS observations (2001-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Tammaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the evaluation of ground deformations at Somma-Vesuvius volcano by means GPS measurements from 2001 to 2012. In this study we use a dataset from nine continuous GPS stations of the Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS network (NeVoCGPS, which covers the Neapolitan volcanic area, and is operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The GPS data processing is performed by the Bernese software v. 5.0. The results of the data processing show that the dynamics of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano, between 2001 and 2012, is characterized by a general subsidence, with maximum values on the Gran Cono at BKNO (−11.7 ± 0.65 mm/year and BKE1 (−4.92 ± 0.36 mm/year stations. The subsidence decrease from the crater down to the coast and the horizontal displacements are concentrated in Gran Cono area, the youngest part of the volcano. The parameters of the principal strain components indicate that Somma-Vesuvius is affected by a predominant contraction phase, which is concentrated in the areas with the greatest altitudes.

  11. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  12. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  13. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    La Nave (southern flank of Mt. Etna, Italy; 1740m a.s.l.), in the framework of ASTRI, a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). This offers the opportunity to test the use of a Cherenkov telescope for imaging volcanic structures. Starting from this know-how, we plan to develop a new prototype of Cherenkov detector with suitable characteristics for installation in the summit zone of Etna volcano (around 3000m a.s.l.).

  14. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  15. Study of Seismic Activity at Ceboruco Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rodríguez Ayala, N. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2013-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive volcanic eruptions. The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast, which is a key communication point for coast of Jalisco and Nayarit and the northwest of Mexico. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacitic composition lava flows along the southeast side. Although surface activity has been restricted to fumaroles near the summit, Ceboruco exhibits regular seismic unrest characterized by both low frequency seismic events and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. From March 2003 until July 2008 a three-component short-period seismograph Marslite station with a Lennartz 3D (1Hz) was deployed in the south flank (CEBN) and within 2 km from the summit to monitoring the seismic activity at the volcano. The LF seismicity recorded was classified using waveform characteristics and digital analysis. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, most of the hypocenters are below the volcanic edifice within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the

  16. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rademacher

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Proyecto de Investigaciòn Sismològica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94 in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, «rapid-fire» series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  17. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Guenter; Wylegalla, K.; Hellweg, M.; Seidl, D.; Rademacher, H.

    1996-01-01

    During the Proyecto de Investigacio??n Sismolo??gica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94) in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, ??rapid-fire?? series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  18. Crustal structure below Popocat\\'epetl Volcano (Mexico) from analysis of Rayleigh waves

    CERN Document Server

    De Barros, Louis; Métaxian, J -P; Valdés-Gonzales, C; Lesage, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    An array of ten broadband stations was installed on the Popocat\\'epetl volcano (Mexico) for five months between October 2002 and February 2003. 26 regional and teleseismic earthquakes were selected and filtered in the frequency time domain to extract the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave. The average dispersion curve was obtained in two steps. Firstly, phase velocities were measured in the period range [2-50] s from the phase difference between pairs of stations, using Wiener filtering. Secondly, the average dispersion curve was calculated by combining observations from all events in order to reduce diffraction effects. The inversion of the mean phase velocity yielded a crustal model for the volcano which is consistent with previous models of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. The overall crustal structure beneath Popocat\\'epetl is therefore not different from the surrounding area, and the velocities in the lower crust are confirmed to be relatively low. Lateral variations of the structure were also investigated ...

  19. Field Geological Exploration of the Ashikule Volcano Group in Western Kunlun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiandong; Zhao Bo; Zhang Liuyi; Chen Zhengquan

    2012-01-01

    From May 4 to May 30, 2011, a field exploration of the Ashikule basin in the Western Kunlun Mountains area was conducted by a research team from the Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration and Earthquake Administration of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This work is financially supported by the special fund for China earthquake research project " The Comprehensive Scientific Exploration of the Ms7.3 Yutian Earthquake in 2008 and the Ashikule Volcano Group". Through detailed field survey on geological and geomorphological features of the Ashikule volcano group, which is one of the highest altitude volcanic plateaus (about 5000m) in the world, we have determined the total number of volcanoes, the eruption type and structural parameters, and approximate active history of the volcano group. Our studies have provided field evidence for resolving past controversies such as the authenticity of the news report about the eruption event on May 27, 1951, the eruption pattern of the Daheishan volcano, and the reality of the Gaotaishan volcano.

  20. PHENOTYPIC PARAMETERS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIAN SPOTTED BREED PRIMIPAROUS FROM RESEARCH STATION AND AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT LOVRIN –TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk is considered the most complete natural food, being the only one source offood for all mammals’ newborn. It is very rich in lactose, proteins and fats. Milkcontains all the 20 essential amino acids, ten fat acids, 25 vitamins and 45minerals. In a herd of 117 Romanian Spotted breed primiparous cows, fromResearch Station and Agriculture Development Lovrin –Timis County, theaverage milk production in 2006 was of 4083.846 ± 94.06 liters with the lowestvalue 1737 liters and the highest 6582 liters. The milk fat production obtainedper cow was 165.108±3.54 kg, while milk protein production was134.144±3.006 kg. Results obtained confirm that in this farm there are heifers that can become dairy cows with a high and of quality milk production.

  1. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  2. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris

    2013-06-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  3. Predictability of Volcano Eruption: lessons from a basaltic effusive volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, J R

    2003-01-01

    Volcano eruption forecast remains a challenging and controversial problem despite the fact that data from volcano monitoring significantly increased in quantity and quality during the last decades.This study uses pattern recognition techniques to quantify the predictability of the 15 Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) eruptions in the 1988-2001 period using increase of the daily seismicity rate as a precursor. Lead time of this prediction is a few days to weeks. Using the daily seismicity rate, we formulate a simple prediction rule, use it for retrospective prediction of the 15 eruptions,and test the prediction quality with error diagrams. The best prediction performance corresponds to averaging the daily seismicity rate over 5 days and issuing a prediction alarm for 5 days. 65% of the eruptions are predicted for an alarm duration less than 20% of the time considered. Even though this result is concomitant of a large number of false alarms, it is obtained with a crude counting of daily events that are available fro...

  4. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  5. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  6. Research to Quantify the Effect of Permanent Change of Station Moves on Wives’ Wages and Labor Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    4, Jul 1974 [71 Heckman, James, "A Partial Survey of Recent Research on the Labor Supply of Women," American Economic Review Supplement, Vol. 63, No...2, May 1978 [8] Keeley, Michael, et al, "The Estimation of Labor Supply Models Using Experimental Data," American Economic Review , Vol. 68, No. 5, Dec...Offered Wages, and the Labor Supply of Married Women," American Economic Review , Vol. 69, No. 5, Dec 1979 [131 Polachek, Solomon, "Occupational Self

  7. Solar Technology Validation Project - Solargen (Met Station): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-367-06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S.

    2013-08-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve concentrating solar power system performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development of methods for acquiring renewable resource characterization information using site-specific measurements of solar radiation and meteorological conditions; collecting system performance data; and developing tools for improving the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar energy conversion systems. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  8. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  9. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  10. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  11. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  12. EUROPEAN VOLCANOES' NIGHT: building a link between general public and volcanologists in a relaxed and welcoming setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David; González-Cárdenas, María E.; Baldrich, Laura; Solana, Carmen; Nave, Rosella; Calvari, Sonia; Harangi, Szabolcs; Chouraqui, Floriane; Dionis, Samara; Silva, Sonia V.; Forjaz, Victor H.; D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    European Volcanoes' Night (www.volcanoesnight.com) is a "volcanic eruption" of art, culture, music, gastronomy, school activities, geotourism, exhibitions and scientific debates. The event aims to bring together members of the general public with scientists who work on the study of volcanoes, in order to meet and ask questions in a relaxed and welcoming setting. It is open to both locals and tourists who appreciate the beauty and power of this natural phenomena. This celebration gives attendees, and in particular young people, the opportunity to meet researchers in a relaxed and festive setting, which will feature many activities and which will be used to highlight the attractiveness of a career research on one of the most attractive natural phenomena; volcanoes. The 2016 European Volcanoes' Night was held at 16 different municipalities of Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Cape Verde on September 30, 2016, coinciding with the celebration of "European Researchers' Night" held annually throughout Europe and neighbouring countries the last Friday of September. The spirit of the European VolcanoeśNight fits perfectly in the aim of the ERN, trying to close the gap between the scientific community and the rest of the society. In this case, volcanoes are the driving force of this event, celebrating the singularity of living on volcanoes, and how these affect our daily lives, our culture and our heritage. European VolcanoeśNight also celebrates volcano science, with avantgarde talks and presentations on different volcanic topics and becomes a meeting point for children discovering volcanoes as a pastime or a leisure topic, making this event a must for tourists and locals wherever has been held. At the end of 2016 European VolcanoeśNight, almost 150 activities were performed for thousands of spectators, a big success that confirms something as crucial as science as a communication issue, and as a tool to strengthen the ties between researchers

  13. 1597年10月6日望天鹅火山喷发史料考%THE TEXTUAL RESEARCH ON THE WANGTIAN'E VOLCANO ERUPTED ON OCTOBER 6, 1597

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕澈

    2013-01-01

    望天鹅火山位于吉林省长白县中部,距长白山天池火山35km.据《朝鲜王朝实录》中记载,1597年10月6日在朝鲜咸镜道三水郡小农堡越边北发生火山喷发.文中据朝鲜地方志和古地图等资料,对史料作历史地理考证,提出1597年10月6日火山喷发发生在望天鹅火山底部,地点在今吉林省长白县十三道沟村与十四道沟镇之间的山岭,距望天鹅火山主峰约30km,距长白山天池约60km.%The Wangtian'e volcano is situated in the middle part of the Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province,China,whose summit elevation is 2051.4m and 35km to the Changbaishan Tianchi(Mt.Baekdu Sky Lake)volcano.There are the historical records concerning the earthquake and volcano eruption occurring on October 6,1597 in the Korea historical document ‘ the Annuals of the Choson Dynasty'.The paper investigates the historical materials based on the old map of Korea and the local chronicles of the Samsu County of Hamgyong Province in Choson Dynasty,and suggests that the 1597 volcano eruption occurred in a chain of mountains at the bottom of the Wangtian'e basaltic lava platform located between the Shisandaogou Village and the Shisidaogou Town in the Changbai Korean Autonomous County,Jilin Province,China.The geographic position of the 6 October 1597Wangtian'e volcano eruption is about 30km to the summit of Mt.Wangtian'e and about 60km to the Mt.Chanbai(Mt.Baedu) Tianchi Lake.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance of ClimGen and LARS-WG models in generating rainfall and temperature time series in rainfed research station of Sisab, Northern Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    najmeh khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Many existing results on water and agriculture researches require long-term statistical climate data, while practically; the available collected data in synoptic stations are quite short. Therefore, the required daily climate data should be generated based on the limited available data. For this purpose, weather generators can be used to enlarge the data length. Among the common weather generators, two models are more common: LARS-WG and ClimGen. Different studies have shown that these two models have different results in different regions and climates. Therefore, the output results of these two methods should be validated based on the climate and weather conditions of the study region. Materials and Methods:The Sisab station is 35 KM away from Bojnord city in Northern Khorasan. This station was established in 1366 and afterwards, the meteorological data including precipitation data are regularly collected. Geographical coordination of this station is 37º 25׳ N and 57º 38׳ E, and the elevation is 1359 meter. The climate in this region is dry and cold under Emberge and semi-dry under Demarton Methods. In this research, LARG-WG model, version 5.5, and ClimGen model, version 4.4, were used to generate 500 data sample for precipitation and temperature time series. The performance of these two models, were evaluated using RMSE, MAE, and CD over the 30 years collected data and their corresponding generated data. Also, to compare the statistical similarity of the generated data with the collected data, t-student, F, and X2 tests were used. With these tests, the similarity of 16 statistical characteristics of the generated data and the collected data has been investigated in the level of confidence 95%. Results and Discussion:This study showed that LARS-WG model can better generate precipitation data in terms of statistical error criteria. RMSE and MAE for the generated data by LAR-WG were less than ClimGen model while the CD value of

  15. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided.

  16. Imaging magma storage reservoirs beneath Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, G.; Belachew, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Seats, K.; Ruiz, M. C.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean island volcanoes initiate and grow through repeated eruptions and intrusions of primarily basaltic magma that thicken the oceanic crust above melt production zones within the mantle. The movement of oceanic plates over the hot, melt-rich upwellings produces chains of progressively younger basaltic volcanoes, as in the Galapagos Islands. Rates of surface deformation along the chain of 7 active volcanoes in the western Galápagos are some of the most rapid in the world, yet little is known of the subsurface structure of the active volcanic systems. The 16-station SIGNET array deployed between July 2009 and June 2011 provides new insights into the time-averaged structure beneath Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes, and the ocean platform. We use wavespeed tomography to image volcanic island structure, with focus on the magmatic plumbing system beneath Sierra Negra volcano, which has a deep, ~10 km-wide caldera and last erupted in 2005. We compare our results to those of ambient noise tomography. Our 120 x 100 km grid has a variable mesh of 2.5 - 10 km. We have good resolution at depths between 3 and 15 km, with poorer resolution beneath Cerro Azul volcano. Events from Alcedo volcano, which is just outside our array, cause some N-S smearing. Results from wavespeed tomography provide insights into the major island building processes: accretion through extrusive magmatism, magma chamber geometry and depth, radial dike intrusions, and magmatic underplating/sill emplacement. The wide caldera of Sierra Negra is underlain by high velocity (~7 %) material from depths of 5 - 15, and the flanks correspond to low velocity material at all depths. A high velocity zone corresponds to Cerro Azul (~3%). Aligned chains of eruptive centers correlate with elongate high velocity zones, suggesting that radial dikes are the sites of repeated dike intrusions. These chains are preferentially located along ridges linking nearby volcanoes. A comparison of well-resolved zones

  17. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Technology Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Flint, Stephanie; Pollack, Lawrence P.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR (trademark) EX, a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) instrument, is a portable, ruggedized unit that was designed for the Department of Defense (DoD) with its reagent chemistries traceable to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract beginning in 2002. The PCR instrument's primary function post 9/11 was to enable frontline soldiers and first responders to detect biological threat agents and bioterrorism activities in remote locations to include field environments. With its success for DoD, the instrument has also been employed by other governmental agencies including Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The RAZOR (Trademark) EX underwent stringent testing by the vendor, as well as through the DoD, and was certified in 2005. In addition, the RAZOR (trademark) EX passed DHS security sponsored Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays (SPADA) rigorous evaluation in 2011. The identification and quantitation of microbial pathogens is necessary both on the ground as well as during spaceflight to maintain the health of astronauts and to prevent biofouling of equipment. Currently, culture-based monitoring technology has been adequate for short-term spaceflight missions but may not be robust enough to meet the requirements for long-duration missions. During a NASA-sponsored workshop in 2011, it was determined that the more traditional culture-based method should be replaced or supplemented with more robust technologies. NASA scientists began investigating innovative molecular technologies for future space exploration and as a result, PCR was recommended. Shortly after, NASA sponsored market research in 2012 to identify and review current, commercial, cutting edge PCR technologies for potential applicability to spaceflight operations. Scientists identified and extensively evaluated three candidate technologies with the potential to function in microgravity. After a thorough voice-of-the-customer trade study and extensive functional and

  18. Preliminary hyperspectral volcano observations using Airborne Radiative Spectral Scanner (ARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitsufuchi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne-imaging spectral systems can often efficiently identify volcanic phenomena that are difficult to detect by satellite imagery. Since 1990, the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has been developing our original airborne-imaging spectral systems for volcano observations. In 2006, we developed a new airborne hyperspectral sensor, the Airborne Radiative Transfer Spectral Scanner (ARTS), for hyperspectral volcano observations. ARTS is a push-broom imaging spectrometer covering wavelengths from 380 to 1100nm (VNIR; 288 bands), 950 to 2450nm (SWIR; 101 bands), and 8000 to 11500nm (LWIR; 32 bands) and has precise position and attitude measurement systems (GPS/IMU) to achieve direct geo-correction of the acquired image. The ARTS specifications were planned to provide hyperspectral images to support developing algorithms for remotely sensing the geothermal distribution, ash- fall areas, and content of volcanic gas columns. ARTS will also be useful for operational volcanic observations to assess volcanic activity and to mitigate volcanic disasters.Before beginning the operational use of ARTS, it is important to validate its in-flight performance. Therefore, we have been conducting validation on the B200 platform. In this study, we present the results of two experiment observations, the overflight of ARTS instrument at the NIED building site on April 5, 2007, and the volcano observations flight over active volcano (Sakurajima volcano) just after its eruption on April 8, 2008. At the NIED building site, we validated the radiometric fidelity of all bands and the accuracy of geo-corrections. At the Sakurajima volcano, we tried to demonstrate the functions of ARTS, especially those for volcano observation. At the NIED building site, the validation results indicate that the geo-correction accuracy is typically less than a two-pixel difference (RMS), and that there was good agreement between the predicted radiance at the sensor and

  19. Plume composition and volatile flux from Nyamulagira volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sergio; Bobrowski, Nicole; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Scaglione, Sarah; Liotta, Marcello; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Arellano, Santiago; Yalire, Matiew; Galle, Bo; Tedesco, Dario

    2015-04-01

    Nyamulagira, in the Virunga volcanic province (VVP), Democratic Republic of Congo, is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. The volcano is located about 25 km north-northwest of Lake Kivu in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). The activity is characterized by frequent eruptions (on average, one eruption every 2-4 years) which occur both from the summit crater and from the flanks (31 flank eruptions over the last 110 years). Due to the peculiar low viscosity of its lava and its location in the floor of the rift, Nyamulagira morphology is characterized by a wide lava field that covers over 1100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones. Indeed, Nyamulagira is a SiO2- undersaturated and alkali-rich basaltic shield volcano with a 3058 m high summit caldera with an extension of about 2 km in diameter. In November 2014 a field expedition was carried out at Nyamulagira volcano and we report here the first assessment of the plume composition and volatile flux from Nyamulagira volcano. Helicopter flights and field observations allowed us to recognize the presence of lava fountains inside an about 350-meter wide pit crater. The lava fountains originated from an extended area of about 20 to 40 m2, in the northeast sector of the central caldera. A second smaller source, close to the previous described one, was clearly visible with vigorous spattering activity. There was no evidence of a lave lake but the persistence of intense activity and the geometry of the bottom of the caldera might evolve in a new lava lake. Using a variety of in situ and remote sensing techniques, we determined the bulk plume concentrations of major volatiles, halogens and trace elements. We deployed a portable MultiGAS station at the rim of Nyamulagira crater, measuring (at 0.5 Hz for about 3 hours) the concentrations of major volcanogenic gas species in the plume (H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S). Simultaneously, scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instruments were

  20. Ambient seismic noise tomography of the Colima Volcano Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Christian R.; Bandy, William L.

    2017-02-01

    The Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC) located in the western sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt contains the most active Mexican volcano, Volcan Colima. The CVC is located within the Colima Rift, a regional north south striking extensional structure. We used ambient seismic noise recorded by stations deployed in western Mexico during the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) and the Colima Volcano Deep Seismic Experiment (CODEX). We computed the cross-correlations of the vertical component of continuous records of ambient noise data to extract empirical Greens functions. These functions provide detailed images of Rayleigh wave group velocity for different periods. Using the arrival travel time of these waves for a given period, estimates can be obtained of the lateral variations in velocity for a given period using 2D tomography. The study aims to better understand the geometry and the seismic surface wave velocity structure of the CVC and relate it to the volcanoes' structure and the geologic setting of the region. Source of low velocity anomaly over CVC is distributed fairly continuously with depth in the subsurface, which indicates magma rising along fractures. The progressive increasing toward the south in the size of low velocity anomalies indicates migration towards the south of the melting that correlates with the trend of the stratovolcanoes that form the CVC. The zone of magma generation presently fully developed under Volcan de Fuego might be starting to shift towards south to the area NW of Armería where a new void in the tear zone may be starting to form.

  1. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: dcpuerta@hotmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2013-07-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  2. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program—Assess, forecast, prepare, engage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Wendy K.; Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Mandeville, Charles W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.

    2016-07-13

    At least 170 volcanoes in 12 States and 2 territories have erupted in the past 12,000 years and have the potential to erupt again. Consequences of eruptions from U.S. volcanoes can extend far beyond the volcano’s immediate area. Many aspects of our daily life are vulnerable to volcano hazards, including air travel, regional power generation and transmission infrastructure, interstate transportation, port facilities, communications infrastructure, and public health. The U.S. Geological Survey has the Federal responsibility to issue timely warnings of potential volcanic activity to the affected populace and civil authorities. The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) is funded to carry out that mission and does so through a combination of volcano monitoring, short-term warnings, research on how volcanoes work, and community education and outreach.

  4. The Architectural Research on the Modern Railway Station of Old Station of Harbin%中国近代火车站之哈尔滨老站建筑研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛林平; 徐璐思

    2011-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初,随着中东铁路的建设,一批具有鲜明时代烙印的近代火车站也随之诞生.该文对中东铁路发祥地的哈尔滨老站进行研究,分析其建设背景及建筑特征,作为中东铁路初建时唯一的一等大站,哈尔滨老站真实地反映了20世纪初哈尔滨近代铁路建筑的技术水平和建筑艺术风格.虽然这一建筑现已被拆除,但其建筑的艺术魅力对于研究中国近代铁路建筑有着重要的历史意义.%With the construction of Chinese Eastern Railways in 1898, a group of modem railway stations were built .This paper introduces the Old Station of Harbin-the birthplace of the Chinese Eastern Railway Station, and its construction background, and the architectural features. It was the only first-class large Station along Chinese Eastern Railways. It was a true reflection of railway technology level and architecture style of Harbin Modern Railway in the early 20th century. Although it was demolishe, its unique artistic charm still has important historical value in China modem Railways' stations.

  5. Current research and development activities on fission products and hydrogen risk after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Hoshi, Harutaka; Hotta, Akitoshi [Regulatory Standard and Research Department, Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, new regulatory requirements were enforced in July 2013 and a backfit was required for all existing nuclear power plants. It is required to take measures to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their radiological consequences. The Regulatory Standard and Research Department, Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority (S/NRA/R) has been conducting numerical studies and experimental studies on relevant severe accident phenomena and countermeasures. This article highlights fission product (FP) release and hydrogen risk as two major areas. Relevant activities in the S/NRA/R are briefly introduced, as follows: 1. For FP release: Identifying the source terms and leak mechanisms is a key issue from the viewpoint of understanding the progression of accident phenomena and planning effective countermeasures that take into account vulnerabilities of containment under severe accident conditions. To resolve these issues, the activities focus on wet well venting, pool scrubbing, iodine chemistry (in-vessel and ex-vessel), containment failure mode, and treatment of radioactive liquid effluent. 2. For hydrogen risk: because of three incidents of hydrogen explosion in reactor buildings, a comprehensive reinforcement of the hydrogen risk management has been a high priority topic. Therefore, the activities in evaluation methods focus on hydrogen generation, hydrogen distribution, and hydrogen combustion.

  6. A Probabilistic Method of Assessing Carbon Accumulation Rate at Imnavait Creek Peatland, Arctic Long Term Ecological Research Station, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Frolking, Steve; Karavias, John

    2017-01-01

    Arctic peatlands are an important part of the global carbon cycle, accumulating atmospheric carbon as organic matter since the Late glacial. Current methods for understanding the changing efficiency of the peatland carbon sink rely on peatlands with an undisturbed stratigraphy. Here we present a method of estimating primary carbon accumulation rate from a site where permafrost processes have either vertically or horizontally translocated nearby carbon-rich sediment out of stratigraphic order. Briefly, our new algorithm estimates the probability of the age of deposition of a random increment of sediment in the core. The method assumes that if sediment age is measured at even depth increments, dates are more likely to occur during intervals of higher accumulation rate and vice versa. Multiplying estimated sedimentation rate by measured carbon density yields carbon accumulation rate. We perform this analysis at the Imnavait Creek Peatland, near the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research network site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Using classical radiocarbon age modeling, we find unreasonably high rates of carbon accumulation at various Holocene intervals. With our new method, we find accumulation rate changes that are in improved agreement within the context of other sites throughout Alaska and the rest of the Circum-Arctic region.

  7. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  8. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  9. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  10. Shallow earthquake inhibits unrest near Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanoes, Ecuador-Colombian border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Elliott, John R.; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Biggs, Juliet; Mothes, Patricia; Jarrín, Paúl; Yépez, Marco; Aguaiza, Santiago; Lundgren, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    Magma movement or reservoir pressurisation can drive swarms of low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes, as well as occasional larger earthquakes (>M5) on local tectonic faults. Earthquakes >M5 near volcanoes are challenging to interpret in terms of evolving volcanic hazard, but are often associated with eruptions, and in some cases enhance the ascent of magma. We present geodetic observations from the first episode of unrest known to have occurred near Chiles and Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcanoes on the Ecuador-Colombian border. A swarm of volcano-tectonic seismicity in October 2014 culminated in a Mw 5.6 earthquake south of the volcanoes. Satellite radar data spanning this earthquake detect displacements that are consistent with dextral oblique slip on a reverse fault at depths of 1.4-3.4 km within a SSW-NNE trending fault zone that last ruptured in 1886. GPS station measurements capture ∼20 days of uplift before the earthquake, probably originating from a pressure source ∼10-15 km south of Volcán Chiles, at depths exceeding 13 km. After the Mw 5.6 earthquake, uplift ceased and the rate of seismicity began to decrease. Potential mechanisms for this decline in activity include a decrease in the rate of movement of magma into the shallow crust, possibly caused by the restriction of fluid pathways. Our observations demonstrate that an earthquake triggered during volcanic unrest can inhibit magmatic processes, and have implications for the hazard interpretation of the interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes.

  11. Implications Of Soil Resistivity Measurements Using The Electrical Resistivity Method A Case Study Of A Maize Farm Under Different Soil Preparation Modes At KNUST Agricultural Research Station Kumasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuous vertical electrical sounding CVES technique was used to investigate the soil moisture content of a maize farm at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Agricultural Research Station ARS Kumasi Ghana. The soils of the maize farm were categorized into four different land preparation modes ploughed-harrowed ploughed hoed and no-till plot. Time-lapse measurements with CVES was carried out using the multi-electrode Wenner array to investigate soil moisture variation with the help of the ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 resistivity meter. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture content both spatially and temporally. Most of the water available for plants uptake was within a depth of 0.20 0.40 m which coincided with the root zones of the maize crops. In addition the no-till plot was found to conserve more moisture during dry weather conditions than the rest of the plots. The research shows that CVES technique is applicable in monitoring shallow soil water content in the field and the results obtained could be used to optimize irrigation scheduling and to assess the potential for variable-rate irrigation.

  12. Applied Research of Total Station Gyroscope in Mine Survey%陀螺全站仪在井下测量中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高兴; 李忠金

    2012-01-01

    Total station gyroscope is composed of gyroscope and total station,which is a very accurate measuring instrument and can measure the top azimuth quickly.This paper expounds the orientation survey method of total station gyroscope,analyzes the advantages of gyro station and its application in shaft connection surveying,underground traversing and breakthrough survey.%阐述了陀螺全站仪的定向作业方法,分析了陀螺全站仪的优点及其在矿井联系测量、井下控制测量及贯通测量方面的应用。

  13. Research Status and Outlook of Microgravity Combustion in Space Station%空间站微重力燃烧研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 刘迎春

    2015-01-01

    The strategic plans of foreign space microgravity combustion science in recent ten years were reported .The microgravity combustion experiments conducted on the International Space Sta-tion were reviewed .The significance of the experiments and achievement such as the generation of cool-flame were analyzed and the impending experiments were summarized .Based on the full ac-count of China's national conditions , research foundations and research features , the key scientific problems and the development strategies were put forward .They targeted the needs of space projects and considered the scientific research on the basic process and law of combustion .The application of basic research directly related to fire safety in manned spacecraft was emphasized and the applied re -search and related energy conservation were focused upon .%报告了近十年国外针对空间微重力燃烧科学的战略规划,综述了在国际空间站上已经进行的微重力燃烧实验内容,分析了实验的意义和取得的成果,例如冷焰的产生. 概述了即将开展的实验. 最后考虑我国国情和研究基础,提出了我国微重力燃烧科学的关键问题及发展方向:以解决航天工程的重大需求为目标,兼顾对燃烧基本过程和规律的科学研究;注重与载人航天器防火安全直接相关的应用基础研究,注重与节能减排相关的应用研究.

  14. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  15. Earthquake families in the seismicity of Popocatepetl volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola, J. M [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Zamora-Camacho, A [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez, Z [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-04-15

    Analysis of the seismicity of Popocatepetl volcano (Central Mexico) over the period September 1 to December 31, 1995, shows the existence of three earthquake families, with correlation coefficients better than 0.5 in all components of three stations. For two families the events have similar magnitudes and occur over a relatively long period of time. This suggests that they are of the asperity type. They occur up to a depth of 4 km below sea level underneath the volcano, and may be generated by the passage of magma through the upper volcanic conduits. [Spanish] El analisis de la sismicidad asociada al volcan Popocatepetl (Meseta Central, Mexico) en el periodo 1 de septiembre a 31 de diciembre de 1995 permitio la identificacion de 3 familias de temblores. El coeficiente de correlacion encontrado para todos los miembros de las familias es mayor de 0.5 en todas las componentes de 3 estaciones cercanas a los epicentros. Los eventos de dos de las familias son de similar magnitud y ocurren dentro de un periodo relativamente largo. Esto sugiere que sean generados por la accion de una misma aspereza. Los hipocentros de los eventos se localizan bajo el edificio volcanico a profundidades de hasta 4 km bajo el nivel del mar y fueron generados probablemente por el paso de magma a traves de los conductos volcanicos superiores.

  16. Redoubt Volcano: 2009 Eruption Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a 3110-m glaciated stratovolcano located 170 km SW of Anchorage, Alaska, on the W side of Cook Inlet. The edifice comprises a oil production in Cook Inlet was halted for nearly five months. Unrest began in August, 2008 with reports of H2S odor. In late September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)’s seismic network recorded periods of volcanic tremor. Throughout the fall, AVO noted increased fumarolic emissions and accompanying ice- and snow-melt on and around the 1990 dome, and gas measurements showed elevated H2S and CO2 emissions. On January 23, seismometers recorded 48 hrs of intermittent tremor and discrete, low-frequency to hybrid events. Over the next 6 weeks, seismicity waxed and waned, an estimated 5-6 million m3 of ice were lost due to melting, volcanic gas emissions increased, and debris flows emerged repeatedly from recently formed ice holes near the 1990 dome, located on the crater’s N (“Drift”) side. On March 15, a phreatic explosion deposited non-juvenile ash from a new vent in the summit ice cap just S of the 1990 dome. Ash from the explosion rose to ~4500 m above sea level (asl). The plume was accompanied by weak seismicity. The first magmatic explosion occurred on March 22. Over the next two weeks, more than 19 explosions destroyed at least two lava domes and produced ash plumes that reached 6-18 km asl. Tephra was deposited along variable azimuths including trace to minor amounts on Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula communities, and reached Fairbanks, ~800 km to the N. Several lahars were produced by explosive disruption and melting of the “Drift” glacier. The largest lahars followed explosions on March 23 and April 4 and inundated the Drift River valley to the coast, causing temporary evacuation of the Drift River Oil Terminal, ~40 km from the vent. Time-lapse images captured pyroclastic flows and lahars in the “Drift” glacier valley during several of the explosions. Ballistics and pyroclastic flow deposits were

  17. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  18. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  19. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  20. Constraints on the mechanism of long-term, steady subsidence at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Burgmann, Roland; Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Masterlark, Timothy; Owen, Susan; Fink, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Leveling surveys across Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) have documented subsidence that is centered on the summit caldera and decays symmetrically on the flanks of the edifice. Possible mechanisms for this deformation include fluid withdrawal from a subsurface reservoir, cooling/crystallization of subsurface magma, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, and crustal thinning due to tectonic extension (Dzurisin et al., 1991 [Dzurisin, D., Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., Evans, J.R., Walter, S.R., 1991. Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 16, 319-16, 333.]; Dzurisin et al., 2002 [Dzurisin, D., Poland, M.P., Bürgmann, R., 2002. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2372, doi:10.1029/2001JB000893.]). InSAR data that approximate vertical displacements are similar to the leveling results; however, vertical deformation data alone are not sufficient to distinguish between source mechanisms. Horizontal displacements from GPS were collected in the Mt. Shasta/MLV region in 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2004. These results suggest that the region is part of the western Oregon block that is rotating about an Euler pole in eastern Oregon. With this rotation removed, most sites in the network have negligible velocities except for those near MLV caldera. There, measured horizontal velocities are less than predicted from ∼10 km deep point and dislocation sources of volume loss based on the leveling data; therefore volumetric losses simulated by these sources are probably not causing the observed subsidence at MLV. This result demonstrates that elastic models of subsurface volume change can provide misleading results where additional geophysical and geological constraints are unavailable, or if only vertical deformation is known. The deformation source must be capable of causing broad vertical deformation

  1. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  2. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  3. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  4. Short term precursors of Strombolian explosions at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Jean; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Garaebiti, Esline

    2016-03-01

    The seismic wavefield associated with Strombolian activity is usually dominated by explosion quakes (EQs), tremor, and various signals generated by surface phenomena. Looking at the seismicity recorded at Yasur volcano in 2008, we found that beside the transient events which occur simultaneously with surface explosions, the seismicity includes events related to a deeper process. These long period (LP) events form a family of similar events located below the southeastern part of the crater rim at a depth of about 700-1200 m below the summit. They are commonly followed by EQs with a variable delay. The examination of about 20,000 LP-EQ sequences at several stations near the summit shows that interevent delays follow distributions peaked around 11-12 s. This short delay compared to the relatively great source depth of the LPs favors a causal relationship linked to pressure transfer rather than gas slug propagation after nucleation at the LP source.

  5. New method to quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cloud droplets sampled at the puy de Dôme research station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, A.; Fleuret, J.; Gaimoz, C.; Deguillaume, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years several studies have focused on the health and environmental effects of atmospheric pollution, and especially on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In cloud droplets, chemical reactions in the liquid phase modify the amount of radicals which drive the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. The objective of this project was to identify and quantify VOCs in cloud water samples at the puy de Dôme research site using a combination of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental studies were carried out at the puy de Dôme (PDD) Station (48°N, 2°E; 1465 m a.s.l.), in the Massif Central Region (France). It is a strategic point from which to observe warm and mixed clouds that are present 30% of the time on an annual basis. Clouds are frequently formed at the top of the site either during advection of frontal systems or by orographic rise of moist air. The station is in the free troposphere a large fraction of the time and air masses are usually exempt from the influence of local pollution. Non-precipitating cloud droplets are sampled using a single-stage cloud collector. Cloud droplets larger than 7 µm (cut-off diameter) are collected by impaction onto a rectangular plate at a flow rate of approximately 86 m3 h-1. This work has established a functional procedure to allow the quantitative extraction of 80 VOCs in cloud water. The method has been optimized to determine the best repeatability and detection limit for most of the compounds (hydrophobic and hydrophilic). According to SBSE theory, at equilibrium the distribution coefficients of the analytes between the aqueous matrix and coated film of the stir bar (PDMS) are correlated with the corresponding octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kpdms/w vs Ko/w). Hydrophobic compounds, characterized by a high octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow), are extracted from water by SBSE with a high recovery. However

  6. Anatomy of the Colima volcano magmatic system, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Legrand, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Colima volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in continental north America. It is located within the Colima graben on the western part of the Colima rift zone. Although extensively studied, the internal structure and deep magmatic system remains unknown. This research gives new clues to understand how and where magmas are produced and stored at depth. Using ambient seismic noise, we jointly invert for Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for both phase and group velocity, which is applied for the first time in a volcanic environment. We invert for both the shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy. The 3D high resolution shear wave velocity model shows a deep, large and well-delineated elliptic-shape magmatic reservoir below the Colima volcano complex at a depth of about 15 km. On the other hand, the radial anisotropy model shows a significant negative feature (i.e., VSV >VSH) revealed from ≥35 km depth until the top of the magma reservoir at about 12 km depth. The latter suggests the presence of numerous vertical fractures where fluids, rooting from a well-known mantle window, can easily migrate upward and then accumulate in the magma reservoir. Furthermore, the convergence of both a low velocity zone and a negative anisotropy suggests that the magma is mainly stored in conduits or inter-fingered dykes as opposed to horizontally stratified magma reservoir.

  7. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.

    2016-12-01

    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  8. Volcanoes of the World: Reconfiguring a scientific database to meet new goals and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzke, Edward; Andrews, Ben; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    The Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program's (GVP) database of Holocene volcanoes and eruptions, Volcanoes of the World (VOTW), originated in 1971, and was largely populated with content from the IAVCEI Catalog of Volcanoes of Active Volcanoes and some independent datasets. Volcanic activity reported by Smithsonian's Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network and USGS/SI Weekly Activity Reports (and their predecessors), published research, and other varied sources has expanded the database significantly over the years. Three editions of the VOTW were published in book form, creating a catalog with new ways to display data that included regional directories, a gazetteer, and a 10,000-year chronology of eruptions. The widespread dissemination of the data in electronic media since the first GVP website in 1995 has created new challenges and opportunities for this unique collection of information. To better meet current and future goals and expectations, we have recently transitioned VOTW into a SQL Server database. This process included significant schema changes to the previous relational database, data auditing, and content review. We replaced a disparate, confusing, and changeable volcano numbering system with unique and permanent volcano numbers. We reconfigured structures for recording eruption data to allow greater flexibility in describing the complexity of observed activity, adding in the ability to distinguish episodes within eruptions (in time and space) and events (including dates) rather than characteristics that take place during an episode. We have added a reference link field in multiple tables to enable attribution of sources at finer levels of detail. We now store and connect synonyms and feature names in a more consistent manner, which will allow for morphological features to be given unique numbers and linked to specific eruptions or samples; if the designated overall volcano name is also a morphological feature, it is then also listed and described as

  9. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  10. Permafrost and Periglacial Activity Distribution and Geothermal Anomalies in the Chachani and El Misti Volcanoes (Southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, D.; Andrés, N.; Úbeda, J.; Alcalá, J.

    2009-04-01

    because it never existed. In the latter case, considering its altitude and the conditions in the extinct Chachani and Pichupichu volcanoes nearby, that no evidence is available could be due to the action of geothermal heat, as this is an active volcano. With this aim, three thermal stations were established on El Misti, at altitudes of 4780, 5438 and 5740 m, consisting of an air temperature sensor and a ground temperature sensor, installed at a depth of 20 cm. When possible, a third sensor was installed in the ground at a depth of 40 to 100 cm. Three stations were also installed on the Chachani volcano, at altitudes of 4871, 5013 and 5352 m, with the same orientation where possible, and with the same sensor types and positions. Data was collected during the period 2004-2008. Results obtained for the Chachani volcano during the four complete years for which data is available are fairly uniform, despite the occasional failure of some sensors. For the air temperature, the 0°C mean annual temperature (MAAT) isotherm is situated at around 5000 m altitude, and the -2°C isotherm, which we consider the limit of probable permafrost (Palacios et al. 2007), at around 5300 m. At 5352 m, permafrost was not detected at a depth of 40 cm, with 78 days above 0°C, although it may exist and may be detectable using a deeper probe. The daily temperature range is always very wide, with an average daily range of around 8°C and a maximum daily range of up to 20°C. The number of days where the temperature oscillates above and below 0°C (freeze-thaw cycles) is practically nil at an altitude of 4870 m (between 0 and 75 cycles/year), and maximum at 5013 m (around 200 cycles/year). It then decreases as the altitude increases, with fewer than 150 cycles/year at 5352 m. The data from the ground sensors shows that the mean annual temperatures from the ground thermometers (MAGTs) are slightly higher (2°C on average) than from the air thermometers, including those at a depth of 100 cm. In

  11. USGS GNSS Applications to Volcano Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; McCaffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic unrest is often identified by increased rates of seismicity, deformation, or the release of volcanic gases. Deformation results when ascending magma accumulates in crustal reservoirs, creates new pathways to the surface, or drains from magma reservoirs to feed an eruption. This volcanic deformation is overprinted by deformation from tectonic processes. GNSS monitoring of volcanoes captures transient volcanic deformation and steady and transient tectonic deformation, and we use the TDEFNODE software to unravel these effects. We apply the technique on portions of the Cascades Volcanic arc in central Oregon and in southern Washington that include a deforming volcano. In central Oregon, the regional TDEFNODE model consists of several blocks that rotate and deform internally and a decaying inflationary volcanic pressure source to reproduce the crustal bulge centered ~5 km west of South Sister. We jointly invert 47 interferograms that cover the interval from 1992 to 2010, as well as 2001 to 2015 continuous GNSS (cGNSS) and survey-mode (sGNSS) time series from stations in and around the Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake areas. A single, smoothly-decaying ~5 km deep spherical or prolate spheroid volcanic pressure source activated around 1998 provides the best fit to the combined geodetic data. In southern Washington, GNSS displacement time-series track decaying deflation of a ~8 km deep magma reservoir that fed the 2004 to 2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. That deformation reversed when it began to recharge after the eruption ended. Offsets from slow slip events on the Cascadia subduction zone punctuate the GNSS displacement time series, and we remove them by estimating source parameters for these events. This regional TDEFNODE model extends from Mount Rainier south to Mount Hood, and additional volcanic sources could be added if these volcanoes start deforming. Other TDEFNODE regional models are planned for northern Washington (Mount Baker and Glacier

  12. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  13. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Osvaldo; Mineo, Teresa; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energ...

  14. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  15. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  16. Seismicity at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia: Volcano-Tectonic Earthquake Swarms Triggered by the 2010 Maule, Chile Earthquake and Non-Triggered Background Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. H.; Chartrand, Z. A.; Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; West, M. E.; McNutt, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    We find that the 270 ky dormant Uturuncu Volcano in SW Bolivia exhibits relatively high rates of shallow, volcano-tectonic seismicity that is dominated by swarm-like activity. We also document that the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake triggered an exceptionally high rate of seismicity in the seconds to days following the main event. Although dormant, Uturuncu is currently being studied due to its large-scale deformation rate of 1-2 cm/yr uplift as revealed by InSAR. As part of the NASA-funded Andivolc project to investigate seismicity of volcanoes in the central Andes, a seismic network of 15 stations (9 Mark Products L22 short period and 6 Guralp CMG40T intermediate period sensors) with an average spacing of about 10 km was installed at Uturuncu from April 2009 to April 2010. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes occur at an average rate of about 3-4 per day, and swarms of 5-60 events within a span of minutes to hours occur a few times per month. Most of these earthquakes are located close to the summit at depths near and above sea level. The largest swarm occurred on 28 September 2009 and consisted of 60 locatable events over a time span of 28 hours. The locations of volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Uturuncu are oriented in a NW-SE trend, which matches the dominant orientation of regional faults and suggests a relationship between the fault system at Uturuncu and the regional tectonics of the area; a NW-SE trending fault beneath Uturuncu may serve to localize stresses that are accumulating over the broad area of uplift. Based on automated locations, the maximum local magnitude of these events is approximately M = 4 and the average magnitude is approximately M = 2. An initial estimate of the b-value is about b = 1.2. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake on 27 February 2010 triggered hundreds of local volcano-tectonic events at Uturuncu. High-pass filtering of the long period surface waves reveals that the first triggered events occurred with the onset of the Rayleigh

  17. Three-dimensional velocity structure of the Galeras volcano (Colombia) from passive local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Torres, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional estimation of the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structure at Galeras volcano was conducted by means of passive local earthquake tomography. 14,150 volcano-tectonic events recorded by 58 stations in the seismological network established for monitoring the volcanic activity by the Colombian Geological Survey - Pasto Volcano Observatory between the years 1989 and 2015, were inverted by using the LOTOS code. The seismic events are associated with shear-stress fractures in solid rock as a response to pressure induced by magma flow. Tomography resolution tests suggest a depth of imaging that yield 10 km from the summit of the main crater, illuminating a large portion of the volcanic structure and the interaction of tectonic features like the Buesaco and Silvia-Pijao faults. Full catalog tomographic inversion, that represents the stacked image of the volcanic structure or the most permanent features underneath the volcano, shows vertical structures aligned with seismicity beneath the main crater. We hypothesize that these structures correspond to a system of ducts or fractures through which magma and fluid phases flow up from deeper levels toward the top and related with the intersection of the surface traces of the Silvia-Pijao and Buesaco faults.

  18. Advances in seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica since the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carmona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island is an active volcano located in the south Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It constitutes a natural laboratory to test geophysical instruments in extreme conditions, since they have to endure not only the Antarctic climate but also the volcanic environment. Deception is one of the most visited places in Antarctica, both by scientists and tourists, which emphasize the importance of volcano monitoring. Seismic monitoring has been going on since 1986 during austral summer surveys. The recorded data include volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among others. The level of seismicity ranges from quiet periods to seismic crises (e.g. 1992-1993, 1999. Our group has been involved in volcano monitoring at Deception Island since 1994. Based on this experience, in recent years we have made the most of the opportunities of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 to introduce advances in seismic monitoring along four lines: (1 the improvement of the seismic network installed for seismic monitoring during the summer surveys; (2 the development and improvement of seismic arrays for the detection and characterization of seismo-volcanic signals; (3 the design of automated event recognition tools, to simplify the process of data interpretation; and (4 the deployment of permanent seismic stations. These advances help us to obtain more data of better quality, and therefore to improve our interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity at Deception Island, which is a crucial step in terms of hazards assessment.

  19. a Reconstruction of the 1793 Eruption of San Martin Tuxtla Volcano, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, L.

    2013-05-01

    San Martin Volcano is located in the State of Veracruz, Eastern Mexico (18.572N, 95.169W, 1650 masl). The last eruption of this volcano occurred in 1793. The activity, which was documented lasted for several months and produced thick ashfall deposits in its vicinity. The blasts were heard in the coast of Tampico some 500km NW from the volcano. There are also reports of noticeable ashfall at distances as far as 200 Km from the crater. No casualties from the eruption were reported but the economic and other human activities were greatly perturbed. The center of emission eruption was a cinder cone located within the 500 wide crater in the summit of the volcano. We present isopach maps of the airfall deposits from this eruption. The 5cm isopach covers an area roughly 200 Km2 with downwind axis towards the W-SW. Based on this information we reconstructed some of the characteristics of the eruption by fitting the theoretical isopachs obtained from the well known model of ash deposition by Suzuki to the observed isopachs. The estimated height of the eruptive column is of the order of 10 km for a mass erupted of 0.5 cubic km. We used wind data from the nearby meteorological station of the city of Veracruz.

  20. Continuous monitoring of diffuse CO2 degassing at Taal volcano, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Arcilla, C. A.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Perez, N. M.; Quina, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.; Melián, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observing changes in the composition and discharge rates of volcanic gases is an important part of volcanic monitoring programs, because some gases released by progressive depressurization of magma during ascent are highly mobile and reach the surface well before their parental magma. Among volcanic gases, CO2 is widely used in volcano studies and monitoring because it is one of the earliest released gas species from ascending magma, and it is considered conservative. Taal Volcano in Southwest Luzon, Philippines, lies between a volcanic arc front (facing the subduction zone along the Manila Trench) and a volcanic field formed from extension beyond the arc front. Taal Volcano Island is formed by a main tuff cone surrounded by several smaller tuff cones, tuff rings and scoria cones. This island is located in the center of the 30 km wide Taal Caldera, now filled by Taal Lake. To monitor the volcanic activity of Taal volcano is a priority task in the Philippines, because several million people live within a 20-km radius of Taal's caldera rim. In the period from 2010-2011, during a period of volcanic unrest, the main crater lake of Taal volcano released the highest diffuse CO2 emission rates reported to date by volcanic lakes worldwide. The maximum CO2 emission rate measured in the study period occurred two months before the strongest seismic activity recorded during the unrest period (Arpa et al., 2013, Bull Volcanol 75:747). In the light of the excellent results obtained through diffuse degassing studies, an automatic geochemical station to monitor in a continuous mode the diffuse CO2 degassing in a selected location of Taal, was installed in January 2016 to improve the early warning system at the volcano. The station is located at Daang Kastila, at the northern portion of the main crater rim. It measures hourly the diffuse CO2 efflux, atmospheric CO2 concentration, soil water content and temperature, wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, rainfall

  1. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities: Phase A conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are highlighted. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or Follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSRF to the FOC LSRF.

  2. Independent Review of U.S. and Russian Probabilistic Risk Assessments for the International Space Station Mini Research Module #2 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM-2), a Russian module on the International Space Station, does not meet its requirements for micrometeoroid and orbital debris probability of no penetration (PNP). To document this condition, the primary Russian Federal Space Agency ISS contractor, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E), submitted an ISS non-compliance report (NCR) which was presented at the 5R Stage Operations Readiness Review (SORR) in October 2009. In the NCR, RSC-E argued for waiving the PNP requirement based on several factors, one of which was the risk of catastrophic failure was acceptably low at 1 in 11,100. However, NASA independently performed an assessment of the catastrophic risk resulting in a value of 1 in 1380 and believed that the risk at that level was unacceptable. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to evaluate the two competing catastrophic risk values and determine which was more accurate. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  3. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Testing a Novelty-Detection Algorithm on Two Mobile Exploration Systems at Rivas Vaciamadrid in Spain and at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, P C; Wendt, L; Bonnici, A; Souza-Egipsy, V; Ormo, J; Diaz-Martinez, E; Foing, B H; Bose, R; Walter, S; Oesker, M; Ontrup, J; Haschke, R; Ritter, H

    2009-01-01

    (ABRIDGED)In previous work, two platforms have been developed for testing computer-vision algorithms for robotic planetary exploration (McGuire et al. 2004b,2005; Bartolo et al. 2007). The wearable-computer platform has been tested at geological and astrobiological field sites in Spain (Rivas Vaciamadrid and Riba de Santiuste), and the phone-camera has been tested at a geological field site in Malta. In this work, we (i) apply a Hopfield neural-network algorithm for novelty detection based upon color, (ii) integrate a field-capable digital microscope on the wearable computer platform, (iii) test this novelty detection with the digital microscope at Rivas Vaciamadrid, (iv) develop a Bluetooth communication mode for the phone-camera platform, in order to allow access to a mobile processing computer at the field sites, and (v) test the novelty detection on the Bluetooth-enabled phone-camera connected to a netbook computer at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This systems engineering and field testing hav...

  4. Sounding and Imaging of Ice Sheets Over Chinese Kunlun Station and Grove Mountains From East Antarctica as a Part of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shinan; LIu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Bo; Fang, Guangyou; Wu, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The ice thickness, fine resolution internal reflecting horizons (IRHs) and distinct bottom topography measurements are essential information for improving the next generation ice sheet models. Radars for sounding the Antarctic inland glaciers should have high sensitivity to overcome large attenuation losses and appropriate operation frequency and bandwidth along with moderate focused synthetic aperture radar (SAR) algorithm to improve radar sensitivity and reduce along-track surface clutter. We developed a progressively improved ice-sounding radar system, currently known as the High-resolution Ice-sounding Radar (HRISR), for sounding ice sheets both on long- and short-range vehicle-mounted survey, as a part of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We have sounded many key areas from the East Antarctic Ice Sheets (EAIS), including two major transects over Chinese Kunlun Station and Grove Mountains. We developed two focused SAR algorithm named the modified range migration algorithm using curvelets and the modified nonlinear Chirp Scaling (CS) algorithm to effectively reduce along-track surface clutter from collected data. In this paper, we describe the radar system and algorithms, and provide sample results to demonstrate the successful sounding of the ice sheet over the Antarctic ice sheets.

  5. Sensitivity estimations for cloud droplet formation in the vicinity of the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hammer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol radiative forcing estimates suffer from large uncertainties as a result of insufficient understanding of aerosol–cloud interactions. The main source of these uncertainties are dynamical processes such as turbulence and entrainment but also key aerosol parameters such as aerosol number concentration and size distribution, and to a much lesser extent, the composition. From June to August 2011 a Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE was performed at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l. focusing on the activation of aerosol to form liquid-phase clouds (in the cloud base temperature range of −8 to 5 °C. With a box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation (SSpeak, an important parameter for cloud activation, to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated. It was found that the updraft velocity, defining the cooling rate of an air parcel, is the parameter with the largest influence on SSpeak. Small-scale variations in the cooling rate with large amplitudes can significantly alter CCN activation. Thus, an accurate knowledge of the air parcel history is required to estimate SSpeak. The results show that the cloud base updraft velocities estimated from the horizontal wind measurements made at the Jungfraujoch can be divided by a factor of approximately 4 to get the updraft velocity required for the model to reproduce the observed SSpeak.

  6. Morphological analysis of Japanese quail embryos developed onboard orbital station "Mir" during NASA-"Mir" research program experiments (1990-1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, O.; Gyrieva, T.; Dadasheva, O.; Pahomov, A.; Pirt, C.

    From 1990 to 1996, 5 experiments onboard "MIR" space station which allowed to receive important data dynamics of embryonic development of birds in micro gravitational conditions was carried out by NASA-"MIR" research program, using fertilized eggs of Japanese quail, as convenient object for space experiments. Here we represent the comparative morphomethrical analysis of incubation modes influence on a morphogenesis of Japanese quail. The data allowed us to make the conclusion that the embryonic development of Japanese quail in weightlessness conditions results in authentic decrease of length and body mass parameters in comparison with the embryos, developed in the ground laboratory conditions. The development of a skeleton and extremities, in general developing in normal way, demonstrates decreasing of legs length (10-12%) and body mass (8-12%), but there are no differences in wings length. At the same time we didn't find any significant differences in extremities length in laboratory and synchronic experimental groups of embryos. Analysis didn't show any significant influence of location of eggs in the incubator on mortality of the embryos. The main results of experiments have shown presence of morphometrical changes connected first of all with presence of weightlessness in the surrounded environment. In general, the data a alysis oncen again confirms the assumption that the changed gravity is not an interrupt factor for development of Japanese quail nestlings from fertilized eggs, but further experiments are required for detailed understanding of weightless influence on birds development.

  7. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  8. 车辆阻力对站线坡度设计的影响研究%Research on Influences of Vehicle Resistance on Station Line Grade Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长淮

    2016-01-01

    The vehicle unit basic resistance model is established together with its mathematic expression on the basis of basic resistance, curve resistance, ramp resistance, wind resistance and switch resistance undertaken by vehicles. Vehicle parameters and wind resistance parameters are used to analyze and calculate vehicle-related conditions. Research results show that all longitudinal grades even a flat one may give rise to potential slipping and measures must be taken to ensure safety. This paper evaluates the standard of station line longitudinal grade stipulated in Yard Specification, puts forward measures and calculation method to improve vehicle parking by means of stop retarders. Retarders can be used to increase longitudinal grade of the loading line to meet the requirement for quantitative and fast loading or that for rail weighbridge measurement system, which makes contribution to provide the basis for line longitudinal slope design, extend the application of station speed regulating device and innovate the engineering design method, and to serve as a theoretical basis for the engineering comprehensive optimization design and as reference for design and calculation.%根据车辆所受基本阻力、曲线阻力、坡道阻力、风阻力、道岔阻力,建立车辆单位基本阻力模型及数学表达式,运用车辆参数及风阻力参数,对车辆相关状态进行分析计算,研究表明:线路纵坡即使为平坡,亦存在溜逸安全隐患,必须采取措施才能保证安全;对《站规》站线纵坡标准,进行安全评估,提出利用停车顶改善车辆停放状态的措施意见及计算办法;利用减速顶做功耗能可以提高装车线线路纵坡,从而满足定量快速装车或轨道衡计量系统的技术要求,为线路纵坡设计提供依据,拓宽站场调速设备应用领域,创新工程设计方法,为工程综合优化设计提供理论基础,供设计分析及计算参考。

  9. 极地科考站管理地理信息系统的设计%Design of the Management System of Polar Scientific Research Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 姜芸; 王连仲

    2012-01-01

    With respect to the development of the digital station area,the paper outlines the process of system analysis and describes the key technologies of system construction,system development model and the technical route.Additionally,the paper elaborates the overall framework,the network topology and the system feature modular design.This system offers not only a powerful tool for planning and designing of the daily management,but also the people who are not familiar with the polar expedition the very intuitive understanding of various processes quickly,the system,thus,becomes the most vivid training materials for new expedition team.Meanwhile,the system helps explore a way of informatization to meet the development of the polar scientific research in terms of equipment and information update,dynamic intelligence and scientific management in order to improve the overall management level from the aspects of station planning and construction.%文章针对极地数字站区的发展现状,简述了系统分析需求过程;概要描述了系统建设的关键技术;描述了系统开发模式和技术路线,详细介绍了总体框架、网络拓扑结构、系统功能模块设计。本系统的建设不但为日常管理和规划设计工作提供有力工具,还能使不熟悉极地科考的人非常直观、迅速地了解各种工艺流程,为新科考队员提供生动的培训教材。在极地设备资料及时更新维护、实现动态的智能化和科学化管理方面探索出一条信息化管理道路,以适应极地科考发展的需要,为站区规划、设计、施工和管理服务,从而进一步提高和推进整个站区的管理水平。

  10. Horizontal-vertical Spectral Ratio Method in Microtremor to Estimate Engineering Bedrock Thickness at Sedati Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawa Arwananda, Alif; Aryaseta, Bagas; Dezulfakar, Hafidz; Fatahillah, Yosar; Pandu Gya Nur Rochman, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Based on field study, Sedati Mud Volcano located in a line with Gunung Anyar Mud Volcano and occurred by increased pressure in the compression area and rapid loss of gas. The combination of both fast-growing constructions of infrastructures and the presence of the mud volcanoes brings new challenges in Sidoarjo city. The purpose of this scientific research is to determine the sedimentary thickness around Sedati mud volcano. Only a few data show real amplitude spectrum, which represent high contrast impedance. At some point, there are several peaks indicating the presence of contrast impedance between layers. Based on 20 processed data, Sedati Mud Volcano has a 30 - 70m engineering bedrock thickness and natural frequency between 0.5 until 14.4 Hz. The enhancement of natural frequency tends to occur along decrement of layer thickness in the upper basement layer. The result shows the natural frequency parameter and its amplification is slightly variated around Sedati Mud Volcano, as caused by sedimentary lateral depth variation and/or the presence of variation on existing rock. Further analysis indicates a fault inside the area of mud volcano as possible reason behind the occurring mudflow.

  11. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  12. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  13. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  14. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of