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Sample records for volcano observatory yellow

  1. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John

    2011-01-01

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  2. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  3. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  4. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic data, January to March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Jennifer S.; Okubo, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during January–March 2009. The seismic summary offers earthquake hypocenters without interpretation as a source of preliminary data and is complete in that most data for events of M≥1.5 are included. All latitude and longitude references in this report are stated in Old Hawaiian Datum.

  6. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  7. Protocols for geologic hazards response by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau hosts an active volcanic system, with subterranean magma (molten rock), boiling, pressurized waters, and a variety of active faults with significant earthquake hazards. Within the next few decades, light-to-moderate earthquakes and steam explosions are certain to occur. Volcanic eruptions are less likely, but are ultimately inevitable in this active volcanic region. This document summarizes protocols, policies, and tools to be used by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) during earthquakes, hydrothermal explosions, or any geologic activity that could lead to a volcanic eruption.

  8. Modernization of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Processing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, L.; Shiro, B.; Friberg, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates a Tier 1 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) seismic network to monitor, characterize, and report on volcanic and earthquake activity in the State of Hawaii. Upgrades at the observatory since 2009 have improved the digital telemetry network, computing resources, and seismic data processing with the adoption of the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS) system. HVO aims to build on these efforts by further modernizing its seismic processing infrastructure and strengthen its ability to meet ANSS performance standards. Most notably, this will also allow HVO to support redundant systems, both onsite and offsite, in order to provide better continuity of operation during intermittent power and network outages. We are in the process of implementing a number of upgrades and improvements on HVO's seismic processing infrastructure, including: 1) Virtualization of AQMS physical servers; 2) Migration of server operating systems from Solaris to Linux; 3) Consolidation of AQMS real-time and post-processing services to a single server; 4) Upgrading database from Oracle 10 to Oracle 12; and 5) Upgrading to the latest Earthworm and AQMS software. These improvements will make server administration more efficient, minimize hardware resources required by AQMS, simplify the Oracle replication setup, and provide better integration with HVO's existing state of health monitoring tools and backup system. Ultimately, it will provide HVO with the latest and most secure software available while making the software easier to deploy and support.

  9. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2017-09-07

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  10. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century, geologist Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., argued that, to fully understand volcanic and associated hazards, the expeditionary mode of studying eruptions only after they occurred was inadequate. Instead, he fervently advocated the use of permanent observatories to record and measure volcanic phenomena—at and below the surface—before, during, and after eruptions to obtain the basic scientific information needed to protect people and property from volcanic hazards. With the crucial early help of American volcanologist Frank Alvord Perret and the Hawaiian business community, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established in 1912, and Jaggar’s vision became reality. From its inception, HVO’s mission has centered on several goals: (1) measuring and documenting the seismic, eruptive, and geodetic processes of active Hawaiian volcanoes (principally Kīlauea and Mauna Loa); (2) geological mapping and dating of deposits to reconstruct volcanic histories, understand island evolution, and determine eruptive frequencies and volcanic hazards; (3) systematically collecting eruptive products, including gases, for laboratory analysis; and (4) widely disseminating observatory-acquired data and analysis, reports, and hazard warnings to the global scientific community, emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public. The long-term focus on these goals by HVO scientists, in collaboration with investigators from many other organizations, continues to fulfill Jaggar’s career-long vision of reducing risks from volcanic and earthquake hazards across the globe.

  11. A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.

  12. 2015 Volcanic activity in Alaska—Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Wallace, Kristi

    2017-09-28

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 14 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2015. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of continuing intermittent ash eruptions from Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. Two eruptive episodes, at Veniaminof and Pavlof, on the Alaska Peninsula ended in 2015. During 2015, AVO re-established the seismograph network at Aniakchak, installed six new broadband seismometers throughout the Aleutian Islands, and added a Multiple component Gas Analyzer System (MultiGAS) station on Augustine.

  13. Space volcano observatory (SVO): a metric resolution system on-board a micro/mini-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briole, P.; Cerutti-Maori, G.; Kasser, M.

    2017-11-01

    1500 volcanoes on the Earth are potentially active, one third of them have been active during this century and about 70 are presently erupting. At the beginning of the third millenium, 10% of the world population will be living in areas directly threatened by volcanoes, without considering the effects of eruptions on climate or air-trafic for example. The understanding of volcanic eruptions, a major challenge in geoscience, demands continuous monitoring of active volcanoes. The only way to provide global, continuous, real time and all-weather information on volcanoes is to set up a Space Volcano Observatory closely connected to the ground observatories. Spaceborne observations are mandatory and implement the ground ones as well as airborne ones that can be implemented on a limited set of volcanoes. SVO goal is to monitor both the deformations and the changes in thermal radiance at optical wavelengths from high temperature surfaces of the active volcanic zones. For that, we propose to map at high resolution (1 to 1,5 m pixel size) the topography (stereoscopic observation) and the thermal anomalies (pixel-integrated temperatures above 450°C) of active volcanic areas in a size of 6 x 6 km to 12 x 12 km, large enough for monitoring most of the target features. A return time of 1 to 3 days will allow to get a monitoring useful for hazard mitigation. The paper will present the concept of the optical payload, compatible with a micro/mini satellite (mass in the range 100 - 400 kg), budget for the use of Proteus platform in the case of minisatellite approach will be given and also in the case of CNES microsat platform family. This kind of design could be used for other applications like high resolution imagery on a limited zone for military purpose, GIS, evolution cadaster…

  14. One hundred volatile years of volcanic gas studies at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: Chapter 7 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, Tamar; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The first volcanic gas studies in Hawai‘i, beginning in 1912, established that volatile emissions from Kīlauea Volcano contained mostly water vapor, in addition to carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This straightforward discovery overturned a popular volatile theory of the day and, in the same action, helped affirm Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr.’s, vision of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) as a preeminent place to study volcanic processes. Decades later, the environmental movement produced a watershed of quantitative analytical tools that, after being tested at Kīlauea, became part of the regular monitoring effort at HVO. The resulting volatile emission and fumarole chemistry datasets are some of the most extensive on the planet. These data indicate that magma from the mantle enters the shallow magmatic system of Kīlauea sufficiently oversaturated in CO2 to produce turbulent flow. Passive degassing at Kīlauea’s summit that occurred from 1983 through 2007 yielded CO2-depleted, but SO2- and H2O-rich, rift eruptive gases. Beginning with the 2008 summit eruption, magma reaching the East Rift Zone eruption site became depleted of much of its volatile content at the summit eruptive vent before transport to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō. The volatile emissions of Hawaiian volcanoes are halogen-poor, relative to those of other basaltic systems. Information gained regarding intrinsic gas solubilities at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, as well as the pressure-controlled nature of gas release, have provided useful tools for tracking eruptive activity. Regular CO2-emission-rate measurements at Kīlauea’s summit, together with surface-deformation and other data, detected an increase in deep magma supply more than a year before a corresponding surge in effusive activity. Correspondingly, HVO routinely uses SO2 emissions to study shallow eruptive processes and effusion rates. HVO gas studies and Kīlauea’s long-running East Rift Zone eruption also demonstrate that volatile emissions can

  15. Implementation of Simple and Functional Web Applications at the Alaska Volcano Observatory Remote Sensing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Web pages are ubiquitous and accessible, but when compared to stand-alone applications they are limited in capability. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) Remote Sensing Group has implemented web pages and supporting server software that provide relatively advanced features to any user able to meet basic requirements. Anyone in the world with access to a modern web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox 1.5 or Internet Explorer 6) and reasonable internet connection can fully use the tools, with no software installation or configuration. This allows faculty, staff and students at AVO to perform many aspects of volcano monitoring from home or the road as easily as from the office. Additionally, AVO collaborators such as the National Weather Service and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center are able to use these web tools to quickly assess volcanic events. Capabilities of this web software include (1) ability to obtain accurate measured remote sensing data values on an semi- quantitative compressed image of a large area, (2) to view any data from a wide time range of data swaths, (3) to view many different satellite remote sensing spectral bands and combinations, to adjust color range thresholds, (4) and to export to KML files which are viewable virtual globes such as Google Earth. The technologies behind this implementation are primarily Javascript, PHP, and MySQL which are free to use and well documented, in addition to Terascan, a commercial software package used to extract data from level-0 data files. These technologies will be presented in conjunction with the techniques used to combine them into the final product used by AVO and its collaborators for operational volcanic monitoring.

  16. The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of volcano monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian Volcano Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of Hawaii until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian volcanoes work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the National Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been

  17. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rock, steam, poisonous gases, and ash reach the Earth's surface when a volcano erupts. An eruption can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis. Volcanic gas ...

  18. Use of new and old technologies and methods by the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T. L.; Nye, C. J.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    The recent eruption of Augustine Volcano was the first significant volcanic event in Cook Inlet, Alaska since 1992. In contrast to eruptions at remote Alaskan volcanoes that mainly affect aviation, ash from previous eruptions of Augustine has affected communities surrounding Cook Inlet, home to over half of Alaska's population. The 2006 eruption validated much of AVO's advance preparation, underscored the need to quickly react when a problem or opportunity developed, and once again demonstrated that while technology provides us with wonderful tools, professional relationships, especially during times of crisis, are still important. Long-term multi-parametric instrumental monitoring and background geological and geophysical studies represent the most fundamental aspect of preparing for any eruption. Once significant unrest was detected, AVO augmented the existing real-time network with additional instrumentation including web cameras. GPS and broadband seismometers that recorded data on site were also quickly installed as their data would be crucial for post-eruption research. Prior to 2006, most of most of AVO's eruption response plans and protocols had focused on the threat to aviation rather than ground-based hazards. However, the relationships and protocols developed for the aviation threat were sufficient to be adapted to the ash fall hazard, though it is apparent that more work, both scientific and with response procedures, is needed. Similarly, protocols were quickly developed for warning of a flank- collapse induced tsunami. Information flow within the observatory was greatly facilitated by an internal web site that had been developed and refined specifically for eruption response. Because AVO is a partnership of 3 agencies (U.S. Geological Survey, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys) with offices in both Fairbanks and Anchorage, web and internet-facing data servers provided

  19. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  20. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al

  1. Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  2. An overview of the Icelandic Volcano Observatory response to the on-going rifting event at Bárðarbunga (Iceland) and the SO2 emergency associated with the gas-rich eruption in Holuhraun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Jonsdottir, Kristin; Roberts, Matthew J.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Vögfjord, Kristin; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Jónasdóttir, Elin B.

    2015-04-01

    On 16 August, 2014, Bárðarbunga volcano entered a new phase of unrest. Elevated seismicity in the area with up to thousands of earthquakes detected per day and significant deformation was observed around the Bárðarbunga caldera. A dike intrusion was monitored for almost two weeks until a small, short-lived effusive eruption began on 29 August in Holuhraun. Two days later a second, more intense, tremendously gas-rich eruption started that is still (as of writing) ongoing. The Icelandic Volcano Observatory (IVO), within the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), monitors all the volcanoes in Iceland. Responsibilities include evaluating their related hazards, issuing warnings to the public and Civil Protection, and providing information regarding risks to aviation, including a weekly summary of volcanic activity provided to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in London. IVO has monitored the Bárðarbunga unrest phase since its beginning with the support of international colleagues and, in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Environment Agency of Iceland, provides scientific support and interpretation of the ongoing phenomena to the local Civil Protection. The Aviation Color Code, for preventing hazards to aviation due to ash-cloud encounter, has been widely used and changed as soon as new observations and geophysical data from the monitoring network have suggested a potential evolution in the volcanic crisis. Since the onset of the eruption, IVO is monitoring the gas emission by using different and complementary instrumentations aimed at analyzing the plume composition as well as estimating the gaseous fluxes. SO2 rates have been measured with both real-time scanning DOASes and occasional mobile DOAS traveses, near the eruption site and in the far field. During the first month-and-a-half of the eruption, an average flux equal to 400 kg/s was registered, with peaks exceeding 1,000 kg/s. Along with these measurements the dispersal model CALPUFF has

  3. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  4. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  5. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  6. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  7. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  8. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  9. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Zoller, W.H.; Miller, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes

  10. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  11. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.

    2017-12-22

    across the region results in a relatively large number of airborne observations of eruptive activity. During the 2014 Pavlof eruptions, the Alaska Volcano Observatory received observations and photographs from pilots and local observers, which aided evaluation of the eruptive activity and the areas affected by eruptive products.This report outlines the chronology of events associated with the 2014 eruptive activity at Pavlof Volcano, provides documentation of the style and character of the eruptive episodes, and reports briefly on the eruptive products and impacts. The principal observations are described and portrayed on maps and photographs, and the 2014 eruptive activity is compared to historical eruptions.

  12. One hundred years of volcano monitoring in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea volcano (Figure 1)—one of the most active volcanoes on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  13. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  14. Geophysical monitoring of the Purace volcano, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arcila

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the extreme northwestern part of the Los Coconucos volcanic chain in the Central Cordillera, the Purace is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. Recent geological studies indicate an eruptive history of mainly explosive behavior which was marked most recently by a minor ash eruption in 1977. Techniques used to forecast the renewal of activity of volcanoes after a long period of quiescence include the monitoring of seismicity and ground deformation near the volcano. As a first approach toward the monitoring of the Purace volcano, Southwest Seismological Observatory (OSSO, located in the city of Cali, set up one seismic station in 1986. Beginning in June 1991, the seismic signals have also been transmitted to the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS at the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory (OVS-UOP, located in the city of Popayan. Two more seismic stations were installed early in 1994 forming a minimum seismic network and a geodetic monitoring program for ground deformation studies was established and conducted by INGEOMINAS.

  15. Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of magma supply, storage, and transport are among the most critical parameters governing volcanic activity, yet they remain largely unconstrained because all three processes are hidden beneath the surface. Hawaiian volcanoes, particularly Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, offer excellent prospects for studying subsurface magmatic processes, owing to their accessibility and frequent eruptive and intrusive activity. In addition, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, founded in 1912, maintains long records of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data. As a result, Hawaiian volcanoes have served as both a model for basaltic volcanism in general and a starting point for many studies of volcanic processes.

  16. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  17. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  18. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  19. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  20. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  1. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  2. Volcanoes: observations and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

  3. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Study of the petrology of Hawaiian volcanoes, in particular the historically active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, has long been of worldwide scientific interest. When Dr. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in 1912, detailed observations on basaltic activity at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes increased dramatically. The period from 1912 to 1958 saw a gradual increase in the collection and analysis of samples from the historical eruptions of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa and development of the concepts needed to evaluate them. In a classic 1955 paper, Howard Powers introduced the concepts of magnesia variation diagrams, to display basaltic compositions, and olivine-control lines, to distinguish between possibly comagmatic and clearly distinct basaltic lineages. In particular, he and others recognized that Kīlauea and Mauna Loa basalts must have different sources.

  4. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  5. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  6. Visions of Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Pyle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. It was also a period when dramatic eruptions of Vesuvius lit up the night skies of Naples, providing ample opportunities for travellers, natural philosophers, and early geologists to get up close to the glowing lavas of an active volcano. This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. I explore how the language of ‘fire’ was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples’ interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of ‘fire’ with ‘combustion’ as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. I show how Vesuvius was used as a ‘model’ volcano in science and literature and how, later, following devastating eruptions in Indonesia and the Caribbean, volcanoes took on a new dimension as contemporary agents of death and destruction.

  7. Mauna Kea volcano's ongoing 18-year swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Kea is a large postshield-stage volcano that forms the highest peak on Hawaii Island. The 4,205-meter high volcano erupted most recently between 6,000 and 4,500 years ago and exhibits relatively low rates of seismicity, which are mostly tectonic in origin resulting from lithospheric flexure under the weight of the volcano. Here we identify deep repeating earthquakes occurring beneath the summit of Mauna Kea. These earthquakes, which are not part of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's regional network catalog, were initially detected through a systematic search for coherent seismicity using envelope cross-correlation, and subsequent analysis revealed the presence of a long-term, ongoing swarm. The events have energy concentrated at 2-7 Hz, and can be seen in filtered waveforms dating back to the earliest continuous data from a single station archived at IRIS from November 1999. We use a single-station (3 component) match-filter analysis to create a catalog of the repeating earthquakes for the past 18 years. Using two templates created through phase-weighted stacking of thousands of sta/lta-triggers, we find hundreds of thousands of M1.3-1.6 earthquakes repeating every 7-12 minutes throughout this entire time period, with many smaller events occurring in between. The earthquakes occur at 28-31 km depth directly beneath the summit within a conspicuous gap in seismicity surrounding the flanks of the volcano. Magnitudes and periodicity are remarkably stable long-term, but do exhibit slight variability and occasionally display higher variability on shorter time scales. Network geometry precludes obtaining a reliable focal mechanism, but we interpret the frequency content and hypocenters to infer a volcanic source distinct from the regional tectonic seismicity responding to the load of the island. In this model, the earthquakes may result from the slow, persistent degassing of a relic magma chamber at depth.

  8. Assigning a volcano alert level: negotiating uncertainty, risk, and complexity in decision-making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Carina J Fearnley

    2013-01-01

    A volcano alert level system (VALS) is used to communicate warning information from scientists to civil authorities managing volcanic hazards. This paper provides the first evaluation of how the decision-making process behind the assignation of an alert level, using forecasts of volcanic behaviour, operates in practice . Using interviews conducted from 2007 to 2009 at five USGS-managed (US Geological Survey) volcano observatories (Alaska, Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley, and Yellowstone), two k...

  9. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  10. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  12. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  13. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  14. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  15. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  16. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  17. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojvat, C.

    1997-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10 19 eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies

  18. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  19. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  20. The added value of time-variable microgravimetry to the understanding of how volcanoes work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael; Greco, Filippo; Diament, Michel

    2017-01-01

    During the past few decades, time-variable volcano gravimetry has shown great potential for imaging subsurface processes at active volcanoes (including some processes that might otherwise remain “hidden”), especially when combined with other methods (e.g., ground deformation, seismicity, and gas emissions). By supplying information on changes in the distribution of bulk mass over time, gravimetry can provide information regarding processes such as magma accumulation in void space, gas segregation at shallow depths, and mechanisms driving volcanic uplift and subsidence. Despite its potential, time-variable volcano gravimetry is an underexploited method, not widely adopted by volcano researchers or observatories. The cost of instrumentation and the difficulty in using it under harsh environmental conditions is a significant impediment to the exploitation of gravimetry at many volcanoes. In addition, retrieving useful information from gravity changes in noisy volcanic environments is a major challenge. While these difficulties are not trivial, neither are they insurmountable; indeed, creative efforts in a variety of volcanic settings highlight the value of time-variable gravimetry for understanding hazards as well as revealing fundamental insights into how volcanoes work. Building on previous work, we provide a comprehensive review of time-variable volcano gravimetry, including discussions of instrumentation, modeling and analysis techniques, and case studies that emphasize what can be learned from campaign, continuous, and hybrid gravity observations. We are hopeful that this exploration of time-variable volcano gravimetry will excite more scientists about the potential of the method, spurring further application, development, and innovation.

  1. The Powell Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Poland, M. P.; Wessels, R. L.; Biggs, J.; Carn, S. A.; Griswold, J. P.; Ogburn, S. E.; Wright, R.; Lundgren, P.; Andrews, B. J.; Wauthier, C.; Lopez, T.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rumpf, M. E.; Webley, P. W.; Loughlin, S.; Meyer, F. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hazards from volcanic eruptions pose risks to the lives and livelihood of local populations, with potential global impacts to businesses, agriculture, and air travel. The 2015 Global Assessment of Risk report notes that 800 million people are estimated to live within 100 km of 1400 subaerial volcanoes identified as having eruption potential. However, only 55% of these volcanoes have any type of ground-based monitoring. The only methods currently available to monitor these unmonitored volcanoes are space-based systems that provide a global view. However, with the explosion of data techniques and sensors currently available, taking full advantage of these resources can be challenging. The USGS Powell Center Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group is working with many partners to optimize satellite resources for global detection of volcanic unrest and assessment of potential eruption hazards. In this presentation we will describe our efforts to: 1) work with space agencies to target acquisitions from the international constellation of satellites to collect the right types of data at volcanoes with forecasting potential; 2) collaborate with the scientific community to develop databases of remotely acquired observations of volcanic thermal, degassing, and deformation signals to facilitate change detection and assess how these changes are (or are not) related to eruption; and 3) improve usage of satellite observations by end users at volcano observatories that report to their respective governments. Currently, the group has developed time series plots for 48 Latin American volcanoes that incorporate variations in thermal, degassing, and deformation readings over time. These are compared against eruption timing and ground-based data provided by the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program. Distinct patterns in unrest and eruption are observed at different volcanoes, illustrating the difficulty in developing generalizations, but highlighting the power of remote sensing

  2. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  3. Spying on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  4. Geology of kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  5. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  6. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  7. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  8. 2004 Deformation of Okmok Volcano,Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T. J.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    Okmok Volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with a 10km diameter caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok has had frequent effusive eruptions, the latest in 1997. In 2002 the Alaska Volcano Observatory installed a seismic network and three continuous GPS stations. Two stations are located in the caldera and one is located at the base of the volcano at Fort Glenn. Because of instrumentation problems the GPS network was not fully operational until August 2003. A fourth GPS site, located on the south flank of the volcano, came online in September 2004. The three continuous GPS instruments captured a rapid inflation event at Okmok Volcano spanning 6 months from March to August 2004. The instruments give a wonderful time-series of the episode but poor spatial coverage. Modeling the deformation is accomplished by supplementing the continuous data with campaign surveys conducted in the summers of 2002, 2003 and 2004. Displacements between the 2002 and 2003 campaigns show a large inflation event between those time periods. The continuous and campaign data suggest that deformation at Okmok is characterized by short-lived rapid inflation interspersed with periods of moderate inflation. Velocities during the 2004 event reached a maximum of 31cm/yr in the vertical direction and 15cm/yr eastward at the station OKCD, compared with the pre-inflation velocities of 4cm/yr in the vertical and 2.5cm/yr southeastward. Using a Mogi point source model both prior to and during the inflation gives a source location in the center of the caldera and a depth of about 3km. The source strength rate is three times larger during the inflation event than the period preceding it. Based on the full time series of campaign and continuous GPS data, it appears that the variation in inflation rate results from changes in the magma supply rate and not from changes in the depth of the source.

  9. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  11. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  12. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  14. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  15. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  16. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  17. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  18. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  19. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  20. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  1. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  2. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  3. Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes improves study efforts in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K.; Servilla, M.; Roach, A.; Foster, B.; Engle, K.

    Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes is greatly benefitting the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and last year's eruption of the Okmok Volcano in the Aleutian Islands is a good case in point. The facility was able to issue and refine warnings of the eruption and related activity quickly, something that could not have been done using conventional seismic surveillance techniques, since seismometers have not been installed at these locations.AVO monitors about 100 active volcanoes in the North Pacific (NOPAC) region, but only a handful are observed by costly and logistically complex conventional means. The region is remote and vast, about 5000 × 2500 km, extending from Alaska west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia (Figure 1). Warnings are transmitted to local communities and airlines that might be endangered by eruptions. More than 70,000 passenger and cargo flights fly over the region annually, and airborne volcanic ash is a threat to them. Many remote eruptions have been detected shortly after the initial magmatic activity using satellite data, and eruption clouds have been tracked across air traffic routes. Within minutes after eruptions are detected, information is relayed to government agencies, private companies, and the general public using telephone, fax, and e-mail. Monitoring of volcanoes using satellite image data involves direct reception, real-time monitoring, and data analysis. Two satellite data receiving stations, located at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), are capable of receiving data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites and from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped satellites.

  4. Using Bayesian Belief Networks To Assess Volcano State from Multiple Monitoring Timeseries And Other Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbert, Henry; Aspinall, Willy

    2013-04-01

    When volcanoes exhibit unrest or become eruptively active, science-based decision support invariably is sought by civil authorities. Evidence available to scientists about a volcano's internal state is usually indirect, secondary or very nebulous.Advancement of volcano monitoring technology in recent decades has increased the variety and resolution of multi-parameter timeseries data recorded at volcanoes. Monitoring timeseries may be interpreted in real time by observatory staff and are often later subjected to further analytic scrutiny by the research community at large. With increasing variety and resolution of data, interpreting these multiple strands of parallel, partial evidence has become increasingly complex. In practice, interpretation of many timeseries involves familiarity with the idiosyncracies of the volcano, the monitoring techniques, the configuration of the recording instrumentation, observations from other datasets, and so on. Assimilation of this knowledge is necessary in order to select and apply the appropriate statistical techniques required to extract the required information. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) use probability theory to treat and evaluate uncertainties in a rational and auditable scientific manner, but only to the extent warranted by the strength of the available evidence. The concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple observations, model results and interpretations - and associated uncertainties - in a methodical manner. The formulation is usually implemented in graphical form and could be developed as a tool for near real-time, ongoing use in a volcano observatory, for example. We explore the application of BBNs in analysing volcanic timeseries, the certainty with which inferences may be drawn, and how they can be updated dynamically. Such approaches provide a route to developing analytical interface(s) between volcano monitoring analyses and probabilistic hazard analysis. We discuss the use of BBNs in hazard

  5. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  6. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  7. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  8. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Mak, H.B.; Robertson, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses the proposal to construct a unique neutrino observatory. The observatory would contain a Cerenkov detector which would be located 2070 m below the earth's surface in an INCO mine at Creighton near Sudbury and would contain 1000 tons of D20 which is an excellent target material. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. There are three main objectives of the laboratory. The prime objective will be to study B electron neutrinos from the sun by a direct counting method that will measure their energy and direction. The second major objective will be to establish if electron neutrinos change into other neutrino species in transit from the sun to the earth. Finally it is hoped to be able to observe a supernova with the proposed detector. The features of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory which make it unique are its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. In section II of this proposal the major physics objectives are discussed in greater detail. A conceptual design for the detector, and measurements and calculations which establish the feasibility of the neutrino experiments are presented in section III. Section IV is comprised of a discussion on the possible location of the laboratory and Section V contains a brief indication of the main areas to be studied in Phase II of the design study

  9. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1986-10-01

    This report is a supplement to a report (SNO-85-3 (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory)) which contained the results of a feasibility study on the construction of a deep underground neutrino observatory based on a 1000 ton heavy water Cerenkov detector. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes, a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is unique in its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. The results of the July 1985 study indicated that the project is technically feasible in that the proposed detector can measure the direction and energy of electron neutrinos above 7 MeV and the scientific programs will make significant contributions to physics and astrophysics. This present report contains new information obtained since the 1985 feasibility study. The enhanced conversion of neutrinos in the sun and the new physics that could be learned using the heavy water detector are discussed in the physics section. The other sections will discuss progress in the areas of practical importance in achieving the physics objectives such as new techniques to measure, monitor and remove low levels of radioactivity in detector components, ideas on calibration of the detector and so forth. The section entitled Administration contains a membership list of the working groups within the SNO collaboration

  10. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  11. Patterns in thermal emissions from the volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Using AVHRR data 1993-2011 and the Alaska Volcano Observatory's Okmok II Algorithm, the thermal emissions from all volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands were converted from temperature to power emission and examined for periodicity. The emissions were also summed to quantify the total energy released throughout the period. It was found that in the period April 1997 - January 2004 (37% of the period) the power emission from the volcanoes of the island arc declined sharply to constitute just 5.7% of the total power output for the period (138,311 MW), and this was attributable to just three volcanoes: Veniaminof (1.0%), Cleveland (1.5%) and Shishaldin (3.2%). This period of apparent reduced activity contrasts with the periods both before and after and is unrelated to the number of sensors in orbit at the time. What is also evident from the data set is that in terms of overall power emission over this period, the majority of emitted energy is largely attributable to those volcanoes which erupt with regularity (again, Veniaminof [29.7%], Cleveland [17%] and Shishaldin [11.4%]), as opposed to from the relatively few, large scale events (i.e. Reboubt [5.4%], Okmok [8.3%], Augustine [9.7%]; Pavlov [13.9%] being an exception). Sum power emission from volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands (1993-2011)

  12. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  13. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program

  14. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  15. Volcanoes, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher J.

    It takes confidence to title a smallish book merely “Volcanoes” because of the impliction that the myriad facets of volcanism—chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology, hazard mitigation, and more—have been identified and addressed to some nontrivial level of detail. Robert and Barbara Decker have visited these different facets seamlessly in Volcanoes, Third Edition. The seamlessness comes from a broad overarching, interdisciplinary, professional understanding of volcanism combined with an exceptionally smooth translation of scientific jargon into plain language.The result is a book which will be informative to a very broad audience, from reasonably educated nongeologists (my mother loves it) to geology undergraduates through professional volcanologists. I bet that even the most senior professional volcanologists will learn at least a few things from this book and will find at least a few provocative discussions of subjects they know.

  16. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  17. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  18. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  19. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  20. Continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes with thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Antolik, Loren; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuously operating thermal cameras are becoming more common around the world for volcano monitoring, and offer distinct advantages over conventional visual webcams for observing volcanic activity. Thermal cameras can sometimes “see” through volcanic fume that obscures views to visual webcams and the naked eye, and often provide a much clearer view of the extent of high temperature areas and activity levels. We describe a thermal camera network recently installed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor Kīlauea’s summit and east rift zone eruptions (at Halema‘uma‘u and Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō craters, respectively) and to keep watch on Mauna Loa’s summit caldera. The cameras are long-wave, temperature-calibrated models protected in custom enclosures, and often positioned on crater rims close to active vents. Images are transmitted back to the observatory in real-time, and numerous Matlab scripts manage the data and provide automated analyses and alarms. The cameras have greatly improved HVO’s observations of surface eruptive activity, which includes highly dynamic lava lake activity at Halema‘uma‘u, major disruptions to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō crater and several fissure eruptions.

  1. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  2. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  3. Geophysical data collection using an interactive personal computer system. Part 1. ; Experimental monitoring of Suwanosejima volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M. (Kyoto Univerdity, Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Reserach Institute)

    1991-10-15

    In the article, a computer-communication system was developed in order to collect geophysical data from remote volcanos via a public telephpne network. This system is composed of a host presonal computer at an observatory and several personal computers as terminals at remote stations. Each terminal acquires geophysical data, such as seismic, intrasonic, and ground deformation date. These gara are stored in the terminals temporarily, and transmitted to the host computer upon command from host computer. Experimental monitoring was conducted between Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory and several statins in the Satsunan Islands and southern Kyushu. The seismic and eruptive activities of Suwanosejima volcano were monitored by this system. Consequently, earthquakes and air-shocks accompanied by the explosive activity were observed. B-type earthquakes occurred prio to the relatively prolonged eruptive activity. Intermittent occurrences of volcanic tremors were also clearly recognized from the change in mean amplitubes of seismic waves. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  5. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  6. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  7. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  8. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  9. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical 37 Cl and 71 Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun

  10. The upgrade of the HAWC observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, Harm [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 200 tons of purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m{sup 2}. HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gamma rays reaches an effective area of 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 300 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m{sup 3} placed over an area four times larger than HAWC. The Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg just joined the collaboration and will provide the FADC electronics for the readout of the outrigger tanks. Detailed simulations are being performed to optimize the performance of the upgrade.

  11. Emergence of Lava Dome from the Crater Lake of Kelud Volcano, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v4i4.83Kelud Volcano (+1731 m in East Java is one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes in Indonesia. A large lake occupies the summit crater. Historical eruptions generally only lasted for a very short time, mostly no longer than a few hours. The outburst is usually accompanied by pyroclastic flows. On August 2007, the activity of the volcano was initiated by the increase of the temperature of lake water and the change of the colour from typical green to yellow. Activities of the volcano are discussed following the swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT earthquakes on September 10th, September 26th to 29th, and October 24th to November 2nd. On September 26th to 29th, hypocentral distribution of those VT shifted from 5 km deep to just beneath the crater. The highest number of VT earthquakes occurred on November 1st attaining 50 events, then followed by a swarm of B-type events, where the number reached 1437 events in a day. The volcanic activity peaked on November 3rd when seismic records became saturated, which then was preceded by a sharp increase of lake temperature and a sudden deflation of radial tilt. It suggests that the lava extrusion forming a lava dome was taking place.

  12. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  13. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  14. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  15. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history

  16. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  17. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  18. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on

  19. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  20. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  1. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  2. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  3. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  4. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  5. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  6. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.

    1985-01-01

    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  7. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The geographical position, climate and equipment at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), together with the enthusiasm and efforts of SAAO scientific and technical staff and of visiting scientists, have enabled the Observatory to make a major contribution to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. During 1987 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: supernovae; galaxies, including Seyfert galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galatic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae; interstellar matter and stellar astrophysics

  8. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical volcano geodetic models.

  9. Standardisation of the USGS Volcano Alert Level System (VALS): analysis and ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, C. J.; McGuire, W. J.; Davies, G.; Twigg, J.

    2012-11-01

    The standardisation of volcano early warning systems (VEWS) and volcano alert level systems (VALS) is becoming increasingly common at both the national and international level, most notably following UN endorsement of the development of globally comprehensive early warning systems. Yet, the impact on its effectiveness, of standardising an early warning system (EWS), in particular for volcanic hazards, remains largely unknown and little studied. This paper examines this and related issues through evaluation of the emergence and implementation, in 2006, of a standardised United States Geological Survey (USGS) VALS. Under this upper-management directive, all locally developed alert level systems or practices at individual volcano observatories were replaced with a common standard. Research conducted at five USGS-managed volcano observatories in Alaska, Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley and Yellowstone explores the benefits and limitations this standardisation has brought to each observatory. The study concludes (1) that the process of standardisation was predominantly triggered and shaped by social, political, and economic factors, rather than in response to scientific needs specific to each volcanic region; and (2) that standardisation is difficult to implement for three main reasons: first, the diversity and uncertain nature of volcanic hazards at different temporal and spatial scales require specific VEWS to be developed to address this and to accommodate associated stakeholder needs. Second, the plural social contexts within which each VALS is embedded present challenges in relation to its applicability and responsiveness to local knowledge and context. Third, the contingencies of local institutional dynamics may hamper the ability of a standardised VALS to effectively communicate a warning. Notwithstanding these caveats, the concept of VALS standardisation clearly has continuing support. As a consequence, rather than advocating further commonality of a standardised

  10. A framework for cross-observatory volcanological database management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco Antonio; Amore, Mauro; Cannavò, Flavio; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Dolce, Mario; Mastrolia, Andrea; Mangiagli, Salvatore; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Fabio Pisciotta, Antonino; Prestifilippo, Michele; Rossi, Massimo; Scarpato, Giovanni; Torrisi, Orazio

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, it has been clearly shown how the multiparametric approach is the winning strategy to investigate the complex dynamics of the volcanic systems. This involves the use of different sensor networks, each one dedicated to the acquisition of particular data useful for research and monitoring. The increasing interest devoted to the study of volcanological phenomena led the constitution of different research organizations or observatories, also relative to the same volcanoes, which acquire large amounts of data from sensor networks for the multiparametric monitoring. At INGV we developed a framework, hereinafter called TSDSystem (Time Series Database System), which allows to acquire data streams from several geophysical and geochemical permanent sensor networks (also represented by different data sources such as ASCII, ODBC, URL etc.), located on the main volcanic areas of Southern Italy, and relate them within a relational database management system. Furthermore, spatial data related to different dataset are managed using a GIS module for sharing and visualization purpose. The standardization provides the ability to perform operations, such as query and visualization, of many measures synchronizing them using a common space and time scale. In order to share data between INGV observatories, and also with Civil Protection, whose activity is related on the same volcanic districts, we designed a "Master View" system that, starting from the implementation of a number of instances of the TSDSystem framework (one for each observatory), makes possible the joint interrogation of data, both temporal and spatial, on instances located in different observatories, through the use of web services technology (RESTful, SOAP). Similarly, it provides metadata for equipment using standard schemas (such as FDSN StationXML). The "Master View" is also responsible for managing the data policy through a "who owns what" system, which allows you to associate viewing/download of

  11. What Happened to Our Volcano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  12. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  13. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  14. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  15. Body Wave and Ambient Noise Tomography of Makushin Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F.; Thurber, C. H.; Syracuse, E. M.; Ghosh, A.; LI, B.; Power, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Located in the eastern portion of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, Makushin Volcano is among the most active volcanoes in the United States and has been classified as high threat based on eruptive history and proximity to the City of Unalaska and international air routes. In 2015, five individual seismic stations and three mini seismic arrays of 15 stations each were deployed on Unalaska island to supplement the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) permanent seismic network. This temporary array was operational for one year. Taking advantage of the increased azimuthal coverage and the array's increased earthquake detection capability, we developed body-wave Vp and Vp/Vs seismic images of the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Body-wave tomography results show a complex structure with the upper 5 km of the crust dominated by both positive and negative Vp anomalies. The shallow high-Vp features possibly delineate remnant magma pathways or conduits. Low-Vp regions are found east of the caldera at approximately 6-9 km depth. This is in agreement with previous tomographic work and geodetic models, obtained using InSAR data, which had identified this region as a possible long-term source of magma. We also observe a high Vp/Vs feature extending between 7 and 12 km depth below the caldera, possibly indicating partial melting, although the resolution is diminished at these depths. The distributed stations allow us to further complement body-wave tomography with ambient noise imaging and to obtain higher quality of Vs images. Our data processing includes single station data preparation and station-pair cross-correlation steps (Bensen et al., 2007), and the use of the phase weighted stacking method (Schimmel and Gallart, 2007) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlations. We will show surface-wave dispersion curves, group velocity maps, and ultimately a 3D Vs image. By performing both body wave and ambient noise tomography, we provide a high

  16. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Redoubt Volcano and Mt. Spurr, Alaska: October 12, 1989 - December 31, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.; March, Gail D.; Lahr, John C.; Jolly, Arthur D.; Cruse, Gina R.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, began a program of seismic monitoring at potentially active volcanoes in the Cook Inlet region in 1988. Seismic monitoring of this area was previously accomplished by two independent seismic networks operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (Northern Cook Inlet) and the Geophysical Institute (Southern Cook Inlet). In 1989 the AVO seismic program consisted of three small-aperture networks of six, five, and six stations on Mt. Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, and Augustine Volcano respectively. Thirty-five other stations were operated in the Cook Inlet region as part of the AVO program. During 1990 six additional stations were added to the Redoubt network in response to eruptive activity, and three stations were installed at Iliamna Volcano. The principal objectives of the AVO program have been the seismic surveillance of the Cook Inlet volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism.

  17. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  18. Observatory response to a volcanic crisis: the Campi Flegrei simulation exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In Febraury 2014 a simulation exercise was conducted at Campi Flegrei, Italy, in order to test the scientific response capabilities and the effectiveness of communication with Civil Protection authorities. The simulation was organized in the frame of the EU-VUELCO project, and involved the participation of the Osservatorio Vesuviano of INGV (INGV-OV) corroborated by other INGV scientists involved for their specific competencies; and the Italian Civil Protection, which was supported by an expert team formed by selected experts from the Italian academy and by VUELCO scientists from several EU and Latin American countries. The simulation included a previously appointed group of four volcanologists covering a range of expertise in volcano seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, and with experience both on the Campi Flegrei system and on other volcanic systems and crises in the world. The duty of this 'volcano team' was that of producing consistent sets of signals, that were sent to INGV-OV at the beginning of each simulation phase. In turn, the observatory response was that of i) immediately communicate the relevant observations to the Civil Protection; ii) analyze the synthetic signals and observations and extract a consistent picture and interpretation, including the analysis and quantification of uncertainties; iii) organize all the information produced in a bulletin, that was sent to the Civil Protection at the end of each simulation phase and that contained, according to national established agreements, a) the information available, and b) its interpretation including forecasts on the possible medium-short term evolution. The test included four simulation phases and it was blind, as only the volcano team knew the evolution and the final outcome; the volcano team was located at the INGV buildings in Rome, far from INGV-OV in Naples and the Civil Protection Dept. still in Rome, and with no contacts with any of them for the entire duration of the simulation. In this

  19. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  20. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  1. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  2. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie

    2018-01-01

    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  3. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  5. Results from the Autonomous Triggering of in situ Sensors on Kilauea Volcano, HI, from Eruption Detection by Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, J.; Behar, A.; Davies, A.; Mora-Vargas, A.; Tran, D.; Abtahi, A.; Pieri, D. C.; Boudreau, K.; Cecava, J.

    2008-12-01

    Response time in acquiring sensor data in volcanic emergencies can be greatly improved through use of autonomous systems. For instance, ground-based observations and data processing applications of the JPL Volcano Sensor Web have promptly triggered spacecraft observations [e.g., 1]. The reverse command and information flow path can also be useful, using autonomous analysis of spacecraft data to trigger in situ sensors. In this demonstration project, SO2 sensors were incorporated into expendable "Volcano Monitor" capsules and placed downwind of the Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i. In nominal (low) power conservation mode, data from these sensors were collected and transmitted every hour to the Volcano Sensor Web through the Iridium Satellite Network. When SO2 readings exceeded a predetermined threshold, the modem within the Volcano Monitor sent an alert to the Sensor Web, and triggered a request for prompt Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft data acquisition. The Volcano Monitors were also triggered by the Sensor Web in response to an eruption detection by the MODIS instrument on Terra. During these pre- defined "critical events" the Sensor Web ordered the SO2 sensors within the Volcano Monitor to increase their sampling frequency to every 5 minutes (high power "burst mode"). Autonomous control of the sensors' sampling frequency enabled the Sensor Web to monitor and respond to rapidly evolving conditions, and allowed rapid compilation and dissemination of these data to the scientific community. Reference: [1] Davies et al., (2006) Eos, 87, (1), 1 and 5. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support was provided by the NASA AIST program, the Idaho Space Grant Consortium, and the New Mexico Space Grant Program. We also especially thank the personnel of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for their invaluable scientific guidance and logistical assistance.

  6. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  7. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  8. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  9. Automated tracking of lava lake level using thermal images at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Swanson, Don; Orr, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the level of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, is an essential part of monitoring the ongoing eruption and forecasting potentially hazardous changes in activity. We describe a simple automated image processing routine that analyzes continuously-acquired thermal images of the lava lake and measures lava level. The method uses three image segmentation approaches, based on edge detection, short-term change analysis, and composite temperature thresholding, to identify and track the lake margin in the images. These relative measurements from the images are periodically calibrated with laser rangefinder measurements to produce real-time estimates of lake elevation. Continuous, automated tracking of the lava level has been an important tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 2012 in real-time operational monitoring of the volcano and its hazard potential.

  10. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  11. Flank tectonics of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Squyres, S.W.; Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    On the flanks of Olympus Mons is a series of terraces, concentrically distributed around the caldera. Their morphology and location suggest that they could be thrust faults caused by compressional failure of the cone. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of faulting and the possible influences of the interior structure of Olympus Mons, the authors have constructed a numerical model for elastic stresses within a Martian volcano. In the absence of internal pressurization, the middle slopes of the cone are subjected to compressional stress, appropriate to the formation of thrust faults. These stresses for Olympus Mons are ∼250 MPa. If a vacant magma chamber is contained within the cone, the region of maximum compressional stress is extended toward the base of the cone. If the magma chamber is pressurized, extensional stresses occur at the summit and on the upper slopes of the cone. For a filled but unpressurized magma chamber, the observed positions of the faults agree well with the calculated region of high compressional stress. Three other volcanoes on Mars, Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons, and Pavonis Mons, possess similar terraces. Extending the analysis to other Martian volcanoes, they find that only these three and Olympus Mons have flank stresses that exceed the compressional failure strength of basalt, lending support to the view that the terraces on all four are thrust faults

  12. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  13. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  14. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  15. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  16. Virtual Investigations of an Active Deep Sea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, L.; Taylor, M. M.; Fundis, A.; Kelley, D. S.; Elend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Axial Seamount, located on the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge 300 miles off the Oregon coast, is an active volcano whose summit caldera lies 1500 m beneath the sea surface. Ongoing construction of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) cabled observatory by the University of Washington (funded by the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative) has allowed for exploration of recent lava flows and active hydrothermal vents using HD video mounted on the ROVs, ROPOS and JASON II. College level oceanography/marine geology online laboratory exercises referred to as Online Concept Modules (OCMs) have been created using video and video frame-captured mosaics to promote skill development for characterizing and quantifying deep sea environments. Students proceed at their own pace through a sequence of short movies with which they (a) gain background knowledge, (b) learn skills to identify and classify features or biota within a targeted environment, (c) practice these skills, and (d) use their knowledge and skills to make interpretations regarding the environment. Part (d) serves as the necessary assessment component of the laboratory exercise. Two Axial Seamount-focused OCMs will be presented: 1) Lava Flow Characterization: Identifying a Suitable Cable Route, and 2) Assessing Hydrothermal Vent Communities: Comparisons Among Multiple Sulfide Chimneys.

  17. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  18. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  19. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  20. Space astrophysical observatory 'Orion-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.; Jarakyan, A.L.; Krmoyan, M.N.; Kashin, A.L.; Loretsyan, G.M.; Ohanesyan, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13sup(m) were obtained in the wavelengths 2000-5000 A by means of the space observatory 'Orion-2' installed in the spaceship 'Soyuz-13' with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself. It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of 'Orion-2' observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight. A detailed description is given of the optical, electrical and mechanical schemes of the devices - meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it. Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material. (Auth.)

  1. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  2. K-Ar ages of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukui, Masashi; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Nagao, Keisuke.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen volcanic rocks of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano, in southwest Japan, were dated by the K-Ar method to clarify the age of volcanic activity in this region and the evolution of these composite volcanoes. The eruption ages of the Hiruzen volcano group were revealed to be about 0.9 Ma to 0.5 Ma, those of the Daisen volcano to be about 1 Ma to very recent. These results are consistent with geological and paleomagnetic data of previous workers. Effusion of lavas in the area was especially vigorous at 0.5+-0.1 Ma. It was generally considered that the Hiruzen volcano group had erupted during latest Pliocene to early Quaternary and it is older than the Daisen volcano, mainly from their topographic features. However, their overlapping eruption ages and petrographical similarities of the lavas of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano suggest that they may be included in the Daisen volcano in a broad sense. The aphyric andesite, whose eruption age had been correlated to Wakurayama andesite (6.34+-0.19 Ma) in Matsue city and thought to be the basement of the Daisen volcano, was dated to be 0.46+-0.04 Ma. It indicates that petrographically similar aphyric andesite erupted sporadically at different time and space in the San'in district. (author)

  3. The MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  4. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program—Helping to save lives worldwide for more than 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ramsey, David W.

    2017-10-20

    What do you do when a sleeping volcano roars back to life? For more than three decades, countries around the world have called upon the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) to contribute expertise and equipment in times of crisis. Co-funded by the USGS and the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA), VDAP has evolved and grown over the years, adding newly developed monitoring technologies, training and exchange programs, and eruption forecasting methodologies to greatly expand global capabilities that mitigate the impacts of volcanic hazards. These advances, in turn, strengthen the ability of the United States to respond to its own volcanic events.VDAP was formed in 1986 in response to the devastating volcanic mudflow triggered by an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia. The mudflow destroyed the city of Armero on the night of November 13, 1985, killing more than 25,000 people in the city and surrounding areas. Sadly, the tragedy was avoidable. Better education of the local population and clear communication between scientists and public officials could have allowed warnings to be received, understood, and acted upon prior to the disaster.VDAP strives to ensure that such a tragedy will never happen again. The program’s mission is to assist foreign partners, at their request, in volcano monitoring and empower them to take the lead in mitigating hazards at their country’s threatening volcanoes. Since 1986, team members have responded to over 70 major volcanic crises at more than 50 volcanoes and have strengthened response capacity in 12 countries. The VDAP team consists of approximately 20 geologists, geophysicists, and engineers, who are based out of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. In 2016, VDAP was a finalist for the Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medal for its work in improving volcano readiness and warning

  5. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  6. Orographic Flow over an Active Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros-Panagiotis; Renfrew, Ian; Matthews, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Orographic flows over and around an isolated volcano are studied through a series of numerical model experiments. The volcano top has a heated surface, so can be thought of as "active" but not erupting. A series of simulations with different atmospheric conditions and using both idealised and realistic configurations of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model have been carried out. The study is based on the Soufriere Hills volcano, located on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean. This is a dome-building volcano, leading to a sharp increase in the surface skin temperature at the top of the volcano - up to tens of degrees higher than ambient values. The majority of the simulations use an idealised topography, in order for the results to have general applicability to similar-sized volcanoes located in the tropics. The model is initialised with idealised atmospheric soundings, representative of qualitatively different atmospheric conditions from the rainy season in the tropics. The simulations reveal significant changes to the orographic flow response, depending upon the size of the temperature anomaly and the atmospheric conditions. The flow regime and characteristic features such as gravity waves, orographic clouds and orographic rainfall patterns can all be qualitatively changed by the surface heating anomaly. Orographic rainfall over the volcano can be significantly enhanced with increased temperature anomaly. The implications for the eruptive behaviour of the volcano and resulting secondary volcanic hazards will also be discussed.

  7. Inventory of gas flux measurements from volcanoes of the global Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, B.; Arellano, S.; Norman, P.; Conde, V.

    2012-04-01

    NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-year-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the monitoring and research of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2012, 64 instruments have been installed at 24 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 7 years of continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. We show a global perspective of the output of volcanic gas from the covered regions, specific trends of degassing for a few selected volcanoes, and the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.

  8. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  9. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  10. Satellite Observations of Volcanic Clouds from the Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K. G.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano began erupting on 23 March 2009 (UTC) and consisted of 19 events over a 14 day period. The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula, 175 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The previous eruption was in 1989/1990 and seriously disrupted air traffic in the region, including the near catastrophic engine failure of a passenger airliner. Plumes and ash clouds from the recent eruption were observed on a variety of satellite data (AVHRR, MODIS and GOES). The eruption produced volcanic clouds up to 19 km which are some of the highest detected in recent times in the North Pacific region. The ash clouds primarily drifted north and east of the volcano, had a weak ash signal in the split window data and resulted in light ash falls in the Cook Inlet basin and northward into Alaska’s Interior. Volcanic cloud heights were measured using ground-based radar, and plume temperature and wind shear methods but each of the techniques resulted in significant variations in the estimates. Even though radar showed the greatest heights, satellite data and wind shears suggest that the largest concentrations of ash may be at lower altitudes in some cases. Sulfur dioxide clouds were also observed on satellite data (OMI, AIRS and Calipso) and they primarily drifted to the east and were detected at several locations across North America, thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Here, we show time series data collected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, illustrating the different eruptive events and ash clouds that developed over the subsequent days.

  11. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  12. Developing geophysical monitoring at Mayon volcano, a collaborative project EOS-PHIVOLCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, D.; Laguerta, E.; Baloloy, A.; Valerio, R.; Marcial, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Mayon is an openly-degassed volcano, producing mostly small, frequent eruptions, most recently in Aug-Sept 2006 and Dec 2009. Mayon volcano status is level 1 with low seismicity dominated mostly local and regional tectonic earthquakes with continuous emission of SO2 from its crater. A research collaboration between Earth Observatory of Singapore-NTU and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) have been initiated in 2010 with effort to develop a multi-disciplinary monitoring system around Mayon includes geophysical monitoring, gas geochemical monitoring, and petrologic studies. Currently there are 4 broadband seismographs, 3 short period instruments, and 4 tiltmeters. These instruments will be telemetered to the Lignon Hill Volcano Observatory through radio and 3G broadband internet. We also make use of our self-made low-cost datalogger which has been operating since Jan 2011, performing continuous data acquisition with sampling rate of 20 minute/sample and transmitted through gsm network. First target of this monitoring system is to obtain continuous multi parameter data transmitted in real time to the observatory from different instruments. Tectonically, Mayon is located in the Oas Graben, a northwest-trending structural depression. Previous study using InSAR data, showing evidence of a left-lateral oblique slip movement of the fault North of Mayon. Understanding on what structures active deformation is occurring and how deformation signal is currently partitioned between tectonic and volcanic origin is a key for characterizing magma movement in the time of unrest. Preliminary analysis of the tangential components of tiltmeters (particularly the stations 5 and 7.5 NE from the volcano) shows gradual inflation movement over a few months period. The tangential components for tiltmeters are roughly perpendicular to the fault north of Mayon. This may suggest downward tilting of the graben in the northern side of Mayon. Another possibility is that

  13. Geophysical Exploration on the Structure of Volcanoes: Two Case Histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Geophysical methods of exploration were used to determine the internal structure of Koolau Volcano in Hawaii and of Rabaul Volcano in New Guinea. By use of gravity and seismic data the central vent or plug of Koolau Volcano was outlined. Magnetic data seem to indicate that the central plug is still above the Curie Point. If so, the amount of heat energy available is tremendous. As for Rabaul Volcano, it is located in a region characterized by numerous block faulting. The volcano is only a part of a large block that has subsided. Possible geothermal areas exist near the volcano but better potential areas may exist away from the volcano.

  14. A scalable database model for multiparametric time series: a volcano observatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Placido; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Prestifilippo, Michele; Cannata, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The variables collected by a sensor network constitute a heterogeneous data source that needs to be properly organized in order to be used in research and geophysical monitoring. With the time series term we refer to a set of observations of a given phenomenon acquired sequentially in time. When the time intervals are equally spaced one speaks of period or sampling frequency. Our work describes in detail a possible methodology for storage and management of time series using a specific data structure. We designed a framework, hereinafter called TSDSystem (Time Series Database System), in order to acquire time series from different data sources and standardize them within a relational database. The operation of standardization provides the ability to perform operations, such as query and visualization, of many measures synchronizing them using a common time scale. The proposed architecture follows a multiple layer paradigm (Loaders layer, Database layer and Business Logic layer). Each layer is specialized in performing particular operations for the reorganization and archiving of data from different sources such as ASCII, Excel, ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity), file accessible from the Internet (web pages, XML). In particular, the loader layer performs a security check of the working status of each running software through an heartbeat system, in order to automate the discovery of acquisition issues and other warning conditions. Although our system has to manage huge amounts of data, performance is guaranteed by using a smart partitioning table strategy, that keeps balanced the percentage of data stored in each database table. TSDSystem also contains modules for the visualization of acquired data, that provide the possibility to query different time series on a specified time range, or follow the realtime signal acquisition, according to a data access policy from the users.

  15. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  16. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  17. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  18. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  19. Internet-accessible, near-real-time volcano monitoring data for geoscience education: the Volcanoes Exploration Project—Pu`u `O`o

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, M. P.; Teasdale, R.; Kraft, K.

    2010-12-01

    Internet-accessible real- and near-real-time Earth science datasets are an important resource for geoscience education, but relatively few comprehensive datasets are available, and background information to aid interpretation is often lacking. In response to this need, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu‘u ‘O‘o (VEPP). The VEPP Web site provides access, in near-real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. On the VEPP Web site, a time series query tool provides a means of interacting with continuous geophysical data. In addition, results from episodic kinematic GPS campaigns and lava flow field maps are posted as data are collected, and archived Webcam images from Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater are available as a tool for examining visual changes in volcanic activity over time. A variety of background information on volcano surveillance and the history of the 1983-present Pu‘u ‘O‘o-Kupaianaha eruption puts the available monitoring data in context. The primary goal of the VEPP Web site is to take advantage of high visibility monitoring data that are seldom suitably well-organized to constitute an established educational resource. In doing so, the VEPP project provides a geoscience education resource that demonstrates the dynamic nature of volcanoes and promotes excitement about the process of scientific discovery through hands-on learning. To support use of the VEPP Web site, a week-long workshop was held at Kilauea Volcano in July 2010, which included 25 participants from the United States and Canada. The participants represented a diverse cross-section of higher learning, from community colleges to research universities, and included faculty who teach both large introductory non-major classes

  20. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  1. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  2. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  3. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  4. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  5. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  6. Combining Volcano Monitoring Timeseries Analyses with Bayesian Belief Networks to Update Hazard Forecast Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbert, Henry; Hincks, Thea; Aspinall, Willy

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic hazard assessments must combine information about the physical processes of hazardous phenomena with observations that indicate the current state of a volcano. Incorporating both these lines of evidence can inform our belief about the likelihood (probability) and consequences (impact) of possible hazardous scenarios, forming a basis for formal quantitative hazard assessment. However, such evidence is often uncertain, indirect or incomplete. Approaches to volcano monitoring have advanced substantially in recent decades, increasing the variety and resolution of multi-parameter timeseries data recorded at volcanoes. Interpreting these multiple strands of parallel, partial evidence thus becomes increasingly complex. In practice, interpreting many timeseries requires an individual to be familiar with the idiosyncrasies of the volcano, monitoring techniques, configuration of recording instruments, observations from other datasets, and so on. In making such interpretations, an individual must consider how different volcanic processes may manifest as measureable observations, and then infer from the available data what can or cannot be deduced about those processes. We examine how parts of this process may be synthesised algorithmically using Bayesian inference. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) use probability theory to treat and evaluate uncertainties in a rational and auditable scientific manner, but only to the extent warranted by the strength of the available evidence. The concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple strands of evidence (e.g. observations, model results and interpretations) and their associated uncertainties in a methodical manner. BBNs are usually implemented in graphical form and could be developed as a tool for near real-time, ongoing use in a volcano observatory, for example. We explore the application of BBNs in analysing volcanic data from the long-lived eruption at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We show how our method

  7. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  8. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  9. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  10. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  11. Lahar hazards at Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mombacho volcano, at 1,350 meters, is situated on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and about 12 kilometers south of Granada, a city of about 90,000 inhabitants. Many more people live a few kilometers southeast of Granada in 'las Isletas de Granada and the nearby 'Peninsula de Aseses. These areas are formed of deposits of a large debris avalanche (a fast moving avalanche of rock and debris) from Mombacho. Several smaller towns with population, in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are to the northwest and the southwest of Mombacho volcano. Though the volcano has apparently not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce landslides and debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris -- also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. -- Vallance, et.al., 2001

  12. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  13. Moessbauer Spectroscopy study of Quimsachata Volcano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    It has been studied volcanic lava from Quimsachata Volcano in Pem. Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electronic and optical microscopy allowed the identification of different mineralogical phases. (A.C.AS.) [pt

  14. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  15. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2008-07-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in the late 1990s to meet the challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. In the paper, current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects are reviewed, a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory is given.

  16. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  17. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  18. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  19. Operational tracking of lava lake surface motion at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.

    2018-03-08

    Surface motion is an important component of lava lake behavior, but previous studies of lake motion have been focused on short time intervals. In this study, we implement the first continuous, real-time operational routine for tracking lava lake surface motion, applying the technique to the persistent lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. We measure lake motion by using images from a fixed thermal camera positioned on the crater rim, transmitting images to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in real time. We use an existing optical flow toolbox in Matlab to calculate motion vectors, and we track the position of lava upwelling in the lake, as well as the intensity of spattering on the lake surface. Over the past 2 years, real-time tracking of lava lake surface motion at Halema‘uma‘u has been an important part of monitoring the lake’s activity, serving as another valuable tool in the volcano monitoring suite at HVO.

  20. Volcano alert level systems: managing the challenges of effective volcanic crisis communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, C. J.; Beaven, S.

    2018-05-01

    Over the last four decades, volcano observatories have adopted a number of different communication strategies for the dissemination of information on changes in volcanic behaviour and potential hazards to a wide range of user groups. These commonly include a standardised volcano alert level system (VALS), used in conjunction with other uni-valent communication techniques (such as information statements, reports and maps) and multi-directional techniques (such as meetings and telephone calls). This research, based on interviews and observation conducted 2007-2009 at the five US Geological Survey (USGS) volcano observatories, and including some of the key users of the VALS, argues for the importance of understanding how communicating volcanic hazard information takes place as an everyday social practice, focusing on the challenges of working across the boundaries between the scientific and decision-making communities. It is now widely accepted that the effective use, value and deployment of information across science-policy interfaces of this kind depend on three criteria: the scientific credibility of the information, its relevance to the needs of stakeholders and the legitimacy of both the information and the processes that produced it. Translation and two-way communication are required to ensure that all involved understand what information is credible and relevant. Findings indicate that whilst VALS play a role in raising awareness of an unfolding situation, supplementary communication techniques are crucial in facilitating situational understanding of that situation, and the uncertainties inherent to its scientific assessment, as well as in facilitating specific responses. In consequence, `best practice' recommendations eschew further standardisation, and focus on the in situ cultivation of dialogue between scientists and stakeholders as a means of ensuring that information, and the processes through which it is produced are perceived to be legitimate by all

  1. Real-time source deformation modeling through GNSS permanent stations at Merapi volcano (Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, F.; Nurnaning, A.; Iguchi, M.; Fahmi, A. A.; Nandaka, M. A.; Sumarti, S.; Subandriyo, S.; Metaxian, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Merapi (Java, Indonesia) is one of the most active and dangerous volcano in the world. A first GPS repetition network was setup and periodically measured since 1993, allowing detecting a deep magma reservoir, quantifying magma flux in conduit and identifying shallow discontinuities around the former crater (Beauducel and Cornet, 1999;Beauducel et al., 2000, 2006). After the 2010 centennial eruption, when this network was almost completely destroyed, Indonesian and Japanese teams installed a new continuous GPS network for monitoring purpose (Iguchi et al., 2011), consisting of 3 stations located at the volcano flanks, plus a reference station at the Yogyakarta Observatory (BPPTKG).In the framework of DOMERAPI project (2013-2016) we have completed this network with 5 additional stations, which are located on the summit area and volcano surrounding. The new stations are 1-Hz sampling, GNSS (GPS + GLONASS) receivers, and near real-time data streaming to the Observatory. An automatic processing has been developed and included in the WEBOBS system (Beauducel et al., 2010) based on GIPSY software computing precise daily moving solutions every hour, and for different time scales (2 months, 1 and 5 years), time series and velocity vectors. A real-time source modeling estimation has also been implemented. It uses the depth-varying point source solution (Mogi, 1958; Williams and Wadge, 1998) in a systematic inverse problem model exploration that displays location, volume variation and 3-D probability map.The operational system should be able to better detect and estimate the location and volume variations of possible magma sources, and to follow magma transfer towards the surface. This should help monitoring and contribute to decision making during future unrest or eruption.

  2. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  3. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  4. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  5. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  6. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  7. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  8. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  9. Volcanoes of México: An Interactive CD-ROM From the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Kimberly, P.; Calvin, C.; Luhr, J. F.; Kysar, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program is nearing completion of an interactive CD-ROM, the Volcanoes of México. This CD is the second in a series sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies to collate Smithsonian data on Quaternary volcanism as a resource for the geothermal community. It also has utility for those concerned with volcanic hazard and risk mitgation as well as an educational tool for those interested in Mexican volcanism. We acknowledge the significant contributions of many Mexican volcanologists to the eruption reports, data, and images contained in this CD, in particular those contributions of the Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), the Colima Volcano Observatory of the University of Colima, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Volcanoes of México CD has a format similar to that of an earlier Smithsonian CD, the Volcanoes of Indonesia, but also shows Pleistocene volcanic centers and additional data on geothermal sites. A clickable map of México shows both Holocene and Pleistocene volcanic centers and provides access to individual pages on 67 volcanoes ranging from Cerro Prieto in Baja California to Tacaná on the Guatemalan border. These include geographic and geologic data on individual volcanoes (as well as a brief paragraph summarizing the geologic history) along with tabular eruption chronologies, eruptive characteristics, and eruptive volumes, when known. Volcano data are accessible from both geographical and alphabetical searches. A major component of the CD is more than 400 digitized images illustrating the morphology of volcanic centers and eruption processes and deposits, providing a dramatic visual primer to the country's volcanoes. Images of specific eruptions can be directly linked to from the eruption chronology tables. The Volcanoes of México CD includes monthly reports and associated figures and tables cataloging volcanic activity in M

  10. Overview of gas flux measurements from volcanoes of the global Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Conde, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-years-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the study of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2014, 67 instruments have been installed at 25 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 8 years of semi-continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. Examples of correlations with seismicity and other geophysical phenomena, environmental impact studies and comparisons with previous global estimates will be discussed as well as the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.

  11. The Merapi Interactive Project: Offering a Fancy Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Understanding of Merapi Volcano to a Wide Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, J.; Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Merapi volcano is of great interest to a wide audience as it is one of the most dangerous volcanoes worldwide and a beautiful touristic spot. The scientific literature available on that volcano both in Earth and Social sciences is rich but mostly inaccessible to the public because of the scientific jargon and the restricted database access. Merapi Interactive aims at developing clear information and attractive content about Merapi for a wide audience. The project is being produced by the Art and Media Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, and it takes the shape of an e-book. It offers a consistent, comprehensive, and jargon-filtered synthesis of the main volcanic-risk related topics about Merapi: volcanic mechanisms, eruptive history, associated hazards and risks, the way inhabitants and scientists deal with it, and what daily life at Merapi looks like. The project provides a background to better understand volcanoes, and it points out some interactions between scientists and society. We propose two levels of interpretation: one that is understandable by 10-year old kids and above and an expert level with deeper presentations of specific topics. Thus, the Merapi Interactive project intends to provide an engaging and comprehensive interactive book that should interest kids, adults, as well as Earth Sciences undergraduates and academics. Merapi Interactive is scheduled for delivery in mid-2016.

  12. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those......The ESA Swarm mission to identify and measure very accurately the different magnetic signals that arise in the Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere, which together form the magnetic field around the Earth, has increased interest in magnetic data collected on the surface...... of the Earth at observatories. The scientific use of Swarm data and Swarm-derived products is greatly enhanced by combination with observatory data and indices. As part of the Swarm Level-2 data activities plans are in place to distribute such ground-based data along with the Swarm data as auxiliary data...

  13. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  14. Three-axial Fiber Bragg Grating Strain Sensor for Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Umberto; Beverini, Nicolò; Carbone, Daniele; Carelli, Giorgio; Francesconi, Francesco; Gambino, Salvatore; Maccioni, Enrico; Morganti, Mauro; Orazi, Massimo; Peluso, Rosario; Sorrentino, Fiodor

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic and FBGs sensors have attained a large diffusion in the last years as cost-effective monitoring and diagnostic devices in civil engineering. However, in spite of their potential impact, these instruments have found very limited application in geophysics. In order to study earthquakes and volcanoes, the measurement of crustal deformation is of crucial importance. Stress and strain behaviour is among the best indicators of changes in the activity of volcanoes .. Deep bore-hole dilatometers and strainmeters have been employed for volcano monitoring. These instruments are very sensitive and reliable, but are not cost-effective and their installation requires a large effort. Fiber optic based devices offer low cost, small size, wide frequency band, easier deployment and even the possibility of creating a local network with several sensors linked in an array. We present the realization, installation and first results of a shallow-borehole (8,5 meters depth) three-axial Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensor prototype. This sensor has been developed in the framework of the MED-SUV project and installed on Etna volcano, in the facilities of the Serra La Nave astrophysical observatory. The installation siteis about 7 Km South-West of the summit craters, at an elevation of about 1740 m. The main goal of our work is the realization of a three-axial device having a high resolution and accuracy in static and dynamic strain measurements, with special attention to the trade-off among resolution, cost and power consumption. The sensor structure and its read-out system are innovative and offer practical advantages in comparison with traditional strain meters. Here we present data collected during the first five months of operation. In particular, the very clear signals recorded in the occurrence of the Central Italy seismic event of October 30th demonstrate the performances of our device.

  15. Integrating SAR and derived products into operational volcano monitoring and decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Ajadi, O.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and its high performance in monitoring of change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to: (1) the high costs associated with radar data; (2) traditionally slow data processing and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of these limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar data into operational volcano monitoring decision support systems. Specifically, we present fast data access procedures as well as new approaches to multi-track processing that improve near real-time data access and temporal sampling of volcanic systems with SAR data. We introduce phase-based (coherent) and amplitude-based (incoherent) change detection procedures that are able to extract dense time series of hazard information from these data. For a demonstration, we present an integration of our processing system with an operational volcano monitoring system that was developed for use by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Through an application to a historic eruption, we show that the integration of SAR into systems such as AVO can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  16. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    -like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii

  17. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  18. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  19. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  20. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  1. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  2. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  3. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  4. Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The newly established USGS California Volcano Observatory has the broad responsibility of monitoring and assessing hazards at California's potentially threatening volcanoes, most notably Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, and Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California; and Long Valley Caldera, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono-Inyo Craters in east-central California. Volcanic eruptions occur in California about as frequently as the largest San Andreas Fault Zone earthquakes-more than ten eruptions have occurred in the last 1,000 years, most recently at Lassen Peak (1666 C.E. and 1914-1917 C.E.) and Mono-Inyo Craters (c. 1700 C.E.). The Long Valley region (Long Valley caldera and Mammoth Mountain) underwent several episodes of heightened unrest over the last three decades, including intense swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, rapid caldera uplift, and hazardous CO2 emissions. Both Medicine Lake and Lassen are subsiding at appreciable rates, and along with Clear Lake, Long Valley Caldera, and Mammoth Mountain, sporadically experience long period (LP) earthquakes related to migration of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids. Worldwide, the last two decades have shown the importance of tracking LP earthquakes beneath young volcanic systems, as they often provide indication of impending unrest or eruption. Herein we document the occurrence of LP earthquakes at several of California's young volcanoes, updating a previous study published in Pitt et al., 2002, SRL. All events were detected and located using data from stations within the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Event detection was spatially and temporally uneven across the NCSN in the 1980s and 1990s, but additional stations, adoption of the Earthworm processing system, and heightened vigilance by seismologists have improved the catalog over the last decade. LP earthquakes are now relatively well-recorded under Lassen (~150 events since 2000), Clear Lake (~60 events), Mammoth Mountain

  5. Volcano Trial Case on GEP: Systematically processing EO data

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Andreas Bruno Graziano

    2017-01-01

    Volcanoes can be found all over the world; on land and below water surface. Even nowadays not all volcanoes are known. About 600 erupted in geologically recent times and about 50-70 volcanoes are currently active. Volcanoes can cause earthquakes; throw out blasts and tephras; release (toxic) gases; lava can flow relatively slow down the slopes; mass movements like debris avalanches, and landslides can cause tsunamis; and fast and hot pyroclastic surge, flows, and lahars can travel fast down ...

  6. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  7. Stability and behavior of the outer array of small water Cherenkov detectors, outriggers, in the HAWC observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Capistrán, T.; Torres, I.; Moreno, E.; collaboration, for the HAWC

    2017-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is used for detecting TeV gamma rays. HAWC is operating at 4,100 meters above level sea on the slope of the Sierra Negra Volcano in the State of Puebla, Mexico, and consists of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) covering an area of 22,000 $m^2$. Each WCD is equipped with four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to detect Cherenkov emission in the water from secondary particles of extensive air-shower (EAS) that are produced in the in...

  8. Volcano Geodesy: Recent developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose F.; Pepe, Antonio; Poland, Michael; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2017-01-01

    Ascent of magma through Earth's crust is normally associated with, among other effects, ground deformation and gravity changes. Geodesy is thus a valuable tool for monitoring and hazards assessment during volcanic unrest, and it provides valuable data for exploring the geometry and volume of magma plumbing systems. Recent decades have seen an explosion in the quality and quantity of volcano geodetic data. New datasets (some made possible by regional and global scientific initiatives), as well as new analysis methods and modeling practices, have resulted in important changes to our understanding of the geodetic characteristics of active volcanism and magmatic processes, from the scale of individual eruptive vents to global compilations of volcano deformation. Here, we describe some of the recent developments in volcano geodesy, both in terms of data and interpretive tools, and discuss the role of international initiatives in meeting future challenges for the field.

  9. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  10. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  11. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  12. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  13. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  14. Robotic Software for the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, George; Luebbers, Julien; Eastman, Jason D.; Johnson, John A.; Swift, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    The Thacher Observatory—a research and educational facility located in Ojai, CA—uses a 0.7 meter telescope to conduct photometric research on a variety of targets including eclipsing binaries, exoplanet transits, and supernovae. Currently, observations are automated using commercial software. In order to expand the flexibility for specialized scientific observations and to increase the educational value of the facility on campus, we are adapting and implementing the custom observatory control software and queue scheduling developed for the Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) to the Thacher Observatory. We present the design and implementation of this new software as well as its demonstrated functionality on the Thacher Observatory.

  15. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes: A new tool for estimating intrusive volumes and forecasting eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Randall; McCausland, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    , the intruded magma volume can be quickly and easily estimated with few short-period seismic stations. Notable cases in which distal VT events preceded eruptions at long-dormant volcanoes include: Nevado del Ruiz (1984-1985), Pinatubo (1991), Unzen (1989-1995), Soufriere Hills (1995), Shishaldin (1989-1999), Tacana' (1985-1986), Pacaya (1980-1984), Rabaul (1994), and Cotopaxi (2001). Additional cases are recognized at frequently active volcanoes including Popocateptl (2001-2003) and Mauna Loa (1984). We present four case studies (Pinatubo, Soufriere Hills, Unzen, and Tacana') in which we demonstrate the above mentioned VT characteristics prior to eruptions. Using regional data recorded by NEIC, we recognized in near-real time that a huge distal VT swarm was occurring, deduced that a proportionately huge magmatic intrusion was taking place beneath the long dormant Sulu Range, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea, that it was likely to lead to eruptive activity, and warned Rabaul Volcano Observatory days before a phreatic eruption occurred. This confirms the value of this technique for eruption forecasting. We also present a counter-example where we deduced that a VT swarm at Volcan Cosiguina, Nicaragua, indicated a small intrusion, insufficient to reach the surface and erupt. Finally, we discuss limitations of the method and propose a mechanism by which this distal VT seismicity is triggered by magmatic intrusion.

  16. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  17. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  18. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  19. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  20. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  1. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  2. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  3. Volcanology and volcano sedimentology of Sahand region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moine Vaziri, H.; Amine Sobhani, E.

    1977-01-01

    There was no volcano in Precambrian and Mesozoic eras in Iran, but in most place of Iran during the next eras volcanic rocks with green series and Dacites were seen. By the recent survey in Sahand mountain in NW of Iran volcanography, determination of rocks and the age of layers were estimated. The deposits of Precambrian as sediment rocks are also seen in the same area. All of volcanic periods in this place were studied; their extrusive rocks, their petrography and the result of their analytical chemistry were discussed. Finally volcano sedimentology of Sahand mountain were described

  4. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  5. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  7. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  8. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  9. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  10. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.

    2008-01-01

    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  11. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  12. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  13. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S

    2006-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  14. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  15. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; hide

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  16. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M

    2003-01-01

    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  17. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  18. The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, R

    2017-01-01

    The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory (FMRO) at Notre Dame University Louaize (NDU) is a teaching, research, and outreach facility located at the main campus of the university. It located very close to the Lebanese coast, in an urbanized area. It features a 60-cm Planewave CDK telescope, and instruments that allow for photometric and spetroscopic studies. The observatory currently has one thinned, back-illuminated CCD camera, used as the main imager along with Johnson-Cousin and Sloan photometric filters. It also features two spectrographs, one of which is a fiber fed echelle spectrograph. These are used with a dedicated CCD. The observatory has served for student projects, and summer schools for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It is also made available for use by the regional and international community. The control system is currently being configured for remote observations. A number of long-term research projects are also being launched at the observatory. (paper)

  19. Recent Inflation of Kilauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklius, A.; Poland, M.; Desmarais, E.; Sutton, A.; Orr, T.; Okubo, P.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last three years, geodetic monitoring networks and satellite radar interferometry have recorded substantial inflation of Kilauea's magma system, while the Pu`u `O`o eruption on the east rift zone has continued unabated. Combined with the approximate doubling of carbon dioxide emission rates at the summit during this period, these observations indicate that the magma supply rate to the volcano has increased. Since late 2003, the summit area has risen over 20 cm, and a 2.5 km-long GPS baseline across the summit area has extended almost half a meter. The center of inflation has been variable, with maximum uplift shifting from an area near the center of the caldera to the southeastern part of the caldera in 2004-2005. In 2006, the locus of inflation shifted again, to the location of the long-term magma reservoir in the southern part of the caldera - the same area that had subsided more than 1.5 meters during the last 23 years of the ongoing eruption. In addition, the southwest rift zone reversed its long-term trend of subsidence and began uplifting in early 2006. The east rift zone has shown slightly accelerated rates of extension, but with a year-long hiatus following the January 2005 south flank aseismic slip event. Inflation rates have varied greatly. Accelerated rates of extension and uplift in early 2005 and 2006 were also associated with increased seismicity. Seismicity occurred not only at inflation centers, but was also triggered on the normal faulting area northwest of the caldera and the strike-slip faulting area in the upper east rift zone. In early 2006, at about the time that we started recording uplift on the southwest rift zone, the rate of earthquakes extending from the summit into the southwest rift zone at least quadrupled. The most recent previous episode of inflation at Kilauea, in 2002, may have resulted from reduced lava- transport capacity, as it was associated with decreased outflow at the eruption site. In contrast, eruption volumes

  20. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  1. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  2. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  3. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  4. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  5. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  6. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  7. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  8. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  9. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  10. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  11. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely “off-the-shelf” components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  12. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  13. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  14. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  15. The SARVIEWS Project: Automated SAR Processing in Support of Operational Near Real-time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing has become established in operational volcano monitoring. Centers like the Alaska Volcano Observatory rely heavily on remote sensing data from optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite this high use of remote sensing data, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely considered superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to their weather and illumination independence. Still, the contribution of SAR to operational volcano monitoring has been limited in the past due to high data costs, long processing times, and low temporal sampling rates of most SAR systems. In this study, we introduce the automatic SAR processing system SARVIEWS, whose advanced data analysis and data integration techniques allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational monitoring systems. We will introduce the SARVIEWS database interface that allows for automatic, rapid, and seamless access to the data holdings of the Alaska Satellite Facility. We will also present a set of processing techniques designed to automatically generate a set of SAR-based hazard products (e.g. change detection maps, interferograms, geocoded images). The techniques take advantage of modern signal processing and radiometric normalization schemes, enabling the combination of data from different geometries. Finally, we will show how SAR-based hazard information is integrated in existing multi-sensor decision support tools to enable joint hazard analysis with data from optical and thermal sensors. We will showcase the SAR processing system using a set of recent natural disasters (both earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) to demonstrate its

  16. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  17. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  18. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  19. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  20. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with

  1. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory: Bringing Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Gallaher, W.; Pauk, B.; Smith, S.

    2008-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, will complete the installation of a fourteen station GPS network on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. The primary data communications goal of the project is to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and streaming 1 Hz GPS data, via Ustream, from Unimak Island to three data relay points in the Aleutian chain. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO will co-locate the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The technical challenges involved in optimizing the data communications network for both the GPS data and the seismic data will be presented. From Unimak island, there will be three separate data telemetry paths: 1) West through a radio repeater on Akutan volcano to a VSAT in Akutan village, 2) East through a radio repeater to a T1 connection in Cold Bay, AK, 3) South through a radio repeater to a VSAT at an existing PBO GPS station in King Cove, AK. The difficulties involved in the project include complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  2. An international network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  3. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  4. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  5. Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other

  6. Application of Earthquake Subspace Detectors at Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, P.; Benz, H.; Yeck, W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capabilities of earthquake subspace detectors for detailed cataloging and tracking of seismicity in a number of regions and settings. We are exploring the application of subspace detectors at the United States Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) to analyze seismicity at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes. Elevated levels of microseismicity and occasional swarms of earthquakes associated with active volcanism here present cataloging challenges due the sheer numbers of earthquakes and an intrinsically low signal-to-noise environment featuring oceanic microseism and volcanic tremor in the ambient seismic background. With high-quality continuous recording of seismic data at HVO, we apply subspace detectors (Harris and Dodge, 2011, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., doi: 10.1785/0120100103) during intervals of noteworthy seismicity. Waveform templates are drawn from Magnitude 2 and larger earthquakes within clusters of earthquakes cataloged in the HVO seismic database. At Kilauea, we focus on seismic swarms in the summit caldera region where, despite continuing eruptions from vents in the summit region and in the east rift zone, geodetic measurements reflect a relatively inflated volcanic state. We also focus on seismicity beneath and adjacent to Mauna Loa's summit caldera that appears to be associated with geodetic expressions of gradual volcanic inflation, and where precursory seismicity clustered prior to both Mauna Loa's most recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984. We recover several times more earthquakes with the subspace detectors - down to roughly 2 magnitude units below the templates, based on relative amplitudes - compared to the numbers of cataloged earthquakes. The increased numbers of detected earthquakes in these clusters, and the ability to associate and locate them, allow us to infer details of the spatial and temporal distributions and possible variations in stresses within these key regions of the volcanoes.

  7. Volcanoes of the Wrangell Mountains and Cook Inlet region, Alaska: selected photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD-ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska's volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska. These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the 'images' folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, and UNIX platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format) or PCD (Kodak's PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD-ROM are Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak's policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD-ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD-ROM contains large (14.2'x19.5') and small (4'x6') screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the PhotoCD images.

  8. A multipurpose camera system for monitoring Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active volcanoes that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. 

  9. Optimized autonomous space in-situ sensor web for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Shirazi, B.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Peterson, N.; LaHusen, R.; Pallister, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Moran, S.; Lisowski, M.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.; Kiely, A.; Doubleday, J.; Davies, A.; Pieri, D.

    2010-01-01

    In response to NASA's announced requirement for Earth hazard monitoring sensor-web technology, a multidisciplinary team involving sensor-network experts (Washington State University), space scientists (JPL), and Earth scientists (USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO)), have developed a prototype of dynamic and scalable hazard monitoring sensor-web and applied it to volcano monitoring. The combined Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensor-web (OASIS) has two-way communication capability between ground and space assets, uses both space and ground data for optimal allocation of limited bandwidth resources on the ground, and uses smart management of competing demands for limited space assets. It also enables scalability and seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. The space and in-situ control components of the system are integrated such that each element is capable of autonomously tasking the other. The ground in-situ was deployed into the craters and around the flanks of Mount St. Helens in July 2009, and linked to the command and control of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  10. Natural hazards and risk reduction in Hawai'i: Chapter 10 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past century in understanding, characterizing, and communicating the societal risks posed by volcanic, earthquake, and tsunami hazards in Hawai‘i. The work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), with a century-long commitment to serving the public with credible hazards information, contributed substantially to this global progress. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., HVO’s founder, advocated that a scientific approach to understanding these hazards would result in strategies to mitigate their damaging effects. The resultant hazard-reduction methods range from prediction of eruptions and tsunamis, thereby providing early warnings for timely evacuation (if needed), to diversion of lava flows away from high-value infrastructure, such as hospitals. In addition to long-term volcano monitoring and multifaceted studies to better understand eruptive and seismic phenomena, HVO has continually and effectively communicated—through its publications, Web site, and public education/outreach programs—hazards information to emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public.

  11. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  12. The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: The First 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea Volcano since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in volcano monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.

  13. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  14. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2005-01-01

    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  15. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  16. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  17. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  18. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  19. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  20. Operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martino, Julio

    2011-01-01

    While the work to make data acquisition fully automatic continues, both the Fluorescence Detectors and the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory need some kind of attention from the local staff. In the first case, the telescopes are operated and monitored during the moonless periods. The ground array only needs monitoring, but the larger number of stations implies more variables to consider. AugerAccess (a high speed internet connection) will give the possibility of operating and monitoring the observatory from any place in the world. This arises questions about secure access, better control software and alarms. Solutions are already being tested and improved.

  1. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  2. Public relations for a national observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David G.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a government-funded organization providing state-of-the art observational facilities to the astronomical community on a peer-reviewed basis. In this role, the NRAO must address three principal constituencies with its public-relations efforts. These are: the astronomical community; the funding and legislative bodies of the Federal Government; and the general public. To serve each of these constituencies, the Observatory has developed a set of public-relations initiatives supported by public-relations and outreach professionals as well as by management and scientific staff members. The techniques applied and the results achieved in each of these areas are described.

  3. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  4. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  5. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  6. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  7. Nanoscale volcanoes: accretion of matter at ion-sculpted nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Stein, Derek; Kim, Young-Rok; Hoogerheide, David; Golovchenko, J A

    2006-01-27

    We demonstrate the formation of nanoscale volcano-like structures induced by ion-beam irradiation of nanoscale pores in freestanding silicon nitride membranes. Accreted matter is delivered to the volcanoes from micrometer distances along the surface. Volcano formation accompanies nanopore shrinking and depends on geometrical factors and the presence of a conducting layer on the membrane's back surface. We argue that surface electric fields play an important role in accounting for the experimental observations.

  8. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  9. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  10. Geologic map of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

  11. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  12. Edifice growth, deformation and rift zone development in basaltic setting: Insights from Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano (Réunion Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Laurent; Cayol, Valérie; Letourneur, Ludovic; Peltier, Aline; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Staudacher, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The overall morphology of basaltic volcanoes mainly depends on their eruptive activity (effusive vs. explosive), the geometry of the rift zones and the characteristics of both endogenous and exogenous growth processes. The origin of the steep geometry of the central cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, which is unusual for a basaltic effusive volcano, and its deformation are examined with a combination of a detailed morphological analysis, field observations, GPS data from the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory and numerical models. The new caldera walls formed during the April 2007 summit collapse reveal that the steep cone is composed of a pyroclastic core, inherited from an earlier explosive phase, overlapped by a pile of thin lava flows. This suggests that exogenous processes played a major role in the building of the steep central cone. Magma injections into the cone, which mainly occur along the N25-30 and N120 rift zones, lead to an asymmetric outward inflation concentrated in the cone's eastern half. This endogenous growth progressively tilts the southeast and east flanks of the cone, and induces the development of a dense network of flank fractures. Finally, it is proposed that intrusions along the N120 rift zone are encouraged by stresses induced by magma injections along the N25-30 rift zone.

  13. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  14. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  15. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  16. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  17. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  18. Molecular detection and characterisation of Horsegram Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific sets of primers (HYMV-A1500F & HYMV-A1500R and D-HYMV-B2200F & D-HYMV-B2200R) for the amplification of the complete DNA-A and DNA-B components of lima bean isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV-Lb).

  19. Data assimilation strategies for volcano geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2017-09-01

    Ground deformation observed using near-real time geodetic methods, such as InSAR and GPS, can provide critical information about the evolution of a magma chamber prior to volcanic eruption. Rapid advancement in numerical modeling capabilities has resulted in a number of finite element models targeted at better understanding the connection between surface uplift associated with magma chamber pressurization and the potential for volcanic eruption. Robust model-data fusion techniques are necessary to take full advantage of the numerical models and the volcano monitoring observations currently available. In this study, we develop a 3D data assimilation framework using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach in order to combine geodetic observations of surface deformation with geodynamic models to investigate volcanic unrest. The EnKF sequential assimilation method utilizes disparate data sets as they become available to update geodynamic models of magma reservoir evolution. While the EnKF has been widely applied in hydrologic and climate modeling, the adaptation for volcano monitoring is in its initial stages. As such, our investigation focuses on conducting a series of sensitivity tests to optimize the EnKF for volcano applications and on developing specific strategies for assimilation of geodetic data. Our numerical experiments illustrate that the EnKF is able to adapt well to the spatial limitations posed by GPS data and the temporal limitations of InSAR, and that specific strategies can be adopted to enhance EnKF performance to improve model forecasts. Specifically, our numerical experiments indicate that: (1) incorporating additional iterations of the EnKF analysis step is more efficient than increasing the number of ensemble members; (2) the accuracy of the EnKF results are not affected by initial parameter assumptions; (3) GPS observations near the center of uplift improve the quality of model forecasts; (4) occasionally shifting continuous GPS stations to

  20. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  1. Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Lightcurve period and amplitude results from Santana and GMARS Observatories are reported for 2008 June to September: 1472 Muonio, 8.706 ± 0.002 h and 0.50 mag; 2845 Franklinken, 114 ± 1 h and 0.8 mag; and 4533 Orth (> 24 hours).

  2. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  3. Education and public engagement in observatory operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  4. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  5. Reverberation Mapping Results from MDM Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a multi-month reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from around the world. We measure broad line region (BLR) radii and black hole masses for six objects. A velocity-resolved analysis of the H_beta response show...

  6. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  7. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  8. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net/ to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  9. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R

    2003-01-01

    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  10. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  11. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  12. Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines that differed ...

  13. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  14. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  15. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2009-10-01

    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  16. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  17. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced

  18. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  19. A Runaway Yellow Supergiant Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia I.; Skiff, Brian; Georgy, Cyril

    2018-05-01

    We recently discovered a yellow supergiant (YSG) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a heliocentric radial velocity of ∼300 km s‑1, which is much larger than expected for a star at its location in the SMC. This is the first runaway YSG ever discovered and only the second evolved runaway star discovered in a galaxy other than the Milky Way. We classify the star as G5-8 I and use de-reddened broad-band colors with model atmospheres to determine an effective temperature of 4700 ± 250 K, consistent with what is expected from its spectral type. The star’s luminosity is then log L/L ⊙ ∼ 4.2 ± 0.1, consistent with it being a ∼30 Myr 9 M ⊙ star according to the Geneva evolution models. The star is currently located in the outer portion of the SMC’s body, but if the star’s transverse peculiar velocity is similar to its peculiar radial velocity, in 10 Myr the star would have moved 1.°6 across the disk of the SMC and could easily have been born in one of the SMC’s star-forming regions. Based on its large radial velocity, we suggest it originated in a binary system where the primary exploded as a supernovae, thus flinging the runaway star out into space. Such stars may provide an important mechanism for the dispersal of heavier elements in galaxies given the large percentage of massive stars that are runaways. In the future, we hope to look into additional evolved runaway stars that were discovered as part of our other past surveys. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  1. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  2. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  3. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  4. Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Ben; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2018-03-26

    Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands. In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992). Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi. Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

  5. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  6. Understanding cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns at volcanoes: Intriguing lessons from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Jürgen W.; Collinson, Amy S. D.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Ruiz, Mario C.; Aguaiza, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns are observed on many volcanoes worldwide where seismic swarms and the tilt of the volcanic flanks provide sensitive tools to assess the state of volcanic activity. Ground deformation at active volcanoes is often interpreted as pressure changes in a magmatic reservoir, and tilt is simply translated accordingly into inflation and deflation of such a reservoir. Tilt data recorded by an instrument in the summit area of Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador, however, show an intriguing and unexpected behaviour on several occasions: prior to a Vulcanian explosion when a pressurisation of the system would be expected, the tilt signal declines significantly, hence indicating depressurisation. At the same time, seismicity increases drastically. Envisaging that such a pattern could carry the potential to forecast Vulcanian explosions on Tungurahua, we use numerical modelling and reproduce the observed tilt patterns in both space and time. We demonstrate that the tilt signal can be more easily explained as caused by shear stress due to viscous flow resistance, rather than by pressurisation of the magmatic plumbing system. In general, our numerical models prove that if magma shear viscosity and ascent rate are high enough, the resulting shear stress is sufficient to generate a tilt signal as observed on Tungurahua. Furthermore, we address the interdependence of tilt and seismicity through shear stress partitioning and suggest that a joint interpretation of tilt and seismicity can shed new light on the eruption potential of silicic volcanoes.

  7. CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI: Data Acquisition, Telemetry, Integration, and Archival Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Malin, P. E.; Shalev, E.; Elsworth, D.; Hidayat, D.; Voight, B.; Young, S. R.; Dunkley, P. N.; Herd, R.; Norton, G.

    2003-12-01

    The CALIPSO Project (Caribbean Andesite Lava Island-volcano Precision Seismo-geodetic Observatory) has greatly enhanced the monitoring and scientific infrastructure at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat with the recent installation of an integrated array of borehole and surface geophysical instrumentation at four sites. Each site was designed to be sufficiently hardened to withstand extreme meteorological events (e.g. hurricanes) and only require minimum routine maintenance over an expected observatory lifespan of >30 y. The sensor package at each site includes: a single-component, very broad band, Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a three-component seismometer ( ˜Hz to 1 kHz), a Pinnacle Technologies series 5000 tiltmeter, and a surface Ashtech u-Z CGPS station with choke ring antenna, SCIGN mount and radome. This instrument package is similar to that envisioned by the Plate Boundary Observatory for deployment on EarthScope target volcanoes in western North America and thus the CALIPSO Project may be considered a prototype PBO installation with real field testing on a very active and dangerous volcano. Borehole sites were installed in series and data acquisition began immediately after the sensors were grouted into position at 200 m depth, with the first completed at Trants (5.8 km from dome) in 12-02, then Air Studios (5.2 km), Geralds (9.4 km), and Olveston (7.0 km) in 3-03. Analog data from the strainmeter (50 Hz sync) and seismometer (200 Hz) were initially digitized and locally archived using RefTek 72A-07 data acquisition systems (DAS) on loan from the PASSCAL instrument pool. Data were downloaded manually to a laptop approximately every month from initial installation until August 2003, when new systems were installed. Approximately 0.2 Tb of raw data in SEGY format have already been acquired and are currently archived at UARK for analysis by the CALIPSO science team. The July 12th dome collapse and vulcanian explosion events were recorded at 3 of the 4

  8. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  9. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  10. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  12. Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974): evidence of a tertiary fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes-Andre, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Values for mode and dispersion calculated from SFT were analyzed using the SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport) model to Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974). Analysis results have showed that the ideas initially proposed for Irazu, can be applied to Fuego Volcano. Experimental evidence was found corroborating the existence of tertiary fragmentations. (author) [es

  13. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  14. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  15. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  16. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  17. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Loa volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Kammer, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to understand the temporal helium isotopic variations in Mauna Loa volcano, we have measured helium, strontium and lead isotopes in a suite of Mauna Loa lavas that span most of the subaerial eruptive history of the volcano. The lavas range in age from historical flows to Ninole basalt which are thought to be several hundred thousand years old. Most of the samples younger than 30 ka in age (Kau Basalt) are radiocarbon-dated flows, while the samples older than 30 ka are stratigraphically controlled (Kahuku and Ninole Basalt). The data reveal a striking change in the geochemistry of the lavas approximately 10 ka before present. The lavas older than 10 ka are characterized by high 3 He/ 4 He (≅ 16-20 times atmospheric), higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (≅ 18.2), and lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(≅ 0.70365) ratios than the younger Kau samples (having He, Pb and Sr ratios of approximately 8.5 x atmospheric, 18.1 and 0.70390, respectively). The historical lavas are distinct in having intermediate Sr and Pb isotopic compositions with 3 He/ 4 He ratios similar to the other young Kau basalt (≅ 8.5 x atmospheric). The isotopic variations are on a shorter time scale (100 to 10,000 years) than has previously been observed for Hawaiian volcanoes, and demonstrate the importance of geochronology and stratigraphy to geochemical studies. The data show consistency between all three isotope systems, which suggests that the variations are not related to magma chamber degassing processes, and that helium is not decoupled from the other isotopes. However, the complex temporal evolution suggests that three distinct mantle sources are required to explain the isotopic data. Most of the Mauna Loa isotopic variations could be explained by mixing between a plume type source, similar to Loihi, and an asthenospheric source with helium isotopic composition close to MORB and elevated Sr isotopic values. (orig./WL)

  18. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  19. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  20. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  1. Cataloging tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, W. A.; Wech, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tremor is a ubiquitous seismic feature on Kilauea volcano, which emanates from at least three distinct sources. At depth, intermittent tremor and earthquakes thought to be associated with the underlying plumbing system of Kilauea (Aki and Koyanagi, 1981) occurs approximately 40 km below and 40 km SW of the summit. At the summit of the volcano, nearly continuous tremor is recorded close to a persistently degassing lava lake, which has been present since 2008. Much of this tremor is correlated with spattering at the lake surface, but tremor also occurs in the absence of spattering, and was observed at the summit of the volcano prior to the appearance of the lava lake, predominately in association with inflation/deflation events. The third known source of tremor is in the area of Pu`u `O`o, a vent that has been active since 1983. The exact source location and depth is poorly constrained for each of these sources. Consistently tracking the occurrence and location of tremor in these areas through time will improve our understanding of the plumbing geometry beneath Kilauea volcano and help identify precursory patterns in tremor leading to changes in eruptive activity. The continuous and emergent nature of tremor precludes the use of traditional earthquake techniques for automatic detection and location of seismicity. We implement the method of Wech and Creager (2008) to both detect and localize tremor seismicity in the three regions described above. The technique uses an envelope cross-correlation method in 5-minute windows that maximizes tremor signal coherency among seismic stations. The catalog is currently being built in near-realtime, with plans to extend the analysis to the past as time and continuous data availability permits. This automated detection and localization method has relatively poor depth constraints due to the construction of the envelope function. Nevertheless, the epicenters distinguish activity among the different source regions and serve as

  2. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene

    1984-03-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic

  3. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly

  4. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  5. Acid fluids from Copahue Volcano, Argentina, and their environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.

    2010-12-01

    The acid hydrothermal system of Copahue volcano (province of Neuquen, Argentina) consists of a crater lake, acid hot springs (both with pH values of Copahue erupted in 2000, and the hydrothermal dissolved element fluxes peaked at that time. Since 2001, the K and Al fluxes have decreased notably as a result of alunite saturation within the hydrothermal system, whereas over the last few years redissolution of that alunite has led to increases in K and Al discharges. The fluxes of Mg and Fe have remained high over time, while the overall system has become more dilute since 2000. Once the distal downstream system reached pH values of 2.9-3.2, the mineral Schwertmannite started to precipitate through a bacterially mediated pathway. The precipitation front gradually moved upstream with ongoing dilution, and reached the exit of Lake Caviahue in 2009. The lake bottom waters were already saturated with the mineral at that time, and if this trend continues, the currently clear blue lake may turn into a bright yellow-brown mass of Schwertmannite over the next few years. Schwertmannite is common in acid mine drainage fluids but has not often been described from volcanic environments. It strongly adsorbs oxyanions (or structurally incorporates them) and the precipitates contain up to 6000 ppm P, 1100 ppm V and 1000 ppm As. The Schwertmannite appears to convert to goethite-like minerals over time, although the exact stoichiometry has been difficult to constrain (variable mixtures of FeOOH and Fe8O8(OH)6SO4 nH2O). The oxyanions appear to remain in the mineral mix during aging. If Lake Caviahue becomes a focus of Schwertmannite deposition, the precipitates will scavenge As, P and V from the watercolumn and deposit those on the lake bottom. The lake ecosystem will then die back because of P limitation. Subsequent acidification of the lake during renewed volcanic activity may then lead to dissolution of these precipitates, with large releases of both the nutrient P and the toxin As

  6. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  7. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  8. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  9. Tsunamis generated by eruptions from mount st. Augustine volcano, alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, J; Kowalik, Z; Murty, T S

    1987-06-12

    During an eruption of the Alaskan volcano Mount St. Augustine in the spring of 1986, there was concern about the possibility that a tsunami might be generated by the collapse of a portion of the volcano into the shallow water of Cook Inlet. A similar edifice collapse of the volcano and ensuing sea wave occurred during an eruption in 1883. Other sea waves resulting in great loss of life and property have been generated by the eruption of coastal volcanos around the world. Although Mount St. Augustine remained intact during this eruptive cycle, a possible recurrence of the 1883 events spurred a numerical simulation of the 1883 sea wave. This simulation, which yielded a forecast of potential wave heights and travel times, was based on a method that could be applied generally to other coastal volcanos.

  10. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-10-13

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  11. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  12. Monitored results from the Yellow House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.B.; Nielsen, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the monitoring program for The Yellow House, which consists of a four-storey high building with eight apartments. The monitoring started after the completion of the renovation in December 1996 and will continue until July 2000. Not all components have been measured during the whole period. The monitoring contains data for each apartment for space heating, electricity, cold water, hot water and gas. Also long-term measurements of the relative air humidity and room temperatures in two apartments have been made together with short-term measurements of daylight levels. For The Yellow House data has been registered for the PV-panels and solar collectors and also the climatic data have been measured. A questionnaire has been evaluated and a user survey will be carried out during summer 2000. (au)

  13. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  14. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1999-05-01

    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  15. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  16. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  17. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  18. From AISR to the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The talk will provide a retrospective on important results enabled by the NASA AISR program. The program had a unique approach to funding research at the intersection of astrophysics, applied computer science and statistics. It had an interdisciplinary angle, encouraged high risk, high return projects. Without this program the Virtual Observatory would have never been started. During its existence the program has funded some of the most innovative applied computer science projects in astrophysics.

  19. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  20. The architecture of LAMOST observatory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Wan Changsheng; Hao Likai; Li Xihua

    2005-01-01

    The design of architecture is the one of the most important part in development of Observatory Control System (OCS) for LAMOST. Based on the complexity of LAMOST, long time of development for LAMOST and long life-cycle of OCS system, referring many kinds of architecture pattern, the architecture of OCS is established which is a component-based layered system using many patterns such as the MVC and proxy. (authors)

  1. Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

  2. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  3. A robotic observatory in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.

    2012-05-01

    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  4. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  5. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Shkolnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Fellowship Program. Now beginning its seventh year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of several new instruments in 2014, making this a particularly exciting time to do research at Lowell. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2014 are due by May 1, 2014.

  6. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  7. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  8. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  9. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  10. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  11. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  12. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  13. Three-dimensional stochastic adjustment of volcano geodetic network in Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C.; van der Laat, R.; Cattin, P.-H.; Del Potro, R.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano geodetic networks are a key instrument to understanding magmatic processes and, thus, forecasting potentially hazardous activity. These networks are extensively used on volcanoes worldwide and generally comprise a number of different traditional and modern geodetic surveying techniques such as levelling, distances, triangulation and GNSS. However, in most cases, data from the different methodologies are surveyed, adjusted and analysed independently. Experience shows that the problem with this procedure is the mismatch between the excellent correlation of position values within a single technique and the low cross-correlation of such values within different techniques or when the same network is surveyed shortly after using the same technique. Moreover one different independent network for each geodetic surveying technique strongly increase logistics and thus the cost of each measurement campaign. It is therefore important to develop geodetic networks which combine the different geodetic surveying technique, and to adjust geodetic data together in order to better quantify the uncertainties associated to the measured displacements. In order to overcome the lack of inter-methodology data integration, the Geomatic Institute of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) has developed a methodology which uses a 3D stochastic adjustment software of redundant geodetic networks, TRINET+. The methodology consists of using each geodetic measurement technique for its strengths relative to other methodologies. Also, the combination of the measurements in a single network allows more cost-effective surveying. The geodetic data are thereafter adjusted and analysed in the same referential frame. The adjustment methodology is based on the least mean square method and links the data with the geometry. Trinet+ also allows to run a priori simulations of the network, hence testing the quality and resolution to be expected for a determined network even

  14. From Chaitén to the Chilean volcano monitoring network Jorge Munoz, Hugo Moreno, Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Chile, jmunoz@sernageomin.cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J.; Moreno, H.

    2010-12-01

    Chaitén volcano in southern Andes started a plinian to subplinian rhyolitic eruption on May 2008 following a long period of quiescence. A new dome complex grew up at high rates during 2008-2009 inside a 2 kilometers caldera like structure. Pyroclastic, laharic, block and ash flows and ash falls deposits have been affecting the surrounding populations, ground, vegetation, ocean and rivers, such as the laharic flows burying the currently evacuated Chaitén city. The geological, volcanologic and seismic knowledge produced during the eruption and the determination of evolutionary sceneries were properly transferred and consequently taken in account during complex decisions of authorities in charge of the emergency. As a result, no fatalities or major people injuries were produced during this rhyolitic eruption. Mainly as the consequence of the eruption of the Chaitén volcano but also due to the valuable technical advice during the crisis management, evacuation, hazards evolution, volcanic alerts and selection of sites for relocation of the Chaitén city provided by geologist and volcanologist from SERNAGEOMIN, the funding for the National Volcano Monitoring Network (RNVV) was approved during 2008 and it was integrated as a Bicentenary initiative. During the lapse of 5 year, RNVV need to create professional capacity and working teams, improve the current volcano observatory at Temuco and conform three new observatories at Coihaique, Talca and Antofagasta cities to implement volcano monitoring networks at the 43 hazardous volcanoes along the Chilean Andes. Monitoring net is currently conformed by seismic stations in 10 volcanoes or volcanic groups (San Pedro-San Pablo in Central Volcanic Andes and Llaima, Villlarrica, Mocho-Choshuenco, Carrán-Los Venados, Cordón Caulle, Osorno, Calbuco, Chaitén and Melimoyu in the southern volcanic Andes), in addition to gas measure and video camera stations in Llaima, Villarrica and Chaitén volcanoes. In addition, the geologic and

  15. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  16. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  17. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador volcano is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This volcano, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the volcano, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador volcano has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the volcano, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The volcano has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the volcano as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are located within 10 kilometers of the volcano. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the volcano, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador volcano has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local

  18. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.

    1995-01-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  19. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Hayatsu, Kenji

    1995-08-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  20. 2011 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO) Newberry Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  1. SAR interferometry applications on active volcanoes. State of the art and perspectives for volcano monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, G.; Coltelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Catania (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper the application of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) on volcanology is analysed. Since it is not a real novelty among the different applications of INSAR in Earth Observation activities, at the beginning of this paper it is analysed the state of the art of the researches in this field. During the discussion, the point of view of volcanologists is favoured because it is considered that the first applications were often badly aimed. Consequently, the initial INSAR performances in volcanology were overrated with respect to the real capabilities of this technique. This fact lead to discover some unexpected limitations in INSAR usage in volcano monitoring, but, at the same time, spurred on scientists to overcome these drawbacks. The results achieved recently allow to better apply SAR to volcanology; in the paper a possible operative work-plan aimed at introducing INSAR in the volcano monitoring system is presented.

  2. Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.

  3. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  4. 3D electrical conductivity tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Byrdina, S.; Coperey, A.; Gailler, L.; Grobbe, N.; Viveiros, F.; Silva, C.; Jougnot, D.; Ghorbani, A.; Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Heap, M. J.; Grandis, H.; Humaida, H.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical conductivity tomography is a well-established galvanometric method for imaging the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution. We characterize the conductivity distribution of a set of volcanic structures that are different in terms of activity and morphology. For that purpose, we developed a large-scale inversion code named ECT-3D aimed at handling complex topographical effects like those encountered in volcanic areas. In addition, ECT-3D offers the possibility of using as input data the two components of the electrical field recorded at independent stations. Without prior information, a Gauss-Newton method with roughness constraints is used to solve the inverse problem. The roughening operator used to impose constraints is computed on unstructured tetrahedral elements to map complex geometries. We first benchmark ECT-3D on two synthetic tests. A first test using the topography of Mt. St Helens volcano (Washington, USA) demonstrates that we can successfully reconstruct the electrical conductivity field of an edifice marked by a strong topography and strong variations in the resistivity distribution. A second case study is used to demonstrate the versatility of the code in using the two components of the electrical field recorded on independent stations along the ground surface. Then, we apply our code to real data sets recorded at (i) a thermally active area of Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming, USA), (ii) a monogenetic dome on Furnas volcano (the Azores, Portugal), and (iii) the upper portion of the caldera of Kīlauea (Hawai'i, USA). The tomographies reveal some of the major structures of these volcanoes as well as identifying alteration associated with high surface conductivities. We also review the petrophysics underlying the interpretation of the electrical conductivity of fresh and altered volcanic rocks and molten rocks to show that electrical conductivity tomography cannot be used as a stand-alone technique due to the non-uniqueness in

  5. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.

    2014-12-01

    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  6. Dynamic triggering of volcano drumbeat-like seismicity at the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-01

    Periodical seismicity during eruptions has been observed at several volcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens and Soufrière Hills. Movement of magma is often considered one of the most important factors in its generation. Without any magma movement, drumbeat-like (or heartbeat-like) periodical seismicity was detected twice beneath one of the strongest fumarole sites (Dayoukeng) among the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan in 2015. Both incidences of drumbeat-like seismicity were respectively started after felt earthquakes in Taiwan, and then persisted for 1-2 d afterward with repetition intervals of ∼18 min between any two adjacent events. The phenomena suggest both drumbeat-like (heartbeat-like) seismicity sequences were likely triggered by dynamic waves generated by the two felt earthquakes. Thus, rather than any involvement of magma, a simplified pumping system within a degassing conduit is proposed to explain the generation of drumbeat-like seismicity. The collapsed rocks within the conduit act as a piston, which was repeatedly lifted up by ascending gas from a deeper reservoir and dropped down when the ascending gas was escaping later. These phenomena show that the degassing process is still very strong in the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan, even though it has been dormant for about several thousand years.

  7. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  8. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  9. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation (http://gaia-vxo.org). This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  10. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  11. Determination and uncertainty of moment tensors for microearthquakes at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesicek, J.D.; Sileny, J.; Prejean, S.G.; Thurber, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to determine general moment tensors (MTs) for microearthquakes in volcanic areas are often hampered by small seismic networks, which can lead to poorly constrained hypocentres and inadequate modelling of seismic velocity heterogeneity. In addition, noisy seismic signals can make it difficult to identify phase arrivals correctly for small magnitude events. However, small volcanic earthquakes can have source mechanisms that deviate from brittle double-couple shear failure due to magmatic and/or hydrothermal processes. Thus, determining reliable MTs in such conditions is a challenging but potentially rewarding pursuit. We pursued such a goal at Okmok Volcano, Alaska, which erupted recently in 1997 and in 2008. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates a seismic network of 12 stations at Okmok and routinely catalogues recorded seismicity. Using these data, we have determined general MTs for seven microearthquakes recorded between 2004 and 2007 by inverting peak amplitude measurements of P and S phases. We computed Green's functions using precisely relocated hypocentres and a 3-D velocity model. We thoroughly assessed the quality of the solutions by computing formal uncertainty estimates, conducting a variety of synthetic and sensitivity tests, and by comparing the MTs to solutions obtained using alternative methods. The results show that MTs are sensitive to station distribution and errors in the data, velocity model and hypocentral parameters. Although each of the seven MTs contains a significant non-shear component, we judge several of the solutions to be unreliable. However, several reliable MTs are obtained for a group of previously identified repeating events, and are interpreted as compensated linear-vector dipole events.

  12. Tweed Extinct Volcano, Australia, Stereo Pair of SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity, but it hosts one of the world's largest extinct volcanoes, the Tweed Volcano. Rock dating methods indicate that eruptions here lasted about three million years, ending about 20 million years ago. Twenty million years of erosion has left this landform deeply eroded yet very recognizable, appearing as a caldera with a central peak. The central peak is not an old remnant landform but is instead the erosional stub of the volcanic neck (the central pipe that carried the magma upward). It is surrounded by ring dikes, which are circular sheets of magma that solidified and now form erosion-resistant ridges. The central peak is named Mount Warning. Topography plays a central role in envisioning the volcano at its climax and in deciphering the landscape evolution that has occurred since then. Low-relief uplands interspersed between deeply eroded canyons form a radial pattern that clearly defines the shape and extent of the original volcanic dome. Erosion is most extensive on the eastern side because the eroding streams drained directly to the ocean and therefore had the steepest gradients. This asymmetry of erosion has been extreme enough that the volcano has been hollowed out by the east-flowing drainage, forming an 'erosional caldera'. Calderas usually form as the result of collapse where magmas retreat within an active volcano. If collapse occurred here, erosion may have removed the evidence, but it produced a similar landform itself. Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding, and synthetic stereoscopy. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest

  13. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  14. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  15. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  16. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  17. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2017-08-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  18. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  19. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  20. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  1. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  2. Element fluxes from Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Copahue volcano in Argentina has an active volcano-magmatic hydrothermal system that emits fluids with pH=0.3 that feed a river system. River flux measurements and analytical data provide element flux data from 1997 to 2003, which includes the eruptive period of July to December 2000. The fluids have up to 6.5 percent sulfate, 1 percent Cl and ppm levels of B, As, Cu, Zn and Pb. The hydrothermal system acts as a perfect scrubber for magmatic gases during the periods of passive degassing, although the dissolved magmatic gases are modified through water rock interaction and mineral precipitation. The magmatic SO2 disproportionates into sulfate and liquid elemental sulfur at about 300 C; the sulfate is discharged with the fluids, whereas the liquid sulfur is temporarily retained in the reservoir but ejected during phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions. The intrusion and chemical attack of new magma in the hydrothermal reservoir in early 2000 was indicated by strongly increased Mg concentrations and Mg fluxes, and higher Mg/Cl and Mg/K values. The hydrothermal discharge has acidified a large glacial lake (0.5 km3) to pH=2 and the lake effluents acidify the exiting river. Even more than 100 km downstream, the effects of acid pulses from the lake are evident from red coated boulders and fish die-offs. The river-bound sulfate fluxes from the system range from 70 to 200 kilotonnes/year. The equivalent SO2 output of the whole volcanic system ranges from 150 to 500 tonnes/day, which includes the fraction of native sulfur that formed inside the mountain but does not include the release of SO2 into the atmosphere during the eruptions. Trace element fluxes of the river will be scaled up and compared with global element fluxes from meteoric river waters (subterranean volcanic weathering versus watershed weathering).

  3. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  4. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  5. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  6. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  7. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  8. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  9. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  10. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  11. Lava lake activity at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Swanson, Donald A.; Elias, Tamar; Shiro, Brian

    2018-04-10

    gas emissions created volcanic air pollution (vog) that affected large areas of the Island of Hawai‘i. The summit eruption has been a major attraction for visitors in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. During 2016, the rising lake levels allowed the lake and its spattering to be more consistently visible from public viewing areas, enhancing the visitor experience. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitors the summit eruption and keeps emergency managers and the public informed of activity.

  12. Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensor-Web for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Shirazi, B.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.; Tran, D.; Davis, A.; Pieri, D.; LaHusen, R.; Pallister, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Moran, S.; Lisowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    In response to NASA's announced requirement for Earth hazard monitoring sensor-web technology, a multidisciplinary team involving sensor-network experts (Washington State University), space scientists (JPL), and Earth scientists (USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO)), is developing a prototype dynamic and scaleable hazard monitoring sensor-web and applying it to volcano monitoring. The combined Optimized Autonomous Space -In-situ Sensor-web (OASIS) will have two-way communication capability between ground and space assets, use both space and ground data for optimal allocation of limited power and bandwidth resources on the ground, and use smart management of competing demands for limited space assets. It will also enable scalability and seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. The prototype will be focused on volcano hazard monitoring at Mount St. Helens, which has been active since October 2004. The system is designed to be flexible and easily configurable for many other applications as well. The primary goals of the project are: 1) integrating complementary space (i.e., Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite) and in-situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor-web; 2) advancing sensor-web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enabling scalability for seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. To meet these goals, we are developing: 1) a test-bed in-situ array with smart sensor nodes capable of making autonomous data acquisition decisions; 2) efficient self-organization algorithm of sensor-web topology to support efficient data communication and command control; 3) smart bandwidth allocation algorithms in which sensor nodes autonomously determine packet priorities based on mission needs and local bandwidth information in real-time; and 4) remote network management and reprogramming tools. The space and in-situ control components of the system will be

  13. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  14. The Active Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'lahar' is from Indonesia, a country with some of the most active and destructive volcanoes .... tourist-dependent businesses such as airlines, rental car compa- nies, and hotels. ... excellent viewing conditions and photo opportunities. The heat.

  15. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  16. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  17. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800–900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  18. The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: a century of study: Chapter 8 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret T.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Swanson, Donald A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter, prepared in celebration of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatoryʼs centennial, provides a historical lens through which to view modern paradigms of Hawaiian-style eruption dynamics. The models presented here draw heavily from observations, monitoring, and experiments conducted on Kīlauea Volcano, which, as the site of frequent and accessible eruptions, has attracted scientists from around the globe. Long-lived eruptions in particular—Halema‘uma‘u 1907–24, Kīlauea Iki 1959, Mauna Ulu 1969–74, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha 1983–present, and Halema‘uma‘u 2008–present—have offered incomparable opportunities to conceptualize and constrain theoretical models with multidisciplinary data and to field-test model results. The central theme in our retrospective is the interplay of magmatic gas and near-liquidus basaltic melt. A century of study has shown that gas exsolution facilitates basaltic dike propagation; volatile solubility and vesiculation kinetics influence magma-rise rates and fragmentation depths; bubble interactions and gas-melt decoupling modulate magma rheology, eruption intensity, and plume dynamics; and pyroclast outgassing controls characteristics of eruption deposits. Looking to the future, we anticipate research leading to a better understanding of how eruptive activity is influenced by volatiles, including the physics of mixed CO2-H2O degassing, gas segregation in nonuniform conduits, and vaporization of external H2O during magma ascent.

  19. A century of studying effusive eruptions in Hawai'i: Chapter 9 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katherine V.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established as a natural laboratory to study volcanic processes. Since the most frequent form of volcanic activity in Hawai‘i is effusive, a major contribution of the past century of research at HVO has been to describe and quantify lava flow emplacement processes. Lava flow research has taken many forms; first and foremost it has been a collection of basic observational data on active lava flows from both Mauna Loa and Kīlauea volcanoes that have occurred over the past 100 years. Both the types and quantities of observational data have changed with changing technology; thus, another important contribution of HVO to lava flow studies has been the application of new observational techniques. Also important has been a long-term effort to measure the physical properties (temperature, viscosity, crystallinity, and so on) of flowing lava. Field measurements of these properties have both motivated laboratory experiments and presaged the results of those experiments, particularly with respect to understanding the rheology of complex fluids. Finally, studies of the dynamics of lava flow emplacement have combined detailed field measurements with theoretical models to build a framework for the interpretation of lava flows in numerous other terrestrial, submarine, and planetary environments. Here, we attempt to review all these aspects of lava flow studies and place them into a coherent framework that we hope will motivate future research.

  20. Two hundred years of magma transport and storage at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, 1790-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Klein, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    This publication summarizes the evolution of the internal plumbing of Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaiʻi from the first documented eruption in 1790 to the explosive eruption of March 2008 in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. For the period before the founding of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912, we rely on written observations of eruptive activity, earthquake swarms, and periodic draining of magma from the lava lake present in Kīlauea Caldera. After 1912 the written observations are supplemented by continuous measurement of tilting of the ground at Kīlauea’s summit and by a continuous instrumental record of earthquakes, both measurements made during 1912–56 by a single pendulum seismometer housed on the northeast edge of Kīlauea’s summit. Interpretations become more robust following the installation of seismic and deformation networks in the 1960s. A major advance in the 1990s was the ability to continuously record and telemeter ground deformation to allow its precise correlation with seismic activity before and after eruptions, intrusions, and large earthquakes.

  1. Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

    2009-07-01

    Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

  2. The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus C to 45 (graus C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo particles forming unit (pfu/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus C; (iii there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.

  3. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  4. Volcano-hydrothermal energy research at white Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allis, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the White Island (New Zealand) volcano-hydrothermal research project by the N.Z. DSIR and the Geological Survey of Japan, which is investigating the coupling between magmatic and geothermal systems. The first phase of this investigation is a geophysical survey of the crater floor of the andesite volcano, White Island during 1991/1992, to be followed by drilling from the crater floor into the hydrothermal system. (TEC). 4 figs., 8 refs

  5. Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus,Stefan; Kurbatov,Andrei; Yates,Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the northern Antarctic Peninsula area, at least 12 Late Plelstocene-Holocene volcanic centers could be potential sources of tephra layers in the region. We present unique geochemical fingerprints for ten of these volcanoes using major, trace, rare earth element, and isotope data from 95 samples of tephra and other eruption products. The volcanoes have predominantly basaltic and basaltic andesitic compositions. The Nb/Y ratio proves useful to distinguish between volcanic centers located on ...

  6. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  7. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  8. Availability and Access to Data from Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Minamoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA is operating four geomagnetic observatories in Japan. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory (KMO, commissioned in 1913, is the oldest. The hourly records at KMO cover over almost 100 years. KMO is JMA's headquarters for geomagnetic and geoelectric observations. Almost all data are available at the KMO website free of charge for researchers. KMO and two other observatories have been certified as INTERMAGNET observatories, and quasi-real-time geomagnetic data from them are available at the INTERMAGNET website.

  9. Recent Seismicity in the Ceboruco Volcano, Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, D.; Chávez-Méndez, M. I.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sandoval, J. M.; Rodriguez-Ayala, N. A.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Ceboruco volcano is the largest (2280 m.a.s.l) of several volcanoes along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift zone in Nayarit state (Mexico). During the last 1000 years, this volcano had effusive-explosive episodes with eight eruptions providing an average of one eruption each 125 years. Since the last eruption occurred in 1870, 147 years ago, a new eruption likelihood is really high and dangerous due to nearby population centers, important roads and lifelines that traverse the volcano's slopes. This hazards indicates the importance of monitoring the seismicity associated with the Ceboruco volcano whose ongoing activity is evidenced by fumaroles and earthquakes. During 2003 and 2008, this region was registered by just one Lennartz Marslite seismograph featuring a Lennartz Le3D sensor (1 Hz) [Rodríguez Uribe et al. (2013)] where they observed that seismicity rates and stresses appear to be increasing indicating higher levels of activity within the volcano. Until July 2017, a semi-permanent network with three Taurus (Nanometrics) and one Q330 Quanterra (Kinemetrics) digitizers with Lennartz 3Dlite sensors of 1 Hz natural frequency was registering in the area. In this study, we present the most recent seismicity obtained by the semi-permanent network and a temporary network of 21 Obsidians 4X and 8X (Kinemetrics) covering an area of 16 km x 16 km with one station every 2.5-3 km recording from November 2016 to July 2017.

  10. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  11. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  12. Traveling Abroad: Latest Yellow Fever Vaccine Update | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier this month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its list of clinics that are administering the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which has been made available to address the total depletion of the United States’ primary yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX. These clinics will provide the vaccine to individuals preparing for international travel,

  13. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  14. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  15. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  16. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    effect of yellow sand with that of silica and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a ... [Ca2+]i was measured using the method previously des- cribed by Yang et ... particle activity as a Fenton catalyst). The capability of a particle to support transitional metal- dependent .... TNF-α production was increased in silica-treated cells and yellow ...

  17. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  18. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  19. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  1. Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Hayman, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes host major ore deposits but have been largely ignored in the volcanology literature, especially for the diatreme portion of the system. Here, we use two Mexican tuff rings as analogs for the maar ejecta ring, new observations from one diatreme, and the economic geology literature on four other mineralized felsic maar-diatremes to produce an integrated picture of this type of volcano. The ejecta rings are up to 50 m+ thick and extend laterally up to ˜1.5 km from the crater edge. In two Mexican examples, the lower part of the ejecta ring is dominated by pyroclastic surge deposits with abundant lithic clasts (up to 80% at Hoya de Estrada). These deposits display low-angle cross-bedding, dune bedforms, undulating beds, channels, bomb sags, and accretionary lapilli and are interpreted as phreatomagmatic. Rhyolitic juvenile clasts at Tepexitl have only 0-25% vesicles in this portion of the ring. The upper parts of the ejecta ring sequences in the Mexican examples have a different character: lithic clasts can be less abundant, the grain size is typically coarser, and the juvenile clasts can be different in character (with some more vesicular fragments). Fragmentation was probably shallower at this stage. The post-eruptive maar crater infill is known at Wau and consists of reworked pyroclastic deposits as well as lacustrine and other sediments. Underneath are bedded upper diatreme deposits, interpreted as pyroclastic surge and fall deposits. The upper diatreme and post-eruptive crater deposits have dips larger than 30° at Wau, with approximately centroclinal attitudes. At still lower structural levels, the diatreme pyroclastic infill is largely unbedded; Montana Tunnels and Kelian are good examples of this. At Cerro de Pasco, the pyroclastic infill seems bedded despite about 500 m of post-eruptive erosion relative to the pre-eruptive surface. The contact between the country rocks and the diatreme is sometimes characterized by country rock

  2. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  4. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  5. The Steward Observatory asteroid relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Alvarezdelcastillo, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    The Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD) was created as a flexible tool for undertaking studies of asteroid populations and sub-populations, to probe the biases intrinsic to asteroid databases, to ascertain the completeness of data pertaining to specific problems, to aid in the development of observational programs, and to develop pedagogical materials. To date, SOARD has compiled an extensive list of data available on asteroids and made it accessible through a single menu-driven database program. Users may obtain tailored lists of asteroid properties for any subset of asteroids or output files which are suitable for plotting spectral data on individual asteroids. The program has online help as well as user and programmer documentation manuals. The SOARD already has provided data to fulfill requests by members of the astronomical community. The SOARD continues to grow as data is added to the database and new features are added to the program.

  6. In situ vector calibration of magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonsette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of magnetic observatories is to measure and provide a vector magnetic field in a geodetic coordinate system. For that purpose, instrument set-up and calibration are crucial. In particular, the scale factor and orientation of a vector magnetometer may affect the magnetic field measurement. Here, we highlight the baseline concept and demonstrate that it is essential for data quality control. We show how the baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a calibration method based on high-frequency absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting variometer data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where recovered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.

  7. The sunspot databases of the Debrecen Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Tünde; Gyori, Lajos; Ludmány, András

    2015-08-01

    We present the sunspot data bases and online tools available in the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory: the DPD (Debrecen Photoheliographic Data, 1974 -), the SDD (SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data, 1996-2010), the HMIDD (SDO/HMI-Debrecen Data, HMIDD, 2010-), the revised version of Greenwich Photoheliographic Data (GPR, 1874-1976) presented together with the Hungarian Historical Solar Drawings (HHSD, 1872-1919). These are the most detailed and reliable documentations of the sunspot activity in the relevant time intervals. They are very useful for studying sunspot group evolution on various time scales from hours to weeks. Time-dependent differences between the available long-term sunspot databases are investigated and cross-calibration factors are determined between them. This work has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement No. 284461 (eHEROES).

  8. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  9. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  10. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.

    2005-12-01

    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  11. SOFIA: The Next Generation Airborne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, will carry a 2.5 meter telescope into the stratosphere on 160 7.5 hour flights per year. At stratospheric altitudes SOFIA will operate above 99% of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, allowing observation of wide regions of the infrared spectrum that are totally obscured from even the best ground-based sites. Its mobility and long range will allow worldwide observation of ephemeral events such as occultations and eclipses. SOFIA will be developed jointly by NASA and DARA, the German space agency. It has been included in the President's budget request to Congress for a development start in FY96 (this October!) and enjoys strong support in Germany. This talk will cover SOFIA's scientific goals, technical characteristics, science operating plan, and political status.

  12. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  13. Communication Between Volcanoes: a Possible Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of Sacks-Evertson type borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island and, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides changed by almost a factor of two. Miyake-jima, about 75 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in October 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear decrease in amplitude of the long-term strain rate. Short period (~hour) events recorded by the strainmeter became much more frequent about 6 months before the Miyake eruption and ceased following the eruption. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also decreased. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods (~day) and at very short periods (~hour). It appears that the distant eruption in 1983 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. It is likely that these changes were enhanced to the observed level because Izu-Oshima was itself close to eruption failure. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has shown the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. This zone, likely to contain partial melt, is horizontally continuous along the front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these volcanoes, it

  14. Volatile Element Fluxes at Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Copahue volcano has a crater lake and acid hot springs that discharge into the Rio Agrio river system. These fluids are very concentrated (up to 6 % sulfate), rich in rock-forming elements (up to 2000 ppm Mg) and small spheres of native sulfur float in the crater lake. The stable isotope composition of the waters (delta 18O =-2.1 to + 3.6 per mille; delta D = -49 to -26 per mille) indicates that the hot spring waters are at their most concentrated about 70% volcanic brine and 30 % glacial meltwater. The crater lake waters have similar mixing proportions but added isotope effects from intense evaporation. Further dilution of the waters in the Rio Agrio gives values closer to local meteoric waters (delta 18O = -11 per mille; delta D = -77 per mille), whereas evaporation in closed ponds led to very heavy water (up to delta 18O = +12 per mille). The delta 34S value of dissolved sulfate is +14.2 per mille, whereas the native sulfur has values of -8.2 to -10.5 per mille. The heavy sulfate probably formed when SO2 disproportionated into bisulfate and native sulfur at about 300 C. We measured the sulfate fluxes in the Rio Agrio, which ranged from 20-40 kilotons S/year. The whole system was releasing sulfur at an equivalent rate of about 250-650 tons SO2/day. From the river flux sulfur values and the stochiometry of the disproportionation reaction we calculated the rate of liquid sulfur storage inside the volcano (6000 m3/year). During the eruptions of 1995/2000, large amounts of that stored liquid sulfur were ejected as pyroclastic sulfur. The calculated rate of rock dissolution (from rock- forming element fluxes in the Rio Agrio) suggests that the void space generated by rock dissolution is largely filled by native sulfur and silica. The S/Cl ratio in the hydrothermal fluids is about 2, whereas glass inclusions have S/Cl = 0.2, indicating the strong preferential degassing of sulfur.

  15. Magma Dynamics in Dome-Building Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hornby, A. J.; Schaefer, L. N.; Oommen, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    The frequent and, as yet, unpredictable transition from effusive to explosive volcanic behaviour is common to active composite volcanoes, yet our understanding of the processes which control this evolution is poor. The rheology of magma, dictated by its composition, porosity and crystal content, is integral to eruption behaviour and during ascent magma behaves in an increasingly rock-like manner. This behaviour, on short timescales in the upper conduit, provides exceptionally dynamic conditions that favour strain localisation and failure. Seismicity released by this process can be mimicked by damage accumulation that releases acoustic signals on the laboratory scale, showing that the failure of magma is intrinsically strain-rate dependent. This character aids the development of shear zones in the conduit, which commonly fracture seismogenically, producing fault surfaces that control the last hundreds of meters of ascent by frictional slip. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate that at ambient temperatures, gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities. At rock-rock interfaces, mechanical work induces comminution of asperities and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting and formation of pseudotachylyte. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma all influence frictional behaviour, which supersedes buoyancy as the controlling factor in magma ascent. In the conduit of dome-building volcanoes, the fracture and slip processes are further complicated: slip-rate along the conduit margin fluctuates. The shear-thinning frictional melt yields a tendency for extremely unstable slip thanks to its pivotal position with regard to the glass transition. This thermo-kinetic transition bestows the viscoelastic melt with the ability to either flow or

  16. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  17. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  18. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2010-07-01

    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  19. Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Island of Hawai';i is home to the most active volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands. The island's isolated nature, combined with the lack of permanent offshore seismometers, creates difficulties in recording small magnitude earthquakes with accuracy. This background offshore seismicity is crucial in understanding the structure of the lithosphere around the island chain, the stresses on the lithosphere generated by the weight of the islands, and how the volcanoes interact with each other offshore. This study uses the data collected from a 9-month deployment of a temporary ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) network fully surrounding Lo';ihi volcano. This allowed us to widen the aperture of earthquake detection around the Big Island, lower the magnitude detection threshold, and better constrain the hypocentral depths of offshore seismicity that occurs between the OBS network and the Hawaii Volcano Observatory's land based network. Although this study occurred during a time of volcanic quiescence for Lo';ihi, it establishes a basis for background seismicity of the volcano. More than 480 earthquakes were located using the OBS network, incorporating data from the HVO network where possible. Here we present relocated hypocenters using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), as well as tomographic images for a 30 km square area around the summit of Lo';ihi. Illuminated by using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), offshore seismicity during this study is punctuated by events locating in the mantle fault zone 30-50km deep. These events reflect rupture on preexisting faults in the lower lithosphere caused by stresses induced by volcano loading and flexure of the Pacific Plate (Wolfe et al., 2004; Pritchard et al., 2007). Tomography was performed using the double-difference seismic tomography method TomoDD (Zhang & Thurber, 2003) and showed overall velocities to be slower than

  20. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  1. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  2. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  3. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  4. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  5. University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The University Observatory of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität was founded in 1816. Astronomers who worked or graduated at the Munich Observatory include: Fraunhofer, Soldner, Lamont, Seeliger and Karl Schwarzschild. At present four professors and ten staff astronomers work here. Funding comes from the Bavarian Government, the German Science Foundation, and other German and European research progra...

  6. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  7. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  8. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  9. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  10. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  11. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  12. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  13. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. Since 2013, it also covers the wholesale CO 2 market. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  14. Significant breakthroughs in monitoring networks of the volcanological and seismological French observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    lemarchand, A.; Francois, B.; Bouin, M.; Brenguier, F.; Clouard, V.; Di Muro, A.; Ferrazzini, V.; Shapiro, N.; Staudacher, T.; Kowalski, P.; Agrinier, P.

    2013-12-01

    Others authors: S. Tait (1), D. Amorese (4,1), JB de Chabalier (1), A. Anglade (4,1), P. Kowalski (5,1),the teams in the IPGP Volcanological and Seismological observatories In the last few years, French West Indies observatories, in collaboration with the Seismic Research Center (University of West Indies-Trinidad), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 16 new permanent stations have been installed to strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 21 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, GNSS sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer to the observatories of Trinidad (SRC), Guadeloupe (OVSG), Martinique (OVSM). To improve the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to enhance the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding (D. Kurrle R. Widmer-Schnidrig, 2005) of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120 sec). This renewed network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanism interactions in the Lesser Antilles arc. Since 2010, the UnderVolc research program has been an opportunity to reinforce the existing volcanic seismic network of Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). 20 broadband seismometers, 20 short-period sensors, and 26 GNSS receivers now cover the volcano. The program successfully developed many new data treatment tools. They have proven to be well-adapted for monitoring volcanic activity such as the tracking of seismic velocity changes inferred from seismic noise, or the injection of dike and the resulting deformations. This upgrade has now established the monitoring network of La Réunion hot spot to high quality standards which will foster the scientific attractiveness of OVPF-IPGP. During

  15. Volcano-tectonic interactions at Sabancaya and other Peruvian volcanoes revealed by InSAR and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Aron, F.; Delgado, F.; Macedo, O.; Aguilar, V.

    2013-12-01

    An InSAR survey of all 13 Holocene volcanoes in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone of Peru reveals previously undocumented surface deformation that is occasionally accompanied by seismic activity. Our survey utilizes SAR data spanning from 1992 to the present from the ERS-1, ERS-2, and Envisat satellites, as well as selected data from the TerraSAR-X satellite. We find that the recent unrest at Sabancaya volcano (heightened seismicity since 22 February 2013 and increased fumarolic output) has been accompanied by surface deformation. We also find two distinct deformation episodes near Sabancaya that are likely associated with an earthquake swarm in February 2013 and a M6 normal fault earthquake that occurred on 17 July 2013. Preliminary modeling suggests that faulting from the observed seismic moment can account for nearly all of the observed deformation and thus we have not yet found clear evidence for recent magma intrusion. We also document an earlier episode of deformation that occurred between December 2002 and September 2003 which may be associated with a M5.3 earthquake that occurred on 13 December 2002 on the Solarpampa fault, a large EW-striking normal fault located about 25 km northwest of Sabancaya volcano. All of the deformation episodes between 2002 and 2013 are spatially distinct from the inflation seen near Sabancaya from 1992 to 1997. In addition to the activity at Sabancaya, we also observe deformation near Coropuna volcano, in the Andagua Valley, and in the region between Ticsani and Tutupaca volcanoes. InSAR images reveal surface deformation that is possibly related to an earthquake swarm near Coropuna and Sabancaya volcanoes in December 2001. We also find persistent deformation in the scoria cone and lava field along the Andagua Valley, located 40 km east of Corpuna. An earthquake swarm near Ticsani volcano in 2005 produced surface deformation centered northwest of the volcano and was accompanied by a north-south elongated subsidence signal to the

  16. SUBMARINE VOLCANO CHARACTERISTICS IN SABANG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  17. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.

  18. An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Walls, C.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Phillips, D.; Hafner, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Dittmann, T.

    2007-12-01

    UNAVCO is building and operating the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project to understand the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the North American continent. When complete in October 2008, the 875 GPS, 103 strain and seismic, and 28 tiltmeters stations will comprise the largest integrated geodetic and seismic network in United States and the second largest in the world. Data from the PBO network will facilitate research into plate boundary deformation with unprecedented scope and detail. As of 1 September 2007, UNAVCO had completed 680 PBO GPS stations and had upgraded 89% of the planned PBO Nucleus stations. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to 95 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and has expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=3 for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. As of September 2007, 41 PBO borehole stations had been installed and three laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 60 borehole stations and 4 laser strainmeters expected by October 2007. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California; installed three of four planned borehole strainmeter stations on Mt. St. Helens; and has densified coverage of the Parkfield area. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=8 for more information on PBO strainmeter network construction progress. The combined PBO/Nucleus GPS network provides 350 GB of raw standard

  19. Geomorphological classification of post-caldera volcanoes in the Buyan-Bratan caldera, North Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Harijoko, Agung; Wayan Warmada, I.; Watanabe, Koichiro; Nakamura, Toshio; Taguchi, Sachihiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-12-01

    A landform of the post-caldera volcanoes (Lesung, Tapak, Sengayang, Pohen, and Adeng) in the Buyan-Bratan caldera on the island of Bali, Indonesia can be classified by topographic interpretation. The Tapak volcano has three craters, aligned from north to south. Lava effused from the central crater has flowed downward to the northwest, separating the Tamblingan and Buyan Lakes. This lava also covers the tip of the lava flow from the Lesung volcano. Therefore, it is a product of the latest post-caldera volcano eruption. The Lesung volcano also has two craters, with a gully developing on the pyroclastic cone from the northern slope to the western slope. Lava from the south crater has flowed down the western flank, beyond the caldera rim. Lava distributed on the eastern side from the south also surrounds the Sengayang volcano. The Adeng volcano is surrounded by debris avalanche deposits from the Pohen volcano. Based on these topographic relationships, Sengayang volcano appears to be the oldest of the post-caldera volcanoes, followed by the Adeng, Pohen, Lesung, and Tapak volcanoes. Coarse-grained scoria falls around this area are intercalated with two foreign tephras: the Samalas tephra (1257 A.D.) from Lombok Island and the Penelokan tephra (ca. 5.5 kBP) from the Batur caldera. The source of these scoria falls is estimated to be either the Tapak or Lesung volcano, implying that at least two volcanoes have erupted during the Holocene period.

  20. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).