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Sample records for volcano hawaii rapidly

  1. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  2. Campgrounds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides campground locations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Information about facilities, water availability, permit requirements and type of...

  3. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  4. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  5. Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Fred W.

    1994-04-22

    A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

  6. Dynamics of degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Jaupart, Claude

    1990-03-01

    At Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, the recent long-lived eruptions of Mauna Ulu and Pu'u O'o have occurred in two major stages, defining a characteristic eruptive pattern. The first stage consists of cyclic changes of activity between episodes of "fire fountaining" and periods of quiescence or effusion of vesicular lava. The second stage consists only of continuous effusion of lava. We suggest that these features reflect the dynamics of magma degassing in a chamber which empties into a narrow conduit. In the volcano chamber, gas bubbles rise through magma and accumulate at the roof in a foam layer. The foam flows toward the conduit, and its shape is determined by a dynamic balance between the input of bubbles from below and the output into the conduit. The foam thickness is proportional to (μlQ/ɛ2 ρl g)1/4, where μ l and ρl are the viscosity and density of magma, ɛ is the gas volume fraction in the foam, g is the acceleration of gravity, and Q is the gas flux. The bubbles in the foam deform under the action of buoyancy, and the maximum permissible foam thickness is hc = 2σ/ɛρlgR, where σ is the coefficient of surface tension and R is the original bubble radius. If this critical thickness is reached, the foam collapses into a large gas pocket which erupts into the conduit. Foam accumulation then resumes, and a new cycle begins. The attainment of the foam collapse threshold requires a gas flux in excess of a critical value which depends on viscosity, surface tension, and bubble size. Hence two different eruption regimes are predicted: (1) alternating regimes of foam buildup and collapse leading to the periodic eruption of large gas volumes and (2) steady foam flow at the roof leading to continuous bubbly flow in the conduit. The essential result is that the continuous process of degassing can lead to discontinuous eruptive behavior. Data on eruption rates and repose times between fountaining phases from the 1969 Mauna UIu and the 1983-1986 Pu'u O'o eruptions yield

  7. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

  8. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  9. Geoelectric studies on the east rift, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii Island. Geothermal resources exploration in Hawaii: Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.V.; Skokan, C.K.; Skokan, J.J.; Daniels, J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Klein, D.P.; Zablocki, C.J.

    1977-12-01

    Three geophysical research organizations, working together under the auspices of the Hawaii Geothermal Project, have used several electrical and electromagnetic exploration techniques on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii to assess its geothermal resources. This volume contains four papers detailing their methods and conclusions. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  10. Dynamics of degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergniolle, S.; Jaupart, C. (Univ. Paris 7 (France))

    1990-03-10

    In the volcano chamber, gas bubbles rise through magma and accumulate at the roof in a foam layer. The foam flows toward the conduit, and its shape is determined by a dynamic balance between the input of bubbles from below and the output into the conduit. The bubbles in the foam deform under the action of buoyancy. If the critical thickness is reached, the foam collapses into a large gas pocket which erupts into the conduit. Foam accumulation then resumes, and a new cycle begins. The attainment of the foam collapse threshold requires a gas flux in excess of a critical value which depends on viscosity, suface tension, and bubble size. Hence two different eruption regimes are predicted: (1) alternating regimes of foam buildup and collapse leading to the periodic eruption of large gas volumes and (2) steady foam flow at the roof leading to continuous bubbly flow in the conduit. Data on eruption rates and repose times between fountaining phases from the 1969 Mauna Ulu and the 1983-1986 Pu'u O'o eruptions yield constraints on three key variables. The area of the chamber roof must be a few tens of square kilometers, with a minimum value of about 8 km{sup 2}. Magma reservoirs of similar dimensions are imaged by seismic attenuation tomography below the east rift zone. Close to the roof, the gas volume fraction is a few percent, and the gas bubbles have diameters lying between 0.1 and 0.6 mm. These estimates are close to the predictions of models for bubble nucleation and growth in basaltic melts, as well as to the observations on deep submarine basalts. The transition between cyclic and continuous activity occurs when the mass flux of gas becomes lower than a critical value of the order of 10{sup 3} kg/s. In this model, changes of eruptive regime reflect changes in the amount and size of bubbles which reach the chamber roof.

  11. Time dependent deformation of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily Kvietka Desmarais

    In 1997 the continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) network was completed on Kilauea, providing the first network of daily position measurements during eruptions and earthquakes on Kilauea. Kilauea has been studied for many decades with continuous seismic and tilt instruments. Other geodetic data (e.g., campaign GPS, leveling, electronic distance measurements) are also available although they contain only sparse data. Data analysis methods used here include inverting multiple data sets for optimal source parameters and the spatio-temporal distribution of magma volume and fault slip, and combining GPS and seismic observations to understand flank tectonics. The field area for this study, Kilauea Volcano, was chosen because of its frequent activity and potential hazards. The 1997 East Rift Zone eruption (Episode 54) was the first major event to occur after the completion of the continuous GPS network. The event lasted 2 days, but transient deformation continued for six months. This long-duration transient allowed the first spatio-temporal study of transient dike deformation on Kilauea from daily GPS positions. Slow-slip events were discovered on Kilauea during which the southern flank of the volcano would accelerate seaward for approximately 2 days. The discovery was made possible because of the continuously operating GPS network. These slip events were also observed to correlate with small swarms of microearthquakes found to follow temporal pattern consistent with them being co- and aftershocks of the slow-slip event (Segall, 2006). Half-space models of geodetic data favor a shallow fault plane (˜ 5 km), which is much too shallow to have increased the Coulomb stress at the depths of the co- and aftershocks. However, optimizations for the slow-slip source parameters including a layered elastic structure and a topographic correction favor deeper models within the range of the co- and aftershocks. Additionally, the spatial distribution of seaward fault slip, fixed

  12. Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zoneof Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Amelung, Falk; Lavallee, Yan; Okubo, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    An anomalous body with low Vp (compressional wave velocity), low Vs (shear wave velocity), and high Vp/Vs anomalies is observed at 8–11 km depth beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii by simultaneous inversion of seismic velocity structure and earthquake locations. We interpret this body to be a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcanic pile, similar to those widely recognized beneath mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. Combined seismic velocity and petrophysical models suggest the presence of 10% melt in a cumulate magma mush. This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake.

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Geologic map of the northeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai'i, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2017-05-01

    SummaryMauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions were preceded by only brief seismic unrest, while others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity.The majority of the eruptions of Mauna Loa began in the summit area (>12,000-ft elevation; Lockwood and Lipman, 1987); yet the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) was the source of eight flank eruptions since 1843 (table 1). This zone extends from the 13,680-ft-high summit towards Hilo (population ~60,000), the second largest city in the State of Hawaii. Although most of the source vents are farther than 30 km away, the 1880 flow from one of the vents extends into Hilo, nearly reaching Hilo Bay. The city is built entirely on flows erupted from the NERZ, most older than that erupted in 1843.Once underway, Mauna Loa's eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities in their path. For example, lava flows erupted from the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) in 1950 advanced at an average rate of 9.3 km per hour, and all three lobes reached the ocean within approximately 24 hours (Finch and Macdonald, 1953). The flows near the eruptive vents must have traveled even faster.In terms of eruption frequency, pre-eruption warning, and rapid flow emplacement, Mauna Loa poses an enormous volcanic-hazard threat to the Island of Hawai‘i. By documenting past activity and by alerting the public and local government officials of our findings, we can anticipate the volcanic hazards and substantially mitigate the risks associated with an eruption of this massive edifice.From the geologic record, we can deduce several generalized facts about the geologic history of the NERZ. The middle to the uppermost section of the rift zone were more active in the past 4,000 years than the lower part, perhaps due to buttressing of the lower east rift zone by Mauna Kea and Kīlauea volcanoes. The historical flows

  15. A series of transient slip events on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, E. K.; Segall, P.; Miklius, A.; Cervelli, P.

    2005-12-01

    Deformation on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii is monitored by a network of continuously recording GPS stations, among other methds. Since its installation in 1996, the GPS network has detected four spatially coherent accelerations on Kilauea's south flank that are not caused by either intrusions or earthquakes. These events, each lasting several hours to two days, occurred in September 1998, November 2000, July 2003, and January 2005. Previously, Cervelli et al., (Nature, 2002) interpreted the 2000 event as a silent earthquake due to slip on a sub-horizontal fault beneath Kilauea's south flank. We inverted the cumulative displacements ( less than 2 cm) using a simulated annealing algorithm for each event and found similarly sized, near horizontal, uniform slip source locations for all four events at depths of ~6 km. The estimated slip magnitudes are between 9 and 15 cm, with the upper block moving seaward. The 2005 event is the largest detected to date. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes on the south flank of Kilauea are typically restricted to the volume between the East Rift Zone and the Hilina and Poliokeawe Palis. Seismicity in this volume increased significantly during the silent events at depths of 5-10 km. However, all of the VT earthquakes were small ( less than M3) and their cumulative moment does not account for the moment released during the silent slip events. We are currently examining seismic waveform data for evidence of other signals, such as non-volcanic tremor, that might be associated with the slip events. To determine the exact onset and duration of the silent earthquakes, we invert for slip as a function of time directly from raw GPS phase and pseudorange observations. The November 2000 silent earthquake was preceded 9 days earlier by nearly 1 m of rainfall, which was speculated in Cervelli et al., (Nature, 2002) to have reduced fault stability through surface loading or pore pressure increase. In contrast, both the 2003 and 2005 events occurred

  16. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  17. Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux

  18. The geology and petrology of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii; a study of postshield volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Wise, William S.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1997-01-01

    Mauna Kea Volcano, on the Island of Hawaii, is capped by lavas of alkalic and transitional basalt (Hamakua Volcanics) erupted between approximately 250-200 and 70-65 ka and hawaiite, mugearite, and benmoreite (Laupahoehoe Volcanics) erupted between approximately 65 and 4 ka. These lavas, which form the entire subaerial surface of the volcano, issued from numerous scattered vents and are intercalated on the upper slopes with glacial deposits. The lavas record diminishing magma-supply rate and degree of partial melting from the shield stage through the postshield stage. Much of the compositional variation apparently reflects fractionation of basaltic magma in reservoirs within and beneath the volcano.

  19. Deep Drilling into a Mantle Plume Volcano: The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic volcanoes formed by mantle plumes, such as those of Hawaii and Iceland, strongly influence our views about the deep Earth (Morgan, 1971; Sleep, 2006. These volcanoes are the principal geochemical probe into the deep mantle, a testing ground for understanding mantle convection, plate tectonics and volcanism, and an archive of information on Earth’s magnetic field and lithospheredynamics. Study of the petrology, geochemistry, and structure of oceanic volcanoes has contributed immensely to our present understanding of deep Earth processes, but virtually all of this study has been concentrated on rocks available at the surface. In favorable circumstances, surface exposures penetrate to a depth of a few hundred meters, which is a small fraction of the 10- to 15-kilometer height of Hawaiian volcanoes above the depressed seafloor (Moore, 1987; Watts, 2001.

  20. Source process of a long-period event at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.

    2005-04-01

    We analyse a long-period (LP) event observed by a dense seismic network temporarily operated at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in 1996. We systematically perform spectral analyses, waveform inversions and forward modeling of the LP event to quantify its source process. Spectral analyses identify two dominant spectral frequencies at 0.6 and 1.3 Hz with associated Q values in the range 10-20. Results from waveform inversions assuming six moment-tensor and three single-force components point to the resonance of a horizontal crack located at a depth of approximately 150 m near the northeastern rim of the Halemaumau pit crater. Waveform simulations based on a fluid-filled crack model suggest that the observed frequencies and Q values can be explained by a crack filled with a hydrothermal fluid in the form of either bubbly water or steam. The shallow hydrothermal crack located directly above the magma conduit may have been heated by volcanic gases leaking from the conduit. The enhanced flux of heat raised the overall pressure of the hydrothermal fluid in the crack and induced a rapid discharge of fluid from the crack, which triggered the acoustic vibrations of the resonator generating the LP waveform. The present study provides further support to the idea that LP events originate in the resonance of a crack.

  1. Source process of a long-period event at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse a long-period (LP) event observed by a dense seismic network temporarily operated at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in 1996. We systematically perform spectral analyses, waveform inversions and forward modeling of the LP event to quantify its source process. Spectral analyses identify two dominant spectral frequencies at 0.6 and 1.3 Hz with associated Q values in the range 10-20. Results from waveform inversions assuming six moment-tensor and three single-force components point to the resonance of a horizontal crack located at a depth of approximately 150 m near the northeastern rim of the Halemaumau pit crater. Waveform simulations based on a fluid-filled crack model suggest that the observed frequencies and Q values can be explained by a crack filled with a hydrothermal fluid in the form of either bubbly water or steam. The shallow hydrothermal crack located directly above the magma conduit may have been heated by volcanic gases leaking from the conduit. The enhanced flux of heat raised the overall pressure of the hydrothermal fluid in the crack and induced a rapid discharge of fluid from the crack, which triggered the acoustic vibrations of the resonator generating the LP waveform. The present study provides further support to the idea that LP events originate in the resonance of a crack. ?? 2005 RAS.

  2. VEPP Exercise: Volcanic Activity and Monitoring of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    A 10-week project will be tested during the Fall semester 2010, for a Volcanic Hazards elective course, for undergraduate Geology students of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. This exercise was developed during the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `O`o (VEPP) Workshop, held on the Big Island of Hawaii in July 2010. For the exercise the students will form groups (of 2-4 students), and each group will be assigned a monitoring technique or method, among the following: seismic (RSAM data), deformation (GPS and tilt data), observations (webcam and lava flow maps), gas and thermal monitoring. The project is designed for Geology undergraduates who have a background in introductory geology, types of volcanoes and eruptions, magmatic processes, characteristics of lava flows, and other related topics. It is divided in seven tasks, starting with an introduction and demonstration of the VEPP website and the VALVE3 software, which is used to access monitoring data from the current eruption of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The students will also familiarize themselves with the history of Kilauea volcano and its current eruption. At least weekly the groups will acquire data (mostly near-real-time) from the different monitoring techniques, in the form of time series, maps, videos, and images, in order to identify trends in the data. The groups will meet biweekly in the computer laboratory to work together in the analysis and interpretation of the data, with the support of the instructor. They will give reports on the progress of the exercise, and will get feedback from the instructor and from the other expert groups. All groups of experts will relate their findings to the recent and current activity of Kilauea volcano, and the importance of their specific type of monitoring. The activity will culminate with a written report and an oral presentation. The last task of the project consists of a wrap-up volcano monitoring exercise, in which the students will

  3. Development of the 1990 Kalapana Flow Field, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, T.N.; Heliker, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Hon, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 1990 Kalapana flow field is a complex patchwork of tube-fed pahoehoe flows erupted from the Kupaianaha vent at a low effusion rate (approximately 3.5 m3/s). These flows accumulated over an 11-month period on the coastal plain of Kilauea Volcano, where the pre-eruption slope angle was less than 2??. the composite field thickened by the addition of new flows to its surface, as well as by inflation of these flows and flows emplaced earlier. Two major flow types were identified during the development of the flow field: large primary flows and smaller breakouts that extruded from inflated primary flows. Primary flows advanced more quickly and covered new land at a much higher rate than breakouts. The cumulative area covered by breakouts exceeded that of primary flows, although breakouts frequently covered areas already buried by recent flows. Lava tubes established within primary flows were longer-lived than those formed within breakouts and were often reoccupied by lava after a brief hiatus in supply; tubes within breakouts were never reoccupied once the supply was interrupted. During intervals of steady supply from the vent, the daily areal coverage by lava in Kalapana was constant, whereas the forward advance of the flows was sporadic. This implies that planimetric area, rather than flow length, provides the best indicator of effusion rate for pahoehoe flow fields that form on lowangle slopes. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Stratigraphy of the Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Michael O.; Haskins, Eric H.; Stolper, Edward M.; Baker, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled ∼3.1 km into the island of Hawai'i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to ∼650 ka. Mauna Kea subaerial lavas have high average olivine contents (13 vol.%) and low average vesicle abundances (10 v...

  5. Fissure distribution at Mauna Loa (Hawaii) as an example to understand shallow magma transfer at volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Trusdell, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Mauna Loa (Hawaii) is the largest active shield volcano on the Island of Hawai'i, covering more than half of it and rising to 4,169 meters above sea level. The volcano hosts the Moku'aweoweo summit caldera, from which two elongated rift zones depart: the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) and the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Most of Mauna Loa's eruptions begin with lava fountains from a series of fissure vents in the summit region and then often migrate to vents down either rift zone. Mauna Loa volcano shows a distinctive feature, being characterized by minor radial eruptive fissures (not related to the two main rifts) on the NW flank only. This study tries to explain such a selective distribution of vents, and thus of shallow magma transfer. To this aim, we run numerical models with different amount of opening of the two rift zones of Mauna Loa, as well as different amount of slip on its SE flank. Our results suggest that the selective occurrence of the radial fissures may be explained by the competition between two processes: a) rift intrusion (especially along the NERZ), promoting the development of radial dikes along the NW flank; b) flank slip, inhibiting the development of the radial dikes on the SE flank. The opening of the two non-parallel main rift zones of Mauna Loa promotes the local extension necessary to develop the radial dikes on the NW flank. A general model for the development of a third branch of radial rift, which may be also applied to Mt. Etna and some volcanoes on the Canary Islands, is proposed.

  6. Buried Rift Zones and Seamounts in Hawaii: Implications for Volcano Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Morgan, J. K.; Zelt, C. A.; Okubo, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    As volcanoes grow, they deform due to their own weight and ongoing magmatic intrusions. For example, Kilauea's south flank is moving seaward ~10 cm/yr, apparently pushed by dike injection along rift zones and/or gravitational spreading. Offshore, Kilauea's south flank has developed a broad bench, attributed to overthrusting at the toe of the mobile flank. Mauna Loa's southeastern flank is much less mobile today, and exhibits no offshore bench. The great variability in present-day surface motions and deformation of these two volcanoes is not well explained by the distribution of surface structures, which might influence the driving and resisting forces acting on the flanks. Using first-arrival seismic tomography of a unique onshore-offshore airgun dataset, we have developed a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the southeastern part of the Island of Hawaii. This model provides an unprecedented view into both the submarine and subaerial portions of Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Loihi volcanoes, helping to resolve some outstanding puzzles. The preferred velocity model shows that the known summits and rift zones of Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Loihi volcanoes are underlain by high velocity anomalies (6.5-7.0 km/s), indicating the presence of intrusive magma cumulates and dike complexes. In addition, we observe an anomalously high velocity feature (7.0-7.5 km/s) within the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa that extends ~40 km south of the volcano's summit. Our model also shows anomalously high velocity materials (6.3-6.8 km/s) in the oceanic crust beneath Kilauea's outer bench. Based on the geometry of their high velocities, we propose that these features represent previously unrecognized intrusive complexes that have influenced the evolution of the two volcanoes. The high velocity feature within Mauna Loa's southeastern flank appears to represent a buried rift zone, either of ancient Mauna Loa, or an older volcano perhaps related to the Ninole Hills. Curiously, at shallow depths (5-9 km

  7. Diet of feral cats in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Hansen, H.; Nelson, D.; Swift, R.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the diet of feral cats by analysing the contents of 42 digestive tracts from Kilauea and Mauna Loa in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Small mammals, invertebrates, and birds were the most common prey types consumed by feral cats. Birds occurred in 27.8-29.2% of digestive tracts. The total number of bird, small mammal, and invertebrate prey differed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa. On Mauna Loa, significantly more (89%) feral cats consumed small mammals, primarily rodents, than on Kilauea Volcano (50%). Mice (Mus musculus) were the major component of the feral cat diet on Mauna Loa, whereas Orthoptera were the major component of the diet on Kilauea. We recovered a mandible set, feathers, and bones of an endangered Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) from a digestive tract from Mauna Loa. This specimen represents the first well-documented endangered seabird to be recovered from the digestive tract of a feral cat in Hawai'i and suggests that feral cats prey on this species.

  8. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Deep research drill hole at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. [1,262 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zablocki, C.J.; Tilling, R.I.; Peterson, D.W.; Christiansen, R.L.; Keller, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    A 1262-m-deep bore hole was drilled at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to test predictions based on surface geophysical surveys and to obtain information on the hydrothermal regime above a postulated magma reservoir. Data from the drilling and geophysical borehole logs tend to confirm earlier predictions that a mound of brackish or saline water is present above the inferred magma body. Temperatures within the hydrothermal system are not sufficiently high to indicate deposits of economic interest, but the gradient toward the bottom of the hole (approximately 160 m below sea level) is high, about 370/sup 0/C per kilometer. The maximum temperature, 137/sup 0/C, is at the hole bottom.

  10. Shallow magma accumulation at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, revealed by microgravity surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David J.; Eggers, Albert A.; Bagnardi, Marco; Battaglia, Maurizio; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2010-01-01

    Using microgravity data collected at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i (United States), between November 1975 and January 2008, we document significant mass increase beneath the east margin of Halema'uma'u Crater, within Kilauea's summit caldera. Surprisingly, there was no sustained uplift accompanying the mass accumulation. We propose that the positive gravity residual in the absence of significant uplift is indicative of magma accumulation in void space (probably a network of interconnected cracks), which may have been created when magma withdrew from the summit in response to the 29 November 1975 M = 7.2 south flank earthquake. Subsequent refilling documented by gravity represents a gradual recovery from that earthquake. A new eruptive vent opened at the summit of Kilauea in 2008 within a few hundred meters of the positive gravity residual maximum, probably tapping the reservoir that had been accumulating magma since the 1975 earthquake.

  11. Hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing of fire fuels in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Timothy A; Asner, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    Alien invasive grasses threaten to transform Hawaiian ecosystems through the alteration of ecosystem dynamics, especially the creation or intensification of a fire cycle. Across sub-montane ecosystems of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii Island, we quantified fine fuels and fire spread potential of invasive grasses using a combination of airborne hyperspectral and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements. Across a gradient from forest to savanna to shrubland, automated mixture analysis of hyperspectral data provided spatially explicit fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrate and shade. Small-footprint LiDAR provided measurements of vegetation height along this gradient of ecosystems. Through the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, a new fire fuel index (FFI) was developed to model the three-dimensional volume of grass fuels. Regionally, savanna ecosystems had the highest volumes of fire fuels, averaging 20% across the ecosystem and frequently filling all of the three-dimensional space represented by each image pixel. The forest and shrubland ecosystems had lower FFI values, averaging 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing can provide unique information on the three-dimensional properties of ecosystems, their flammability, and the potential for fire spread.

  12. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  13. Degassing history of water, sulfur, and carbon in submarine lavas from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, J.E.; Stolper, E.M. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Major, minor, and dissolved volatile element concentrations were measured in tholeiitic glasses from the submarine portion (Puna Ridge) of the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Dissolved H{sub 2}O and S concentrations display a wide range relative to nonvolatile incompatible elements at all depths. This range cannot be readily explained by fractional crystallization, degassing of H{sub 2}O and S during eruption on the seafloor, or source region heterogeneities. Dissolved CO{sub 2} concentrations, in contrast, show a positive correlation with eruption depth and typically agree within error with the solubility at that depth. The authors propose that most magmas along the Puna Ridge result from (1) mixing of a relatively volatile-rich, undegassed component with magmas that experienced low pressure (perhaps subaerial) degassing during which substantial H{sub 2}O, S, and CO{sub 2} were lost, followed by (2) fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase from this mixture to generate a residual liquid; and (3) further degassing, principally of CO{sub 2} for samples erupted deeper than 1,000 m, during eruption on the seafloor. They predict that average Kilauean primary magmas with 16% MgO contain {approximately}0.47 wt % H{sub 2}0, {approximately}900 ppm S, and have {delta}D values of {approximately}{minus}30 to {minus}40%. The model predicts that submarine lavas from wholly submarine volcanoes (i.e., Loihi), for which there is no opportunity to generate the degassed end member by low pressure degassing, will be enriched in volatiles relative to those from volcanoes whose summits have breached the sea surface (i.e., Kilauea and Mauna Loa).

  14. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  15. Precursors to dyke-fed eruptions at basaltic volcanoes: insights from patterns of volcano-tectonic seismicity at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew F.; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the physical controls on volcano-tectonic (VT) precursors to eruptions and intrusions at basaltic volcanoes, we have analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of VT earthquakes associated with 34 eruptions and 23 dyke intrusions that occurred between 1960 and 1983 at Kilauea, in Hawaii. Eighteen of the 57 magmatic events were preceded by an acceleration of the mean rate of VT earthquakes located close to the main shallow magma reservoir. Using a maximum-likelihood technique and the Bayesian Information Criterion for model preference, we demonstrate that an exponential acceleration is preferred over a power-law acceleration for all sequences. These sequences evolve over time-scales of weeks to months and are consistent with theoretical models for the approach to volcanic eruptions based on the growth of a population of fractures in response to an excess magma pressure. Among the remaining 40 magmatic events, we found a significant correlation between swarms of VT earthquakes located in the mobile south-flank of Kilauea and eruptions and intrusions. The behaviour of these swarms suggests that at least some of the magmatic events are triggered by transient episodes of elevated rates of aseismic flank movement, which could explain why many eruptions and intrusions are not preceded by longer-term precursory signals. In none of the 57 cases could a precursory sequence be used to distinguish between the approach to an eruption or an intrusion, so that, even when a precursory sequence is recognized, there remains an empirical chance of about 40% (24 intrusions from 57 magmatic events) of issuing a false alarm for an imminent eruption.

  16. Radon-222 from the island of hawaii: deep soils are more important than lava fields or volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, M H

    1974-02-01

    The mean flux of radon-222 atoms from the island of Hawaii is 0.45 atom per square centimeter per second. Lava fields occupy 50 percent of the land area, but their radon flux is only 1 percent of that from deep volcanic soils. The island yields approximately 10 curies of radon-222 per hour to the air surrounding it. The radon-222 contribuition of volcanoes is negligible.

  17. Isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and srisotope ratios of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudigel, H. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Zindler, A.; Leslie, T. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Hart, S.R.; Chen, C.Y. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Clague, D. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1984-07-01

    Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for a representative suite of 15 basanites, alkali basalts, transitional basalts and tholeiites from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, display unusually large variations for a single volcano, but lie within known ranges for Hawaiian basalts. Nd isotope ratios in alkali basalts show the largest relative variation (0.51291 - 0.51305), and include the nearly constant tholeiite value (approx.= 0.51297). Pb isotope ratios show similarly large ranges for tholeiites and alkali basalts and continue Tatsumoto's (31) 'Loa' trend towards higher /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb, ratios, resulting in a substantial overlap with the 'Kea' trend. /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios for Loihi and other volcanoes along the Loa and Kea trends (31) are observed to correlate with the age of the underlying lithosphere suggesting lithosphere involvement in the formation of Hawaiian tholeiites. Loihi lavas display no correlation of Nd, Sr, or Pb isotope ratios with major element compositions or eruptive age, in contrast with observations of some other Hawaiian volcanoes. Isotope data for Loihi, as well as average values for Hawaiian volcanoes, are not adequately explained by previously proposed two-end-member models; new models for the origin and the development of Hawaiian volcanoes must include mixing of at least three geochemically distinct source regions and allow for the involvement of heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere.

  18. Puhimau thermal area: a window into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of Kilauea. The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m−2 d−1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d−1 in 1996 and 17 t d−1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to Kilauea's CO2 output and that most of Kilauea's CO2 (8500 t d−1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2 emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at Kilauea.

  19. Moessbauer/XRF MIMOS Instrumentation and Operation During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.

  20. Shallow conduit system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, revealed by seismic signals associated with degassing bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Eruptive activity at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, beginning in March, 2008 and continuing to the present time is characterized by episodic explosive bursts of gas and ash from a vent within Halemaumau Pit Crater. These bursts are accompanied by seismic signals that are well recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We investigate in detail the dimensions and oscillation modes of the source of a representative burst in the 1−10 s band. An extended source is realized by a set of point sources distributed on a grid surrounding the source centroid, where the centroid position and source geometry are fixed from previous modeling of very-long-period (VLP) data in the 10–50 s band. The source time histories of all point sources are obtained simultaneously through waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. Short-scale noisy fluctuations of the source time histories between adjacent sources are suppressed with a smoothing constraint, whose strength is determined through a minimization of the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). Waveform inversions carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous velocity structures both image a dominant source component in the form of an east trending dike with dimensions of 2.9 × 2.9 km. The dike extends ∼2 km west and ∼0.9 km east of the VLP centroid and spans the depth range 0.2–3.1 km. The source model for a homogeneous velocity structure suggests the dike is hinged at the source centroid where it bends from a strike E 27°N with northern dip of 85° west of the centroid, to a strike E 7°N with northern dip of 80° east of the centroid. The oscillating behavior of the dike is dominated by simple harmonic modes with frequencies ∼0.2 Hz and ∼0.5 Hz, representing the fundamental mode ν11 and first degenerate mode ν12 = ν21 of the dike. Although not strongly supported by data in the 1–10 s band, a north striking dike segment is required for enhanced compatibility with

  1. Shallow conduit system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, revealed by seismic signals associated with degassing bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Eruptive activity at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, beginning in March, 2008 and continuing to the present time is characterized by episodic explosive bursts of gas and ash from a vent within Halemaumau Pit Crater. These bursts are accompanied by seismic signals that are well recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We investigate in detail the dimensions and oscillation modes of the source of a representative burst in the 1-10 s band. An extended source is realized by a set of point sources distributed on a grid surrounding the source centroid, where the centroid position and source geometry are fixed from previous modeling of very-long-period (VLP) data in the 10-50 s band. The source time histories of all point sources are obtained simultaneously through waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. Short-scale noisy fluctuations of the source time histories between adjacent sources are suppressed with a smoothing constraint, whose strength is determined through a minimization of the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). Waveform inversions carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous velocity structures both image a dominant source component in the form of an east trending dike with dimensions of 2.9 × 2.9 km. The dike extends ˜2 km west and ˜0.9 km east of the VLP centroid and spans the depth range 0.2-3.1 km. The source model for a homogeneous velocity structure suggests the dike is hinged at the source centroid where it bends from a strike E 27°N with northern dip of 85° west of the centroid, to a strike E 7°N with northern dip of 80° east of the centroid. The oscillating behavior of the dike is dominated by simple harmonic modes with frequencies ˜0.2 Hz and ˜0.5 Hz, representing the fundamental mode ν11 and first degenerate mode ν12 = ν21 of the dike. Although not strongly supported by data in the 1-10 s band, a north striking dike segment is required for enhanced compatibility with the model

  2. Distribution of invasive ants and methods for their control in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Snook, Kirsten; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The first invasive ants were detected in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) more than 80 years ago. Ecological impacts of these ants are largely unknown, but studies in Hawai`i and elsewhere increasingly show that invasive ants can reduce abundance and diversity of native arthropod communities as well as disrupt pollination and food webs. Prior to the present study, knowledge of ant distributions in HAVO has primarily been restricted to road- and trail-side surveys of the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa Strip sections of the park. Due to the risks that ants pose to HAVO resources, understanding their distributions and identifying tools to eradicate or control populations of the most aggressive species is an important objective of park managers. We mapped ant distributions in two of the most intensively managed sections of the park, Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku. We also tested the efficacy of baits to control the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), two of the most aggressive and ecologically destructive species in Hawai`i. Efficacy testing of formicidal bait was designed to provide park managers with options for eradicating small populations or controlling populations that occur at levels beyond which they can be eradicated. Within the Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku sections of HAVO we conducted systematic surveys of ant distributions at 1625 stations covering nearly 200 km of roads, fences, and transects between August 2008 and April 2010. Overall, 15 ant species were collected in the two areas, with 12 being found on Mauna Loa Strip and 11 at Kahuku. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi was most widespread at both sites, ranging in elevation from 920 to 2014 m, and was the only species found above 1530 m. Argentine ants and big-headed ants were also found in both areas, but their distributions did not overlap. Surveys of Argentine ants identified areas of infestation covering 560 ha at Mauna Loa Strip and 585 ha at Kahuku. At both sites

  3. Spatiotemporal evolution of dike opening and décollement slip at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Sinnett, D.K.; Larson, K.M.; Poland, Michael P.; Segall, P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in ground tilt and GPS positions on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, are interpreted as resulting from a shallow, two-segment dike intrusion into the east rift zone that began at 1217 UTC (0217 HST) on 17 June 2007 and lasted almost 3 days. As a result of the intrusion, a very small volume of basalt (about 1500 m3) erupted on 19 June. Northward tilt at a coastal tiltmeter, subsidence of south flank GPS sites, southeastward displacements at southwestern flank GPS sites, and a swarm of flank earthquakes suggest that a slow slip event occurred on the décollement beneath Kīlauea's south flank concurrent with the rift intrusion. We use 4 min GPS positions that include estimates of time-dependent tropospheric gradients and ground tilt data to study the spatial and temporal relationships between the two inferred shallow, steeply dipping dike segments extending from the surface to about 2 km depth and décollement slip at 8 km depth. We invert for the temporal evolution of distributed dike opening and décollement slip in independent inversions at each time step using a nonnegative least squares algorithm. On the basis of these inversions, the intrusion occurred in two stages that correspond spatially and temporally with concentrated rift zone seismicity. The dike opening began on the western of the two segments before jumping to the eastern segment, where the majority of opening accumulated. Dike opening preceded the start of décollement slip at an 84% confidence level; the latter is indicated by the onset of northward tilt of a coastal tiltmeter. Displacements at southwest flank GPS sites began about 18 h later and are interpreted as resulting from slow slip on the southwestern flank. Additional constraints on the evolution of the intrusion and décollement slip come from inversion of an Envisat interferogram that spans the intrusion until 0822 UTC on 18 June 2007, combined with GPS and tilt data. This inversion shows that up to 0822 UTC on 18 June, d

  4. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  5. What makes hydromagmatic eruptions violent? Some insights from the Keanakāko'i Ash, Kı̄lauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Thornber, Carl R.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Beeson, Melvin H.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions at the summit of Ki??ilauea volcano, Hawai'i, are of two dramatically contrasting types: (1) benign lava flows and lava fountains; and (2) violent, mostly prehistoric eruptions that dispersed tephra over hundreds of square kilometers. The violence of the latter eruptions has been attributed to mixing of water and magma within a wet summit caldera; however, magma injection into water at other volcanoes does not consistently produce widespread tephras. To identify other factors that may have contributed to the violence of these eruptions, we sampled tephra from the Keanaka??ko'i Ash, the most recent large hydromagmatic deposit, and measured vesicularity, bubble-number density and dissolved volatile content of juvenile matrix glass to constrain magma ascent rate and degree of degassing at the time of quenching. Bubble-number densities (9 ?? 104- 1 ?? 107 cm-3) of tephra fragments exceed those of most historically erupted Ki??lauean tephras (3 ?? 103-1.8 ?? 105 cm-3), and suggest exceptionally high magma effusion rates. Dissolved sulfur (average = 330 ppm) and water (0.15-0.45 wt.%) concentrations exceed equilibrium-saturation values at 1 atm pressure (100-150 ppm and ???0.09%, respectively), suggesting that clasts quenched before equilibrating to atmospheric pressure. We interpret these results to suggest rapid magma injection into a wet crater, perhaps similar to continuous-uprush jets at Surtsey. Estimates of Reynolds number suggest that the erupting magma was turbulent and would have mixed with surrounding water in vortices ranging downward in size to centimeters. Such fine-scale mixing would have ensured rapid heat exchange and extensive magma fragmentation, maximizing the violence of these eruptions.

  6. Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Island of Hawai';i is home to the most active volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands. The island's isolated nature, combined with the lack of permanent offshore seismometers, creates difficulties in recording small magnitude earthquakes with accuracy. This background offshore seismicity is crucial in understanding the structure of the lithosphere around the island chain, the stresses on the lithosphere generated by the weight of the islands, and how the volcanoes interact with each other offshore. This study uses the data collected from a 9-month deployment of a temporary ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) network fully surrounding Lo';ihi volcano. This allowed us to widen the aperture of earthquake detection around the Big Island, lower the magnitude detection threshold, and better constrain the hypocentral depths of offshore seismicity that occurs between the OBS network and the Hawaii Volcano Observatory's land based network. Although this study occurred during a time of volcanic quiescence for Lo';ihi, it establishes a basis for background seismicity of the volcano. More than 480 earthquakes were located using the OBS network, incorporating data from the HVO network where possible. Here we present relocated hypocenters using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), as well as tomographic images for a 30 km square area around the summit of Lo';ihi. Illuminated by using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), offshore seismicity during this study is punctuated by events locating in the mantle fault zone 30-50km deep. These events reflect rupture on preexisting faults in the lower lithosphere caused by stresses induced by volcano loading and flexure of the Pacific Plate (Wolfe et al., 2004; Pritchard et al., 2007). Tomography was performed using the double-difference seismic tomography method TomoDD (Zhang & Thurber, 2003) and showed overall velocities to be slower than

  7. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii from local seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Okubo, Paul G.; Amelung, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structure for Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii. Our model is derived from the first-arrival times of the compressional and shear waves from about 53,000 events on and near the Island of Hawaii between 1992 and 2009 recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stations. The Vp model generally agrees with previous studies, showing high-velocity anomalies near the calderas and rift zones and low-velocity anomalies in the fault systems. The most significant difference from previous models is in Vp/Vs structure. The high-Vp and high-Vp/Vs anomalies below Mauna Loa caldera are interpreted as mafic magmatic cumulates. The observed low-Vp and high-Vp/Vs bodies in the Kaoiki seismic zone between 5 and 15 km depth are attributed to the underlying volcaniclastic sediments. The high-Vp and moderate- to low-Vp/Vs anomalies beneath Kilauea caldera can be explained by a combination of different mafic compositions, likely to be olivine-rich gabbro and dunite. The systematically low-Vp and low-Vp/Vs bodies in the southeast flank of Kilauea may be caused by the presence of volatiles. Another difference between this study and previous ones is the improved Vp model resolution in deeper layers, owing to the inclusion of events with large epicentral distances. The new velocity model is used to relocate the seismicity of Mauna Loa and Kilauea for improved absolute locations and ultimately to develop a high-precision earthquake catalog using waveform cross-correlation data.

  8. Mapping the sources of the seismic wave field at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using data recorded on multiple seismic Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Huber, Caleb G.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic antennas constitute a powerful tool for the analysis of complex wave fields. Well-designed antennas can identify and separate components of a complex wave field based on their distinct propagation properties. The combination of several antennas provides the basis for a more complete understanding of volcanic wave fields, including an estimate of the location of each individual wave-field component identified simultaneously by at least two antennas. We used frequency-slowness analyses of data from three antennas to identify and locate the different components contributing to the wave fields recorded at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997. The wave-field components identified are (1) a sustained background volcanic tremor in the form of body waves generated in a shallow hydrothermal system located below the northeastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater; (2) surface waves generated along the path between this hydrothermal source and the antennas; (3) back-scattered surface wave energy from a shallow reflector located near the southeastern rim of Kilauea caldera; (4) evidence for diffracted wave components originating at the southeastern edge of Halemaumau; and (5) body waves reflecting the activation of a deeper tremor source between 02 hr 00 min and 16 hr 00 min Hawaii Standard Time on 11 February.

  9. Prevalence of pox-like lesions and malaria in forest bird communitites on leeward Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Dusek, R.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced avian pox virus and malaria have had devastating impacts on native Hawaiian forest birds, yet little has been published about their prevalence and distribution in forest bird communities outside of windward Hawaii Island. We surveyed native and non-native forest birds for these two diseases at three different elevations on leeward Mauna Loa Volcano at the Kona Forest Unit of Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Prevalence of malaria by both serology and microscopy varied by elevation and ranged from 28% at 710 m to 13% at 1830 m. Prevalence of pox-like lesions also varied by altitude, ranging in native species from 10% at 710 m to 2% at 1830 m. Native species at all elevations had the highest prevalence of malarial antibody and pox-like lesions. By contrast, pox-like lesions were not detected in individuals of four non-native species and only 5% of Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) was positive for malaria. A significantly high proportion of birds with pox-like lesions also had serological evidence of concurrent, chronic malarial infections, suggesting an interaction between these diseases, dual transmission of both diseases by the primary mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) or complete recovery of some pox-infected birds without loss of toes. Results from this study document high prevalence of malaria and pox at this refuge. Development of effective disease control strategies will be important for restoration of remnant populations of the endangered 'Akiapola'au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawaii Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawaii 'Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus) that still occur on the refuge.

  10. Waveform inversion of very long period impulsive signals associated with magmatic injection beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.; Kedar, S.

    1998-01-01

    We use data from broadband seismometers deployed around the summit of Kilauea Volcano to quantify the mechanism associated with a transient in the flow of magma feeding the east rift eruption of the volcano. The transient is marked by rapid inflation of the Kilauea summit peaking at 22 ??rad 4.5 hours after the event onset, followed by slow deflation over a period of 3 days. Superimposed on the summit inflation is a series of sawtooth displacement pulses, each characterized by a sudden drop in amplitude lasting 5-10 s followed by an exponential recovery lasting 1-3 min. The sawtooth waveforms display almost identical shapes, suggesting a process involving the repeated activation of a fixed source. The particle motion associated with each sawtooth is almost linear, and its major swing shows compressional motion at all stations. Analyses of semblance and particle motion are consistent with a point source located 1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. To estimate the source mechanism, we apply a moment tensor inversion to the waveform data, assuming a point source embedded in a homogeneous half-space with compressional and shear wave velocities representative of the average medium properties at shallow depth under Kilauea. Synthetic waveforms are constructed by a superposition of impulse responses for six moment tensor components and three single force components. The origin times of individual impulses are distributed along the time axis at appropriately small, equal intervals, and their amplitudes are determined by least squares. In this inversion, the source time functions of the six tensor and three force components are determined simultaneously. We confirm the accuracy of the inversion method through a series of numerical tests. The results from the inversion show that the waveform data are well explained by a pulsating transport mechanism operating on a subhorizontal crack linking the summit reservoir to the east rift of Kilauea. The crack

  11. Water in volcanoes: evolution, storage and rapid release during landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, Audray; Roberti, Gioachino; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes can store and drain water that is used as a valuable resource by populations living on their slopes. The water drainage and storage pattern depend on the volcano lithologies and structure, as well as the geological and hydrometric settings. The drainage and storage pattern will change according to the hydrometric conditions, the vegetation cover, the eruptive activity and the long- and short-term volcano deformation. Inspired by our field observations and based on geology and structure of volcanic edifices, on hydrogeological studies, and modelling of water flow in opening fractures, we develop a model of water storage and drainage linked with volcano evolution. This paper offers a first-order general model of water evolution in volcanoes.

  12. Gravity changes and deformation at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco; Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele; Baker, Scott; Battaglia, Maurizio; Amelung, Falk

    2014-09-01

    Analysis of microgravity and surface displacement data collected at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii (USA), between December 2009 and November 2012 suggests a net mass accumulation at ~1.5 km depth beneath the northeast margin of Halema`uma`u Crater, within Kīlauea Caldera. Although residual gravity increases and decreases are accompanied by periods of uplift and subsidence of the surface, respectively, the volume change inferred from the modeling of interferometric synthetic aperture radar deformation data can account for only a small portion (as low as 8%) of the mass addition responsible for the gravity increase. We propose that since the opening of a new eruptive vent at the summit of Kīlauea in 2008, magma rising to the surface of the lava lake outgasses, becomes denser, and sinks to deeper levels, replacing less dense gas-rich magma stored in the Halema`uma`u magma reservoir. In fact, a relatively small density increase (formation of olivine cumulates, and filling of void space by magma. The rate of gravity increase, higher than during previous decades, varies through time and seems to be directly correlated with the volcanic activity occurring at both the summit and the east rift zone of the volcano.

  13. Gravity changes and deformation at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco; Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele; Baker, Scott; Battaglia, Maurizio; Amelung, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microgravity and surface displacement data collected at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii (USA), between December 2009 and November 2012 suggests a net mass accumulation at ~1.5 km depth beneath the northeast margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater, within Kīlauea Caldera. Although residual gravity increases and decreases are accompanied by periods of uplift and subsidence of the surface, respectively, the volume change inferred from the modeling of interferometric synthetic aperture radar deformation data can account for only a small portion (as low as 8%) of the mass addition responsible for the gravity increase. We propose that since the opening of a new eruptive vent at the summit of Kīlauea in 2008, magma rising to the surface of the lava lake outgasses, becomes denser, and sinks to deeper levels, replacing less dense gas-rich magma stored in the Halema‘uma‘u magma reservoir. In fact, a relatively small density increase (gravity change measured during the period with the largest mass increase, between March 2011 and November 2012. Other mechanisms may also play a role in the gravity increase without producing significant uplift of the surface, including compressibility of magma, formation of olivine cumulates, and filling of void space by magma. The rate of gravity increase, higher than during previous decades, varies through time and seems to be directly correlated with the volcanic activity occurring at both the summit and the east rift zone of the volcano.

  14. Reconnaissance gas measurements on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Doukas, Michael P.; Zemek, Peter G.; Gerlach, Terrence M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a set of measurements of volcanic gases on two small ground level plumes in the vicinity of Pu`u `O`o cone on the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i on 15 June 2001 using open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The work was carried out as a reconnaissance survey to assess the monitoring and research value of FTIR measurements at this volcano. Despite representing emissions of residual volatiles from lava that has undergone prior degassing, the plumes contained detectable amounts of CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF and SiF4. Various processes, including subsurface cooling, condensation of water in the atmospheric plume, oxidation, dissolution in water, and reactions with wall rocks at plume vents affect the abundance of these gases. Low concentrations of volcanic CO2 measured against a high ambient background are not well constrained by FTIR spectroscopy. Although there appear to be some differences between these gases and Pu`u `O`o source gases, ratios of HCl/SO2, HF/SO2 and CO/SO2 determined by FTIR measurements of these two small plumes compare reasonably well with earlier published analyses of ERZ vent samples. The measurements yielded emission rate estimates of 4, 11 and 4 t d-1

  15. Remote-controlled pan, tilt, zoom cameras at Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Castella, Frederic; Cervelli, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Lists of important volcano-monitoring disciplines usually include seismology, geodesy, and gas geochemistry. Visual monitoring - the essence of volcanology - is usually not mentioned. Yet, observations of the outward appearance of a volcano provide data that is equally as important as that provided by the other disciplines. The eye was almost certainly the first volcano monitoring-tool used by early man. Early volcanology was mostly descriptive and was based on careful visual observations of volcanoes. There is still no substitute for the eye of an experienced volcanologist. Today, scientific instruments replace or augment our senses as monitoring tools because instruments are faster and more sensitive, work tirelessly day and night, keep better records, operate in hazardous environments, do not generate lawsuits when damaged or destroyed, and in most cases are cheaper. Furthermore, instruments are capable of detecting phenomena that are outside the reach of our senses. The human eye is now augmented by the camera. Sequences of timed images provide a record of visual phenomena that occur on and above the surface of volcanoes. Photographic monitoring is a fundamental monitoring tool; image sequences can often provide the basis for interpreting other data streams. Monitoring data are most useful when they are generated and are available for analysis in real-time or near real-time. This report describes the current (as of 2006) system for real-time photograph acquisition and transmission from remote sites on Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes to the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). It also describes how the photographs are archived and analyzed. In addition to providing system documentation for HVO, we hope that the report will prove useful as a practical guide to the construction of a high-bandwidth network for the telemetry of real-time data from remote locations.

  16. Seismic source dynamics of gas-piston activity at Kı¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Since 2008, eruptive activity at the summit of Kı¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i has been confined to the new Overlook pit crater within the Halema`uma`u Crater. Among the broad range of magmatic processes observed in the new pit are recurring episodes of gas pistoning. The gas-piston activity is accompanied by seismic signals that are recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We use raw data recorded with this network to model the source mechanism of representative gas-piston events in a sequence that occurred on 20-25 August 2011 during a gentle inflation of the Kı¯lauea summit. To determine the source centroid location and source mechanism, we minimize the residual error between data and synthetics calculated by the finite difference method for a point source embedded in a homogeneous medium that takes topography into account. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range 1-10,000 s. Most of the seismic wavefield produced by gas-pistoning originates in a source region ˜1 km below the eastern perimeter of the Halema`uma`u pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks featuring an east striking crack (dike) dipping 80°to the north, intersecting a north striking crack (another dike) dipping 65° to the east. Each gas-piston event is marked by a similar rapid inflation lasting a few minutes, trailed by a slower deflation ramp extending up to 15 min, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes accompanying the growth and collapse of a layer of foam at the top of the lava column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter

  17. Rapid fluid disruption: A source for self-potential anomalies on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.

    2001-01-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies observed above suspected magma reservoirs, dikes, etc., on various volcanoes (Kilauea, Hawaii; Mount Unzen, Japan; Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island, Miyake Jima, Japan) result from transient surface electric fields of tens of millivolts per kilometer and generally have a positive polarity. These SP anomalies are usually attributed to electrokinetic effects where properties controlling this process are poorly constrained. We propose an alternate explanation that contributions to electric fields of correct polarity should be expected from charge generation by fluid vaporization/disruption. As liquids are vaporized or removed as droplets by gas transport away from hot dike intrusions, both charge generation and local increase in electrical resistivity by removal of fluids should occur. We report laboratory observations of electric fields in hot rock samples generated by pulses of fluid (water) through the rock at atmospheric pressure. These indicate the relative amplitudes of rapid fluid disruption (RFD) potentials and electrokinetic potentials to be dramatically different and the signals are opposite in sign. Above vaporization temperatures, RFD effects of positive sign in the direction of gas flow dominate, whereas below these temperatures, effects of negative sign dominate. This suggests that the primary contribution to observed self-potential anomalies arises from gas-related charge transport processes at temperatures high enough to produce vigorous boiling and vapor transport. At lower temperatures, the primary contribution is from electrokinetic effects modulated perhaps by changing electrical resistivity and RFD effects from high-pressure but low-temperature CO2 and SO2 gas flow ripping water molecules from saturated crustal rocks. If charge generation is continuous, as could well occur above a newly emplaced dike, positive static potentials will be set up that could be sustained for many years, and the simplest method for

  18. Gravity fluctuations induced by magma convection at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in magma chambers is thought to play a key role in the activity of persistently active volcanoes, but has only been inferred indirectly from geochemical observations or simulated numerically. Continuous microgravity measurements, which track changes in subsurface mass distribution over time, provide a potential method for characterizing convection in magma reservoirs. We recorded gravity oscillations with a period of ~150 s at two continuous gravity stations at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. The oscillations are not related to inertial accelerations caused by seismic activity, but instead indicate variations in subsurface mass. Source modeling suggests that the oscillations are caused by density inversions in a magma reservoir located ~1 km beneath the east margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater in Kīlauea Caldera—a location of known magma storage.

  19. Evolution of dike opening during the March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Orr, Tim R.; Yun, Sang-Ho; Fielding, Eric; Liu, Zhen; Tanaka, Akiko; Szeliga, Walter; Hensley, Scott; Owen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The 5–9 March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption along the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, followed months of pronounced inflation at Kīlauea summit. We examine dike opening during and after the eruption using a comprehensive interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data set in combination with continuous GPS data. We solve for distributed dike displacements using a whole Kīlauea model with dilating rift zones and possibly a deep décollement. Modeled surface dike opening increased from nearly 1.5 m to over 2.8 m from the first day to the end of the eruption, in agreement with field observations of surface fracturing. Surface dike opening ceased following the eruption, but subsurface opening in the dike continued into May 2011. Dike volumes increased from 15, to 16, to 21 million cubic meters (MCM) after the first day, eruption end, and 2 months following, respectively. Dike shape is distinctive, with a main limb plunging from the surface to 2–3 km depth in the up-rift direction toward Kīlauea's summit, and a lesser projection extending in the down-rift direction toward Pu`u `Ō`ō at 2 km depth. Volume losses beneath Kīlauea summit (1.7 MCM) and Pu`u `Ō`ō (5.6 MCM) crater, relative to dike plus erupted volume (18.3 MCM), yield a dike to source volume ratio of 2.5 that is in the range expected for compressible magma without requiring additional sources. Inflation of Kīlauea's summit in the months before the March 2011 eruption suggests that the Kamoamoa eruption resulted from overpressure of the volcano's magmatic system.

  20. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more from a volcano. Before a Volcanic Eruption The following are things you can do to ... in case of an emergency. During a Volcanic Eruption Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and ...

  1. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.

    2011-04-01

    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005-July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu`u `Ō`ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu`u `Ō`ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai`i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic fluctuation in lava

  2. Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for groundwater in the Kilauea volcano area of the Island of Hawaii. A network of up to 66 precipitation collectors was emplaced in the study area and sampled twice yearly for a 3-year period. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade wind, rain shadow, and high- elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in precipitation isotopes are controlled more by the frequency of storms than by seasonal temperature fluctuations. Results from this study suggest that (1) sampling network design must take into account areal variations in rainfall patterns on islands and in continental coastal areas and (2) isotope/elevation gradients on other tropical islands may be predictable on the basis of similar climatology. Groundwater was sampled yearly in coastal springs, wells, and a few high-elevation springs. Areal contrasts in groundwater stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic rift zones compartmentalize the regional groundwater system, isolating the groundwater south of Kilauea's summit and rift zones. Part of the Southwest Rift gone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for downrift flow in the springs and shallow wells sampled in the lower East Rift Zone.

  3. Status and limiting factors of two rare plant species in dry montane communities of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Two rare plants native to montane dry forests and woodland communities of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were studied for more than two years to determine their stand structure, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, floral visitor composition, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. Phyllostegia stachyoides, a shrubby Hawaiian mint (Lamiaceae) that is a species of concern, was studied within two small kīpuka at a natural population on the park’s Mauna Loa Strip, and three plantings at sites along the Mauna Loa Road were also monitored. Silene hawaiiensis, a threatened shrub species in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), was monitored at two natural populations, one on Mauna Loa at the Three Trees Kīpuka and the second on Kīlauea Crater Rim south of Halema`uma`u. Silene hawaiiensis plantings were also made inside and outside ungulate exclosures at the park’s Kahuku Unit

  4. Evidence for water influx from a caldera lake during the explosive hydromagmatic eruption of 1790, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1790 a major hydromagmatic eruption at the summit of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, deposited up to 10 m of pyroclastic fall and surge deposits and killed several dozen Hawaiian natives who were crossing the island. Previous studies have hypothesized that the explosivity of this eruption was due to the influx of groundwater into the conduit and mixing of the groundwater with ascending magma. This study proposes that surface water, not groundwater, was the agent responsible for the explosiveness of the eruption. That is, a lake or pond may have existed in the caldera in 1790 and explosions may have taken place when magma ascended into the lake from below. That assertion is based on two lines of evidence: (1) high vesicularity (averaging 73% of more than 3000 lapilli) and high vesicle number density (105-107 cm-3 melt) of pumice clasts suggest that some phases of the eruption involved vigorous, sustained magma ascent; and (2) numerical calculations suggest that under most circumstances, hydrostatic pressure would not be sufficient to drive water into the eruptive conduit during vigorous magma ascent unless the water table were above the ground surface. These results are supported by historical data on the rate of infilling of the caldera floor during the early 1800s. When extrapolated back to 1790, they suggest that the caldera floor was below the water table.

  5. Geology and chemistry of hydrothermal deposits from active submarine volcano Loihi, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malahoff, A. (National Ocean Survey-NOAA, Rockville, MD); McMurtry, G.M.; Wiltshire, J.C.; Yeh, H.W.

    1982-07-15

    High-resolution bathymetric surveys, bottom photography and sample analyses show that Loihi Seamount at the southernmost extent of the Hawaiian hotspot is an active, young submarine volcano that is probably the site of an emerging Hawaiian island. Hydrothermal deposits sampled from the active summit rift system were probably formed by precipitation from cooling vent fluids or during cooling and oxidation of high-temperature polymetallic sulphide assemblages. No exotic benthic fauna were found to be associated with the presently active hydrothermal vents mapped.

  6. Vanishing Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树仁

    1995-01-01

    Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano,is sinking into the Pacific Ocean——and it’s taking the main island of Hawaii with it! The problem:The mighty volcano has gained too much weight, says Peter Lipman of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  7. Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea Volcano cored by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a volcano works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from 100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea Volcano. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and Hawaii. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La/Nb, La

  8. Natural hazards and risk reduction in Hawai'i: Chapter 10 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past century in understanding, characterizing, and communicating the societal risks posed by volcanic, earthquake, and tsunami hazards in Hawai‘i. The work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), with a century-long commitment to serving the public with credible hazards information, contributed substantially to this global progress. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., HVO’s founder, advocated that a scientific approach to understanding these hazards would result in strategies to mitigate their damaging effects. The resultant hazard-reduction methods range from prediction of eruptions and tsunamis, thereby providing early warnings for timely evacuation (if needed), to diversion of lava flows away from high-value infrastructure, such as hospitals. In addition to long-term volcano monitoring and multifaceted studies to better understand eruptive and seismic phenomena, HVO has continually and effectively communicated—through its publications, Web site, and public education/outreach programs—hazards information to emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public.

  9. A multipurpose camera system for monitoring Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active volcanoes that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. 

  10. Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.W.; Holcomb, R.T.; Tilling, R.I.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea's upper east rift zone, lava tubes were observed to develop by four principal processes: (1) flat, rooted crusts grew across streams within confined channels; (2) overflows and spatter accreted to levees to build arched roofs across streams; (3) plates of solidified crust floating downstream coalesced to form a roof; and (4) pahoehoe lobes progressively extended, fed by networks of distributaries beneath a solidified crust. Still another tube-forming process operated when pahoehoe entered the ocean; large waves would abruptly chill a crust across the entire surface of a molten stream crossing through the surf zone. These littoral lava tubes formed abruptly, in contrast to subaerial tubes, which formed gradually. All tube-forming processes were favored by low to moderate volume-rates of flow for sustained periods of time. Tubes thereby became ubiquitous within the pahoehoe flows and distributed a very large proportionof the lava that was produced during this prolonged eruption. Tubes transport lava efficiently. Once formed, the roofs of tubes insulate the active streams within, allowing the lava to retain its fluidity for a longer time than if exposed directly to ambient air temperature. Thus the flows can travel greater distances and spread over wider areas. Even though supply rates during most of 1970-1974 were moderate, ranging from 1 to 5 m3/s, large tube systems conducted lava as far as the coast, 12-13 km distant, where they fed extensive pahoehoe fields on the coastal flats. Some flows entered the sea to build lava deltas and add new land to the island. The largest and most efficient tubes developed during periods of sustained extrusion, when new lava was being supplied at nearly constant rates. Tubes can play a major role in building volcanic edifices with gentle slopes because they can deliver a substantial fraction of lava erupted at low to moderate rates to sites far down the flank of a volcano. We

  11. The role of viscous magma mush spreading in volcanic flank motion at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Amelung, F.; Baker, S.; Govers, R.; Poland, M.

    2013-05-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to explain seaward motion of the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The consistency of flank motion during both waxing and waning magmatic activity at Kīlauea suggests that a continuously acting force, like gravity body force, plays a substantial role. Using finite element models, we test whether gravity is the principal driver of long-term motion of Kīlauea's flank. We compare our model results to geodetic data from Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar during a time period with few magmatic and tectonic events (2000-2003), when deformation of Kīlauea was dominated by summit subsidence and seaward motion of the south flank. We find that gravity-only models can reproduce the horizontal surface velocities if we incorporate a regional décollement fault and a deep, low-viscosity magma mush zone. To obtain quasi steady state horizontal surface velocities that explain the long-term seaward motion of the flank, we find that an additional weak zone is needed, which is an extensional rift zone above the magma mush. The spreading rate in our model is mainly controlled by the magma mush viscosity, while its density plays a less significant role. We find that a viscosity of 2.5 × 1017-2.5 × 1019 Pa s for the magma mush provides an acceptable fit to the observed horizontal surface deformation. Using high magma mush viscosities, such as 2.5 × 1019 Pa s, the deformation rates remain more steady state over longer time scales. These models explain a significant amount of the observed subsidence at Kīlauea's summit. Some of the remaining subsidence is probably a result of magma withdrawal from subsurface reservoirs.

  12. The role of viscous magma mush spreading in volcanic flank motion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Christina; Amelung, Falk; Baker, Scott; Govers, Rob; Poland, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to explain seaward motion of the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i. The consistency of flank motion during both waxing and waning magmatic activity at Kīlauea suggests that a continuously acting force, like gravity body force, plays a substantial role. Using finite element models, we test whether gravity is the principal driver of long-term motion of Kīlauea's flank. We compare our model results to geodetic data from Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar during a time period with few magmatic and tectonic events (2000-2003), when deformation of Kīlauea was dominated by summit subsidence and seaward motion of the south flank. We find that gravity-only models can reproduce the horizontal surface velocities if we incorporate a regional décollement fault and a deep, low-viscosity magma mush zone. To obtain quasi steady state horizontal surface velocities that explain the long-term seaward motion of the flank, we find that an additional weak zone is needed, which is an extensional rift zone above the magma mush. The spreading rate in our model is mainly controlled by the magma mush viscosity, while its density plays a less significant role.We find that a viscosity of 2.5 x 10^17 - 2.5 x 10^19 Pa s for the magma mush provides an acceptable fit to the observed horizontal surface deformation. Using high magma mush viscosities, such as 2.5 x 10^19 Pa s, the deformation rates remain more steady state over longer time scales. These models explain a significant amount of the observed subsidence at Kīlauea's summit. Some of the remaining subsidence is probably a result of magma withdrawal from subsurface reservoirs.

  13. Timescales of mixing and storage for Keanakāko`i Tephra magmas (1500-1820 C.E.), Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Kendra J.; Garcia, Michael O.; Shea, Thomas; Costa, Fidel; Swanson, Donald A.

    2017-09-01

    The last 2500 years of activity at Kīlauea Volcano (Hawai`i) have been characterized by centuries-long periods dominated by either effusive or explosive eruptions. The most recent period of explosive activity produced the Keanakāko`i Tephra (KT; ca. 1500-1820 C.E.) and occurred after the collapse of the summit caldera (1470-1510 C.E.). Previous studies suggest that KT magmas may have ascended rapidly to the surface, bypassing storage in crustal reservoirs. The storage conditions and rapid ascent hypothesis are tested here using chemical zoning in olivine crystals and thermodynamic modeling. Forsterite contents (Fo; [Mg/(Mg + Fe) × 100]) of olivine core and rim populations are used to identify melt components in Kīlauea's prehistoric (i.e., pre-1823) plumbing system. Primitive (≥Fo88) cores occur throughout the 300+ years of the KT period; they originated from mantle-derived magmas that were first mixed and stored in a deep crustal reservoir. Bimodal olivine populations (≥Fo88 and Fo83-84) record repeated mixing of primitive magmas and more differentiated reservoir components shallower in the system, producing a hybrid composition (Fo85-87). Phase equilibria modeling using MELTS shows that liquidus olivine is not stable at depths >17 km. Thus, calculated timescales likely record mixing and storage within the crust. Modeling of Fe-Mg and Ni zoning patterns (normal, reverse, complex) reveal that KT magmas were mixed and stored for a few weeks to several years before eruption, illustrating a more complex storage history than direct and rapid ascent from the mantle as previously inferred for KT magmas. Complexly zoned crystals also have smoothed compositional reversals in the outer 5-20 µm rims that are out of Fe-Mg equilibrium with surrounding glasses. Diffusion models suggest that these rims formed within a few hours to a few days, indicating that at least one additional, late-stage mixing event may have occurred shortly prior to eruption. Our study

  14. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  15. Population dynamics of introduced rodents in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 1986-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pamela Y.; Foote, D.; Forbes-Perry, Charlotte; Schlappa, K.; Stone, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    We determined seasonal and geographical distribution patterns for four species of introduced rodents in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park from 1986-1990. We surveyed black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans), Norway rats (R. norvegicus) and house mice (Mus musculus) along an elevation gradient ranging from 90–1,820 m above sea level in five different sites using baited snap traps. Rodent community structure differed by elevation: there were more mice at montane sites and more Polynesian rats in the lowlands. We found that breeding occurred throughout the year for all species at all sites but that seasonal peaks in reproductive activity were common. Reproduction tended to be more common in the summer months at higher elevation sites and in the winter months at lower elevations. Rodents of all species were more abundant in our study in the winter than in the summer, but the differences were not significant. The overall sex ratio did not vary from a 1:1 ratio, but seasonally there were differences in sex ratio which varied with species and site. We calculated the minimum distance traveled from an assessment line and found that larger-bodied species traveled longer average distances. Pelage color in black rats was darkest in wet forest which may have adaptive value. Black and Polynesian rats were widespread in almost all habitat types, whereas mice were limited to dry and mesic sites; Norway rats were the rarest component of our sampling and found only in wet montane forest (‘Ōla‘a Forest).

  16. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Results from the initial phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these volcanoes' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each volcano. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also

  17. Volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the past thousand years,volcanoes have claimed more than 300,000 lives. Volcanology is ayoung and dangerous science that helps us against the power of the Earth itself.We live on a fiery planet. Nearly 2000 miles beneath our feet, the Earth's inner core reachestemperatures of 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Molten rock or magma, rises to the earth's surface. Acold, rigid crust fractured into some twenty plates. When magma breaks through crust it becomes

  18. Groundwater level changes in a deep well in response to a magma intrusion event on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    On May 21, 2001, an abrupt inflation of Kilauea Volcano's summit induced a rapid and large increase in compressional strain, with a maximum of 2 ??strain recorded by a borehole dilatometer. Water level (pressure) simultaneously dropped by 6 cm. This mode of water level change (drop) is in contrast to that expected for compressional strain from poroelastic theory, and therefore it is proposed that the stress applied by the intrusion has caused opening of fractures or interflows that drained water out of the well. Upon relaxation of the stress recorded by the dilatometer, water levels have recovered at a similar rate. The proposed model has implications for the analysis of ground surface deformation and for mechanisms that trigger phreatomagmatic eruptions.

  19. Modeling "secular" flank motion at Kilauea Volcano (Hawai'i) during 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Amelung, F.; Baker, S.; Govers, R. M.; Poland, M. P.; Lavallee, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Kilauea's south flank is moving seaward due to flank instabilities. The rate is influenced by magmatic events (dike intrusions) and tectonic events (earthquakes and slow-slip events at the decollement), but the general flank motion signal remains significant at any time, with rates of 6-10 cm/yr during the past decade. The surface displacements were explained by fault slip along the decollement beneath Kilauea combined with deep-rift opening in elastic halfspace dislocation models. While these models explain the kinematics well, the dynamics of the rift opening are not resolved, and the question on contribution from magmatic driving forces versus an entirely gravitationally-driven system remains. InSAR time-series analysis (Small Baseline Algorithm; SBAS) showed linear surface subsidence at Kilauea summit (maximum rate 5.5 cm/yr south of the caldera) during 2000-2003, a time-period during which the influence of distinct deformation events is small in comparison to previous and later time-periods. Here, we investigate if summit subsidence can be explained as a consequence of secular flank motion at Kilauea by ductile creep of a deep magma mush, using a numerical model with time-dependent material deformation properties to constrain velocities rather than displacements. We developed a 2D finite element model that investigates the deformation response of Kilauea to gravitational driving forces only. The model geometry includes a decollement fault beneath the volcano that can have locked and creeping fault segments. We introduce time-dependent material behavior using a viscoelastic model media. The host rock remains stable over geodetic timescales given its high viscosity value, while the deep-seated magma mush beneath Kilauea caldera is assigned a lower viscosity and spreads at significant rates. The deformation signal of the magma mush is transmitted to the surface, causing local subsidence at Kilauea summit, showing that summit subsidence can be explained by flank

  20. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Material on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Jarosite and Hydrated Halloysite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Archilles C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified on the martian surface during robotic surface exploration and by orbital remote sensing. Measurements at Meridiani Planum (MP) by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mossbauer (MB) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity document the presence of a ubiquitous sulfate-rich outcrop (20-40% SO3) that has jarosite as an anhydrous Fe3+-sulfate [1- 3]. The presence of jarosite implies a highly acidic (pH volcano, Hawaii) resulted in jarosite and alunite as sulfate-bearing alteration products [11-14]. Other, more soluble, sulfates may have formed, but were leached away by rain and melting snow. Acidsulfate processes on Puu Poliahu also formed hematite spherules similar (except in size) to the hematite spherules observed at MP as an alteration product [14]. Phyllosilicates, usually smectite }minor kaolinite are also present as alteration products [13]. We discuss here an occurrence of acid-sulfate alteration on Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). We report VNIR spectra (0.35-2.5 microns ASD spectrometer), Mossbauer spectra (MER-like ESPI backscatter spectrometer), powder XRD (PANalytical), and major element chemical compositions (XRF with LOI and Fe redox) for comparison to similar data acquired or to be acquired by MRO-CRISM and MEx OMEGA, MERMB, MSL-CheMin, and MER and MSL APXS, respectively.

  1. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  2. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  3. Kulanaokuaiki Tephra (ca, A.D. 400-1000): Newly recognized evidence for highly explosive eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, R.S.; Rose, T.R.; Swanson, D.A.; Champion, D.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored volcanoes, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of Hawai'i. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle volcano, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the volcano is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages suggest these deposits, here named the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, were emplaced ca. A.D. 400-1000, a time of no previously known pyroclastic activity at the volcano. Tephra correlations are based chiefly on a marker unit that contains unusually high values of TiO2 and K2O and on paleomagnetic signatures of associated lava flows, which show that the Kulanaokuaiki deposits are the time-stratigraphic equivalent of the upper part of a newly exhumed section of the Uw??kahuna Ash in the volcano's northwest caldera wall. This section, thought to have been permanently buried by rockfalls in 1983, is thicker and more complete than the previously accepted type Uw??kahuna at the base of the caldera wall. Collectively, these findings justify the elevation of the Uw??kahuna Ash to formation status; the newly recognized Kulanaokuaiki Tephra to the south, the chief focus of this study, is defined as a member of the Uw??kahuna Ash. The Kulanaokuaiki Tephra is the product of energetic pyroclastic falls; no surge- or pyroclastic-flow deposits were identified with certainty, despite recent interpretations that Uw??kahuna surges extended 10-20 km from K??lauea's summit. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  4. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  5. Quantification of the intrusion process at Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Marsh, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    The characteristic size of two types of intrusions identified beneath Kīlauea's East Rift zone are uniquely estimated by combining time constraints from fractional crystallization and the rates of magma solidification during cooling. Some intrusions were rapidly emplaced as dikes, but stalled before reaching the surface, and cooled and crystallized to feed later fractionated eruptions. More specifically, using the observed time interval between initial emplacement and eruption of fractionated lava, whose degree of fractionation is estimated from petrologic mixing calculations, the extent of solidification or cooling needed to produce this amount of fractionation can be directly inferred. And from the known erupted volumes the spatial extent or size of this fractionated volume can be analytically related to the full size of the source body itself. Two examples yield dike widths of 82 and 68 m. Other intrusions remain close to the east rift magma transport path and are observed to last for decades or longer as viable magma bodies that may participate in feeding later eruptions. The thickness of semi-permanent reservoirs near the East Rift Zone magma transport path can be estimated by assuming a resupply rate that is sufficiently frequent to restrict cooling to feeding shallow intrusions, which are accompanied by intense rift earthquake swarms and are often associated with eruptions. These calculations show that long-term heating of the wallrock of the magma transport paths serves to slow conduit cooling, which may be partly responsible for sustaining long East Rift Zone eruptions. Adjacent to the vertical transport path beneath Kīlauea's summit, the combined effects of heating and ever-increasing magma supply rate may have forced a commensurate enlarging of the conduit, perhaps explaining the occurrence of a temporary burst of deep (5-15 km) long-period earthquake swarms between 1987 and 1992.

  6. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  7. Estimating the volcanic emission rate and atmospheric lifetime of SO2 from space: a case study for Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of SO2 column densities derived from GOME-2 satellite measurements for the Kīlauea volcano (Hawai`i for 2007–2012. During a period of enhanced degassing activity in March–November 2008, monthly mean SO2 emission rates and effective SO2 lifetimes are determined simultaneously from the observed downwind plume evolution and meteorological wind fields, without further model input. Kīlauea is particularly suited for quantitative investigations from satellite observations owing to the absence of interfering sources, the clearly defined downwind plumes caused by steady trade winds, and generally low cloud fractions. For March–November 2008, the effective SO2 lifetime is 1–2 days, and Kīlauea SO2 emission rates are 9–21 kt day−1, which is about 3 times higher than initially reported from ground-based monitoring systems.

  8. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rademacher

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Proyecto de Investigaciòn Sismològica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94 in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, «rapid-fire» series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  9. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Guenter; Wylegalla, K.; Hellweg, M.; Seidl, D.; Rademacher, H.

    1996-01-01

    During the Proyecto de Investigacio??n Sismolo??gica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94) in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, ??rapid-fire?? series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  10. A volcano at work: the rapidly evolving landforms of Mt Etna documented through DEMs analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Simone; Favalli, Massimiliano; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Volcanoes are characterized by rapid morphological changes in a continuously evolving landscape. In recent years, airborne LIDAR surveys have been repeatedly carried out to document the constructive and the destructive processes which modify the topography at Mount Etna (Italy), one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. In a few cases, time series of high resolution topographies have been acquired during ongoing effusive eruptions, and this extraordinary data allowed the systematic characterization of the morphology of active lava channels and the identification of a distinctive pulsating dynamic in lava flux. Furthermore, time series of topographies spaced several years allowed the quantification of the growth and of local collapses of summit craters, as well as the erosion of cinder cones formed during flank eruptions in 2001-2002. Overall, the availability of high resolution topographies boosted dramatically our understanding of volcanic processes, also allowing a better assessment of the related hazard. The present contribution is a review of several works spanning nearly a decade.

  11. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  12. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  13. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    of the ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) for natural disaster monitoring and scientific analysis, has expanded the project to other volcanoes around the world and is in progress through 2011. The focus on ASTER data is due to the suitability of the sensor for natural disaster monitoring and the availability of data. The instrument has several unique facets that make it especially attractive for volcanic observations (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). Specifically, ASTER routinely collects data at night, it has the ability to generate digital elevation models using stereo imaging, it can collect data in various gain states to minimize data saturation, it has a cross-track pointing capability for faster targeting, and it collects data up to ±85° latitude for better global coverage. As with any optical imaging-based remote sensing, the viewing conditions can negatively impact the data quality. This impact varies across the optical and thermal infrared wavelengths as well as being a function of the specific atmospheric window within a given wavelength region. Water vapor and cloud formation can obscure surface data in the visible and near infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due mainly to non-selective scattering of the incident photons. In the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared (TIR), scattering is less of an issue, but heavy cloud cover can still obscure the ground due to atmospheric absorption. Thin clouds can be optically-transparent in the VNIR and TIR regions, but can cause errors in the extracted surface reflectance or derived surface temperatures. In regions prone to heavy cloud cover, optical remote sensing can be improved through increased temporal resolution. As more images are acquired in a given time period the chances of a clear image improve dramatically. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) routine monitoring, which commonly collects 4-6 images per day of any north Pacific volcano, takes advantage of this fact. The rapid

  14. New Insights into the Influence of Structural Controls Affecting Groundwater Flow and Storage Within an Ocean Island Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.; Wallin, E.; Pierce, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within Saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. In 2013, the project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl near the center of the Saddle, and has now completed a second borehole at an elevation of 1645 m on the western edge of the Saddle. Although the stratigraphy of the rocks is similar, dominantly pahoehoe lava flows with somewhat fewer a'a lavas and occasional dike rock intervals, the hydrologic character of the formation in the latter is distinctly different from the former. Whereas the former test hole encountered a few high elevation perched aquifers that were underlain by an inferred regional, dike-impounded, water table at an elevation of 1390 m amsl, the latter bore encountered a sequence of confined aquifers with heads substantially higher than depth of entry. The shallowest of the confined aquifers was encountered at an elevation of 1340 m and showed a hydrostatic head of >160 m when the capping formation was breached. Deeper confined aquifers showed initial heads of > 400 m although none had heads sufficient to discharge at the surface. Most of the confined aquifers were associated with clay-rich ash beds that mantled the more permeable lavas however one of the deeper confined zones, that showed the highest head, was associated with a highly compacted breccia zone that has tentatively been ascribed to an explosive deposit. Chemical analysis of the clasts within this layer is underway to determine whether this deposit is associated with explosive activity of Mauna Kea or with another volcano on the island. Previous geophysical surveys have suggested that these confined aquifers may extend well down the leeward slopes of Mauna Kea. Evidence of multiple confining layers within the flanks of Mauna Kea suggest that its

  15. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Zhiming; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.

  16. The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: The First 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea Volcano since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in volcano monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.

  17. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  18. Trace element abundances of high-MgO glasses from Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala volcanoes, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.P.; Clague, D.A.; Hauri, E.H.; Grove, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    We performed an ion-microprobe study of eleven high-MgO (6.7-14.8 wt%) tholeiite glasses from the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala. We determined the rare earth (RE), high field strength, and other selected trace element abundances of these glasses, and used the data to establish their relationship to typical Hawaiian shield tholeiite and to infer characteristics of their source. The glasses have trace element abundance characteristics generally similar to those of typical shield tholeiites, e.g. L(light)REE/H(heavy)REE(C1) > 1. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa glasses, however, display trace and major element characteristics that cross geochemical discriminants observed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield lavas. The glasses contain a blend of these discriminating chemical characteristics, and are not exactly like the typical shield lavas from either volcano. The production of these hybrid magmas likely requires a complexly zoned source, rather than two unique sources. When corrected for olivine fractionation, the glass data show correlations between CaO concentration and incompatible trace element abundances, indicating that CaO may behave incompatibly during melting of the tholeiite source. Furthermore, the tholeiite source must contain residual garnet and clinopyroxene to account for the variation in trace element abundances of the Kilauea glasses. Inversion modeling indicates that the Kilauea source is flat relative to C1 chondrites, and has a higher bulk distribution coefficient for the HREE than the LREE.

  19. Two hundred years of magma transport and storage at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, 1790-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Klein, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    This publication summarizes the evolution of the internal plumbing of Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaiʻi from the first documented eruption in 1790 to the explosive eruption of March 2008 in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. For the period before the founding of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912, we rely on written observations of eruptive activity, earthquake swarms, and periodic draining of magma from the lava lake present in Kīlauea Caldera. After 1912 the written observations are supplemented by continuous measurement of tilting of the ground at Kīlauea’s summit and by a continuous instrumental record of earthquakes, both measurements made during 1912–56 by a single pendulum seismometer housed on the northeast edge of Kīlauea’s summit. Interpretations become more robust following the installation of seismic and deformation networks in the 1960s. A major advance in the 1990s was the ability to continuously record and telemeter ground deformation to allow its precise correlation with seismic activity before and after eruptions, intrusions, and large earthquakes.

  20. A century of studying effusive eruptions in Hawai'i: Chapter 9 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katherine V.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established as a natural laboratory to study volcanic processes. Since the most frequent form of volcanic activity in Hawai‘i is effusive, a major contribution of the past century of research at HVO has been to describe and quantify lava flow emplacement processes. Lava flow research has taken many forms; first and foremost it has been a collection of basic observational data on active lava flows from both Mauna Loa and Kīlauea volcanoes that have occurred over the past 100 years. Both the types and quantities of observational data have changed with changing technology; thus, another important contribution of HVO to lava flow studies has been the application of new observational techniques. Also important has been a long-term effort to measure the physical properties (temperature, viscosity, crystallinity, and so on) of flowing lava. Field measurements of these properties have both motivated laboratory experiments and presaged the results of those experiments, particularly with respect to understanding the rheology of complex fluids. Finally, studies of the dynamics of lava flow emplacement have combined detailed field measurements with theoretical models to build a framework for the interpretation of lava flows in numerous other terrestrial, submarine, and planetary environments. Here, we attempt to review all these aspects of lava flow studies and place them into a coherent framework that we hope will motivate future research.

  1. Identifying elements of the plumbing system beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from the source locations of very-long-period signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Bond, T.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed 16 seismic events recorded by the Hawaiian broad-band seismic network at Kilauca Volcano during the period September 9-26, 1999. Two distinct types of event are identified based on their spectral content, very-long-period (VLP) waveform, amplitude decay pattern and particle motion. We locate the VLP signals with a method based on analyses of semblance and particle motion. Different source regions are identified for the two event types. One source region is located at depths of ~1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. A second region is located at depths of ~8 km below the northwest quadrant of Kilauea caldera. Our study represents the first time that such deep sources have been identified in VLP data at Kilauea. This discovery opens the possibility of obtaining a detailed image of the location and geometry of the magma plumbing system beneath this volcano based on source locations and moment tensor inversions of VLP signals recorded by a permanent, large-aperture broad-band network.

  2. 40 CFR 81.409 - Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii. 81.409 Section 81.409... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.409 Hawaii. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Haleakala NP 27,208 87-744 USDI-NPS Hawaii Volcanoes 217,029 64-171 USDI-NPS ...

  3. Fault frictional parameters and material properties revealed by slow slip events at Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James H.; Lowry, Anthony R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.

    2013-12-01

    categorize slow slip events at Kilauea Volcano into two distinct families based on GPS measurements of the surface displacement patterns. An event correlation filter confirms that "eastern" and "western" families are statistically distinguishable, with the western family notably self-similar. The western family exhibits quasi-periodicity with regular repeat times, while eastern family events are aperiodic or have complicated periodicity. If the decollement is the source fault for both families of events, it must have varying frictional properties at the ~10 km scale of separation. The temporal slip and spatial scaling behavior are consistent with a simplistic rate- and state-dependent frictional formalism provided that the characteristic slip distance for state evolution, Dc, is of the order of millimeters rather than the 10-100 µm typically found in lab studies, and the shear rigidity is around 2 GPa, consistent with fault gouge material.

  4. Satellite monitoring of dramatic changes at Hawai'i's only alpine lake: Lake Waiau on Mauna Kea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Waiau is a small, typically 100-meter-long lake, located near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is Hawaiʻi’s only alpine lake and is considered sacred in Hawaiian cultural tradition. Over the past few years, the lake has diminished in size, and, by October 2013, surface water had almost completely disappeared from the lake. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs to document recent changes at the lake. Based on our reconstructions covering the past 200 years, the historical lake surface area has typically ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 square meters, but in 2010 a dramatic plunge in lake area ensued. The lake area rebounded significantly in early 2014, following heavy winter storms. This near disappearance of the lake, judging from analysis of visitor photographs and field reports, appears to be highly unusual, if not unprecedented, in the historical record. The unusually low water levels in the lake are consistent with a recent severe drought in Hawaiʻi.

  5. A delicate balance of magmatic-tectonic interaction at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, revealed from slow slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta

    2015-01-01

    Eleven slow slip events (SSEs) have occurred on the southern flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai’i, since 1997 through 2014. We analyze this series of SSEs in the context of Kilauea’s magma system to assess whether or not there are interactions between these tectonic events and eruptive/intrusive activity. Over time, SSEs have increased in magnitude and become more regular, with interevent times averaging 2.44 ± 0.15 years since 2003. Two notable SSEs that impacted both the flank and the magmatic system occurred in 2007, when an intrusion and small eruption on the East Rift Zone were part of a feedback with a SSE and 2012, when slow slip induced 2.5 cm of East Rift Zone opening (but without any change in eruptive activity). A summit inflation event and surge in East Rift Zone lava effusion was associated with a SSE in 2005, but the inferred triggering relation is not clear due to a poorly constrained slip onset time. Our results demonstrate that slow slip along Kilauea’s décollement has the potential to trigger and be triggered by activity within the volcano’s magma system. Since only three of the SSEs have been associated with changes in magmatic activity within the summit and rift zones, both the décollement and magma system must be close to failure for triggering to occur.

  6. A preliminary survey of the broadband seismic wavefield at Puu Oo, the active vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Okubo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic wavefield near an active volcanic vent consists of superimposed signals in a wide range of frequency bands from sources inside and outside the volcano. To characterize the broadband wavefield near Puu Oo, we deployed a profile of three three-component broadband sensors in a 200 m long line about 1.5 km WSW of the active vent. During this period, Puu Oo maintained a constant, but very low level of activity. The digital data logger recorded the wavefield continuously in the frequency band between 0.01 and 40 Hz between June 25 and July 9, 1994. At the same time, local wind conditions along with air temperature and pressure were monitored by a portable digital weather station. On the basis of characteristic elements, such as waveform, spatial coherence between stations, particle motion and power spectra, the wavefield can be divided into three bands. The dominant signals in the frequency band between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz are not coherent among the stations. Their ground velocities correlate with the wind speed. The signals in the 0.1 to 0.5 Hz band are coherent across the profile and most probably represent a superposition of volcanic tremor and microseisms from the Pacific Ocean. Much of the energy above 0.5 Hz can be attributed to activity at the vent. Power spectra from recordings of the transverse components show complex peaks between 0.5 and 3 Hz which vary in amplitude due to site effects and distance. On the other hand, power spectra calculated from the radial components show a clearly periodic pattern of peaks at 1 Hz intervals for some time segments. A further remarkable feature of the power spectra is that they are highly stationary.

  7. Organizational preparedness for and management of volcanic crises at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Reeves, A.; Lindell, M. K.; Prater, C.; Joyner, T. A.; Eggert, S.

    2016-12-01

    The eruption of Kīlauea volcano since 1983 has produced a series of crises, the latest one occurring in 2014 and 2015 when a new vent sent lava flows northeastward toward developed areas in the lower Puna District of Kīlauea. The June 27 lava flow took about 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas in Puna, prompting widespread reaction. Volcanic eruptions often have large economic consequences out of proportion with their magnitudes, and uncertainties about the physical and organizational communication of risk information amplify these losses. This study aims to improve tools to communicate uncertainty of volcanic activity and organizational and individual response, offering clearer and more reliable information to guide civic leaders in issuing appropriate warnings. One significant impediment to risk communication is limited knowledge about the most effective ways to communicate scientific uncertainty through verbal, numeric and graphic methods. The public's demand for near-real time information updates during the June 27 lava crisis, including both written messages and graphics, required some agencies to provide information at a faster rate than in any previous eruption. In order to understand how these and other stakeholders involved with the crisis can better plan for and manage future crises, including implementing evacuation decisions, we conducted a series of interviews and a mental model exercise with stakeholders. We explored their knowledge of local risk communication messages and hazard mitigation efforts and their experiences during the June 27 lava flow crisis. Stakeholders represented county, state and federal agencies and included elected officials, emergency managers, scientists, and other professionals involved with the crisis (traffic engineers, land use planners, police officers, fire fighters). We also assessed factors that influence individual and household preparedness to implement officials' protective action recommendations

  8. Phreatomagmatic and phreatic fall and surge deposits from explosions at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 1790 a.d.: Keanakakoi Ash Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, J.; Walker, G.P.L.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    In or around 1790 a.d. an explosive eruption took place in the summit caldera of Kilauea shield volcano. A group of Hawaiian warriors close to the caldera at the time were killed by the effects of the explosions. The stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits surrounding Kilauea (i.e., the Keanakakoi Ash Member) suggests that the explosions referred to in the historic record were the culmination of a prolonged hydrovolcanic eruption consisting of three main phases. The first phase was phreatomagmatic and generated well-bedded, fine fallout ash rich in glassy, variably vesiculated, juvenile magmatic and dense, lithic pyroclasts. The ash was mainly dispersed to the southwest of the caldera by the northeasterly trade winds. The second phase produced a Strombolian-style scoria fall deposit followed by phreatomagmatic ash similar to that of the first phase, though richer in accretionary lapilli and lithics. The third and culminating phase was phreatic and deposited lithic-rich lapilli and block fall layers, interbedded with cross-bedded surge deposits, and accretionary lapilli-rich, fine ash beds. These final explosions may have been responsible for the deaths of the warriors. The three phases were separated by quiescent spells during which the primary deposits were eroded and transported downwind in dunes migrating southwestward and locally excavated by fluvial runoff close to the rim. The entire hydrovolcanic eruption may have lasted for weeks or perhaps months. At around the same time, lava erupted from Kilauea's East Rift Zone and probably drained magma from the summit storage. The earliest descriptions of Kilauea (30 years after the Keanakakoi eruption) emphasize the great depth of the floor (300-500 m below the rim) and the presence of stepped ledges. It is therefore likely that the Keanakakoi explosions were deepseated within Kilauea, and that the vent rim was substantially lower than the caldera rim. The change from phreatomagmatic to phreatic phases may reflect the

  9. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  10. Morphology and composition of spinel in Pu'u 'O'o lava (1996-1998), Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, P.L.; Thornber, C.; Poustovetov, A.; Grant, A.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology and composition of spinel in rapidly quenched Pu'u 'O'o vent and lava tube samples are described. These samples contain glass, olivine phenocrysts (3-5 vol.%) and microphenocrysts of spinel (~0.05 vol.%). The spinel surrounded by glass occurs as idiomorphic octahedra 5-50 μm in diameter and as chains of octahedra that are oriented with respect to each other. Spinel enclosed by olivine phenocrysts is sometimes rounded and does not generally form chains. The temperature before quenching was calculated from the MgO content of the glass and ranges from 1150oC to 1180oC. The oxygen fugacity before quenching was calculated by two independent methods and the log f O2 ranged from -9.2 to -9.9 (delta QFM=-1). The spinel in the Pu'u'O'o samples has a narrow range in composition with Cr/(Cr+Al)=0.61 to 0.73 and Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg) =0.46 to 0.56. The lower the calculated temperature for the samples, the higher the average Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg), Fe3+ and Ti in the spinel. Most zoned spinel crystals decrease in Cr/(Cr+Al) from core to rim and, in the chains, the Cr/(Cr+Al) is greater in the core of larger crystals than in the core of smaller crystals. The occurrence of chains and hopper crystals and the presence of Cr/(Cr+Al) zoning from core to rim of the spinel suggest diffusion-controlled growth of the crystals. Some of the spinel crystals may have grown rapidly under the turbulent conditions of the summit reservoir and in the flowing lava, and the crystals may have remained in suspension for a considerable period. The rapid growth may have caused very local (μm) gradients of Cr in the melt ahead of the spinel crystal faces. The crystals seem to have retained the Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio that developed during the original growth of the crystal, but the Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg) ratio may have equilibrated fairly rapidly with the changing melt composition due to olivine crystallization. Six of the samples were collected on the same day at various locations along a 10-km lava tube and the

  11. Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aciego, S.M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.; Renne, P.R.; Sims, K.W.W.

    2009-10-01

    Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 {+-} 40 ka to 119 {+-} 23 ka (2{sigma} uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 {+-} 54 ka and a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 450 {+-} 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published {sup 14}C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from {sup 238}U - {sup 230}Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar (>10%), and where the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 {+-} 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are

  12. Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, S. M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D. J.; Kennedy, B. M.; Renne, P. R.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2010-03-01

    Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii have been dated using the 40Ar/ 39Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with 40Ar/ 39Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 ± 40 to 119 ± 23 ka (2 σ uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than 40Ar/ 39Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 ± 54 ka and a 40Ar/ 39Ar age of 450 ± 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious 40Ar/ 39Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published 14C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from 238U- 230Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and 40Ar/ 39Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic 40Ar (>10%), and where the 40Ar/ 36Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and 40Ar/ 39Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while 40Ar/ 39Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 ± 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and 40Ar/ 39Ar methods are complimentary for basalts with ages of order 100-500 ka.

  13. Geodetic evidence for en echelon dike emplacement and concurrent slow slip during the June 2007 intrusion and eruption at Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Sinnett, D.K.; Poland, M.; Segall, P.; Orr, T.; Zebker, H.; Miklius, Asta

    2010-01-01

    A series of complex events at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, 17 June to 19 June 2007, began with an intrusion in the upper east rift zone (ERZ) and culminated with a small eruption (1500 m3). Surface deformation due to the intrusion was recorded in unprecedented detail by Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt networks as well as interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired by the ENVISAT and ALOS satellites. A joint nonlinear inversion of GPS, tilt, and InSAR data yields a deflationary source beneath the summit caldera and an ENE-striking uniform-opening dislocation with ~2 m opening, a dip of ∼80° to the south, and extending from the surface to ~2 km depth. This simple model reasonably fits the overall pattern of deformation but significantly misfits data near the western end of an inferred dike-like source. Three more complex dike models are tested that allow for distributed opening including (1) a dike that follows the surface trace of the active rift zone, (2) a dike that follows the symmetry axis of InSAR deformation, and (3) two en echelon dike segments beneath mapped surface cracks and newly formed steaming areas. The en echelon dike model best fits near-field GPS and tilt data. Maximum opening of 2.4 m occurred on the eastern segment beneath the eruptive vent. Although this model represents the best fit to the ERZ data, it still fails to explain data from a coastal tiltmeter and GPS sites on Kīlauea's southwestern flank. The southwest flank GPS sites and the coastal tiltmeter exhibit deformation consistent with observations of previous slow slip events beneath Kīlauea's south flank, but inconsistent with observations of previous intrusions. Slow slip events at Kīlauea and elsewhere are thought to occur in a transition zone between locked and stably sliding zones of a fault. An inversion including slip on a basal decollement improves fit to these data and suggests a maximum of ~15 cm of seaward fault motion, comparable to previous slow

  14. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C.; De La, Llera; Lara, L.E.; Lowenstern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile’s southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  15. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles; de la Llera, Juan Carlos; Lara, Luis E; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2011-10-19

    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile's southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours (ref. 1) and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  16. Seismicity and Deformation of Krafla Volcano, Iceland. Intervals of Low Seismicity Rate during Rapid Inflation Explained By the Kaiser Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Krafla central volcano in NE-Iceland produced about 20 dike intrusions during a rifting episode 1975-1984. These intrusions were always preceded by inflation of the caldera. Once a dike started propagating rapid deflation was observed. The first deflation event began in December 1975 with a dike traveling laterally from the magma chamber. Leveling measurements revealed subsidence of 2 m close to the deflation center. In February 1976 a stage of inflation began and at the same time the seismicity rate in the caldera rose in good correlation with the inflation. A small intrusion started propagating in late September 1976 which was accompanied by maximum subsidence of about 14 cm. However in the next 3 inflation and deflation cycles the inflation periods were almost aseismic until the inflation level of previous cycle was exceeded. At that point a sharp increase in the caldera earthquake count was observed. This phenomenon was observed until late April 1977 when a fissure eruption occurred inside the caldera. By inverting leveling data from 87 stations for a Mogi source and regarding the volume change of the source as a measure of stress we suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the Kaiser effect. The Kaiser effect is well known from rock mechanics where under cyclic loading and unloading rocks, and other materials, induce dramatic increase in acoustic emissions when the load exceeds that of previous cycles. Krafla demonstrated the same effect while the external stress field was not significantly changed during the aforementioned 3 inflation/deflation cycles. This condition was disturbed when eruption occurred inside the caldera. The state of stress in the vicinity of the magma chamber was changed and subsequent inflation periods were not accompanied by significant seismicity. These results indicate that the Kaiser effect is an important part of understanding the relationship between deformation and seismicity in active volcanoes. The importance of

  17. Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation

  18. Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation

  19. The Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt: product of violent phreatomagmatic eruptions at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, between 2800 and 2100 14C years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.; Lockwood, J.P.; Casadevall, T.J.; Rubin, M.

    1995-01-01

    Kilauea volcano's reputation for relatively gentle effusive eruptions belies a violent geologic past, including several large phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions that are recorded by Holocene pyroclastic deposits which mantle Kilauea's summit area and the southeast flank of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano. The most widespread of these deposits is the Uwekahuna Ash Member, a basaltic surge and fall deposit emplaced during two or more eruptive episodes separated by a few decades to several centuries. It is infered that the eruptions which produced the Uwekahuna were driven by water interacting with a fluctuating magma column. The volume, extent and character of the Uwekahuna deposits underscore the hazards posed by relatively infrequent but potentially devastating explosive eruptions at Kilauea, as well as at other basaltic volcanoes. -from Authors

  20. Dynamics of an unusual cone-building trachyte eruption at Pu`u Wa`awa`a, Hualālai volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas; Leonhardi, Tanis; Giachetti, Thomas; Lindoo, Amanda; Larsen, Jessica; Sinton, John; Parsons, Elliott

    2017-04-01

    The Pu`u Wa`awa`a pyroclastic cone and Pu`u Anahulu lava flow are two prominent monogenetic eruptive features assumed to result from a single eruption during the trachyte-dominated early post-shield stage of Hualālai volcano (Hawaíi). Púu Wa`awa`a is composed of complex repetitions of crudely cross-stratified units rich in dark dense clasts, which reversely grade into coarser pumice-rich units. Pyroclasts from the cone are extremely diverse texturally, ranging from glassy obsidian to vesicular scoria or pumice, in addition to fully crystalline end-members. The >100-m thick Pu`u Anahulu flow is, in contrast, entirely holocrystalline. Using field observations coupled with whole rock analyses, this study aimed to test whether the Pu`u Wa`awa`a tephra and Pu`u Anahulu lava flows originated from the same eruption, as had been previously assumed. Crystal and vesicle textures are characterized along with the volatile contents of interstitial glasses to determine the origin of textural variability within Pu`u Wáawáa trachytes (e.g., magma mixing vs. degassing origin). We find that (1) the two eruptions likely originated from distinct vents and magma reservoirs, despite their proximity and similar age, (2) the textural diversity of pyroclasts forming Pu`u Wa`awa`a can be fully explained by variable magma degassing and outgassing within the conduit, (3) the Pu`u Wa`awa`a cone was constructed during explosions transitional in style between violent Strombolian and Vulcanian, involving the formation of a large cone and with repeated disruption of conduit plugs, but without production of large pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), and (4) the contrasting eruption styles of Hawaiian trachytes (flow-, cone-, and PDC-forming) are probably related to differences in the outgassing capacity of the magmas prior to reaching the surface and not in intrinsic compositional or temperature properties. These results further highlight that trachytes are "kinetically faster" magmas compared

  1. Machine Learning Method for Pattern Recognition in Volcano Seismic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, V.; Unglert, K.; Jellinek, M.

    2016-12-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity related to changes in volcanic activity are commonly identified manually in spectrograms. However, long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require tools to facilitate automated and rapid processing. Techniques such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering methods can help to quickly and automatically identify important patterns related to impending eruptions. In this study we develop and evaluate an algorithm applied on a set of synthetic volcano seismic spectra as well as observed spectra from Kılauea Volcano, Hawai`i. Our goal is to retrieve a set of known spectral patterns that are associated with dominant phases of volcanic tremor before, during, and after periods of volcanic unrest. The algorithm is based on training a SOM on the spectra and then identifying local maxima and minima on the SOM 'topography'. The topography is derived from the first two PCA modes so that the maxima represent the SOM patterns that carry most of the variance in the spectra. Patterns identified in this way reproduce the known set of spectra. Our results show that, regardless of the level of white noise in the spectra, the algorithm can accurately reproduce the characteristic spectral patterns and their occurrence in time. The ability to rapidly classify spectra of volcano seismic data without prior knowledge of the character of the seismicity at a given volcanic system holds great potential for real time or near-real time applications, and thus ultimately for eruption forecasting.

  2. Extraordinary sediment delivery and rapid geomorphic response following the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Bertin, Daniel; Pierson, Thomas C.; Amigo, Alvaro; Iroume, Andres; Ulloa, Hector; Castro, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    The 10 day explosive phase of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, draped adjacent watersheds with a few cm to >1 m of tephra. Subsequent lava-dome collapses generated pyroclastic flows that delivered additional sediment. During the waning phase of explosive activity, modest rainfall triggered an extraordinary sediment flush which swiftly aggraded multiple channels by many meters. Ten kilometer from the volcano, Chaitén River channel aggraded 7 m and the river avulsed through a coastal town. That aggradation and delta growth below the abandoned and avulsed channels allow estimates of postdisturbance traction-load transport rate. On the basis of preeruption bathymetry and remotely sensed measurements of delta-surface growth, we derived a time series of delta volume. The initial flush from 11 to 14 May 2008 deposited 0.5–1.5 × 106 m3 of sediment at the mouth of Chaitén River. By 26 May, after channel avulsion, a second delta amassed about 2 × 106 m3 of sediment; by late 2011 it amassed about 11 × 106 m3. Accumulated sediment consists of low-density vesicular pumice and lithic rhyolite sand. Rates of channel aggradation and delta growth, channel width, and an assumed deposit bulk density of 1100–1500 kg m−3 indicate mean traction-load transport rate just before and shortly after avulsion (∼14–15 May) was very high, possibly as great as several tens of kg s−1 m−1. From October 2008 to December 2011, mean traction-load transport rate declined from about 7 to 0.4 kg−1 m−1. Despite extraordinary sediment delivery, disturbed channels recovered rapidly (a few years).

  3. Extraordinary sediment delivery and rapid geomorphic response following the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Bertin, Daniel; Pierson, Thomas C.; Amigo, Álvaro; Iroumé, Andrés.; Ulloa, Héctor; Castro, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The 10 day explosive phase of the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, draped adjacent watersheds with a few cm to >1 m of tephra. Subsequent lava-dome collapses generated pyroclastic flows that delivered additional sediment. During the waning phase of explosive activity, modest rainfall triggered an extraordinary sediment flush which swiftly aggraded multiple channels by many meters. Ten kilometer from the volcano, Chaitén River channel aggraded 7 m and the river avulsed through a coastal town. That aggradation and delta growth below the abandoned and avulsed channels allow estimates of postdisturbance traction-load transport rate. On the basis of preeruption bathymetry and remotely sensed measurements of delta-surface growth, we derived a time series of delta volume. The initial flush from 11 to 14 May 2008 deposited 0.5-1.5 × 106 m3 of sediment at the mouth of Chaitén River. By 26 May, after channel avulsion, a second delta amassed about 2 × 106 m3 of sediment; by late 2011 it amassed about 11 × 106 m3. Accumulated sediment consists of low-density vesicular pumice and lithic rhyolite sand. Rates of channel aggradation and delta growth, channel width, and an assumed deposit bulk density of 1100-1500 kg m-3 indicate mean traction-load transport rate just before and shortly after avulsion (˜14-15 May) was very high, possibly as great as several tens of kg s-1 m-1. From October 2008 to December 2011, mean traction-load transport rate declined from about 7 to 0.4 kg-1 m-1. Despite extraordinary sediment delivery, disturbed channels recovered rapidly (a few years).

  4. Rapid dike intrusion into Sakurajima volcano on August 15, 2015, as detected by multi-parameter ground deformation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of ground deformation at Sakurajima in August 2015 and model the deformation using a combination of GNSS, tilt and strain data in order to interpret a rapid deformation event on August 15, 2015. The pattern of horizontal displacement during the period from August 14 to 16, 2015, shows a WNW-ESE extension, which suggests the opening of a dike. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtained the position, dip, strike length, width and opening of a dislocation source based on the combined data. A nearly vertical dike with a NNE-SSW strike was found at a depth of 1.0 km below sea level beneath the Showa crater. The length and width are 2.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, and a dike opening of 1.97 m yields a volume increase of 2.7 × 106 m3. 887 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes beside the dike suggest that the rapid opening of the dike caused an accumulation of strain in the surrounding rocks, and the VT earthquakes were generated to release this strain. Half of the total amount of deformation was concentrated between 10:27 and 11:54 on August 15. It is estimated that the magma intrusion rate was 1 × 106 m3/h during this period. This is 200 times larger than the magma intrusion rate prior to one of the biggest eruptions at the summit crater of Minami-dake on July 24, 2012, and 2200 times larger than the average magma intrusion rate during the period from October 2011 to March 2012. The previous Mogi-type ground deformation is considered to be a process of magma accumulation in preexisting spherical reservoirs. Conversely, the August 2015 event was a dike intrusion and occurred in a different location to the preexisting reservoirs. The direction of the opening of the dike coincides with the T-axes and direction of faults creating a graben structure.

  5. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the Moon: Moessbauer Spectroscopy as a Process Monitor for Oxygen Production. Results from a Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Schroder, C.; Graff, T.G.; Sanders, G.B.; Lee, K.A.; Simon, T.M.; Larson, W.E.; Quinn, J.W.; Clark, L.D.; Caruso, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Essential consumables like oxygen must to be produced from materials on the lunar surface to enable a sustained, long-term presence of humans on the Moon. The Outpost Precursor for ISRU and Modular Architecture (OPTIMA) field test on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, facilitated by the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) of the University of Hawaii at Hilo, was designed to test the implementation of three hardware concepts to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith: Precursor ISRU Lunar Oxygen Testbed (PILOT) developed by Lockheed Martin in Littleton, CO; Regolith & Environmental Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL; and ROxygen developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The three concepts differ in design, but all rely on the same general principle: hydrogen reduction of metal cations (primarily Fe2+) bonded to oxygen to metal (e.g., Fe0) with the production of water. The hydrogen source is residual hydrogen in the fuel tanks of lunar landers. Electrolysis of the water produces oxygen and hydrogen (which is recycled). We used the miniaturized M ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II to quantify the yield of this process on the basis of the quantity of Fe0 produced. Iron M ssbauer spectroscopy identifies iron-bearing phases, determines iron oxidation states, and quantifies the distribution of iron between mineral phases and oxidation states. The oxygen yield can be calculated by quantitative measurements of the distribution of Fe among oxidation states in the regolith before and after hydrogen reduction. A M ssbauer spectrometer can also be used as a prospecting tool to select the optimum feedstock for the oxygen production plants (e.g., high total Fe content and easily reduced phases). As a demonstration, a MIMOS II backscatter spectrometer (SPESI, Germany) was mounted on the Cratos rover (NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH), which is one of

  6. Assessing individual and organizational response to volcanic crisis and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ashleigh; Gregg, Chris; Lindell, Michael; Prater, Carla; Joyner, Timothy; Eggert, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    This study describes response to and preparedness for eruption and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, respectively. The on-going 1983-present eruption of Kīlauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has generated a series of lava flow crises, the latest occurring in 2014 and 2015 when lava from a new vent flowed northeast and into the perimeter of developed areas in the lower Puna District, some 20km distant. It took ca. 2 months for the June 27 lava flow to advance a distance to which scientists reported it might be a concern to people downslope, but this prompted widespread formal and informal responses and culminated in improvements to infrastructure, voluntary evacuations of residents and businesses and closure of schools. Unlike Kīlauea, which has had frequent crises since the mid-20th century, the last eruption of nearby Mauna Loa occurred in 1984 and the last eruption and crisis on its Southwest Rift Zone (SWZ) was in 1950, so residents there are less familiar with eruptions than in Puna. In September 2015, the US Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory upgraded Mauna Loa's Alert Level from Normal to Advisory due to increases in unrest above known background levels. A crisis on Mauna Loa's SWZ would likely be much different than the recent 2014-15 crisis at Kīlauea as steep topography downslope of the SWZ and typical high discharge rates mean lava flows move fast, posing increased risk to areas downslope. Typically, volcanic eruptions have significant economic consequences out of proportion with their magnitudes. Furthermore, uncertainties regarding the physical and organizational communication of risk information amplify these economic losses. One significant impediment to risk communication is limited knowledge about the most effective ways to verbally, numerically and graphically communicate scientific uncertainty. This was a challenge in the recent lava flow crisis on Kīlauea. The public's demand for near-real time information updates, including

  7. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  8. Formation of a Phyllosilicate-, K-feldspar-, and Sulfate-Bearing Hematite Ridge on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, Under Hydrothermal, Acid-Sulfate Conditions: Process and Mineralogical Analog for the Hematite Ridge on Mt. Sharp, Gale Crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Adams, M. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Fraeman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is currently moving upslope on Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater toward a hematite-bearing ridge. This hematite exposure was originally detected in CRISM spectra and subsequently mapped as part of a ~200 m wide, 6.5 km long ridge extending roughly parallel to the base of Mt. Sharp. CRISM spectra in the region suggest that hematite, smectite, and hydrated sulfates occur as secondary phases in lower layers of Mt. Sharp, separated by an unconformity from overlying anhydrous strata. A potential process and mineralogical analog is a hematite-bearing and weathering-resistant stratum (ridge) is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone on Mauna Kea (MK) volcano, Hawaii. The MK ridge is the product of hydrothermal alteration of basaltic precursors under acid-sulfate conditions. We are acquiring chemical and mineralogical (VNIR, Mid-IR, and backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission XRD) data on the MK ridge area that correspond to rover and orbiting spacecraft measurements at Gale Crater and elsewhere. The hematite-bearing stratum does not have detectable sulfate minerals by XRD, and hematite is variably present as up to mm-sized black crystals which, together with associated trioctahedral smectite and K-feldspar (from XRD), imply hydrothermal conditions. Adjacent to the MK hematite-bearing stratum are sulfates (jarosite and alunite) that are evidence for aqueous alteration under acid-sulfate conditions, and more soluble sulfates are absent but such phases would not persist if formed because of annual precipitation. Dioctahedral smectite is associated with red hematite and alunite-rich samples. The black and red hematite zones have the highest and lowest MgO/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O ratios, respectively. Hematite, smectite, jarosite, and K-feldspar have been detected by Curiosity XRD downslope from the Mt. Sharp hematite ridge. MK field work and samples were obtained with PISCES partnership and OMKM, MKMB, BLNR, and KKMC permissions.

  9. Emplacement of subaerial pahoehoe lava sheet flows into water: 1990 Kūpaianaha flow of Kilauea volcano at Kaimū Bay, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Susumu; Nonaka, Miyuki; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Episode 48 of the ongoing eruption of Kilauea, Hawai`i, began in July 1986 and continuously extruded lava for the next 5.5 years from a low shield, Kūpaianaha. The flows in March 1990 headed for Kalapana and inundated the entire town under 15–25 m of lava by the end of August. As the flows advanced eastward, they entered into Kaimū Bay, replacing it with a plain of lava that extends 300 m beyond the original shoreline. The focus of our study is the period from August 1 to October 31, 1990, when the lava buried almost 406,820 m2 of the 5-m deep bay. When lava encountered the sea, it flowed along the shoreline as a narrow primary lobe up to 400 m long and 100 m wide, which in turn inflated to a thickness of 5–6 m. The flow direction of the primary lobes was controlled by the submerged delta below the lavas and by damming up lavas fed at low extrusion rates. Breakout flows through circumferential and axial inflation cracks on the inflating primary lobes formed smaller secondary lobes, burying the lows between the primary lobes and hiding their original outlines. Inflated flow lobes eventually ruptured at proximal and/or distal ends as well as mid-points between the two ends, feeding new primary lobes which were emplaced along and on the shore side of the previously inflated lobes. The flow lobes mapped with the aid of aerial photographs were correlated with daily observations of the growing flow field, and 30 primary flow lobes were dated. Excluding the two repose periods that intervened while the bay was filled, enlargement of the flow field took place at a rate of 2,440–22,640 square meters per day in the bay. Lobe thickness was estimated to be up to 11 m on the basis of cross sections of selected lobes measured using optical measurement tools, measuring tape and hand level. The total flow-lobe volume added in the bay during August 1–October 31 was approximately 3.95 million m3, giving an average supply rate of 0.86 m3/s.

  10. Validation and Analysis of SRTM and VCL Data Over Tropical Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of our investigation was on the application of digital topographic data in conducting first-order volcanological and structural studies of tropical volcanoes, focusing on the Java, the Philippines and the Galapagos Islands. Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, served as our test site for SRTM data validation. Volcanoes in humid tropical environments are frequently cloud covered, typically densely vegetated and erode rapidly, so that it was expected that new insights into the styles of eruption of these volcanoes could be obtained from analysis of topographic data. For instance, in certain parts of the world, such as Indonesia, even the regional structural context of volcanic centers is poorly known, and the distribution of volcanic products (e.g., lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars) are not well mapped. SRTM and Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) data were expected to provide new information on these volcanoes. Due to the cancellation of the VCL mission, we did not conduct any lidar studies during the duration of this project. Digital elevation models (DEMs) such as those collected by SRTM provide quantitative information about the time-integrated typical activity on a volcano and allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal contributions of various constructional and destructional processes to each volcano's present morphology. For basaltic volcanoes, P_c?w!m-d and Garbed (2000) have shown that gradual slopes (less than 5 deg.) occur where lava and tephra pond within calderas or in the saddles between adjacent volcanoes, as well as where lava deltas coalesce to form coastal plains. Vent concentration zones (axes of rift zones) have slopes ranging from 10 deg. to 12 deg. Differential vertical growth rates between vent concentration zones and adjacent mostly-lava flanks produce steep constructional slopes up to 40". The steepest slopes (locally approaching 90 deg.) are produced by fluvial erosion, caldera collapse, faulting, and catastrophic avalanches, all of

  11. Avian disease and mosquito vectors in the Kahuku unit of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Ka`u Forest Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Egan, Ariel N.

    2015-01-01

    While avian disease has been well-studied in windward forests of Hawai‘i Island, there have been few studies in leeward Ka‘u. We surveyed four altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 m asl in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (Kahuku) and three altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 m asl in the Ka‘u Forest Reserve (Ka‘u) for the prevalence of avian disease and presence of mosquitoes. We collected blood samples from native and non-native forest birds and screened for avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) using PCR diagnostics. We examined birds for signs of avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.), knemidokoptic mange (Knemidokoptes jamaicensis) and feather ectoparasites. We also trapped adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes japonicus japonicus) and surveyed for available larval habitat. Between September, 2012 and October, 2014, we completed 3,219 hours of mist-netting in Kahuku capturing 515 forest birds and 3,103 hours of mist-netting in Ka‘u capturing 270 forest birds. We screened 750 blood samples for avian malaria. Prevalence of avian malaria in all species was higher in Ka‘u than Kahuku when all sites were combined for each tract. Prevalence of avian malaria in resident Hawai‘i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) was greatest at the lowest elevation sites in Kahuku (26%; 1,201 m asl) and Ka‘u (42%; 1,178 m asl) and in general, prevalence decreased with increasing elevation and geographically from east to west. Significantly higher prevalence was seen in Ka‘u at comparable low and mid elevation sites but not at comparable high elevation sites. The overall presumptive pox prevalence was 1.7% (13/785) for both tracts, and it was higher in native birds than non-native birds, but it was not significant. Presumptive knemidokoptic mange was detected at two sites in lower elevation Kahuku, with prevalence ranging from 2‒4%. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites (Analges and Proctophyllodes spp.) was 6.7% (53

  12. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  13. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. Volcano Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You might feel better to learn that an ‘active’ volcano is one that has erupted in the past ... miles away. If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, following these tips will help you ...

  16. Gravity data for the Island of Hawai`i, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes gravity measurements for the Island of Hawai`i collected as the source data for "Deep magmatic structures of Hawaiian volcanoes, imaged by three-dimensional gravity models" (Kauahikaua, Hildenbrand, and Webring, 2000). Data for 3,611 observations are stored as a single table and disseminated in .CSV format. Each observation record includes values for field station ID, latitude and longitude (in both Old Hawaiian and WGS84 projections), elevation, and Observed Gravity value. See associated publication for reduction and interpretation of these data.

  17. Hawaii Volcano IKONOS and Quickbird Imagery - Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Holocene eruptions of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S C

    1971-04-23

    Postglacial lava flows, interstratified with thick locally derived sheets of tephra, cover some 27.5 square kilometers on the south slope of Mauna Kea. Most of the volcanics were erupted about 4500 years ago and overlie a regionally extensive paleosol which developed largely during the last glaciation.

  19. Hawaii Volcano IKONOS and Quickbird Imagery - Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  20. Results from the Autonomous Triggering of in situ Sensors on Kilauea Volcano, HI, from Eruption Detection by Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, J.; Behar, A.; Davies, A.; Mora-Vargas, A.; Tran, D.; Abtahi, A.; Pieri, D. C.; Boudreau, K.; Cecava, J.

    2008-12-01

    Response time in acquiring sensor data in volcanic emergencies can be greatly improved through use of autonomous systems. For instance, ground-based observations and data processing applications of the JPL Volcano Sensor Web have promptly triggered spacecraft observations [e.g., 1]. The reverse command and information flow path can also be useful, using autonomous analysis of spacecraft data to trigger in situ sensors. In this demonstration project, SO2 sensors were incorporated into expendable "Volcano Monitor" capsules and placed downwind of the Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i. In nominal (low) power conservation mode, data from these sensors were collected and transmitted every hour to the Volcano Sensor Web through the Iridium Satellite Network. When SO2 readings exceeded a predetermined threshold, the modem within the Volcano Monitor sent an alert to the Sensor Web, and triggered a request for prompt Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft data acquisition. The Volcano Monitors were also triggered by the Sensor Web in response to an eruption detection by the MODIS instrument on Terra. During these pre- defined "critical events" the Sensor Web ordered the SO2 sensors within the Volcano Monitor to increase their sampling frequency to every 5 minutes (high power "burst mode"). Autonomous control of the sensors' sampling frequency enabled the Sensor Web to monitor and respond to rapidly evolving conditions, and allowed rapid compilation and dissemination of these data to the scientific community. Reference: [1] Davies et al., (2006) Eos, 87, (1), 1 and 5. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support was provided by the NASA AIST program, the Idaho Space Grant Consortium, and the New Mexico Space Grant Program. We also especially thank the personnel of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for their invaluable scientific guidance and logistical assistance.

  1. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  2. Dante's volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  3. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  4. The Use of Surveillance Cameras for the Rapid Mapping of Lava Flows: An Application to Mount Etna Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the observation capability in one of the most active volcanic areas in the world, Mt. Etna, we developed a processing method to use the surveillance cameras for a quasi real-time mapping of syn-eruptive processes. Following an evaluation of the current performance of the Etna permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and Visible Sensors (Etna_NETVIS, its possible implementation and optimization was investigated to determine the locations of additional observation sites to be rapidly set up during emergencies. A tool was then devised to process time series of ground-acquired images and extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of georeferenced map. The processed datasets can be used to extract 2D features such as evolution maps of active lava flows. The tool was validated on ad-hoc test fields and then adopted to map the evolution of two recent lava flows. The achievable accuracy (about three times the original pixel size and the short processing time makes the tool suitable for rapidly assessing lava flow evolutions, especially in the case of recurrent eruptions, such as those of the 2011–2015 Etna activity. The tool can be used both in standard monitoring activities and during emergency phases (eventually improving the present network with additional mobile stations when it is mandatory to carry out a quasi-real-time mapping to support civil protection actions. The developed tool could be integrated in the control room of the Osservatorio Etneo, thus enabling the Etna_NETVIS for mapping purposes and not only for video surveillance.

  5. Annotated bibliography, seismicity of and near the island of Hawaii and seismic hazard analysis of the East Rift of Kilauea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, F.W.

    1994-03-28

    This bibliography is divided into the following four sections: Seismicity of Hawaii and Kilauea Volcano; Occurrence, locations and accelerations from large historical Hawaiian earthquakes; Seismic hazards of Hawaii; and Methods of seismic hazard analysis. It contains 62 references, most of which are accompanied by short abstracts.

  6. Cesspools in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesspools are more widely used in Hawaii than in any other state in the country. EPA Region 9 is responsible for implementing the regulations in Hawaii and works with the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) to ensure effective implementation.

  7. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  8. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  9. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  10. Social Stratification and Higher Education Outcomes: The Case of Filipinos in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarios, Ernest Niki D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Filipinos are the second largest ethnic group in Hawai'i and their population continues to grow at a rapid pace. However, they are among the lower socioeconomic groups in Hawai'i and are disproportionately represented in the University of Hawai'i system--overrepresented in the community colleges while underrepresented at the flagship campus, the…

  11. Climate change, diversified agriculture and adaptive capacity in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export-oriented sugar cane and pineapple plantation agriculture once dominated Hawaii's economy but over the latter half of the 20th Century, there was a rapid decline in the production of these crops as Hawaii's competitive advantage over foreign producers dwindled. The decline of the plantations c...

  12. Hawaii geothermal resource assessment program: 1980 geophysics subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauahikaua, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    The following are discussed: microearthquake location mapping, gravity and magnetic mapping, computer software development, dc resistivity sounding on Maui, electromagnetic and resistivity sounds on Hawaii, evaluation of VLF and EM loop-loop profiling as tools for rapid geothermal reconnaissance in Hawaii, and the application of statistical analysis to the determination of geothermal indicators. (MHR)

  13. Lava Flow at Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On July 21, 2007, the world's most active volcano, Kilauea on Hawaii's Big Island, produced a new fissure eruption from the Pu'u O'o vent, which fed an open lava channel and lava flows toward the east. Access to the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve was closed due to fire and gas hazards. The two Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) nighttime thermal infrared images were acquired on August 21 and August 30, 2007. The brightest areas are the hottest lava flows from the recent fissure eruption. The large lava field extending down to the ocean is part of the Kupaianaha field. The most recent activity there ceased on June 20, but the lava is still hot and appears bright on the images. Magenta areas are cold lava flows from eruptions that occurred between 1969 and 2006. Clouds are cold (black) and the ocean is a uniform warm temperature, and light gray in color. These images are being used by volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaii Volcano Observatory to help monitor the progress of the lava flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Santorini Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  16. Coconut Trees in Hawaii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Hawaii is the southernmost state in the United States.It is nearly at the center of the north Pacific Ocean. More than six million people visit Hawaii every year.They enjoy the beautiful land and the warm weather.They swim,catch the whales and visit the gardens.Hawaii has some of the most beautiful,interesting and unusual places on the earth.

  17. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo Bay...

  18. Hawaii Schools See Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Hawaii's energy conservation efforts. Faced with high electricity costs, the Hawaii Department of Education instituted a pilot program in which schools could earn back half the amount they saved in electricity over the course of a semester. As a result, one school's electricity use decreased by more than 10% for the…

  19. Principal component analysis vs. self-organizing maps combined with hierarchical clustering for pattern recognition in volcano seismic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, K.; Radić, V.; Jellinek, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity related to changes in volcanic activity are commonly identified manually in spectrograms. However, long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require tools to facilitate automated and rapid processing. Techniques such as self-organizing maps (SOM) and principal component analysis (PCA) can help to quickly and automatically identify important patterns related to impending eruptions. For the first time, we evaluate the performance of SOM and PCA on synthetic volcano seismic spectra constructed from observations during two well-studied eruptions at Klauea Volcano, Hawai'i, that include features observed in many volcanic settings. In particular, our objective is to test which of the techniques can best retrieve a set of three spectral patterns that we used to compose a synthetic spectrogram. We find that, without a priori knowledge of the given set of patterns, neither SOM nor PCA can directly recover the spectra. We thus test hierarchical clustering, a commonly used method, to investigate whether clustering in the space of the principal components and on the SOM, respectively, can retrieve the known patterns. Our clustering method applied to the SOM fails to detect the correct number and shape of the known input spectra. In contrast, clustering of the data reconstructed by the first three PCA modes reproduces these patterns and their occurrence in time more consistently. This result suggests that PCA in combination with hierarchical clustering is a powerful practical tool for automated identification of characteristic patterns in volcano seismic spectra. Our results indicate that, in contrast to PCA, common clustering algorithms may not be ideal to group patterns on the SOM and that it is crucial to evaluate the performance of these tools on a control dataset prior to their application to real data.

  20. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  1. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  2. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  3. Slow slip event at Kilauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Wilson, J. David; Okubo, Paul G.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Segall, Paul; Brooks, Benjamin; Foster, James; Wolfe, Cecily; Syracuse, Ellen; Thurbe, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Early in the morning of 1 February 2010 (UTC; early afternoon 31 January 2010 local time), continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt instruments detected a slow slip event (SSE) on the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The SSE lasted at least 36 hours and resulted in a maximum of about 3 centimeters of seaward displacement. About 10 hours after the start of the slip, a flurry of small earthquakes began (Figure 1) in an area of the south flank recognized as having been seismically active during past SSEs [Wolfe et al., 2007], suggesting that the February earthquakes were triggered by stress associated with slip [Segall et al., 2006].

  4. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  5. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    ". Model of buoyancy drive (by Brown, 1990). Brown's basic hypothesis is similar to Ivanov and Guliev and may be summarized briefly as follows: -in situations where rapid sedimentation is occurring mud may be driven to the surface by buoyancy forces due to bulk density contrasts between mud and overlying sediment cover. Such density contrasts may be simply the result of compaction -disequilibrium, but more importantly may be related to gas expansion when fluids are transported to shallower depths with lower pressure and temperature conditions. Synthetic model had been proposed by I.Lerche, E.Bagirov, I.Guliyev (1997). The model includes the following studies: The starting point of the mud volcanoes begins with the formation of a zone of decompaction as a consequence of a high rate of gas generation. The mud body starts to rise under buoyancy. The excess pressure inside the mud intrusion is less than in surrounding formation. As a result, fluid flow toward the body of mud volcanoes. The body of the mud volcanoes then grows, increasing the buoyancy forces, with further drive the mud. If the rate of gas generation more thôn gas flow, causing exsolving of gas to free-phase gas. If there are open faults and fractures which cross the body of mud volcanoes, then gas and mud can penetrate through the faults, and so from gryphons and salses on the surface. A mud volcanoes can be consider as a huge accumulation of gas, where as the oil is concentrated on the flanks of the mud body.

  6. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  7. Geohydrology of the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is the eroded remnant of two coalesced shield volcanoes, the Waianae Volcano and the Koolau Volcano. Shield-building lavas emanated mainly from the rift zones of the volcanoes. Subaerial eruptions of the Waianae Volcano occurred between 3.9 and 2.5 million years ago, and eruptions of the Koolau Volcano occurred between 2.6 and 1.8 million years ago. The volcanoes have subsided more then 6,000 feet, and erosion has destroyed all but the western rim of the Koolau Volcano and the eastern part of the Waianae Volcano, represented by the Koolau and Waianae Ranges, respectively. Hydraulic properties of the volcanic-rock aquifers are determined by the distinctive textures and geometry of individual lava flows. Individual lava flows are characterized by intergranular, fracture, and conduit-type porosity and commonly are highly permeable. The stratified nature of the lava flows imparts a layered heterogeneity. The flows are anisotropic in three dimensions, with the largest permeability in the longitudinal direction of the lava flow, an intermediate permeability in the direction transverse to the flow, and the smallest permeability normal to bedding. Averaged over several lava-flow thicknesses, lateral hydraulic conductivity of dike-free lava flows is about 500 to 5,000 feet per day, with smaller and larger values not uncommon. Systematic areal variations in lava-flow thickness or other properties may impart trends in the heterogeneity. The aquifers of Oahu contain two flow regimes: shallow freshwater and deep saltwater. The freshwater floats on underlying saltwater in a condition of buoyant displacement, although the relation is not necessarily a simple hydrostatic balance everywhere. Natural driving mechanisms for freshwater and saltwater flow differ. Freshwater moves mainly by simple gravity flow; meteoric water flows from inland recharge areas at higher altitudes to discharge areas at lower altitudes near the coast. Remnant volcanic heat also

  8. Public Schools, Hawaii, 2009, Hawaii Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations represent Hawaii's public schools. List of schools was furnished by the Hawaii Department of Education (DOE). Locations were developed by the US EPA Region...

  9. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  11. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  12. Rapid crystal recycling at Krafla Volcano, Iceland, inferred from oxygen-isotope and trace- element compositions and U-Th-Ra disequilibria in plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.; Sims, K. W.; Eiler, J. M.; Banerjee, N. R.

    2008-12-01

    The Icelandic central volcano of Krafla exhibits increasing assimilation of hydrothermally-altered crust with increasing differentiation of magmas, as evidenced by decreasing δ18O with decreasing MgO (Nicholson et al., 1991, J Pet 32, p.1005). The Krafla Fires eruption (1975-84) produced two different magma compositions simultaneously: quartz tholeiites near the center of the volcano, and olivine tholeiites north of the central volcano (Gronvold et al., 2008, Goldschmidt abstract). Examination of crystals in these magmas has the potential to provide information about the nature and timescales of mixing of distinct magmas and assimilation of crustal material at Krafla. We present oxygen-isotope compositions, trace-element compositions, and 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria measured in plagioclase crystals from samples of lavas erupted during two phases of the Krafla Fires eruption (ol tholeiite erupted Jan-Feb 1981, and qz tholeiite erupted Nov 1981). Oxygen-isotope data for multiple size fractions of plagioclase show a decrease in δ18O with increasing crystal size for the ol tholeiite (from ~4.1 permil to 3.5 permil), whereas there is no clear relationship between plagioclase size and oxygen-isotope composition in the qtz tholeiite (all size fractions average 4.1-4.3 permil). Furthermore, all measured plagioclase have δ18O lower than would be in equilibrium with the whole rock measurements (by up to 1.5 permil). These data imply that (1) few or none of the measured crystals precipitated from the host liquids, and (2) the crystals were entrained in the host magmas shortly prior to eruption, allowing them to maintain oxygen isotopic disequilibrium and heterogeneity within the crystal populations. These inferences are corroborated by trace element compositions measured in plagioclase by laser-ablation ICPMS, as the majority of analyzed points have Ba and Sr concentrations inconsistent with equilibrium partitioning between crystals and liquid. Furthermore, in the case

  13. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  14. Employer Training Needs in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    The Survey of Employer Training Needs in Hawaii was undertaken to gather information and data on the needs and preferences of employers in Hawaii regarding government assistance with training. The need for such information was created by passage of Act 68, Session Laws of Hawaii 1991, which created the Hawaii Employment and Training Fund "to assist employers and workers through innovative programs to include, but not be limited to, business-specific training, upgrade training, new occupationa...

  15. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  16. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  17. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  18. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  19. Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the last several million years the Hawaiian Islands have been built of successive lava flows. They are the most recent additions in a long line of volcanoes...

  20. Rapid reinflation following the 2011-2012 rhyodacite eruption at Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes) imaged by InSAR: Evidence for magma reservoir refill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Basualto, Daniel; Lazo, Jonathan; Córdova, Loreto; Lara, Luis E.

    2016-09-01

    Cordón Caulle is a large fissural volcano that has erupted rhyodacitic magma of the same composition in its past three historical eruptions in 1921, 1960, and 2011-2012. There was significant ground deformation observed before and during the 2011-2012 eruption—here we use C and X band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series results to document posteruptive uplift up to 0.8 m between March 2012 and May 2015, with line-of-sight rates up to 45 cm/yr that have been largely aseismic, along with subsidence in the 2011-2012 lava flow. The 2012 uplift rate is one of the largest for silicic systems and was likely produced by the intrusion of ~0.125 km3 of magma in the same tectonically controlled plumbing system that has been active during the historical eruptions. Nevertheless, the uplift ended before the reservoir refilled with the erupted volume, maybe due to a change in the pressure gradient produced by the 2011-2012 eruption.

  1. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  2. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  3. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  4. Hawaii Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data of U.S. longline vessels based in Hawaii from 1990 to the present that fish in the central Pacific (120 deg W - 170 deg E and...

  5. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon A.

    1946-01-01

    Hawaii, the largest island in the Hawaiian group, is 93 miles long, 76 miles wide, and covers 4,030 square miles. Mauna Loa Volcano is 13,680 feet high and Mauna Kea is 13,784 feet high. Plate 1 shows the geology, wells, springs, and water-development tunnels. Plate 2 is a map and description of points of geologic interest along the main highways. Plate 3 (same sheet as plate 2) shows highways and points of geologic interest in Hawaii National Park area. The volcanic terms used in the report are defined.

  7. Foci of Volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, I.

    1974-01-01

    One may assume a center of volcanic activities beneath the edifice of an active volcano, which is here called the focus of the volcano. Sometimes it may be a ''magma reservoir''. Its depth may differ with types of magma and change with time. In this paper, foci of volcanoes are discussed from the viewpoints of four items: (1) Geomagnetic changes related with volcanic activities; (2) Crustal deformations related with volcanic activities; (3) Magma transfer through volcanoes; and (4) Subsurface structure of calderas.

  8. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  9. Preliminary studies for geothermal exploration in Hawaii, 1973--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A.S.; MacDonald, G.A.; Druecker, M.; Fan, P.F.

    1977-12-01

    The first volume of the series on geothermal exploration in Hawaii is a compilation of information and data relevant to geothermal resources, which are available prior to the commencement of the exploration program. A narrative account of the exploration program puts into perspective the various stages of the exploration program from 1973 to 1975. The value of this narrative account lies in that it shows how the conclusion was reached to concentrate the exploration program on the east rift of Kilauea volcano as that rift zone showed the most promise of all the volcanic centers and rift zones. The narrative ends at the selection of a drilling site. The geology and hydrology of the east rift was summarized to include data existing before the exploration program and some of the early results of the field surveys. A literature survey of Kilauea volcano attempted to cover the information available on the volcano. A literature survey of the geothermal potential of the volcanoes on the island of Oahu has already been published elsewhere. A short summary and reference is included in the volume.

  10. On the morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low angle edifices that have convex up topographic profiles and are built primarily by the accumulation of lava flows. This generic view of shields' morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galapagos). Here, the morphometry of over 150 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes, identified inthe Global Volcanism Network database, are analysed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 20 volcanoes identified as stratovolcanoes but having low slopes and being dominantly built up by accumulation of lava flows are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes range from 0.1 to >1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width ratios range from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients, elongation and summit truncation. Correlation and principal component analysis of the obtained quantitative database enables to identify 4 key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Using these descriptors through clustering analysis, a new classification scheme is proposed. It highlights the control of the magma feeding system - either central, along a linear structure, or spatially diffuse - on the resulting shield volcano morphology. Genetic relationships and evolutionary trends between contrasted morphological end-members can be highlighted within this new scheme. Additional findings are that the Galapagos-type morphology with a central deep caldera and steep upper flanks are characteristic of other shields. A series of large oceanic shields have slopes systematically much steeper than the low gradients (<4-8°) generally attributed to large Hawaiian-type shields. Finally, the continuum of morphologies from flat shields to steeper complex volcanic constructs considered as stratovolcanoes calls for a revision of this oversimplified

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 17 sites around Hawaii in the Main...

  12. CRED REA Coral Population Paramaters at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, February 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 1 or 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 19 sites at Hawaii Island in...

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 19 sites at Hawaii Island in...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 19 sites Hawaii...

  15. CRED REA Coral Population Paramaters at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, February 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Hawaii Island in the...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 17 sites at Hawaii in the Main...

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 19 sites at Hawaii Island in the...

  18. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii`s energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii`s energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  19. 21 CFR 808.61 - Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hawaii. 808.61 Section 808.61 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.61 Hawaii. (a) The following Hawaii medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Hawaii Revised Statutes, chapter 451A, § 14.1...

  20. Regional Localization with the Hawaii Island Infrasound Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Garces, M. A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Big Island of Hawaii is home to an extensive network of infrasound arrays, with additional arrays in Maui and Kauai. Four of the six Hawaii arrays are focused on Kilauea volcano. This project examines several methods for estimating source location, onset time, duration, and source energetics from regional infrasonic signals, with an emphasis on improving signal characterization. Diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional sources provide a data set for addressing localization with the Hawaii network. Explosions at the Pohakuloa Training Area, rock falls within the Halema'uma'u vent, and a repetitive unknown signal off the coast of Maui supply transient signals with known and unknown locations. In addition, Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o vents both produce infrasonic tremor with known locations. Well-constrained signal discrimination and characterization is essential for good location results. This paper presents progress in signal processing, feature extraction, and event association with standardized, self-similar, logarithmic time-frequency multiresolution algorithms. The Infrasonic Energy, Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite of Garces (2013) is used in conjunction with the PMCC4 array processing algorithm to extract standardized signal features and parameters for improved regional association, localization, and source characterization.

  1. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  2. Evolution of the 120 ka caldera-forming eruption of Kutcharo volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan: Geologic and petrologic evidence for multiple vent systems and rapid generation of pyroclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the eruptive sequence and temporal evolution of juvenile materials during the 120 ka Kutcharo pumice flow IV (Kp IV) eruption, which was the most voluminous (175 km3: bulk volume) caldera-forming eruption of Kutcharo volcano. The eruptive deposits are divided into four units in ascending order. Unit 1 is widely dispersed and consists of silt-sized, cohesive ash. Unit 2 is a thin, moderately sorted pumice fall deposit with a restricted distribution and small volume (caldera. Juvenile materials consist mainly of rhyolite pumice (74%-78% SiO2) associated with a minor amount of scoria (52%-73% SiO2) that are found only northwest of the caldera in Unit 3 and Unit 4. These scoriae can be classified on the basis of the P2O5 contents of their matrix glass into low-P, medium-P, and high-P types, which are almost entirely restricted to the lower part of Unit 3, Unit 4, and the upper part of Unit 3, respectively. These three types display distinct mixing trends with the rhyolitic compositions in SiO2-P2O5 variation diagrams. This evidence indicates that three distinct mafic magmas were independently and intermittently injected into the main body of silicic magma to erupt from the northwestern part of the magma system. Mafic injections did not occur in the southern part of the magma system. This petrologic evidence implies that the northwestern and southeastern flows of Unit 3 are heterotopic, contemporaneous products derived from multiple vent systems. Although Unit 2 was derived from an eruptive column, its volume is very small compared to Plinian fall deposits of typical caldera-forming eruptions. In our interpretation, the activity of the Kp IV eruption reached its climax rapidly, depositing Unit 3, without first producing a stable Plinian column. The presence of multiple vent systems could have allowed the system to bypass an initial eruptive stage with a stable Plinian column and begin its climactic stage, represented by Unit 3, rapidly. Multiple vents

  3. Volcanoes - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  4. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  5. Volcanoes and carcinoma of the thyroid: a possible association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, T M; Ng, W L; Gibson, J B

    1981-01-01

    Environmental factors contributing to incidences of thyroid carcinoma are re-evaluated and emphasized in this study. Thyroid cancers appear to occur independent of endemic goiter, based on epidemiologic and histologic evidence. While environmental factors appear to be important, the specific etiologic agent has not yet been identified or suggested. The number of thyroid cancer incidences available from cancer registries are analyzed in an attempt to identify a specific environmental carcinogenic agent. The presence of active volcanoes that produce abundant lava is found to be the common denominator of Iceland and Hawaii, where the incidence of thyroid cancer is outstandingly high. Comparison with other areas with active volcanoes is made. The presence of a carcinogenic agent in the lava is postulated and its possible mode of action on humans through fish products is hypothesized.

  6. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  7. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  8. Multibeam Bathymetry of Haleakala Volcano, Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, B. W.; Robinson, J.

    2002-12-01

    The submarine northeast flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui was mapped in detail during the summers of 2001 and 2002 by a joint team from the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Hawaii, and the U.S. Geological Survey. JAMSTEC instruments used included SeaBeam 2112 hull-mounted multibeam sonar (bathymetry and sidescan imagery), manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and ROV Kaiko (bottom video, photographs and sampling of Hana Ridge), gravimeter, magnetometer, and single-channel seismic system. Hana Ridge, Haleakala's submarine east rift zone, is capped by coral-reef terraces for much of its length, which are flexurally tilted towards the axis of the Hawaiian Ridge and delineate former shorelines. Its deeper, more distal portion exhibits a pair of parallel, linear crests, studded with volcanic cones, that suggest lateral migration of the rift zone during its growth. The northern face of the arcuate ridge terminus is a landslide scar in one of these crests, while its southwestern prong is a small, constructional ridge. The Hana slump, a series of basins and ridges analogous to the Laupahoehoe slump off Kohala Volcano, Hawaii, lies north of Hana Ridge and extends down to the Hawaiian moat. Northwest of this slump region a small, dual-crested ridge strikes toward the Hawaiian moat and is inferred to represent a fossil rift zone, perhaps of East Molokai Volcano. A sediment chute along its southern flank has built a large submarine fan with a staircase of contour-parallel folds on its surface that are probably derived from slow creep of sediments down into the moat. Sediments infill the basins of the Hana slump [Moore et al., 1989], whose lowermost layers have been variously back-tilted by block rotation during slumping and flexural loading of the Hawaiian Ridge; the ridges define the outer edges of those down-dropped blocks, which may have subsided several kilometers. An apron of volcaniclastic debris shed from

  9. Volcano monitoring using GPS: Developing data analysis strategies based on the June 2007 Kīlauea Volcano intrusion and eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta

    2010-01-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) is one of the most common techniques, and the current state of the art, used to monitor volcano deformation. In addition to slow (several centimeters per year) displacement rates, GPS can be used to study eruptions and intrusions that result in much larger (tens of centimeters over hours-days) displacements. It is challenging to resolve precise positions using GPS at subdaily time intervals because of error sources such as multipath and atmospheric refraction. In this paper, the impact of errors due to multipath and atmospheric refraction at subdaily periods is examined using data from the GPS network on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Methods for filtering position estimates to enhance precision are both simulated and tested on data collected during the June 2007 intrusion and eruption. Comparisons with tiltmeter records show that GPS instruments can precisely recover the timing of the activity.

  10. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  12. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  13. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  19. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  20. Integrating Geologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Data in a Statistical Analysis of Geothermal Resource Probability across the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautze, N. C.; Ito, G.; Thomas, D. M.; Hinz, N.; Frazer, L. N.; Waller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii offers the opportunity to gain knowledge and develop geothermal energy on the only oceanic hotspot in the U.S. As a remote island state, Hawaii is more dependent on imported fossil fuel than any other state in the U.S., and energy prices are 3 to 4 times higher than the national average. The only proven resource, located on Hawaii Island's active Kilauea volcano, is a region of high geologic risk; other regions of probable resource exist but lack adequate assessment. The last comprehensive statewide geothermal assessment occurred in 1983 and found a potential resource on all islands (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 1983). Phase 1 of a Department of Energy funded project to assess the probability of geothermal resource potential statewide in Hawaii was recently completed. The execution of this project was divided into three main tasks: (1) compile all historical and current data for Hawaii that is relevant to geothermal resources into a single Geographic Information System (GIS) project; (2) analyze and rank these datasets in terms of their relevance to the three primary properties of a viable geothermal resource: heat (H), fluid (F), and permeability (P); and (3) develop and apply a Bayesian statistical method to incorporate the ranks and produce probability models that map out Hawaii's geothermal resource potential. Here, we summarize the project methodology and present maps that highlight both high prospect areas as well as areas that lack enough data to make an adequate assessment. We suggest a path for future exploration activities in Hawaii, and discuss how this method of analysis can be adapted to other regions and other types of resources. The figure below shows multiple layers of GIS data for Hawaii Island. Color shades indicate crustal density anomalies produced from inversions of gravity (Flinders et al. 2013). Superimposed on this are mapped calderas, rift zones, volcanic cones, and faults (following Sherrod et al., 2007). These features were used

  1. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  2. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-03-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  3. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  4. Libraries in Hawaii: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/hawaii.html Libraries in Hawaii To use the sharing features on ... John A. Burns School of Medicine Health Sciences Library 651 Ilalo St., MEB 101 Honolulu, HI 96813- ...

  5. Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  6. Hawaii technology utilization experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, D.W.; Miller, C.F.

    1976-12-08

    A one-year technology-transfer project involving ERDA installations and Hawaii consisted of sending teams from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on week-long field trips every two months to test the effectiveness of different methods of transferring technology information from federal sources to civilian clients. The team was questioned primarily on non-energy matters, and the energy questions asked related mostly to individuals or small industries. The team responed to all questions and found that a wide range of knowledge was more effective than having a sequence of experts. Hawaiians considered current major ERDA projects to be irrelevant to their needs. The team was most successful on a one-to-one basis because large groups and state agencies tend to be more policy- than action-oriented. Personal followup was considered essential. The team also learned that their visits generated ten times as many inquiries as were received unsolicited by the laboratory. Most inquiries involved biomass and use of agricultural wastes, solar energy, and transportation. An important contribution of the team's workshops was linking groups to work together on common problems. An appendix lists the subjects of queries and the names and addresses of consortium participants and Hawaiian contacts. (DCK)

  7. Hawaii technology utilization experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, D.W.; Miller, C.F.

    1976-12-08

    A one-year technology-transfer project involving ERDA installations and Hawaii consisted of sending teams from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on week-long field trips every two months to test the effectiveness of different methods of transferring technology information from federal sources to civilian clients. The team was questioned primarily on non-energy matters, and the energy questions asked related mostly to individuals or small industries. The team responed to all questions and found that a wide range of knowledge was more effective than having a sequence of experts. Hawaiians considered current major ERDA projects to be irrelevant to their needs. The team was most successful on a one-to-one basis because large groups and state agencies tend to be more policy- than action-oriented. Personal followup was considered essential. The team also learned that their visits generated ten times as many inquiries as were received unsolicited by the laboratory. Most inquiries involved biomass and use of agricultural wastes, solar energy, and transportation. An important contribution of the team's workshops was linking groups to work together on common problems. An appendix lists the subjects of queries and the names and addresses of consortium participants and Hawaiian contacts. (DCK)

  8. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  9. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “W

  10. Hawaii energy strategy report, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  11. Hawaii energy strategy: Executive summary, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is an executive summary to a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  12. 46 CFR 15.1020 - Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii. 15.1020 Section 15.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD... Trade § 15.1020 Hawaii. The following offshore marine oil terminals located within U.S. navigable waters of the State of Hawaii: Barbers Point, Island of Oahu. The waters including the Hawaiian Independent...

  13. Aquaculture in Hawaii: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Wyban, J; Wyban, C

    1989-01-01

    Hawaii's aquaculture industry has a long and colorful history. When Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, over 350 fishponds were in operation. Future prospects for Hawaii's industry are bright. Expanded R&D activities have the greatest growth potential with technology transfer through international consulting and training likely. Commercial activities will focus on intensive culture of shrimp, finfish and seaweeds.

  14. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  15. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  16. Revised Calculated Volumes Of Individual Shield Volcanoes At The Young End Of The Hawaiian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

    2003-12-01

    Recent, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands allow us to recalculate Bargar and Jackson's [1974] volumes of coalesced volcanic edifices (Hawaii, Maui-Nui, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau) and individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge, taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the volcanoes as modeled by Watts and ten Brink [1989]. Our volume for the Island of Hawaii (2.48 x105 km3) is twice the previous estimate (1.13 x105 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence, which had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Hawaii edifice (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi) are generally considered to have formed within the past million years and our revised volume for Hawaii indicates that either magma-supply rates are greater than previously estimated (0.25 km3/yr as opposed to 0.1 km3/yr) or that Hawaii's volcanoes have erupted over a longer period of time (>1 million years). Our results also indicate that magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Hawaiian edifices: the average rate of the past 5 million years (0.096 km3/yr) is substantially greater than the overall average of the Hawaiian Ridge (0.018km3/yr) or Emperor Seamounts (0.012 km3/yr) as calculated by Bargar and Jackson, and that rates within the past million years are greater still (0.25 km3/yr). References: Bargar, K. E., and Jackson, E. D., 1974, Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes along the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, Vol. 2, No. 5, p. 545-550. Watts, A. B., and ten Brink, U. S., 1989, Crustal structure, flexure, and subsidence history of the Hawaiian Islands, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 94, No. B8, p. 10,473-10,500.

  17. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  18. Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, Donal Ray; Peterson, Donald W.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii have been determined to be chiefly products of eruptions: lava flows, falling fragments, gases, and particle-and-gas clouds. Falling fragments and particle-and-gas clouds can be substantial hazards to life, but they are relatively rare. Lava flows are the chief hazard to property; they are frequent and cover broad areas. Rupture, subsidence, earthquakes, and sea waves (tsunamis) caused by eruptions are minor hazards; those same events caused by large-scale crustal movements, however, are major hazards to both life and property. Volcanic hazards are greatest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the risk is highest along the rift zones of those volcanoes. The hazards are progressively less severe on Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kohala volcanoes. Some risk from earthquakes extends across the entire island, and the risk from tsunamis is high all along the coast. The island has been divided into geographic zones of different relative risk for each volcanic hazard, and for all those hazards combined. Each zone is assigned a relative risk for that area as a whole; the degree of risk varies within the zones, however, and in some of them the risk decreases gradationally across the entire zone. Moreover, the risk in one zone may be locally as great or greater than that at some points in the zone of next higher overall risk. Nevertheless, the zones can be highly useful for land-use planning. Planning decisions to which the report is particularly applicable include the selection of kinds of structures and kinds of land use that are appropriate for the severity and types of hazards present. For example, construction of buildings that can resist a lava flow is generally not feasible, but it is both feasible and desirable to build structures that can resist falling rock fragments, earthquakes, and tsunamis in areas where risk from those hazards is relatively high. The report can also be used to select sites where overall risk is relatively low, to

  19. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  20. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  1. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  2. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  3. 4D volcano gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  4. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  5. Geologic Map of the State of Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    About This Map The State's geology is presented on eight full-color map sheets, one for each of the major islands. These map sheets, the illustrative meat of the publication, can be downloaded in pdf format, ready to print. Map scale is 1:100,000 for most of the islands, so that each map is about 27 inches by 36 inches. The Island of Hawai`i, largest of the islands, is depicted at a smaller scale, 1:250,000, so that it, too, can be shown on 36-inch-wide paper. The new publication isn't limited strictly to its map depictions. Twenty years have passed since David Clague and Brent Dalrymple published a comprehensive report that summarized the geology of all the islands, and it has been even longer since the last edition of Gordon Macdonald's book, Islands in the Sea, was revised. Therefore the new statewide geologic map includes an 83-page explanatory pamphlet that revisits many of the concepts that have evolved in our geologic understanding of the eight main islands. The pamphlet includes simplified page-size geologic maps for each island, summaries of all the radiometric ages that have been gathered since about 1960, generalized depictions of geochemical analyses for each volcano's eruptive stages, and discussion of some outstanding topics that remain controversial or deserving of additional research. The pamphlet also contains a complete description of map units, which enumerates the characteristics for each of the state's many stratigraphic formations shown on the map sheets. Since the late 1980s, the audience for geologic maps has grown as desktop computers and map-based software have become increasingly powerful. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can also feast on this publication. An electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications, is available for downloading. The GIS database is in an Earth projection widely employed throughout the State of Hawai`i, using the North American datum of

  6. Discoveries From the Cross-Disciplinary, Multi-Institutional South Seas Expedition from Hawaii to New Zealand and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahoff, A.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Smith, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory organised an international research team to explore the chemistry, geology, biology, hydrothermal venting processes, mineral deposition, and biodiversity of seamounts extending south from Hawaii to New Zealand, including the submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc. Research team members came from a Consortium comprising of principal investigators from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environment Lab and VENTS program, the Inst of Geological and Nuclear Sciences and the National Inst of Water and Atmospheric Research both of New Zealand, the Univ of Kiel in Germany, the Univ of Mississippi, Univ of Hawaii, the NOAA Marine Fisheries Service, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ of Oregon, Oregon State Univ, Stanford Univ, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Funding came from the member organizations of the Consortium and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. The expedition left Hawaii on 18 March 2005 and returned on 05 August, aboard the R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa with the submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V and the ROV RCV-150. Sixty-one science dives were executed during the eight legs of the expedition. Twelve active volcanoes in the Samoa to New Zealand legs, one in the Samoan hot spot chain and the flanks of five islands and atolls on the legs between Samoa and Hawaii were investigated. Hundreds of specimens of new and unusual marine life, corals and other benthic organisms, extremophile micro- and macro-organisms, water samples for chemical analysis, polymetallic sulfides and rock samples were collected during the expedition. Unusual processes were observed at the Kermadec submarine volcanoes, including the oozing of liquid sulphur onto the seafloor and profuse carbon dioxide venting into seawater. Extensive submarine hydrothermal venting, black smoker activity and extraordinary chimney formations were studied in the caldera of Brothers Volcano. In addition, extensive

  7. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  8. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  9. Hawaii and Beyond: Volcanic Islands as Model Systems for Biogeochemical and Human Ecodynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide an excellent natural lab for understanding geochemical and ecosystem processes. The most important features are: a) increasing volcano age with distance from the hotspot, b) asymmetric rainfall distribution imposed by the northeasterly trade winds and orographic processes, creating wet windward and dry leeward landscapes, c) an impoverished vegetation assemblage allowing the same species to grow in strongly varying climate and soil conditions, d) the ability to hold topography relatively constant over long time scales by sampling on volcanic shield remnants that are preserved even on the oldest high island, Kauai, and e) a long-term topographic evolution that carves the gently sloping shield surfaces into steep-sided, amphitheater headed, relatively flat floored valleys. Although deeply incised valleys are well represented in Kauai, the later stages of volcanic island evolution are not well expressed in the exposed Hawaiian Islands. Therefore, I also consider examples from the Society and Gambier Islands in French Polynesia to demonstrate the biogeochemical and human ecodynamic impacts of valley expansion and subsidence leading to drowning of all but the highest elevation interfluves. In Hawaii, I and many colleagues have characterized the details of biogeochemical processes such as: a) variations in oxygen isotopes in soil water and soil minerals, b) changing nutrient sources using Sr, Ca, and Mg isotopes, c) mineral - carbon sorption and its implications for carbon storage in soils and for mineral ripening, and d) the development of leaching and redox driven pedogenic thresholds. Here, I address how these biogeochemical features influence human land-use decisions in prehistoric Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. Polynesian radiation into the eastern Pacific occurred rapidly after 1300 y bp. Although they carried with them a kitchen garden each new island presented a different environmental challenge. They were sensitive to

  10. Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems

  11. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3,053-meter-high, ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano in the southwestern Cook Inlet region about 225 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 100 kilometers northwest of Homer. Historical eruptions of Iliamna Volcano have not been positively documented; however, the volcano regularly emits steam and gas, and small, shallow earthquakes are often detected beneath the summit area. The most recent eruptions of the volcano occurred about 300 years ago, and possibly as recently as 90-140 years ago. Prehistoric eruptions have generated plumes of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. Rock avalanches from the summit area have occurred numerous times in the past. These avalanches flowed several kilometers down the flanks and at least two large avalanches transformed to cohesive lahars. The number and distribution of known volcanic ash deposits from Iliamna Volcano indicate that volcanic ash clouds from prehistoric eruptions were significantly less voluminous and probably less common relative to ash clouds generated by eruptions of other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Plumes of volcanic ash from Iliamna Volcano would be a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International Airport and other local airports, and depending on wind direction, could drift at least as far as the Kenai Peninsula and beyond. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Because Iliamna Volcano has not erupted for several hundred years, a future eruption could involve significant amounts of ice and snow that could lead to the formation of large lahars and downstream flooding. The greatest hazards in order of importance are described below and shown on plate 1.

  12. Elementary analysis of data from Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-ming; ZHANG Heng-rong; KONG Qing-jun; WU Cheng-zhi; GUO Feng; ZHANG Chao-fan

    2004-01-01

    Tianchi Volcano is the largest potential erupticve volcano in China. Analyzing these data on seismic monitoring, deformation observation and water chemistry investigation gained from the Tianchi Volcano Observatory (TVO), the authors consider that the Tianchi Volcano is in going into a new flourishing time.

  13. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier in Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl G Meyer

    Full Text Available Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL, with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13'17″N 109°52'14″W, in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites  =  approximately 5,000 km, after 366 days at liberty (DAL. We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured. We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates.

  15. Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carl G; O'Malley, Joseph M; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Dale, Jonathan J; Hutchinson, Melanie R; Anderson, James M; Royer, Mark A; Holland, Kim N

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL), with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts) compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13'17″N 109°52'14″W), in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites  =  approximately 5,000 km), after 366 days at liberty (DAL). We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured). We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates.

  16. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  17. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  18. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  19. Principal Component Analysis for pattern recognition in volcano seismic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, Katharina; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2016-04-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we have developed a pattern recognition technique based on a combination of Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical clustering applied to volcano seismic spectra. This technique can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of volcano seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. Preliminary results from applying our method to volcanic tremor from a range of volcanoes including K¯ı lauea, Okmok, Pavlof, and Redoubt suggest that spectral patterns from K¯ı lauea and Okmok are similar, whereas at Pavlof and Redoubt spectra have their own, distinct patterns.

  20. TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

  1. 76 FR 24554 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of HAWAII dated...

  2. 76 FR 18613 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated...

  3. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated...

  4. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  5. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii. 32.30 Section 32.30 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL... Hawaii. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

  6. 14 CFR 99.49 - Hawaii ADIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii ADIZ. 99.49 Section 99.49 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... Zones § 99.49 Hawaii ADIZ. (a) Outer boundary. The area included in the irregular octagonal figure...

  7. 40 CFR 81.312 - Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii. 81.312 Section 81.312... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.312 Hawaii. Hawaii—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be...

  8. Toneren kvalitetskrise på Hawaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2012-01-01

    Syv år efter ’Sideways’ er Alexander Payne omsider tilbage med et nyt galleri af kantede karakterer og komplicerede livskriser i Hawaii-herligheden ’The Descendants’......Syv år efter ’Sideways’ er Alexander Payne omsider tilbage med et nyt galleri af kantede karakterer og komplicerede livskriser i Hawaii-herligheden ’The Descendants’...

  9. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  10. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    ), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10

  11. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  12. Impacts of Wildfire on Hawaii Island's Pre-Contact Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. D.; Bishaw, K.; McGeehin, J. P.; Perkins, K. S.; Austin, B.; Kirch, P.

    2015-12-01

    The arid western slopes of Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano record pre-historic landscape changes that accompanied occupation by Native Hawaiians. Stratigraphy in the Keamuku area shows that a long (c. 38-42 ka) period of airfall and eolian deposition and pedogenesis was terminated by at least 8 layers of charcoal-rich sediment, interbedded with sand and shells of land snails that were transported by running water. Streams across Keamuku then cut several meters down through these deposits to bedrock of the Hamakua Volcanics. Radiocarbon ages indicate that charcoal-rich layers were deposited from the 13th-14th Century A.D. (e.g., 1207 +/- 48; 1287 +/- 128 A.D.) through the 17th - 18th century (e.g., 1648 +/- 157; 1651 +/- 160 A.D.; mean probability +/- 2 sigma. Stream incision commenced sometime thereafter. We measured saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat) with a mean of 56 mm/hour in nearby soils with tree and shrub cover. This value exceeds common hourly rainfall intensities, so runoff from these landscapes is unlikely without disturbance. Work at a wildfire boundary in Molokai, Hawaii, shows that just after fire disturbance, saturated hydraulic conductivities of similar Hawaiian soils are one half to one fifth of unburned equivalents. One interpretation is that during the 13th-19th centuries and later, humans burned shrub- or tree-covered landscapes reducing soil infiltration capacities. Over the course of several hundred years of burning, one or more large storms with sustained hourly rainfall intensities exceeding the infiltration capacity of the altered land surface occurred soon enough after fires to generate runoff in a place that had not previously experienced it. This runoff carved the existing gully network across over 100 km2 of Keamuku area, as wildfires pushed the shrub-/tree-line upslope. This interpretation joins a growing body of thought that pre-historic human's use of fire fundamentally altered landscapes.

  13. The Hawai`i Supersite: A Success Story for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In 2008, the Hawai`i Supersite was established to encourage collaborative research into volcanic processes on the Island of Hawai`i and to aid with the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards to the local population. Made permanent in 2012, the Supersite hosts a diverse array of data. Comprehensive ground-based monitoring, conducted by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and collaborators, consists of deformation, seismic, gravity, gas emissions, camera observations, and geochemical analyses. Space-based data include over 3500 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images provided by numerous national space agencies. Using these and other datasets, a variety of insights have been gained into how Hawaiian volcanoes work. For example, magma supply to Kīlauea appears to fluctuate on timescales of just a few years and has a direct impact on eruptive activity. Magma accumulation at Kīlauea was found to promote slip on nearby faults, triggering M4+ earthquakes. Magma storage and transport pathways were mapped at both Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, providing a basis upon which to interpret past, present, and future monitoring data. In addition, Supersite data, particularly SAR, have been invaluable for operational monitoring of deformation and lava flow emplacement—critical information for understanding the evolving nature of volcanic hazards in Hawai`i. The wealth of available data also has facilitated the development of new methodologies for processing and analyzing SAR data, given the large number of images, availability of ground-based data for calibration/validation, and continuous volcanic activity against which to test new methods. Nine years into the operation of the Hawai`i Supersite, a long list of published research details the success of the initiative; however, a number of challenges remain. First and foremost, there is little coordination of efforts between Supersite scientists, which will stymie the expansion of research efforts in an era of shrinking

  14. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  15. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  16. USGS Volcano Notification Service (VNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides a subscription service to receive an email when changes occur in the activity levels for monitored U.S. volcanoes and/or when information releases...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  18. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  19. Reversion to virulence and efficacy of an attenuated Canarypox vaccine in Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T; Wiegand, Kimberly C; Triglia, Dennis; Jarvi, Susan I

    2012-12-01

    Vaccines may be effective tools for protecting small populations of highly susceptible endangered, captive-reared, or translocated Hawaiian honeycreepers from introduced Avipoxvirus, but their efficacy has not been evaluated. An attenuated Canarypox vaccine that is genetically similar to one of two passerine Avipoxvirus isolates from Hawai'i and distinct from Fowlpox was tested to evaluate whether Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) can be protected from wild isolates of Avipoxvirus from the Hawaiian Islands. Thirty-one (31) Hawai'i 'Amakihi were collected from high-elevation habitats on Mauna Kea Volcano, where pox transmission is rare, and randomly divided into two groups. One group was vaccinated with Poximune C, whereas the other group received a sham vaccination with sterile water. Four of 15 (27%) vaccinated birds developed life-threatening disseminated lesions or lesions of unusually long duration, whereas one bird never developed a vaccine-associated lesion or "take." After vaccine lesions healed, vaccinated birds were randomly divided into three groups of five and challenged with either a wild isolate of Fowlpox (FP) from Hawai'i, a Hawai'i 'Amakihi isolate of a Canarypox-like virus (PV1), or a Hawai'i 'Amakihi isolate of a related, but distinct, passerine Avipoxvirus (PV2). Similarly, three random groups of five unvaccinated 'Amakihi were challenged with the same virus isolates. Vaccinated and unvaccinated 'Amakihi challenged with FP had transient infections with no clinical signs of infection. Mortality in vaccinated 'Amakihi challenged with PV1 and PV2 ranged from 0% (0/5) for PV1 to 60% (3/5) for PV2. Mortality in unvaccinated 'Amakihi ranged from 40% (2/5) for PV1 to 100% (5/5) for PV2. Although the vaccine provided some protection against PV1, both potential for vaccine reversion and low efficacy against PV2 preclude its use in captive or wild honeycreepers.

  20. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  1. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    -like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii

  2. What controls the distribution and tectono-magmatic features of oceanic hot spot volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Vezzoli, Luigina

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot oceanic volcanoes worldwide show significant deviations from the classic Hawaiian reference model; these mainly concern the distribution of edifices and overall tectono-magmatic features, as the development of the volcanic rift zones and extent of flank instability. Here we try to explain these deviations investigating and comparing the best-known hot spot oceanic volcanoes. At a general scale, these volcanoes show an age-distance progression ranging from focused to scattered. This is here explained as due to several independent factors, as the thermal or mechanical weakening of the plate (due to the lithosphere thickness or regional structures, respectively), or the plume structure. At a more detailed scale, hot spot volcanoes show recurrent features, including mafic shield edifices with summit caldera and volcanic rift zones, often at the head of an unstable flank. However, despite this recurrence, a widespread tectono-magmatic variability is often found. Here we show how this variability depends upon the magma supply and age of the oceanic crust (influencing the thickness of the overlying pelagic sediments). Well-developed rift zones and larger collapses are found on hot spot volcanoes with higher supply rate and older crust, as Hawaii and Canary Islands. Poorly-developed rift zones and limited collapses occur on hot spot volcanoes with lower supply rate and younger crust, as Easter Island and Ascension. Transitional features are observed at hot spots with intermediate productivity (Cape Verde, Reunion, Society Islands and, to a minor extent, the Azores), whereas the scarcity or absence of pelagic sediments may explain the lack of collapses and developed rift zones in the productive Galapagos hot spot.

  3. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  4. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, P.A. E-mail: pfollett@pbarc.ars.usda.gov

    2004-10-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests.

  5. Implementation Plan for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Review Draft:)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that identifies and evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP), as defined by the State of Hawaii in its 1990 proposal to Congress (DBED 1990). The location of the proposed project is shown in Figure 1.1. The EIS is being prepared pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021), effective May 26, 1992. The State's proposal for the four-phase HGP consists of (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource beneath the slopes of the active Kilauea volcano on the Island of Hawaii (Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Mau, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands. DOE prepared appropriate NEPA documentation for separate federal actions related to Phase 1 and 2 research projects, which have been completed. This EIS will consider Phases 3 and 4, as well as reasonable alternatives to the HGP. Such alternatives include biomass coal, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, and construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Island of Hawaii (for exclusive use on the Big Island). In addition, the EIs will consider the reasonable alternatives among submarine cable technologies, geothermal extraction, production, and power generating technologies; pollution control technologies; overland and submarine power transmission routes; sites reasonably suited to

  6. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  7. Volcano fact sheet; glacier-generated debris flows at Mount Rainier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; Driedger, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Mount Rainier is a young volcano whose slopes are undergoing rapid change by a variety of geologic processes, including debris flows. Debris flows are churning masses of water, rock and mud that travel rapidly down the volcano's steep, glacially carved valleys, leaving in their wake splintered trees, picnic sites buried in mud, and damaged roads. Debris flows typically contain as much as 65 to 70 percent rock and soil by volume and have the appearance of wet concrete. At Mount Rainier National Park, these flows invariably begin in remote areas nearly inaccessible to people, but may move rapidly downstream into areas frequented by visitors.

  8. Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.

    2003-04-01

    lahar-hazard-zones using a digital elevation model (DEM), was used to construct a hazard map for the volcano. The 10 meter resolution DEM was constructed for Tungurahua Volcano using scanned topographic lines obtained from the GIS Department at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. The steep topographic gradients and rapid downcutting of most rivers draining the edifice prevents the deposition of lahars on the lower flanks of Tungurahua. Modeling confirms the high degree of flow channelization in the deep Tungurahua canyons. Inundation zones observed and shown by LAHARZ at Baños yield identification of safe zones within the city which would provide safety from even the largest magnitude lahar expected.

  9. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  10. Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fewer than one hundred people have been killed by eruptions in the recorded history of Hawaii, and only one death has occurred in the 20th Century. However, the lava...

  11. Cost Earnings Data 2000 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between March 2001 and January 2002, available Hawaii pelagic longline vessel owners and/or operators were interviewed at Kewalo Basin and Honolulu Harbor to obtain...

  12. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Cost Earnings Data 2012 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data collection project assessed the economic performance of Hawaii-based longline vessels that made trips in 2012. Operational and vessel costs were collected...

  14. Cost Earnings Data 2005 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data collection project assessed the economic performance of Hawaii-based longline vessels that made trips in 2005. Operational and vessel costs were collected...

  15. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  16. Ocean Uses: Hawaii and West Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Coastal Use Mapping Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center, NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  17. Hawaii ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector arcs and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Hawaii. The...

  18. Hawaii ESI: REPTPT (Reptile and Amphibian Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered sea turtles in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent sea...

  19. Hawaii ESI: HABITATS (Habitat and Plant Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for corals, algae, seagrass, and native/rare terrestrial plants in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  20. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  1. Hawaii 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  2. Hawaii 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  3. Gridded bathymetry of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (10m) of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the EM120, EM122, EM710, EM1020, and EM1002 multibeam sonar...

  4. Oahu, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Oahu Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  5. Hawaii ESI: HABPT (Habitat and Plant Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare/native terrestrial plants in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent rare/native...

  6. Aquaculture Willingness To Pay Hawaii Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey was conducted and implemented in Hawaii in 2010 to investigate consumer perceptions and preferences including consumer awareness concerning production...

  7. Project Management Plan for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M.; Saulsbury, J.W.

    1993-06-01

    In 1990, Congress appropriated $5 million (Pu 101-514) for the State of Hawaii to use in Phase 3 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). As defined by the State in its 1990 proposal to Congress, the HGP would consist of four phases: (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource associated with the Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaii (the Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power transmission cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Maui, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands (DBED 1990). Because it considered Phase 3 to be research and not project development or construction, Congress indicated that allocation of this funding would not be considered a major federal action under NEPA and would not require an EIS. However, because the project is highly visible, somewhat controversial, and involves a particularly sensitive environment in Hawaii, Congress directed in 1991 (House Resolution 1281) that ''...the Secretary of Energy shall use such sums as are necessary from amounts previously provided to the State of Hawaii for geothermal resource verification and characterization to conduct the necessary environmental assessments and/or environmental impact statement (EIS) for the geothermal initiative to proceed''. In addition, the U.S. District Court of Hawaii (Civil No. 90-00407, June 25, 1991) ruled that the federal government must prepare an EIS for Phases 3 and 4 before any further disbursement of funds was made to the State for the HGP. This Project Management Plan (PMP) briefly summarizes the background information on the HGP and describes the project management structure, work breakdown structure, baseline budget and schedule, and

  8. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. [Federal Center, Denver, CO (United States); Delaney, P.T. [2255 North Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Kauahikaua, J.P. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  9. Lucky Strike seamount: Implications for the emplacement and rifting of segment-centered volcanoes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartín, J.; Soule, S. A.; Cannat, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Düşünür, D.; Garcia, R.

    2014-11-01

    history of emplacement, tectonic evolution, and dismemberment of a central volcano within the rift valley of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Lucky Strike Segment is deduced using near-bottom sidescan sonar imagery and visual observations. Volcano emplacement is rapid (spreading may eventually split it. At Lucky Strike, this results in two modes of crustal construction. Eruptions and tectonic activity focus at a narrow graben that bisects the central volcano and contains the youngest lava flows, accumulating a thick layer of extrusives. Away from the volcano summit, deformation and volcanic emplacement is distributed throughout the rift valley floor, lacking a clear locus of accretion and deformation. Volcanic emplacement on the rift floor is characterized by axial volcanic ridges fed by dikes that propagate from the central axial magma chamber. The mode of rapid volcano construction and subsequent rifting observed at the Lucky Strike seamount is common at other central volcanoes along the global mid-ocean ridge system.

  10. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  11. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  12. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  13. "Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M

    1997-01-01

    Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis."

  14. Kaneohe, Hawaii Wind Resource Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Green, J.; Meadows, B.

    2011-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has an interagency agreement to assist the Department of Defense (DOD) in evaluating the potential to use wind energy for power at residential properties at DOD bases in Hawaii. DOE assigned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to facilitate this process by installing a 50-meter (m) meteorological (Met) tower on residential property associated with the Marine Corps Base Housing (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii.

  15. Remote Sensing of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Rothery, David

    The synoptic coverage offered by satellites provides unparalleled opportunities for monitoring active volcanoes, and opens new avenues of scientific inquiry. Thermal infrared radiation can be used to monitor levels of activity, which is useful for automated eruption detection and for studying the emplacement of lava flows. Satellite radars can observe volcanoes through clouds or at night, and provide high-resolution topographic data. In favorable conditions, radar inteferometery can be used to measure ground deformation associated with eruptive activity on a centimetric scale. Clouds from explosive eruptions present a pressing hazard to aviation; therefore, techniques are being developed to assess eruption cloud height and to discriminate between ash and meterological clouds. The multitude of sensors to be launched on future generations of space platforms promises to greatly enhance volcanological studies, but a satellite dedicated to volcanology is needed to meet requirements of aviation safety and volcano monitoring.

  16. Mount Rainier: A decade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Samora, Barbara A.

    Mount Rainier, the highest (4392 m) volcano in the Cascade Range, towers over a population of more than 2.5 million in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, and its drainage system via the Columbia River potentially affects another 500,000 residents of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon (Figure 1). Mount Rainier is the most hazardous volcano in the Cascades in terms of its potential for magma-water interaction and sector collapse. Major eruptions, or debris flows even without eruption, pose significant dangers and economic threats to the region. Despite such hazard and risk, Mount Rainier has received little study; such important topics as its petrologic and geochemical character, its proximal eruptive history, its susceptibility to major edifice failure, and its development over time have been barely investigated. This situation may soon change because of Mount Rainier's recent designation as a “Decade Volcano.”

  17. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  18. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  19. Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    2006-11-30

    There is uncertainty about whether the abundant tholeiitic lavas on Hawaii are the product of melt from peridotite or pyroxenite/eclogite rocks. Using a parameterization of melting experiments on peridotite with glass analyses from the Hawaii Scientific Deep Project 2 on Mauna Kea volcano, I show here that a small population of the core samples had fractionated from a peridotite-source primary magma. Most lavas, however, differentiated from magmas that were too deficient in CaO and enriched in NiO (ref. 2) to have formed from a peridotite source. For these, experiments indicate that they were produced by the melting of garnet pyroxenite, a lithology that had formed in a second stage by reaction of peridotite with partial melts of subducted oceanic crust. Samples in the Hawaiian core are therefore consistent with previous suggestions that pyroxenite occurs in a host peridotite, and both contribute to melt production. Primary magma compositions vary down the drill core, and these reveal evidence for temperature variations within the underlying mantle plume. Mauna Kea magmatism is represented in other Hawaiian volcanoes, and provides a key for a general understanding of melt production in lithologically heterogeneous mantle.

  20. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  1. Meet Cover Directors--Steve Albert, Rainbow School, Kahuku, Hawaii; Chuck Larson, Seagull Schools, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Chuck Larson and Steve Albert, each of whom directs a multi-site child care organization in Hawaii. Larson directs Rainbow School, dedicated to the idea that learning is a natural, joyful accomplishment of living. Albert directs Seagull School, responding to the early educational needs of Hawaii's diverse community by offering affordable,…

  2. Landscape factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mixed residential-agricultural community in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly

  3. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  4. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. (Univ. of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  5. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  7. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  8. Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  10. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  12. The "Pidgin Problem": Attitudes about Hawai'i Creole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author examines the attitudes that people in Hawai'i have about Hawai'i Creole. The author first describes the background of the language and explores educators' views from the 1920s to 1940s about Hawai'i Creole (HC), which was first viewed as the the "Pidgin problem" in Hawai'i. The frustrations expressed by educators might…

  13. Piliwaiwai: Problem Gambling in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is illegal in Hawai'i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai'i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai'i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai'i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai'i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted.

  14. Epiphytes as an Indicator of Climate Change in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    600 m) where fog incidence is highest and PET is lowest, as well as a marked difference in composition, whereby larger species dominate lower elevations where temperatures are greater. We are also analyzing O18 stable isotopes of both fog and rain water at two forest locations differing in fog input but in which elevation and rainfall are held constant at 1000m and 3000mm respectively. A laboratory experiment uses O18 stable isotope analysis to trace water uptake by five species of epiphytes. Results suggest that fog is an important determinant of how ecophysiological characteristics of epiphytes respond to the environments they inhabit. We further evaluate these results with respect to fine-scale climate models based on statistical downsampling of GCM's. Small, short lived species, especially filmy ferns are likely to exhibit the most rapid response to Hawaii's changing climate whereas larger, longer lived species are likely to respond more slowly.

  15. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  16. 24 CFR 598.515 - Alaska and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alaska and Hawaii. 598.515 Section 598.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....515 Alaska and Hawaii. A nominated area in Alaska or Hawaii is deemed to satisfy the criteria of...

  17. 76 FR 21773 - Hawaii; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Hawaii resulting from tsunami waves on... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hawaii; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-1967-DR), dated April 8, 2011, and...

  18. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  19. Nonindigenous Ants at High Elevations on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K.; Banko, Paul C.; Laniawe, Leona P.; Slotterback, John W.; Brenner, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    Ant surveys were conducted at high elevations (1680-3140 m) on the western slope of Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i to detennine the extent of ant infestation in those highland communities and particularly to evaluate the potential threat of ants in the highlands to native Hawaiian species. Ants were surveyed at 10 long-tenn sampling sites. Ants were common on Mauna Kea up to 2000 m elevation, but densities quickly dropped off above that. Five species of ants were collected: Linepithema humile (Mayr), Cardiocondyla venustula Wheeler, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander), and Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus). Other than L. humile, these collections on Mauna Kea are the highest recorded locales in the Hawaiian Islands.

  20. Deformation history of Mauna Loa (Hawaii) from 2003 to 2014 through InSAR data: understanding the shorter-term processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.; Acocella, Valerio; Battaglia, Maurizio; Miklius, Asta

    2016-04-01

    Geodesy allows detecting the deformation of volcanoes, thus understanding magmatic processes. This becomes particularly efficient when time series are available and volcanoes can be monitored on the mean-term (decades), and not only during a specific event. Here we exploit the SBAS technique, using SAR images from ENVISAT (descending and ascending orbits; 2003 - 2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (descending and ascending orbits; 2012 - 2014), to study a decade of deformation at Mauna Loa (Hawaii). These data are merged time series data from 24 continuously operating GPS stations, which allows us to calibrate the InSAR time series. Our results show a long-term inflation of the volcano from 2003 to 2014, reaching a peak of ~11 cm/yr on the summit area between mid-2004 to mid-2005 and then slowing down. Within this frame, we were able to identify five main periods with approximately linear deformation behavior. The inversion of the deformation data in the first four periods suggests the repeated, though not constant, intrusion of one or more dikes below the summit caldera and the upper Southwest Rift Zone. Moreover, the dike intrusion coincides with minor acceleration of flank slip. Such a behavior is distinctive and, with the exception of the nearby Kilauea, has not been observed at any other volcano on the mean term. It is proposed that continuous, even though not constant flank instability of the SE flank may promote semi-continuous intrusions in a volcano with a ready magma supply.

  1. Kilometer-scale Kaiser effect identified in Krafla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.

    2015-10-01

    The Krafla rifting episode in 1975-1984, consisted of around 20 inflation-deflation events within the Krafla caldera, where magma accumulated during inflation periods and was intruded into the transecting fissure swarm during brief periods of deflation. We reanalyze geodetic and seismic data from the rifting episode and perform a time-dependent inversion of a leveling time series for a spherical point source in an elastic half-space. Using the volume change as a proxy for stress shows that during inflation periods the seismicity rate remains low until the maximum inflation of previous cycles is exceeded thus exhibiting the Kaiser effect. Our observations demonstrate that this phenomenon, commonly observed in small-scale experiments, is also produced in kilometer-scale volcanic deformation. This behavior sheds new light on the relationship between deformation and seismicity of a deforming volcano. As a consequence of the Kaiser effect, a volcano may inflate rapidly without significant changes in seismicity rate.

  2. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  3. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  5. 2006-2008 Eruptions and Volcano Hazards Of Soputan Volcano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendratno, K.; Pallister, J. S.; McCausland, W. A.; Kristianto, M.; Bina, F. R.; Carn, S. A.; Haerani, N.; Griswold, J.; Keeler, R.

    2010-12-01

    typical of basalt volcanoes. The current open vent structure and frequent eruptions indicate that Soputan will likely erupt again in the next decade, perhaps repeatedly. Eruptions are likely to be explosive, in the VEI 2-3 range, with a small chance of larger VEI 4 eruptions. A rapid ramp up in seismicity preceding the 2008 eruptions suggests that future eruptions may have only a few days of seismic warning. Risk to population in the region is greatest for villages located on the southern and western flanks of the volcano where flow and fall deposits are most likely, for rock miners who frequent the upper slopes of the western flank, and for tourists who visit the National Park on the upper eastern flank. In addition, Soputan’s eruptions produce high-altitude ash clouds, which can drift long distances and pose a risk to air traffic throughout the region.

  6. Silica in a Mars analog environment: Ka u Desert, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, K.D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chemtob, S.M.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D. W.; Swayze, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired over the Ka u Desert are atmospherically corrected to ground reflectance and used to identify the mineralogic components of relatively young basaltic materials, including 250-700 and 200-400 year old lava flows, 1971 and 1974 flows, ash deposits, and solfatara incrustations. To provide context, a geologic surface units map is constructed, verified with field observations, and supported by laboratory analyses. AVIRIS spectral endmembers are identified in the visible (0.4 to 1.2 ??m) and short wave infrared (2.0 to 2.5 ??m) wavelength ranges. Nearly all the spectral variability is controlled by the presence of ferrous and ferric iron in such minerals as pyroxene, olivine, hematite, goethite, and poorly crystalline iron oxides or glass. A broad, nearly ubiquitous absorption feature centered at 2.25 ??m is attributed to opaline (amorphous, hydrated) silica and is found to correlate spatially with mapped geologic surface units. Laboratory analyses show the silica to be consistently present as a deposited phase, including incrustations downwind from solfatara vents, cementing agent for ash duricrusts, and thin coatings on the youngest lava flow surfaces. A second, Ti-rich upper coating on young flows also influences spectral behavior. This study demonstrates that secondary silica is mobile in the Ka u Desert on a variety of time scales and spatial domains. The investigation from remote, field, and laboratory perspectives also mimics exploration of Mars using orbital and landed missions, with important implications for spectral characterization of coated basalts and formation of opaline silica in arid, acidic alteration environments. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Juvenile i`iwi detected in lower elevations of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline M.; Beck, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian islands are home to a diverse array of plants and animals found nowhere else on Earth. Among the most famous of these are the spectacular Hawaiian honeycreepers, a group that evolved from a single flock of ancestral finches into at least 54 unique species. Unfortunately, the same isolation that fostered such dramatic adaptive radiation left Hawaiian species vulnerable. Under the onslaught of alien species predation and competition, habitat degradation, and introduced infectious diseases and parasites, most of the surviving honeycreepers have become largely confined to higher elevations. Intact habitat exists above the warm-weather range of deadly introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), and its mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus).

  8. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  9. Field guide to summit area and upper east rift zone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The field trip is divided into two sections: (1) Crater Rim Road; and (2) Chain of Craters Road. Most bibliographic references are omitted from the text, but a selected list of references to recent Hawaiian volcanic activity and to special studies is included.

  10. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  11. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  12. Modeling eruptions of Karymsky volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerov, A.; Ispolatov, I.; Lees, J.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain temporal patterns of activity in a class of periodically exploding Strombolian-type volcanos. These patterns include major events (explosions) which follow each other every 10-30 minutes and subsequent tremor with a typical period of 1 second. This two-periodic activity is thought to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of accumulation of the elastic energy in the moving magma column: compressibility of the magma in the lower conduit and viscoelastic response of...

  13. Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in Hawaii by fipronil baiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of Hawaii. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

  14. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  15. Nonindigenous marine species at Waikiki and Hawaii Kai, Oahu, Hawaii in 2001 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of the marine algae, invertebrates and reef fishes of Waikiki and the Kuapa Pond and Maunalua Bay areas of Hawaii Kai were conducted with the objective of...

  16. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  17. Comparison of numerical approaches for modeling gravitationally-induced horizontal deviatoric stresses within a Hawaiian basaltic shield volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Le Corvec, N.; Galgana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Basaltic shield volcanoes are subjected to important gravitational loads that lead to their spreading. Such deformation influences the stress state within the volcano, thus the formation of faults and the location of earthquakes and the propagation of magmas and the potential eruption location. Using distinct numerical approaches constrained by geophysical data from the Hawai`i Island Shield Volcano (HISV), we studied the extent to which horizontal deviatoric stresses (HDS) induced from gravitational loading drives the process of volcanic spreading. Two distinct numerical approaches based on similar models were used: 1- the thin-sheet method, and 2- finite element models using COMSOL Multiphysics. We quantified depth integrals of vertical stress (i.e., the gravitational potential energy per unit area or GPE) and then we derived the HDS that balance the horizontal gradients in GPE. We performed the integration over series of single layers that encompasses the surface of variable topography down to a uniform depth of 10 km b.s.l. consistent with the base of the HISV. To compare the results of our numerical approaches we built a fine-scale, Island-wide, set of kinematically constrained deformation indicators (KCDI) using the slip-rate and fault style information from a comprehensive fault database for the HISV. We measure the success of each numerical approach by how well model HDS match the horizontal styles of the strain rates associated with KCDI. Thus far we find that the HDS obtained using the thin-sheet method match well with the KCDI. This may indicate that to first order that patterns of observed surface deformation on the HISV are governed by gradients in GPE. This provides a balance to the gravitationally-induced stresses associated with the volcano load. These HDS do not account for other competing sources of stress (e.g., flexure, magmatic, or hoop) that taken all together may combine to better explain the volcano spreading process for basaltic shield type

  18. RESOLVE's Field Demonstration on Mauna Kea, Hawaii 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Quinn, Jacqueline; Moss, Thomas; Weis, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The resulting water could be electrolyzed into oxygen to support exploration and hydrogen, which would be recycled through the process. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted on a Canadian Space Agency mobility chasis and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in February 2010. The RESOLVE unit is the initial prototype of a robotic prospecting mission to the Moon. RESOLVE is designed to go to the poles of the Moon to "ground truth" the form and concentration of the hydrogen/water/hydroxyl that has been seen from orbit (M3, Lunar Prospector and LRO) and to test technologies to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith. RESOLVE has the ability to capture a one-meter core sample of lunar regolith and heat it to determine the volatiles that may be released and then demonstrate the production of oxygen from minerals found in the regolith. The RESOLVE project, which is led by KSC, is a multi-center and multi-organizational effort that includes representatives from KSC, JSC, GRC, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Center for Advanced Technology (NORCAT). This paper details the results obtained from four days of lunar analog testing that included gas chromatograph analysis for volatile components, remote control of chemistry and drilling operations via satalite communications, and real-time water quantification using a novel capacitance measurement technique.

  19. Modernization of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Processing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, L.; Shiro, B.; Friberg, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates a Tier 1 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) seismic network to monitor, characterize, and report on volcanic and earthquake activity in the State of Hawaii. Upgrades at the observatory since 2009 have improved the digital telemetry network, computing resources, and seismic data processing with the adoption of the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS) system. HVO aims to build on these efforts by further modernizing its seismic processing infrastructure and strengthen its ability to meet ANSS performance standards. Most notably, this will also allow HVO to support redundant systems, both onsite and offsite, in order to provide better continuity of operation during intermittent power and network outages. We are in the process of implementing a number of upgrades and improvements on HVO's seismic processing infrastructure, including: 1) Virtualization of AQMS physical servers; 2) Migration of server operating systems from Solaris to Linux; 3) Consolidation of AQMS real-time and post-processing services to a single server; 4) Upgrading database from Oracle 10 to Oracle 12; and 5) Upgrading to the latest Earthworm and AQMS software. These improvements will make server administration more efficient, minimize hardware resources required by AQMS, simplify the Oracle replication setup, and provide better integration with HVO's existing state of health monitoring tools and backup system. Ultimately, it will provide HVO with the latest and most secure software available while making the software easier to deploy and support.

  20. The Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kellet; And Others

    Hawaii's endeavor to use information technology to improve educational practices within the state is described in four major sections: (1) the framework of the plan, including a brief history of dissemination, the goals of the plan, and philosophic statements on resources, linkages, and leadership; (2) the resource component, including an…

  1. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  2. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. 77 FR 25010 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  4. Hawaii integrated biofuels research program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Patrick K.

    1989-10-01

    Hawaii provides a unique environment for production of biomass resources that can be converted into renewable energy products. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of several biomass resources, including sugarcane, eucalyptus, and leucaena, particularly for utilization in thermochemical conversion processes to produce liquid or gaseous transportation fuels. This research program supports ongoing efforts of the Biofuels and Municipal Solid Waste Technology (BMWT) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) and has goals that are consistent with BMWT. The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) work completed here consists of research activities that support two of the five renewable fuel cycles being pursued by DOE researchers. The results are directly applicable in the American territories throughout the Pacific Basin and the Caribbean, and also to many parts of the United States and worldwide. The Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program is organized into the following six research tasks, which are presented as appendices in report form: Biomass Resource Assessment and System Modeling (Task 1); Bioenergy Tree Research (Task 2); Breeding, Culture, and Selection of Tropical Grasses for Increased Energy Potential (Task 3); Study of Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy Production in Hawaii (Task 4); Fundamental Solvolysis Research (Task 5); and Effects of Feedstock Composition on Pyrolysis Products (Task 6).

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  6. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaii edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  7. Public versus Private Education in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Espiritu

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a time-series evidence on the timing and degree of feedback relationship between participation in education and income growth in Hawaii. Using the unrestricted vector autoregression approach and two related measures of linear dependence and feedback, the results suggest that across all educational levels, i.e., K-12 and tertiary, participation in public education could be a good predictor of income growth in Hawaii. However, decomposing the feedback effect by frequency suggests that the dominance of public education over private education in explaining the variation in income growth to be concentrated mainly on the short-run to medium-run for tertiary level and long-run to permanent effect for K-12 level. Hawaii state legislature and educators should perhaps take these results as a motivation not to ignore the problems plaguing Hawaii's public schools but should work towards greater improvement and support for public education given its predicted significant overall contribution to the Hawaiian economy.

  8. Development and field-testing of the BENTO box: A new satellite-linked data collection system for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Currently it is impossible to monitor all of Earth's hazardous volcanoes for precursory eruption signals, and it is particularly difficult to monitor volcanoes in remote regions. The primary constraint is the high cost of deploying monitoring instrumentation (e.g., seismometers, gas sensors), which includes the cost of reliable, high-resolution sensors, the cost of maintenance (including periodic travel to remote areas), and the cost/difficulty of developing remote data telemetry. We are developing an integrated monitoring system, the BENTO (Behar's ENvironmental Telemetry and Observation) box that will allow identification of restless volcanoes through widespread deployment of robust, lightweight, low-cost, easily deployable monitoring/telemetry systems. Ultimately, we expect that this strategy will lead to more efficient allocation of instrumentation and associated costs. BENTO boxes are portable, autonomous, self-contained data collection systems are designed for long-term operation (up to ~12 months) in remote environments. They use low-cost two-way communication through the commercial Iridium satellite network, and, depending on data types, can pre-process raw data onboard to obtain useful summary statistics for transmission through Iridium. BENTO boxes also have the ability to receive commands through Iridium, allowing, for example, remote adjustment of sampling rates, or requests for segments of raw data in cases where only summary statistics are routinely transmitted. Currently, BENTO boxes can measure weather parameters (e.g., windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, atmospheric pressure), volcanic gas (CO2, SO2, and halogens) concentrations, and seismicity. In the future, we plan to interface BENTO boxes with additional sensors such as atmospheric pressure/infrasound, tilt, GPS and temperature. We are currently field-testing 'BENTO 1' boxes equipped with gas and meteorological sensors ('BENTO 1') at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua; Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

  9. Surveys of distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hawk within the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

    1994-08-01

    In 1993, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct specific biological surveys to identify potential impacts of proposed geothermal development on the biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the distribution, habitat use, and density of the Hawaiian hawk or `Io (Buteo solitarius). Data were collected by the USFWS to assess the potential impacts of geothermal development on `Io populations on the island of Hawaii. These impacts include degradation of potential nesting habitat and increased disturbance due to construction and operation activities. Data from these surveys were analyzed as part of an island wide population assessment conducted by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology at the request of the USFWS.

  10. Research on Methods for Building Volcano Disaster Information System--taking Changbai Mountain as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuexia; BO Liqun; LU Xingchang

    2001-01-01

    Volcano eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters in the world. There are volcanoes in every territory on the earth, about a thousand in China, among which Changbai Mountain Volcano, Wudalianchi Volcano and Tengchong Volcano are the most latent catastrophic eruptive active volcanoes. The paper, following an instance of Changbai Mountain Volcano, expounds that monitoring, forecasting and estimating volcano disaster by building Volcano Disaster Information System (VDIS) is feasible to alleviate volcano disaster.

  11. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  12. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  13. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marsella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.

  14. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  15. Standardisation of the USGS Volcano Alert Level System (VALS): analysis and ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, C. J.; McGuire, W. J.; Davies, G.; Twigg, J.

    2012-11-01

    The standardisation of volcano early warning systems (VEWS) and volcano alert level systems (VALS) is becoming increasingly common at both the national and international level, most notably following UN endorsement of the development of globally comprehensive early warning systems. Yet, the impact on its effectiveness, of standardising an early warning system (EWS), in particular for volcanic hazards, remains largely unknown and little studied. This paper examines this and related issues through evaluation of the emergence and implementation, in 2006, of a standardised United States Geological Survey (USGS) VALS. Under this upper-management directive, all locally developed alert level systems or practices at individual volcano observatories were replaced with a common standard. Research conducted at five USGS-managed volcano observatories in Alaska, Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley and Yellowstone explores the benefits and limitations this standardisation has brought to each observatory. The study concludes (1) that the process of standardisation was predominantly triggered and shaped by social, political, and economic factors, rather than in response to scientific needs specific to each volcanic region; and (2) that standardisation is difficult to implement for three main reasons: first, the diversity and uncertain nature of volcanic hazards at different temporal and spatial scales require specific VEWS to be developed to address this and to accommodate associated stakeholder needs. Second, the plural social contexts within which each VALS is embedded present challenges in relation to its applicability and responsiveness to local knowledge and context. Third, the contingencies of local institutional dynamics may hamper the ability of a standardised VALS to effectively communicate a warning. Notwithstanding these caveats, the concept of VALS standardisation clearly has continuing support. As a consequence, rather than advocating further commonality of a standardised

  16. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  17. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  18. Predictability of Volcano Eruption: lessons from a basaltic effusive volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, J R

    2003-01-01

    Volcano eruption forecast remains a challenging and controversial problem despite the fact that data from volcano monitoring significantly increased in quantity and quality during the last decades.This study uses pattern recognition techniques to quantify the predictability of the 15 Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) eruptions in the 1988-2001 period using increase of the daily seismicity rate as a precursor. Lead time of this prediction is a few days to weeks. Using the daily seismicity rate, we formulate a simple prediction rule, use it for retrospective prediction of the 15 eruptions,and test the prediction quality with error diagrams. The best prediction performance corresponds to averaging the daily seismicity rate over 5 days and issuing a prediction alarm for 5 days. 65% of the eruptions are predicted for an alarm duration less than 20% of the time considered. Even though this result is concomitant of a large number of false alarms, it is obtained with a crude counting of daily events that are available fro...

  19. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  20. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  1. Horizontal-vertical Spectral Ratio Method in Microtremor to Estimate Engineering Bedrock Thickness at Sedati Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawa Arwananda, Alif; Aryaseta, Bagas; Dezulfakar, Hafidz; Fatahillah, Yosar; Pandu Gya Nur Rochman, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Based on field study, Sedati Mud Volcano located in a line with Gunung Anyar Mud Volcano and occurred by increased pressure in the compression area and rapid loss of gas. The combination of both fast-growing constructions of infrastructures and the presence of the mud volcanoes brings new challenges in Sidoarjo city. The purpose of this scientific research is to determine the sedimentary thickness around Sedati mud volcano. Only a few data show real amplitude spectrum, which represent high contrast impedance. At some point, there are several peaks indicating the presence of contrast impedance between layers. Based on 20 processed data, Sedati Mud Volcano has a 30 - 70m engineering bedrock thickness and natural frequency between 0.5 until 14.4 Hz. The enhancement of natural frequency tends to occur along decrement of layer thickness in the upper basement layer. The result shows the natural frequency parameter and its amplification is slightly variated around Sedati Mud Volcano, as caused by sedimentary lateral depth variation and/or the presence of variation on existing rock. Further analysis indicates a fault inside the area of mud volcano as possible reason behind the occurring mudflow.

  2. 77 FR 27671 - State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... University of Hawaii, Maui College in the Pilina Multipurpose Room, 310 W. Kaahumanu Ave., Kahului, Hawaii...: Waiakea High School in the Cafeteria, 155 W. Kawili St., Hilo, Hawaii 96720. To provide opportunities...

  3. The drama of Puna: For and against the Hawai'i geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, William Henry

    The geothermal project was conceived in the context of the international oil business and the economic growth of Hawai'i. From the point of view of the State, the geothermal project is necessary because imported petroleum provides Hawai'i with 911/2 percent of its total energy. That petroleum consists of 140,000 b/d of crude (1990) and it comes from Alaska, Indonesia and a few other suppliers. However, the Alaskan North Slope is beginning to run dry and the Southeast Asian suppliers of crude will be exporting less petroleum as time goes on. Increasingly, Hawai'i will become dependent on "unstable Middle Eastern" suppliers of crude. From this worry about the Middle East, the State seeks indigenous energy to reduce its dependence on petroleum and to support economic growth. Hence, the geothermal project was born after the 1973 oil embargo. The major source of geothermal energy is the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island. Kilauea is characterized by the Kilauea caldera and a crack in the Island which extends easterly from the caldera to Cape Kumukahi in Puna and southwest to Pahala in Ka'u. The eastern part of the crack is approximately 55 kilometers long and 5 kilometers wide. The geothermal plants will sit on this crack. While the State has promoted the geothermal project with the argument of reducing "dependence" on imported petroleum, it hardly mentions its goal of economic growth. The opponents have resisted the project on the grounds of protecting Pele and Hawaiian gathering rights, protecting the rain forest, and stopping the pollution in the geothermal steam. What the opponents do not mention is their support for economic growth. The opposition to the project suggests a new environmental politics is forming in Hawai'i. Is this true? The dissertation will show that the participants in this drama are involved in a strange dance where each side avoids any recognition of their fundamental agreement on economic growth. Hence the creation of a new environmental

  4. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  5. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya

    2015-04-01

    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  6. The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of volcano monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian Volcano Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of Hawaii until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian volcanoes work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the National Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been

  7. Hawaii Energy Strategy program. [First Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program began on March 2, 1992, under United States Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92F19168, and is scheduled for completion by December 31, 1994. As outlined in the Statement of Joint Objectives: The purpose of the study is to develop an integrated State of Hawaii energy strategy, including an assessment of the State's fossil fuel reserve requirements and the most effective way to meet those needs, the availability and practicality of increasing the use of native energy resources, potential alternative fossil energy technologies such as coal gasification and potential energy efficiency measures which could lead to demand reduction. This work contributes to the DOE mission, will reduce the State's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions and contributes to the public good.

  8. Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program began on March 2, 1992, under United States Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92F19168, and is scheduled for completion by December 31, 1994. As outlined in the Statement of Joint Objectives: The purpose of the study is to develop an integrated State of Hawaii energy strategy, including an assessment of the State`s fossil fuel reserve requirements and the most effective way to meet those needs, the availability and practicality of increasing the use of native energy resources, potential alternative fossil energy technologies such as coal gasification and potential energy efficiency measures which could lead to demand reduction. This work contributes to the DOE mission, will reduce the State`s vulnerability to energy supply disruptions and contributes to the public good.

  9. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  10. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the

  11. The potential for synthesizing multi-sensor remote sensing data for global volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtney, M.; Pritchard, M. E.; Carn, S. A.; McCormick, B.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Jay, J.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes exhibit variable eruption frequencies and styles, from near-continuous eruptions of effusive lavas to more intermittent, explosive eruptions. The monitoring frequency necessary to capture precursory signals at any volcano remains uncertain, as some warnings allot hours for evacuation. Likewise, no precursory signal appears deterministic for each volcano. Volcanic activity manifests in a variety of ways (i.e. tremor, deformation), thus requiring multiple monitoring mechanisms (i.e. geodetic, geochemical, geothermal). We are developing databases to compare relationships among remotely sensed volcanic unrest signals and eruptions. Satellite remote sensing utilizes frequent temporal measurements (daily to bi-weekly), an essential component of worldwide volcano monitoring. Remote sensing methods are also capable of detecting diverse precursory signals such as ground deformation from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar—InSAR— (multiple space agencies), degassing from satellite spectroscopy (i.e. OMI SO2 from NASA), and hot spots from thermal infrared (i.e. MODIS from NASA). We present preliminary results from seven SAR satellites and two thermal infrared satellites for 24 volcanoes with prominent SO2 emissions. We find near-continuous emissions at Ibu (Indonesia) since 2008 corresponded with hotspots and 10 cm of subsidence, with degassing and comparable subsidence observed at Pagan (Marianas). A newcomer to volcano monitoring, remote sensing data are only beginning to be utilized on a global scale, let alone as a synthesized dataset for monitoring developing eruptions. We foresee a searchable tool for rapidly accessing basic volcanic unrest characteristics for different types of volcanoes and whether or not they resulted in eruption. By including data from multiple satellite sensors in our database we hope to develop quantitative assessments for calculating the likelihood of eruption from individual events.

  12. Relationship between morphological feature of submarine landslides and geological condition -focus on Oshima-Oshima, Kaimon and Hawaii regions-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Huge submarine landslides which generate the tsunami are found in the world. Those submarine landslides are generated by the collapse of the volcano and an unstable slope of sediments on the continental shelf. It is thought that a generation mechanism and morphological features of submarine landslides are different according to the environment (geological condition, topography, and transportation mechanism, etc) in each region. We compared submarine landslides in three different regions to clarify the relation of them. The comparison items are geological condition, morphological feature, form of submarine landslide and transportation mechanism. Oshima-Oshima is a volcanic island and tsunami was generated by collapse of volcanic edifice in 1741 eruption. Kaimon submarine landslide was generated by collapse of continental shelf slope off Kaimon volcano which has acted since 4000BP. There are many submarine landslides around Hawaii Islands. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides are peculiar in those submarine landslides. Moreover, we compare some submarine landslides around Hawaii islands with Oshima-Oshima debris avalanche. Both Oshima-Oshima and Hawaii islands are volcanic islands, however the morphological features are different. As a morphological feature, Oshima-Oshima has thick sediment of 100-120m in front of collapse area and those sediment thins with distance. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides have sediment including a huge blocks of 2km height at equal intervals around Hawaii islands. On the other hand, Kaimon submarine landslide has evenly thin sediment as a non volcanic type. In addition, in the case of Nuuanu-Wailau slides are smaller than Oshima-Oshima's case when we think about sediment extension to lateral side. Especially, sediment extension of Kaimon submarine landslide is small. These sediment distributions are related to the transportation mechanism. In general, sediment gravity flow is divided into 4 types (turbidity current, fluidized sediment flow

  13. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Yi-Leng [Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  15. Compound dislocation models (CDMs) for volcano deformation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Paul R.; Prats-Iraola, Pau

    2017-02-01

    Volcanic crises are often preceded and accompanied by volcano deformation caused by magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Fast and efficient model identification and parameter estimation techniques for various sources of deformation are crucial for process understanding, volcano hazard assessment and early warning purposes. As a simple model that can be a basis for rapid inversion techniques, we present a compound dislocation model (CDM) that is composed of three mutually orthogonal rectangular dislocations (RDs). We present new RD solutions, which are free of artefact singularities and that also possess full rotational degrees of freedom. The CDM can represent both planar intrusions in the near field and volumetric sources of inflation and deflation in the far field. Therefore, this source model can be applied to shallow dikes and sills, as well as to deep planar and equidimensional sources of any geometry, including oblate, prolate and other triaxial ellipsoidal shapes. In either case the sources may possess any arbitrary orientation in space. After systematically evaluating the CDM, we apply it to the co-eruptive displacements of the 2015 Calbuco eruption observed by the Sentinel-1A satellite in both ascending and descending orbits. The results show that the deformation source is a deflating vertical lens-shaped source at an approximate depth of 8 km centred beneath Calbuco volcano. The parameters of the optimal source model clearly show that it is significantly different from an isotropic point source or a single dislocation model. The Calbuco example reflects the convenience of using the CDM for a rapid interpretation of deformation data.

  16. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  17. Evolution of Deformation Studies on Active Hawaiian Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert; Okamura, Arnold; Miklius, Asta; Poland, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Everything responds to pressure, even rocks. Deformation studies involve measuring and interpreting the changes in elevations and horizontal positions of the land surface or sea floor. These studies are variously referred to as geodetic changes or ground-surface deformations and are sometimes indexed under the general heading of geodesy. Deformation studies have been particularly useful on active volcanoes and in active tectonic areas. A great amount of time and energy has been spent on measuring geodetic changes on Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes in Hawai`i. These changes include the build-up of the surface by the piling up and ponding of lava flows, the changes in the surface caused by erosion, and the uplift, subsidence, and horizontal displacements of the surface caused by internal processes acting beneath the surface. It is these latter changes that are the principal concern of this review. A complete and objective review of deformation studies on active Hawaiian volcanoes would take many volumes. Instead, we attempt to follow the evolution of the most significant observations and interpretations in a roughly chronological way. It is correct to say that this is a subjective review. We have spent years measuring and recording deformation changes on these great volcanoes and more years trying to understand what makes these changes occur. We attempt to make this a balanced as well as a subjective review; the references are also selective rather than exhaustive. Geodetic changes caused by internal geologic processes vary in magnitude from the nearly infinitesimal - one micron or less, to the very large - hundreds of meters. Their apparent causes also are varied and include changes in material properties and composition, atmospheric pressure, tidal stress, thermal stress, subsurface-fluid pressure (including magma pressure, magma intrusion, or magma removal), gravity, and tectonic stress. Deformation is measured in units of strain or displacement. For example, tilt

  18. Redoubt Volcano: 2009 Eruption Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a 3110-m glaciated stratovolcano located 170 km SW of Anchorage, Alaska, on the W side of Cook Inlet. The edifice comprises a oil production in Cook Inlet was halted for nearly five months. Unrest began in August, 2008 with reports of H2S odor. In late September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)’s seismic network recorded periods of volcanic tremor. Throughout the fall, AVO noted increased fumarolic emissions and accompanying ice- and snow-melt on and around the 1990 dome, and gas measurements showed elevated H2S and CO2 emissions. On January 23, seismometers recorded 48 hrs of intermittent tremor and discrete, low-frequency to hybrid events. Over the next 6 weeks, seismicity waxed and waned, an estimated 5-6 million m3 of ice were lost due to melting, volcanic gas emissions increased, and debris flows emerged repeatedly from recently formed ice holes near the 1990 dome, located on the crater’s N (“Drift”) side. On March 15, a phreatic explosion deposited non-juvenile ash from a new vent in the summit ice cap just S of the 1990 dome. Ash from the explosion rose to ~4500 m above sea level (asl). The plume was accompanied by weak seismicity. The first magmatic explosion occurred on March 22. Over the next two weeks, more than 19 explosions destroyed at least two lava domes and produced ash plumes that reached 6-18 km asl. Tephra was deposited along variable azimuths including trace to minor amounts on Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula communities, and reached Fairbanks, ~800 km to the N. Several lahars were produced by explosive disruption and melting of the “Drift” glacier. The largest lahars followed explosions on March 23 and April 4 and inundated the Drift River valley to the coast, causing temporary evacuation of the Drift River Oil Terminal, ~40 km from the vent. Time-lapse images captured pyroclastic flows and lahars in the “Drift” glacier valley during several of the explosions. Ballistics and pyroclastic flow deposits were

  19. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  20. Widespread assimilation of a seawater-derived component at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, A.J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Honda, M.; Stolper, E.M.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Norman, M.D.

    1999-09-01

    Many tholeiitic and transitional pillow-rim and fragmental glasses from Loihi seamount, Hawaii, have high Cl contents and Cl/K{sub 2}O ratios (and ratios of Cl to other incompatible components, such as P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, H{sub 2}O, etc.) relative to other Hawaiian subaerial volcanoes (e.g., Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Kilauea). The authors suggest that this results from widespread contamination of Loihi magmas by a Cl-rich, seawater-derived component. Assimilation of high-Cl phases such as saline brine or Cl-rich minerals (halite or iron-hydroxychlorides) with high Cl/H{sub 2}O ratios can explain the range and magnitude of Cl contents in Loihi glasses, as well as the variations in the ratios of Cl to other incompatible elements. Brines and Cl-rich minerals are thought to form from seawater within the hydrothermal systems associated with submarine volcanoes, and Loihi magmas could plausibly have assimilated such materials from the hydrothermal envelope adjacent to the magma chamber. Their model can also explain semiquantitatively the observed contamination of Loihi glasses with atmospheric-derived noble gases, provided the assimilant has concentrations of Ne and Ar comparable to or slightly less than seawater. This is more likely for brines than for Cl-rich minerals, leading the authors to favor brines as the major assimilant. Cl/Br ratios for a limited number of Loihi samples are also seawater-like, and show no indication of the higher values expected to be associated with the assimilation of Cl-rich hydrothermal minerals. Although Cl enrichment is a common feature of lavas from Loihi, submarine glasses from other Hawaiian volcanoes show little (Kilauea) or no (Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea) evidence of this process, suggesting that assimilation of seawater-derived components is more likely to occur in the early stages of growth of oceanic volcanoes. Summit collapse events such as the one observed at Loihi in October 1996 provide a ready mechanism for depositing brine

  1. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  2. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Osvaldo; Mineo, Teresa; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energ...

  3. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  4. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  5. Observations of geometry and ages constrain relative motion of Hawaii and Louisville plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Kroenke, Loren W.

    2009-07-01

    The classic view of linear island chains as volcanic expressions of interactions between changing plate tectonic motions and fixed mantle plumes has come under renewed scrutiny. In particular, observed paleolatitudes from the Emperor seamounts imply that the Hawaii hotspot was > 5-15° further north during formation of these seamounts and that rapid retardation of its southward migration was the primary agent forming the angular Hawaii-Emperor bend. Supporting this view are predictions from fluid dynamic experiments that suggest the general mantle circulation may displace narrow mantle plumes; consequently the surface locations of hotspots are not fixed and may have varied considerably in the past. However, the locations and ages of available rock samples place fundamental limits on the relative motion between the Hawaii and Louisville hotspots. Here we use such data to estimate empirical age progression curves for separate chains and calculate the continuous variations in hotspot separations through time. While the data are sparse, the inferred inter-hotspot motion for ages > 55 Myr appears significant but the observed relative motion is only about half of what is predicted by mantle dynamics models. To reconcile the observed paleolatitudes with our observed relative motion requires either a larger contemporaneous southward motion of the Louisville hotspot than previously suggested or a moderate component of true polar wander.

  6. Forecasted Impact of Climate Change on Infectious Disease and Health Security in Hawaii by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V; Speare, Rick; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to cause extensive shifts in the epidemiology of infectious and vector-borne diseases. Scenarios on the effects of climate change typically attribute altered distribution of communicable diseases to a rise in average temperature and altered incidence of infectious diseases to weather extremes. Recent evaluations of the effects of climate change on Hawaii have not explored this link. It may be expected that Hawaii's natural geography and robust water, sanitation, and health care infrastructure renders residents less vulnerable to many threats that are the focus on smaller, lesser developed, and more vulnerable Pacific islands. In addition, Hawaii's communicable disease surveillance and response system can act rapidly to counter increases in any disease above baseline and to redirect resources to deal with changes, particularly outbreaks due to exotic pathogens. The evidence base examined in this article consistently revealed very low climate sensitivity with respect to infectious and mosquito-borne diseases. A community resilience model is recommended to increase adaptive capacity for all possible climate change impacts rather an approach that focuses specifically on communicable diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:797-804).

  7. Sudden aseismic fault slip on the south flank of Kilauea volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Peter; Segall, Paul; Johnson, Kaj; Lisowski, Michael; Miklius, Asta

    2002-02-28

    One of the greatest hazards associated with oceanic volcanoes is not volcanic in nature, but lies with the potential for catastrophic flank failure. Such flank failure can result in devastating tsunamis and threaten not only the immediate vicinity, but coastal cities along the entire rim of an ocean basin. Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii, USA, is a potential source of such flank failures and has therefore been monitored by a network of continuously recording geodetic instruments, including global positioning system (GPS) receivers, tilt meters and strain meters. Here we report that, in early November 2000, this network recorded transient southeastward displacements, which we interpret as an episode of aseismic fault slip. The duration of the event was about 36 hours, it had an equivalent moment magnitude of 5.7 and a maximum slip velocity of about 6[?]cm per day. Inversion of the GPS data reveals a shallow-dipping thrust fault at a depth of 4.5[?]km that we interpret as the down-dip extension of the Hilina Pali--Holei Pali normal fault system. This demonstrates that continuously recording geodetic networks can detect accelerating slip, potentially leading to warnings of volcanic flank collapse.

  8. 14 CFR 136.5 - Additional requirements for Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.5 Additional requirements for Hawaii. No person may conduct a commercial air tour in the State of Hawaii unless they...

  9. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  11. Inked Nostalgia: Displaying Identity through Tattoos as Hawaii Local Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Mie

    2015-01-01

    Almost a century after the end of the period of Japanese immigration to Hawaii plantations, the Japanese language is no longer the main medium of communication among local Japanese in Hawaii. Today, use of the Japanese language and associated traditional images are often used symbolically rather than literally to convey their meanings, and this is…

  12. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1409 - Security Zones; Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Hawaii, HI. 165..., HI. (a) Location. The following areas, from the surface of the water to the ocean floor, are security..., Hawaii, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Hilo Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  15. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  16. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay. The...

  17. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  18. The Japanese in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans. Hawaii Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mitsugu

    This revision of Mitsugu Matsuda's Japanese in Hawaii, 1868-1967: An Annotated Bibliography of the First Hundred Years, calls attention to writings which are available to students and individuals interested in Americans of Japanese ancestry. The materials range from scholarly pieces based on traditional academic sources for documentation to…

  19. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  20. Geochemical investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano: Implications for lower oceanic crust accretion and Hualalai Volcano magma storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruohan; Lassiter, John C.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Clague, David A.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-05-01

    The patterns of axial hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges both affect and are influenced by the styles of magma plumbing. Therefore, the intensity and distribution of hydrothermal alteration in the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can provide constraints on LOC accretion models (e.g., "gabbro glacier" vs. "multiple sills"). Gabbroic xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii include rare fragments of in situ Pacific lower oceanic crust. Oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of 16 LOC-derived Hualalai gabbros are primarily within the range of fresh MORB, indicating minimal hydrothermal alteration of the in situ Pacific LOC, in contrast to pervasive alteration recorded in LOC xenoliths from the Canary Islands. This difference may reflect less hydrothermal alteration of LOC formed at fast ridges than at slow ridges. Mid-ocean ridge magmas from slow ridges also pond on average at greater and more variable depths and undergo less homogenization than those from fast ridges. These features are consistent with LOC accretion resembling the "multiple sills" model at slow ridges. In contrast, shallow magma ponding and limited hydrothermal alteration in LOC at fast ridges are consistent with the presence of a long-lived shallow magma lens, which limits the penetration of hydrothermal circulation into the LOC. Most Hualalai gabbros have geochemical and petrologic characteristics indicating derivation from Hualalai shield-stage and post-shield-stage cumulates. These xenoliths provide information on the evolution of Hawaiian magmas and magma storage systems. MELTS modeling and equilibration temperatures constrain the crystallization pressures of 7 Hualalai shield-stage-related gabbros to be ∼2.5-5 kbar, generally consistent with inferred local LOC depth. Therefore a deep magma reservoir existed within or at the base of the LOC during the shield stage of Hualalai Volcano. Melt-crust interaction between Hawaiian melts and in situ Pacific crust during magma storage partially

  1. Imaging magma storage reservoirs beneath Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, G.; Belachew, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Seats, K.; Ruiz, M. C.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean island volcanoes initiate and grow through repeated eruptions and intrusions of primarily basaltic magma that thicken the oceanic crust above melt production zones within the mantle. The movement of oceanic plates over the hot, melt-rich upwellings produces chains of progressively younger basaltic volcanoes, as in the Galapagos Islands. Rates of surface deformation along the chain of 7 active volcanoes in the western Galápagos are some of the most rapid in the world, yet little is known of the subsurface structure of the active volcanic systems. The 16-station SIGNET array deployed between July 2009 and June 2011 provides new insights into the time-averaged structure beneath Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes, and the ocean platform. We use wavespeed tomography to image volcanic island structure, with focus on the magmatic plumbing system beneath Sierra Negra volcano, which has a deep, ~10 km-wide caldera and last erupted in 2005. We compare our results to those of ambient noise tomography. Our 120 x 100 km grid has a variable mesh of 2.5 - 10 km. We have good resolution at depths between 3 and 15 km, with poorer resolution beneath Cerro Azul volcano. Events from Alcedo volcano, which is just outside our array, cause some N-S smearing. Results from wavespeed tomography provide insights into the major island building processes: accretion through extrusive magmatism, magma chamber geometry and depth, radial dike intrusions, and magmatic underplating/sill emplacement. The wide caldera of Sierra Negra is underlain by high velocity (~7 %) material from depths of 5 - 15, and the flanks correspond to low velocity material at all depths. A high velocity zone corresponds to Cerro Azul (~3%). Aligned chains of eruptive centers correlate with elongate high velocity zones, suggesting that radial dikes are the sites of repeated dike intrusions. These chains are preferentially located along ridges linking nearby volcanoes. A comparison of well-resolved zones

  2. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Alaskan volcanoes quantified using an ultraviolet SO_{2} camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Brewer, Ian; Ketner, Dane; Paskievitch, John; Power, John

    2016-04-01

    several hundred t/d as well as short-term (active volcanic center. Our presentation will include a brief description of our SO2 camera, a system we designed and built for rapid deployment at active volcanoes, and the results of the measurements will be discussed. These results will be compared to other available monitoring data and interpreted with regard to their importance for assessing the current level of activity of these remote Alaskan volcanoes.

  3. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  4. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  5. Permanent tremor of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua: Wave field analysis and source location

    Science.gov (United States)

    MéTaxian, Jean-Philippe; Lesage, Philippe; Dorel, Jacques

    1997-10-01

    The Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, is a basaltic caldera in a subduction zone. The permanent source of the volcanic tremor was located inside Santiago crater, at the lava lake's position and 400 m below the NE rim, and therefore corresponds to superficial magma activity. We used two tripartite arrays (90 m side), one semicircular array (r=120 m) in 1992, and two semicircular arrays (r=60 m) and a 2500 m long linear array radiating out from the source and on the flank of the crater in 1993. We used both a cross-spectrum method and a correlation method to determine the wave delay time between the reference station and the other stations of an array and to quantify the wave field. Using the delays therefore by intersecting the back azimuth wave directions from the arrays, we could pinpoint the source. Additionally, the correlation coefficients obtained as functions of frequency for the three components of motion confirm the inferred position of the source of tremor. The tremor's wave field is composed of comparable quantities of dispersed Rayleigh and Love surface waves, whose phase velocities lie in the ranges 730-1240 m/s at 2 Hz and 330-550 m/s at 6 Hz. The dispersive phase velocities were inverted to obtain crustal structures with a minimal number of layers. The resulting velocity models are similar for the northern and southern parts of the volcano. After geometrical spreading corrections, Q2Hz=14 and Q3Hz=31 were determined along the northern linear array. The typical low velocities and low Q corresponding to the cone structure and are similar to those of other basaltic volcanoes like Puu Oo, Hawaii, and Klyuchevskoy, Kamchatka.

  6. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compilation and Analysis of a Database of Local Tsunami Bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) to the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency (HI-EMA) between September 2003 and July, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, V.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Walsh, D.; Becker, N. C.; McCreery, C.

    2015-12-01

    The PTWC functions not only as official international tsunami warning center (TWC) for nations with coasts around the Pacific rim, the Caribbean, and other regions of the world, but also as the local TWC for the State of Hawaii. The PTWC began sending local tsunami messages to HI-EMA only since September, 2003. As part of its routine operations, the PTWC strives to send a local tsunami message product for any Hawaii earthquake with a 4.0 magnitude or larger within five minutes of origin time. To evaluate PTWC's performance in that regard, however, we must first compile a suitable local tsunami bulletins' database. For this purpose, we scanned all the available logs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) communications' circuit between 2003 and 2015 and retrieved 104 local bulletins. We parsed these bulletins and extracted the parametric data needed to evaluate PTWC's performance in terms of essential statistics such as message delay time, epicenter offsets, and magnitude residuals as compared with more authoritative earthquake source parametrizations. To that end, we cross-validated 88 of these seismic events having magnitudes between 2.8 and 6.7 with the corresponding source parameters obtained from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the National Earthquake Information Center's (NEIC) online catalog. Analysis of events with magnitude 4.0 or larger gives a median message delay time of 3 minutes and 33 seconds, a median epicentral offset of 3.2 km, and a median magnitude residual of 0.2 unit. Several message delay outliers exist due to the fact that PTWC has sent local tsunami information statements (TIS) for felt events with magnitudes as small as 2.8 located west of the Big Island. Routine use of a synthetic Wood-Anderson magnitude since the end of 2012 appears to have brought consistency to PTWC's local magnitude estimates and a reduction in the message delays. Station site corrections, a refined attenuation model, and optimization of the peak

  8. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  9. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  10. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. Résumé. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une épaisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste région à faible perméabilité. Le modèle conceptuel conventionnel pour la présence d'eau souterraine à Hawaii et dans les autres îles de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si épaisse. Dans ce modèle conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont formés la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes régions à relativement forte perméabilité, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu épaisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les sédiments constituent une région étendue à faible conductivité hydraulique régionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est saturée presque jusqu'à sa surface; les surfaces pi

  11. The seismicity of Marapi volcano, West Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    Marapi is one of the active volcanoes in West Sumatra. It is a stratovolcano with an edifice that is elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. Its elevation is about 2,900 m a.s.l. The summit area is characterized by a caldera that contains some active craters aligned along the ENE-WSW direction. The Marapi volcano is an attractive region for tourists and hosts many small communities its surrounding areas. The recent history of Mt. Marapi is characterized by explosive activity at the summit craters. No lava flows have passed the rim of the summit caldera in recent times. The last eruption occurred on August 5, 2004, and consisted of moderate explosive activity from the central crater. In 1975 an eruption with magmatic and phreatic explosive phases and mudflows and lahars occurred that caused fatalities in the surrounding areas. Since 1980 other eruptions have occurred at Marapi volcano. Even if the explosive intensities of those eruptions have been small to moderate, in some cases, there were fatalities. A cooperation project started between Italy and Indonesia (COVIN) for the monitoring of volcanoes in West Sumatra. In the context of this project a monitoring centre has been set up at the Bukittinggi Observatory and a seismological monitoring system for Marapi volcano has been realized. This system is based on a broadband seismic network including 4 three-component stations. The data acquired by the broadband network of Marapi volcano are continuous recordings of the seismic signals starting from 19/10/2006. Volcano-Tectonic and Long Period events of Marapi volcano together with regional and teleseismic earthquakes are recorded. Several events of high magnitude located at short distances from the network were also recorded such as on March 6, 2007, when two events of Magnitudes Mw 6.4 and 6.3 were recorded with the epicentres near the Marapi volcano. During the following days, there was a sequence of hundreds of aftershocks. The preliminary analysis of the seismicity of

  12. Hawaii, Hawaii/ Like a dream/ So I came/ But my tears/ Are flowing now/In the canefields’: Beauty’s Price in Philip Kan Gotanda’s Ballad of Yachiyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Oftentimes popular culture depicts Hawaii as an ideal paradise, represented by images of ‘[p]alm trees, a distant mountain (frequently a smoking volcano, and a hula maiden, all surmounted by a splendid full moon’ (Brown 1994. Such a picture clearly contrasts with the labour song quoted in the title of this article, which reflects the exploitation, mainly of Asian workers, in the sugar-cane plantation system—the original basis for (white American prosperity in the islands since the mid-nineteenth century. Philip Kan Gotanda’s play, Ballad of Yachiyo, which premièred at Berkeley Repertory Theatre in 1995, takes place within a Japanese community in early twentieth-century Hawaii. It is loosely based on the silenced story of the playwright’s aunt who committed suicide for bringing shame to the family as a result of an extra-marital pregnancy. Gotanda considers that this particular work is not so much about politics, but about ‘a tone’ and a ‘kind of beautiful sadness’ (1997. Despite the author’s words, Ballad of Yachiyo inevitably has embedded within a political message insofar as it makes references, for example, to working conditions in the sugar plantations, the formation of the first inter-ethnic (Japanese/Filipino trade unions and the expectations of Japanese immigrants in search of the mythical paradise Hawaii was meant to be. That is, by recovering what was once a lost voice, Gotanda reconstructs part of his family’s memory as forming part of Hawaii’s recent history.

  13. Earthquakes and related catastrophic events, Island of Hawaii, November 29, 1975; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Moore, J.G.; Swanson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The largest earthquake in over a century--magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale--struck Hawaii the morning of November 29, 1975, at 0448. It was centered about 5 km beneath the Kalapana area on the southeastern coast of the island at 19? 20.1 ' N., long 155? 01.4 ' W.). The earthquake was preceded by numerous foreshocks, the largest of which was a 5.7-magnitude jolt at 0336 the same morning, and was accompanied, or closely followed, by a tsunami seismic sea wave), massive ground movements, hundreds of aftershocks, and a volcanic eruption. The tsunami reached a height of 12.2-14.6 m above sea level on the southeastern coast about 25 km west of the earthquake center, elsewhere generally 8 m or less. The south flank of Kilauea Volcano, which forms the southeastern part of the island, was deformed by dislocations along old and new faults along a 25-km long zone. Downward and seaward fault displacements resulted in widespread subsidence, locally as much as 3.5 m, leaving coconut palms standing in the sea and nearly submerging a small, near-shore island. A brief, small-volume volcanic eruption, triggered by the earthquake and associated ground movements occurred at Kilauea's summit about three-quarters of an hour later. The earthquake, together with the tsunami it generated, locally caused severe property damage in the southeastern part of the island; the tsunami also caused two deaths. Damage from the earthquake and related catastrophic events is estimated by the Hawaii Civil Defense Agency at about $4.1 million. The 1975 Kalapana earthquake and accompanying events represent the latest events in a recurring pattern of behavior for Kilauea. A large earthquake of about the same magnitude, tsunami, subsidence, and eruption occurred at Kilauea in 1868, and a less powerful earthquake and similar related processes are believed to have occurred in 1823. Indeed, the geologic evidence suggests that such events have been repeated many times in Kilauea's past and will continue. The

  14. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  15. Sociodemographic characterization of ECT utilization in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Celia M; Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji; Carlton, Barry; Fukuda, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Minimal research has been done on sociodemographic differences in utilization of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for refractory depression, especially among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This study examined sociodemographic and diagnostic variables using retrospective data from Hawaii, an island state with predominantly Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Retrospective data were obtained from an inpatient and outpatient database of ECT patients from 2008 to 2010 at a tertiary care community hospital on O'ahu, Hawaii. There was a significant increase in overall ECT utilization from 2008 to 2009, with utilization remaining stable from 2009 to 2010. European Americans (41%) and Japanese Americans (29%) have relatively higher rates of receiving ECT, and Filipino Americans and Native Hawaiians have relatively lower rates in comparison with their population demographics. Japanese Americans received significantly more ECT procedures than European Americans. Electroconvulsive therapy is underutilized by certain sociodemographic groups that may benefit most from the treatment. There are significant differences in ECT usage based on ethnicity. Such differences may be related to help-seeking behavior, economic differences, and/or attitudes regarding mental illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the reasons for differences in utilization.

  16. New earthquake catalog reexamines Hawaii's seismic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Klein, Fred W.

    2000-01-01

    On April 2,1868, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred beneath the southern part of the island of Hawaii. The quake, which was felt throughout all of the Hawaiian Islands, had a Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity of XII near its source.The destruction caused by a quake that large is nearly complete. A landslide triggered by the quake buried a small village, killing 31 people, and a tsunami that swept over coastal settlements added to the death toll. We know as much as we do about this and other early earthquakes thanks to detailed records kept by Hawaiian missionaries, including the remarkable diary maintained by the Lyman family that documented every earthquake felt at their home in Hilo between 1833 and 1917 [Wyss et al., 1992].Our analysis of these and other historical records indicates that Hawaii was at least as intensely seismic in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century as in its more recent past, with 26 M ≥6.0 earthquakes occurring from 1823 to 1903 and 20 M ≥6.0 earthquakes from 1904 to 1959. Just five M ≥6.0 earthquakes occurred from 1960 to 1999. The potential damage caused by a repeat of some of the larger historic events could be catastrophic today.

  17. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  18. Pufferfish mortality associated with novel polar marine toxins in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Moeller, Peter D R; Beauchesne, Kevin R; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Rameyer, Robert; Walsh, William J; Abecassis, Melanie; Kobayashi, Donald R; Conway, Carla; Winton, James

    2017-03-06

    Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations. Whilst our data are compelling, we did not synthesize the toxin de novo, and we were unable to categorically prove that the polar toxins caused mortality or that they were metabolites of an undefined parent compound. However, our approach does provide a template for marine fish kill investigations associated with marine toxins and inherent limitations of existing methods. Our study also highlights the need for more rapid and cost-effective tools to identify new marine toxins, particularly small, highly polar molecules.

  19. Pufferfish mortality associated with novel polar marine toxins in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Moeller, Perer D. R.; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Rameyer, Robert; Walsh, Willliam A.; Abecassis, Melanie; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James

    2017-01-01

    Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations. Whilst our data are compelling, we did not synthesize the toxin de novo, and we were unable to categorically prove that the polar toxins caused mortality or that they were metabolites of an undefined parent compound. However, our approach does provide a template for marine fish kill investigations associated with marine toxins and inherent limitations of existing methods. Our study also highlights the need for more rapid and cost-effective tools to identify new marine toxins, particularly small, highly polar molecules.

  20. Geothermal Power Potential in the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H. H.; Song, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent energy issues have concentrated the attention on finding alternative ones. National demands for renewable and sustainable energy increase rapidly, especially the geothermal power production, which is viewed as the most potential opportunity. This study attempts to estimate the geothermal powers in the Tatung Volcano Group (TVG), Taiwan and evaluate the possibility to develop the Enhanced Geothermal System. Tatung Volcano Group is located at the northwest part of Taiwan. It has violent volcanism during 0.8-0.20Ma, and is still active with many thermal manifestations. The young volcanic activity provides the TVG with high geothermal gradient and is well suitable for exploiting geothermal resources. Many explorations on geothermal energy have been accomplished in this area during1966-1973. They included resistivity survey, magnetic prospecting, gravity method, seismic prospecting and etc. In this study, we base on previous data and apply the probabilistic volumetric method proposed by Geotherm EX Inc., modified from the approach introduced by the USGS to evaluate the geothermal power potential in TVG. Meanwhile, use a Monte Carlo simulation technique to calculate the probability distribution of potentially recoverable energy reserves. The results show that the mean value is 270Mw, and P50 is 254Mw for 30 years, separately. Furthermore, the power potential of enhanced geothermal system in TVG is also estimated by the quantitative model proposed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT 2006). The results suggest that the mean value is 3,000 MW and P50 is 2,780 MW for 30 years, separately.

  1. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  2. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  3. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  4. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  5. USGS U.S. Volcanoes with Elevated Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides list of elevated status volcanoes with access to activity updates and/or information releases for changes in activity at the volcanoes. activity at...

  6. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    little or no tilt on the flanks of the volcano, indicating that activity is restricted to the very peak of the cone where degassing takes place. Possibly little or no deformation is observed where slug flow or the accumulation of large bubbles does not occur in the deeper parts of the volcano conduit. The timing and nature of inflation and deflation cycles reported for different volcanoes is variable. Data analyzed by Genco and Ripepe (GRL, 2010) from Stromboli volcano show periods of slow inflation with rapid deflation occurring at eruption onset. Alternatively, Sanderson et al. (JVGR, 2010) found little or no inflation prior to eruptions at Santiaguito, but eruptions were followed by strong deflationary pulses. The peak magnitudes of observed tilt are likewise dissimilar, ranging from 60 nanoradians at Stromboli up to ~2 microradians at Anatahan. The effect of sensor location, the style and geometry of the erupting edifice, and analytical methods are explored and illustrated.

  7. Elastic plate flexure above mantle plumes explains the upstream offset of volcanic activity at la Réunion and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault, Muriel; Fontaine, Fabrice; Rabinowicz, Michel; Bystricky, Micha

    2017-04-01

    Surface volcanism at la Réunion and Hawaii occurs with an offset of 150-180 km upstream to the plume axis with respect to the plate motion. This striking observation raises questions about the forcing of plume-lithosphere thermo-mechanical interactions on melt trajectories beneath these islands. Based on visco-elasto-plastic numerical models handled at kilometric resolution, we propose to explain this offset by the development of compressional stresses at the base of the lithosphere, that result from elastic plate bending above the upward load exerted by the plume head. This horizontal compression adopts a disc shape centered around the plume axis, 20 km thick and 150 km in radius, at 50-70 km depth where the temperature varies from 600°C to 750°C. It lasts for 5 to 10 My in an oceanic plate of age greater than 70 My, a timing that is controlled by the visco-elastic relaxation time at 50-70 km depth. This period of time exceeds the time during which both the Somalian/East-African and Pacific plates drift over the Reunion and Hawaii plumes, respectively, thus rendering this basal compression a persistent feature. It is inferred that the buoyant melts percolating in the plume head pond below this zone of compression and eventually spread laterally until the most compressive principal elastic stresses reverse to the vertical, i.e., 150 km away from the plume head. There, melts propagate through dikes upwards to 35 km depth, where the plate curvature reverses and ambient compression diminishes. This 30-35 km depth may thus host magmatic reservoirs where melts pond, until further differentiation can relaunch ascension up to the surface and form a volcanic edifice. In a second stage, as the volcano grows because of melt accumulation at the top of the plate, the lithosphere is flexed downwards, inducing extra tensile stress at 30-35 km depth and compression at 15 km depth. It implies that now the melts pond at 15 km and form another magmatic reservoir lying just

  8. Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for recent conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 2008 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for Hawaii Island, Hawaii....

  9. Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 1870 land cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for Hawaii Island, Hawaii....

  10. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  11. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the thousands !)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Oehler, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 km2. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  12. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  13. Sea-level rise in Hawaii: Implications for future shoreline locations and Hawaii coastal management

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlander, Andrew; Conger, Chris; Eversole, Dolan

    2010-01-01

    Management of coastal development in Hawaii is based on the location of the certified shoreline, which is representative of the upper limit of marine inundation within the last several years. Though the certified shoreline location is significantly more variable than long-term erosion indicators, its migration will still follow the coastline's general trend. The long-term migration of Hawaii’s coasts will be significantly controlled by rising sea level. However, land use decisions adjacent to...

  14. Lahars Deposits Architecture and Volume in the C. Lengkong Valley at Semeru volcano, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    26 pages, avec les figures. Article qui se veut d'etre ameliorer au fur et a mesure, mais donne d'importantes indications sur les depots de lahars: le volume de materiaux remobilisables au fond de la vallee (jamais mesure), l'architecture transversale des terrasses (montrant l'inadequation entre les observations de terrain a partir de coupes et le probleme de la validite des observations traditionnelles); Lahars at Semeru volcano, Indonesia, are an ongoing phenomenon that rapidly transport la...

  15. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  16. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  17. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  18. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  19. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  20. The beginning of explosive eruptions on a location lacking volcanoes: A case study on the Hijiori volcano, Northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I.

    2006-12-01

    repeated input of crystal poor hot magma into a crystal rich cool magma chamber, and that the mass ratio of new magma input to the existing magma body may be small enough to retain the physical and chemical conditions of the crystal rich magma chamber almost the same. Due to rapid chemical diffusion Mt phenocrysts can easily be re-equilibrated with the new environments within a few months. The depth where the magma mixing happened is estimated to be about 10 km from the observed water concentration in melt inclusions. To summarize, repeated input of felsic magma prepared a crystal rich magma chamber beneath Hijiori volcano for the commencement of the first eruption.

  1. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  2. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  3. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  4. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  5. Practical Seismology in Undergraduate Education: A Short-Term Seismic Deployment on the Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, J.; Thelen, W.; Greenwood, R.; Butcher, A.

    2011-12-01

    In June 2011, we deployed three broadband seismometers on and near Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii as a pilot project in geophysical undergraduate education at Cal Poly Pomona. Although large-scale temporary seismic deployments are now fairly common, usually undergraduate students do not have a leading role. The main purpose of this specific field experiment was for the undergraduate students to be active participants, or even leaders, in the installation and data gathering process, and thus have true ownership of the recorded data. This pilot project is part of Cal Poly Pomona's growing undergraduate geophysics program, which includes significant components of practical fieldwork, using modern geophysical equipment, as well as computational analysis, both in keeping with the polytechnic approach of the university. In this seismological field experiment, eight Geology majors were directly responsible for installing the seismic equipment using three different types of deployment. One seismometer was installed in a large instrument vault close to Kilauea Caldera, the second was installed in a pre-built buried container and the final installation was completely free field, using basic supplies from a local hardware store to build a shelter. Students had been taught how to work with the equipment during an on campus hands-on tutorial session. The specific type of seismometers was specifically chosen for its relative ease and speed of deployment, thus enabling the students to carry out the entire installation process almost completely independently. They aligned and centered the seismometers, built shelters for seismometers and batteries, installed GPS sensors and checked that the instruments were functioning correctly using a laptop. During the deployment period, students were able to see some of the volcanic and tectonic processes that were being recorded on the seismometers in action and in the field. We visited the Hawaii Volcano Observatory; explored a

  6. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  7. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  8. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  9. First study of the heat and gas budget for Sirung volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Philipon; Alfianti, Hilma; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Oppenheimer, Clive; Sitinjak, Pretina; Tsanev, Vitchko; Saing, Ugan B.

    2017-08-01

    With at least four eruptions over the last 20 years, Sirung is currently one of the more active volcanoes in Indonesia. However, due to its remoteness, very little is known about the volcano and its hyperacid crater lake. We report here on the first measurements of gas and heat emissions from the volcano. Notable is the substantial heat loss from the crater lake surface, amounting to 220 MW. In addition, 17 Gg of SO2, representing 0.8% of Indonesian volcanic SO2 contribution into the atmosphere, 11 Gg of H2S, 17 Gg of CO2, and 550 Gg of H2O are discharged into the atmosphere from the volcano annually. The volatiles degassed from Sirung magmas are subjected to hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions and sulfide depositions, initiated by the disproportionation of SO2. These processes lead to distinct gas compositions and changing lake water chemistry (in the sub-craters and the main crater lake). However, the occurrence of SO2-rich fluids and strong gas flux appear to highlight a rapid fluid transfer to surface, avoiding re-equilibration with lower temperature rocks/fluids in the conduits.

  10. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Pohukuloa Training Area, Hawaii Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Lienert, B. R.; Wallin, E.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of 3D modeling of magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in the Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) on the saddle between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. We have previously used lower frequency MT data to construct 1D and 2D resistivity profiles in this area and confirmed the presence of a low-resistivity region at depths of about 2 km. One of our drill holes in PTA had previously encountered temperatures of 150 C at a similar depth. However, our 1D and 2D models were unable to fit features of the data that we suspected were due to 3D variations in subsurface resistivity. For the 3D modeling, we reprocessed the higher frequency data (1 kHz sampling rate) which were available at all 20 sites. We were then able to obtain complex impedances at frequencies of 0.5-500 Hz to use for the 3D inversion. We used Siripunvaraporn's 3D inversion method to obtain resistivities in a rectangular array of 0.5x0.5x0.25 km blocks spanning the areal extent of the stations down to a depth of 2.5 km. The results confirmed that much of the anomalous data could be explained by near-surface 3D variations in resistivity. The underlying conductor of 5-10 ohm-m at 2 km depth now appears to extend over the entire survey area.

  11. Geothermal resources assessment in Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-02-21

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program.

  12. Haleiwa, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Haleiwa, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  13. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  14. 2015 Gridded bathymetry of Reef Runway, Oahu Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (1m) of Reef Runway ship grounding site, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson 8101 multibeam sonar collected in...

  15. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  16. Gridded bathymetry of Kohala, Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5-m grid of bathymetric data of Kohala coast of Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands, USA. The ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson 8101 multibeam sonar...

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  18. 100-Meter Resolution Elevation of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains elevation data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. The elevation data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED)...

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  20. 100-Meter Resolution Natural Earth of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains a natural-earth image of Hawaii. The image is land cover in natural colors combined with shaded relief, which produces a naturalistic...

  1. Northwest Hawaii and West Maui Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Coastal Use Mapping Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center, NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  2. Coastal Use Mapping Project - Northwest Hawai'i

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Coastal Use Mapping Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center, NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  3. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics, levels of...

  4. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 1995-1996. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  5. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  6. Nawiliwili, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nawiliwili, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  7. Hilo, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hilo, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  8. Keauhou, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Keauhou, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  9. Honolulu, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Honolulu, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  10. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Kihei, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kihei, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  12. Kahului, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kahului, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  13. Kawaihae, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kawaihae, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  14. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  15. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  16. Hanalei, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hanalei, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  17. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  18. Lahaina, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Lahaina, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  19. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  20. Gridded bathymetry of Barbers Point, Oahu Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (1m) of Barbers Point ship grounding site, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson 8101 multibeam sonar collected...