WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcano disaster assistance

  1. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Pallister, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    For 24 years the U.S. Geological Survey and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance have supported a small team of scientists and the monitoring equipment required to respond to volcanic crises at short notice anywhere in the world. This VDAP team was founded following the 1985 tragedy at Nevado del Ruiz, where 23,000 perished following an eruption-triggered lahar that swept through the town of Armero, Colombia. Through its first two decades, VDAP has deployed teams and equipment to assist host-country counterparts in responding to volcanic eruptions and unrest at numerous volcanoes in Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific and Africa and the Middle East. VDAP and the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) have a synergistic relationship. VDAP contributes to domestic eruption responses (e.g., Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Marianas Islands (2003-05), Mount St. Helens (2004) and several Alaskan eruptions). In turn, when VDAP lacks sufficient capability, the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program provides a “backstop” of staff and expertise to support its international work. Between crises, VDAP conducts capacity-building projects, including construction of volcano-monitoring networks and education programs in monitoring, hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Major capacity-building projects have focused on Central and South America (1998-present), Papua New Guinea (1998-2000) and Indonesia (2004-present). In all cases, VDAP scientists work in the background, providing support to counterpart agencies and representing the U.S. Government as scientist-diplomats. All VDAP monitoring equipment (whether used in crisis response or in capacity building) is donated to counterpart agencies as a form of U.S. foreign aid. Over the years, VDAP has helped build and sustain volcano observatories and monitoring programs in more than a dozen countries. As observatories, monitoring networks, and the science of volcanology and forecasting have

  2. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program: Working with International Partners to Reduce the Risk from Volcanic Eruptions Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Pallister, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) is a joint effort between USGS and the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). OFDA leads and coordinates disaster responses overseas for the U.S. government and is a unique stakeholder concerned with volcano disaster risk reduction as an international humanitarian assistance donor. One year after the tragic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in 1985, OFDA began funding USGS to implement VDAP. VDAP's mission is to reduce the loss of life and property and limit the economic impact from foreign volcano crises, thereby preventing such crises from becoming disasters. VDAP fulfills this mission and complements OFDA's humanitarian assistance by providing crisis response, capacity-building, technical training, and hazard assessments to developing countries before, during, and after eruptions. During the past 30 years, VDAP has responded to more than 27 major volcanic crises, built capacity in 12+ countries, and helped counterparts save tens of thousands of lives and hundreds of millions of dollars in property. VDAP responses have evolved as host-country capabilities have grown, but the pace of work has not diminished; as a result of VDAP's work at 27 volcanoes in fiscal year 2014, more than 1.3 million people who could have been impacted by volcanic activity benefitted from VDAP assistance, 11 geological policies were modified, 188 scientists were trained, and several successful eruption forecasts were made. VDAP is developing new initiatives to help counterparts monitor volcanoes and communicate volcanic risk. These include developing the Eruption Forecasting Information System (EFIS) to learn from compiled crisis data from 30 years of VDAP responses, creating event trees to forecast eruptions at restless volcanoes, and exploring the use of unmanned aerial systems for monitoring. The use of these new methods, along with traditional VDAP assistance, has improved VDAP

  3. Preventing volcanic catastrophe; the U.S. International Volcano Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J.W.; Murray, T.L.; Lockhart, A. B.; Miller, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    When the seismograph began to record the violent earth-shaking caused by yet another eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia, no one thought that a few hours later more than 23,000 people would be dead, killed by lahars (volcanic debris flows) in towns and villages several tens of kilometers away from the volcano. Before the fatal eruption the volcano was being monitored by scientists at a seismic station located 9 km from the summit, and information about the volcano's activity was being sent to Colombian emergency-response coordinators who were charged with alerting the public of the danger from the active volcano. Furthermore, area known to be in the pathways lahars had already been identified on maps and communities at risk had been told of their precarious locations.

  4. Research on Methods for Building Volcano Disaster Information System--taking Changbai Mountain as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuexia; BO Liqun; LU Xingchang

    2001-01-01

    Volcano eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters in the world. There are volcanoes in every territory on the earth, about a thousand in China, among which Changbai Mountain Volcano, Wudalianchi Volcano and Tengchong Volcano are the most latent catastrophic eruptive active volcanoes. The paper, following an instance of Changbai Mountain Volcano, expounds that monitoring, forecasting and estimating volcano disaster by building Volcano Disaster Information System (VDIS) is feasible to alleviate volcano disaster.

  5. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  6. Center for Disaster & Humanitarian Assistance Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...

  7. 75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... of employment (MSE) for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan (MREIDL) assistance. SBA may... the applicant's status as a major source of employment for Military Reserve Economic Injury...

  8. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  9. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...

  10. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner as...

  11. Multiple visions of Indonesia's mud volcano: understanding representations of disaster across discursive settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    The Lapindo mudflow is one of the most controversial disasters in Indonesian history. Despite its unique biophysical features, most consider the mudflow a social disaster as scientific conflicts about its main trigger have evolved into legal disputes over accountability and rights. This paper examines this 'trigger debate', the stakes of scientific contention and the broader social and natural dynamics that shape the terms of this debate. A Latourian impulse drives this analysis, which aims to improve both understandings of--and responses to--complex disasters. This paper also notes that the stakes of representation extend to constructions of its stakeholders, especially to victims. As socionatural disasters become an increasingly common feature of the contemporary world, from mud volcanoes to extreme weather events caused by global warming, it is more important than ever to understand the dynamics of representing disasters and stakeholders.

  12. 75 FR 60588 - Immediate Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disaster business loans, and Military Reservist EIDL loans. SBA also has authority under Section 7(b) to... Military Reservist economic injury disasters (Sec. 123.500 et seq.). Disaster declarations under section... Declarations. The Military Reservist economic injury disaster loan (MREIDL) program is a specialized...

  13. 78 FR 14740 - Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) Program-Deadline Extensions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Parts 204 and 206 RIN 1660-AA78 Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) Program--Deadline Extensions and Administrative Corrections... longer necessary. The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 established the Fire Management Assistance Grant...

  14. USGS GNSS Applications to Volcano Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; McCaffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic unrest is often identified by increased rates of seismicity, deformation, or the release of volcanic gases. Deformation results when ascending magma accumulates in crustal reservoirs, creates new pathways to the surface, or drains from magma reservoirs to feed an eruption. This volcanic deformation is overprinted by deformation from tectonic processes. GNSS monitoring of volcanoes captures transient volcanic deformation and steady and transient tectonic deformation, and we use the TDEFNODE software to unravel these effects. We apply the technique on portions of the Cascades Volcanic arc in central Oregon and in southern Washington that include a deforming volcano. In central Oregon, the regional TDEFNODE model consists of several blocks that rotate and deform internally and a decaying inflationary volcanic pressure source to reproduce the crustal bulge centered ~5 km west of South Sister. We jointly invert 47 interferograms that cover the interval from 1992 to 2010, as well as 2001 to 2015 continuous GNSS (cGNSS) and survey-mode (sGNSS) time series from stations in and around the Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake areas. A single, smoothly-decaying ~5 km deep spherical or prolate spheroid volcanic pressure source activated around 1998 provides the best fit to the combined geodetic data. In southern Washington, GNSS displacement time-series track decaying deflation of a ~8 km deep magma reservoir that fed the 2004 to 2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. That deformation reversed when it began to recharge after the eruption ended. Offsets from slow slip events on the Cascadia subduction zone punctuate the GNSS displacement time series, and we remove them by estimating source parameters for these events. This regional TDEFNODE model extends from Mount Rainier south to Mount Hood, and additional volcanic sources could be added if these volcanoes start deforming. Other TDEFNODE regional models are planned for northern Washington (Mount Baker and Glacier

  15. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arziman, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed.

  16. DISASTER REGIME CHARACTER: A STUDY OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AT MERAPI VOLCANO ERUPTION IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Dian Paramita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses how the existence of the character occurred in one of disaster management phases which is an emergency response. In addition, it aims to discuss and see the relationship between authority institutions in the disaster management which are Kesbanglinmas & PB Kab. Sleman, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre (MDMC, and Merapi Circle Information Network (JALIN MERAPI. This research uses qualitative method. The data about the policy and survivor handling are got through interviews with representatives from Pakem, Turi, and Cangkringan. They are head of sub districts, head of villages, and head of country-sides. The findings of this research show that the disaster regime character is fatalist-individualist and the authority relation is substitution (acts as a substitute. Therefore, humanity-based point of view is important to see the risk. It will empower the capacity of government institutions. The last, involving civil society (CSO is also significant to streamline the role of disaster management regime guide. Therefore, the synergy between government and CSO will easily be achieved to implement Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM. CSO is the government’s partner to reduce disaster.

  17. 火山喷发的气体灾害%Gases disaster from volcano eruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霓

    2000-01-01

    Volcano eruption is a magnificent natural landscape in earth.There are many kinds of volcano eruption,which not only change the landforms and bring about some mineral resources,but even more bring disasters to natur esametimes,when volcano erupts,a huge sum of gases are emitted to the air,which bring the tremendous disaster to global climate and enviroment.%火山喷发是一种壮观的自然景象,其喷发类型多种多样.火山喷发不仅可以改变地貌,带来一些矿产资源,更多的是给自然界带来灾害.火山喷发一般都同时喷出气体,强火山喷发时巨量的气体喷入空中,会给全球气候和环境造成极大的灾害.

  18. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  19. 20 CFR 416.1237 - Assistance received on account of major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disaster. 416.1237 Section 416.1237 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... on account of major disaster. (a) Assistance received under the Disaster Relief and Emergency... declared to be a major disaster by the President of the United States or comparable assistance...

  20. 44 CFR 208.5 - Authority of the Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Operations Directorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disaster Operations Directorate. (a) Participation in activities of the System. The Assistant Administrator is responsible for determining participation in the System and any activity thereof, including but... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN...

  1. 78 FR 75329 - Information Collection; Disaster Assistance (General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Disaster Assistance (General) AGENCY...., Washington, DC 20250-0517.You may also send comments to the Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of... of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or...

  2. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902... Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief...

  3. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  4. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week of...

  5. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  6. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more from a volcano. Before a Volcanic Eruption The following are things you can do to ... in case of an emergency. During a Volcanic Eruption Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and ...

  7. Enhancing Saarc Disaster Management: A Comparative Study With Asean Coordinating Centre For Humanitarian Assistance On Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Disaster Management Organizations Ferris highlights that regional organizations are more suitable for mobilization as they will share culture , customs...greater political, security, economic and socio cultural ” co-operation, serves the formation and operationalization of regional disaster management ... Malaysia Air Force Base in Subang, Malaysia on Dec 07, 2012, with assistance from the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund (JAIF) to manage the logistics

  8. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  9. Volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the past thousand years,volcanoes have claimed more than 300,000 lives. Volcanology is ayoung and dangerous science that helps us against the power of the Earth itself.We live on a fiery planet. Nearly 2000 miles beneath our feet, the Earth's inner core reachestemperatures of 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Molten rock or magma, rises to the earth's surface. Acold, rigid crust fractured into some twenty plates. When magma breaks through crust it becomes

  10. Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

  11. Disaster medical assistance teams: what psychosocial support is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry; Byrne, Simon; Raphael, Beverley; Ollerton, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the perceptions of internationally deployed Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) personnel regarding the psychosocial support needs of these teams. The DMAT questionnaire was sent to 34 members of Australian medical teams involved in deployments to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and the 2006 Java earthquake. Twenty personnel (59%) completed this survey, which reviewed key deployment stressors, specific support strategies, and the support needs of team members, their families, and team leaders. A key aspect of the survey was to determine whether the perceived psychosocial needs would be supported best within with existing provisions and structures, or if they would be enhanced by further provisions, including the deployment of mental health specialists. There was strong support for brief reviews of stress management strategies as part of the pre-deployment briefing, and access to written stress management information for both team members and their families. However, more comprehensive provisions, including pre-deployment, stress-management training programs for personnel and intra-deployment family support programs, received lower levels of support. The availability of mental health-related training for the team leader role and access to consultation with mental health specialists was supported, but this did not extend to the actual deployment of mental health specialists. In this preliminary study, clear trends toward the maintenance of current mental health support provisions and the role of the DMAT leader were evident. A follow-up study will examine the relationship between team-leader, psychosocial support strategies and team functioning.

  12. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    .... ADDRESSES: Interest persons are invited to submit comments regarding this proposal. Comments should refer to... proposed use: To assist households displaced by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Disaster Housing Assistance... displaced families from September 1, 2007, through February 28, 2009. DHAP was implemented in phases,...

  13. Assistive Technology and Older Adults in Disasters: Implications for Emergency Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney-Feld, Mary Helen

    2017-02-01

    This article identifies concepts, trends, and policy gaps in the availability and service delivery of assistive technology utilized by older adults in disasters, as well as implications for emergency management planning and shelter administration. Definitions of types of assistive technology, as well as views of older adults using technology as at-risk individuals for emergency management service provision, are provided. An overview of peer-reviewed articles and gray literature is conducted, focusing on publications from 2001 to the present in the United States. Analytical frameworks used by emergency management organizations as well as regulations such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and recent court decisions on emergency shelter accessibility in disasters are reviewed. Research on the use of assistive technology by older adults during disasters is a neglected issue. The current and potential benefits of defining standards for provision and use of assistive technology for older adults during disasters has received limited recognition in emergency management planning. Older adults with disabilities utilize assistive technology to maintain their independence and dignity, and communities as well as emergency services managers need to become more aware of the needs and preferences of these older adults in their planning processes and drills as well as in service delivery during actual events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:135-139).

  14. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  15. Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster Assistance, and Civic Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    109,731 2,300 -4,369 107,662 * The FY 2010/2011 Actual column includes obligations for the Haiti Earthquake and Pakistan Flooding Disaster Relief...of severe natural and man-made disasters such as the Pacific Tsunami (2005), Pakistan Earthquake (2006), Burma Cyclone (2007), Georgia conflict (2008... Haiti Earthquake (2010), and Pakistan Flooding (2010) the U.S. military has and will continue to be called upon to provide aid and assistance

  16. Becoming Resilient: Disaster Planning and Recovery: NREL Experts Assist Before and After a Disaster (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, E.

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on how private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities can utilize NREL's expertise, tools, and innovations to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy into the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages of disaster.

  17. Strategy to achieve energy and water sustainability in Latin America through humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations

    OpenAIRE

    Romps, William D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States is a leader in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, and the Department of Defense is called upon by Department of Defense Directive 5105.65 to lead efforts to assist nations in need of education support, health support, disaster preparedness, and basic infrastructure. Latin America is a strategic neighbor of the United States and is susceptible to man-made and natural disasters. Many of the countries that make...

  18. Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.

  19. Emotional Intelligence in Library Disaster Response Assistance Teams: Which Competencies Emerged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and the personal attributes of library disaster response assistance team (DRAT) members. Using appreciative inquiry protocol to conduct interviews at two academic libraries, the study presents findings from emergent thematic coding of interview…

  20. Emotional Intelligence in Library Disaster Response Assistance Teams: Which Competencies Emerged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and the personal attributes of library disaster response assistance team (DRAT) members. Using appreciative inquiry protocol to conduct interviews at two academic libraries, the study presents findings from emergent thematic coding of interview…

  1. Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    goal programming model , and we used Excel/ VBA to create an auto- matic, user-friendly interface with the decision maker for model input and analysis of...ARL-TR-7229•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and...Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations by Nathaniel Bastian

  2. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Baubron, Jean-Claude; Coutinho, Rui

    1999-09-01

    A health hazard assessment of exposure to soil gases (carbon dioxide and radon) was undertaken in the village of Furnas, located in the caldera of an active volcano. A soil survey to map the area of soil gas flow was undertaken, gas emissions were monitored at fumaroles and in eight houses, and a preliminary radon survey of 23 houses in the main anomaly area was performed. Potential volcanic sources of toxic contamination of air, food, and water were also investigated, and ambient air quality was evaluated. About one-third (41 ha) of the houses were located in areas of elevated carbon dioxide soil degassing. Unventilated, confined spaces in some houses contained levels of carbon dioxide which could cause asphyxiation. Mean indoor radon levels exceeded UK and US action levels in the winter months. A tenfold increase in radon levels in one house over 2 h indicated that large and potentially lethal surges of carbon dioxide could occur without warning. Toxic exposures from the gaseous emissions and from contamination of soil and water were minimal, but sulphur dioxide levels were mildly elevated close to fumaroles. In contrast, evidence of dental fluorosis was manifested in the population of the nearby fishing village of Ribeira Quente where drinking water in the past had contained elevated levels of fluoride. The disaster potential of volcanic carbon dioxide in the area could also be associated with the hydrothermal system storing dissolved carbon dioxide beneath the village. Felt, or unfelt, seismic activity, or magma unrest, especially with a reawakening of explosive volcanic activity (30% probability in the next 100 years) could result in an increase in gas flow or even a gas burst from the hydrothermal system. A survey of all houses in Furnas is advised as structural measures to prevent the ingress of soil gases, including radon, were needed in some of the study houses. Evaluations of the human hazards of volcanic gases should be undertaken in all settlements in

  3. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  4. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  5. Enhancing SAARC disaster management: a comparative study with ASEAN coordinating centre for humanitarian assistance on disaster management

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The devastating earthquakes that ravaged Nepal in the spring of 2015 demonstrated the risk of disaster that affects all of South Asia. They also demonstrated the real limits to a regional disaster management and response. According to The Kathmandu Post, almost 4175 troops from 18 countries were deployed for rescue and relief operations. All South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member states except Afghanistan and M...

  6. 44 CFR 206.101 - Temporary housing assistance for emergencies and major disasters declared on or before October 14...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... year, a dwelling which is required because of proximity to employment, or to agricultural activities as... recoveries from any other source an amount equivalent to the value of the temporary housing assistance... personal needs because the owner's predisaster residence was made unlivable as a result of the disaster;...

  7. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Disaster Assistance PREPO Prepositioned stocks SCM Supply Chain Management STRAT AIR Strategic Airlift STRAT SEA Strategic Sealift UN...prepositioning sources. Important outcomes of this examination identify advantages and disadvantages of logistical enablers i.e. supply chain management and...interest to the study. Furthermore, the case studies recognized above continues to identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with HADR

  8. School-community collaboration in disaster education in a primary school near Merapi volcano in Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuswadi, Takehiro, Hayashi

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes our latest innovation in implementation of school-community collaboration in disaster education at Sekolah Dasar Negeri 1 Banaran, located in Cangkringan district of Sleman regency, as high-risk area of having impacts from Merapi eruption. The collaboration between school and local communities in an integrated disaster prevention lesson provides a space for students to not only obtain important information and knowledge about natural disasters through their teacher in the classroom but also gain important knowledge directly from the people who live around the school. Through this study, students are taught to be sensitive to utilize the resources in their nearest environment to support the process and the results of their learning about survival in a disaster prone area. Many students have not well understood relation between earthquake and volcanic eruption. Result of student groups' interview to a number of local community members showed that (1) In 2010 Merapi eruptions, from 8 residents, 5 of them, together with their family members were staying at home and getting panic while 3 other residents had already evacuated. (2) Five residents reported no one in their village was killed although some houses were damaged. (3) For anticipating future eruption, the residents confessed to quickly follow the government for evacuation by preparing in advance the transportation, masks, their own precious goods and important documents. From the result of the groups' report during discussion activities in the class, it was revealed that the students are aware of immediate evacuation as the best way to keep themselves safe from eruption. They also understood things to bring for evacuation including maskers.

  9. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  10. Analysis of the Navy’s Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Program Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    USN can have air capable ships off the coast of a country affected by natural disaster . Those aircraft can then immediately begin ferrying supplies...of the countries where we conduct HADR missions were not great before the natural disaster hit,” according to Lt Col Lang.” Lt Col Lang noticed it... natural disasters taking place. The Planning staffs at SOUTHCOM understand witch potential events to plan for and therefore establish country specific

  11. The anatomy of a (potential) disaster: Volcanoes, behavior, and population viability of the short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, M.E.; Wolf, S.; Goldman, M.; Doak, D.F.; Sievert, P.R.; Balogh, G.; Hasegawa, H.

    2010-01-01

    Catastrophic events, either from natural (e.g., hurricane) or human-induced (e.g., forest clear-cut) processes, are a well-known threat to wild populations. However, our lack of knowledge about population-level effects of catastrophic events has inhibited the careful examination of how catastrophes affect population growth and persistence. For the critically endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus), episodic volcanic eruptions are considered a serious catastrophic threat since approximately 80% of the global population of ???2500 birds (in 2006) currently breeds on an active volcano, Torishima Island. We evaluated how short-tailed albatross population persistence is affected by the catastrophic threat of a volcanic eruption relative to chronic threats. We also provide an example for overcoming the seemingly overwhelming problems created by modelling the population dynamics of a species with limited demographic data by incorporating uncertainty in our analysis. As such, we constructed a stochastic age-based matrix model that incorporated both catastrophic mortality due to volcanic eruptions and chronic mortality from several potential sources (e.g., contaminant exposure, fisheries bycatch) to determine the relative effects of these two types of threats on short-tailed albatross population growth and persistence. Modest increases (1%) in chronic (annual) mortality had a 2.5-fold greater effect on predicted short-tailed albatross stochastic population growth rate (lambda) than did the occurrence of periodic volcanic eruptions that follow historic eruption frequencies (annual probability of eruption 2.2%). Our work demonstrates that periodic catastrophic volcanic eruptions, despite their dramatic nature, are less likely to affect the population viability and recovery of short-tailed albatross than low-level chronic mortality. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  13. Joint Logistics: A Direct Approach to Effective U.S. Military Foreign Disaster Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    theater assets would have alerted the JTF commander to the need for helicopter hoists to lower pallets of supplies; this would have enabled an...alternative to the singular plan of having to land helicopters. Pilots decided it was not safe to land because they were not equipped with hoists to lower...in Times of Natural Disaster,” Elcano Royal Institute, 13 May 2010. 51 Ibid. 52 Mary Beth Sheridan and Michael E. Ruane, “ Friction Between

  14. The Impacts of Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations on the Mental Health of Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    tragedy, trauma or disaster has been prevalent in the world of psychology for hundreds of years. Following the end of the Civil War , soldiers returning...Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Disorder SADR Standard Ambulatory Data Record SIDR Standard Inpatient Data Record...of continuous armed conflict since the Vietnam War . From the point when the United States entered Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in 2003, more

  15. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Fritz Institute uses Haas, Kates, and Bowden’s model of emergency recovery to create its own illustration of the different phases a supply chain...Humanitarian logistics: Enabling disaster response. San Francisco, CA: The Fritz Institute. Tomasini, R., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2009...ar^qb p`elli  Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity  Pallet Management System  PBL (4)  Privatization-NOSL

  16. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  17. Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aitken

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support.Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster.The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118. Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59 strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2% disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59, however, 34% (20/59 felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59 felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59 and 47% (28/59 respectively, while only 28% (17/59 felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59 felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59 that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59.This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between 20 and 40 kg, which would assist

  18. 13 CFR 123.2 - What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? 123.2 Section 123.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.2 What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? SBA offers...

  19. An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve

  20. Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevillon, Randal P; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Jacobs, Gerard A

    2016-12-01

    Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  2. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  3. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (Briefing charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cyclone Sidr. Nov 15, 2007 2 Probability of Mission Source: Nix, D., (2011, January) The Spectrum of Operations...Cumulative Critical Capability Unified Assistance,  IO Tsunami JTF Katrina Unified Response,  Haiti Free HandCurve Generalizing the Levelof USNavy

  4. Cost Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    underwater topography of the area. This situation would strongly increase the value in sending a Hydrographic Survey Ship (T-AGS) to investigate the...such as drones may be valuable assets in the HA/DR mission. Providing a model for how many may be required may assist future planners in their

  5. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  6. Volcano Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You might feel better to learn that an ‘active’ volcano is one that has erupted in the past ... miles away. If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, following these tips will help you ...

  7. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Policies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Industrial Estate with teams from Brunei, Cambodia, Malaysia , Philippines, and Singapore assisting Thai responders. ERAT members were also involved, as... Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect

  8. Suspended Disbelief: The Role of the Department of Defense in Interagency Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Relief: Operation Damayan,” 8. 70 Center For Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response ( CFE - DMHR), “Lessons from Civil-Military...74 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response to Typhoon Haiyan...https://www2.mccll.usmc.mil/index.cfm?disp=COPS/COP_View.cfm& ssiteid=465, 3. 76 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and

  9. [Disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  10. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aitken

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Methods: Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. Results: The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118. Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59 felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59 felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59. The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6–12 hours for 29% (17/59 followed by 12–24 hours for 24% (14/59. The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14–21 days (46%, 27/59 followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59 and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59. The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59 and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59. Almost half (49%, 29/59 stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59 and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59, it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59 or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59. Deployment was felt to

  11. 76 FR 78957 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... following areas as adversely affected by the disaster. Primary Counties: Richardson, Nemaha. All other... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  12. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  13. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  14. The 2014-2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Disaster avoided and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Orr, Tim; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Babb, Janet; Patrick, Matthew R.; Neal, Christina; Anderson, Kyle R.; Antolik, Loren; Burgess, Matthew K.; Elias, Tamar; Fuke, Steven; Fukunaga, Pauline; Johanson, Ingrid; Kagimoto, Marian; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Lee, Lopaka; Miklius, Asta; Million, William; Moniz, Cyril J.; Okubo, Paul G.; Sutton, Andrew; Takahashi, T. Jane; Thelen, Weston A.; Tollett, Willam; Trusdell, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Lava flow crises are nothing new on the Island of Hawai‘i, where their destructive force has been demonstrated repeatedly over the past several hundred years. The 2014–2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis, however, was unique in terms of its societal impact and volcanological characteristics. Despite low effusion rates, a long-lived lava flow whose extent reached 20 km (the longest at Kīlauea Volcano in the past several hundred years) was poised for months to impact thousands of people, although direct impacts were ultimately minor (thus far). Careful observation of the flow reaffirmed and expanded knowledge of the processes associated with pāhoehoe emplacement, including the direct correlation between summit pressurization and flow advance, the influence of existing geologic structures on flow pathways, and the possible relationship between effusion rate and flow length. Communicating uncertainty associated with lava flow hazards was a challenge throughout the crisis, but online distribution of information and direct contact with residents proved to be effective strategies for keeping the public informed and educated about flow progress and how lava flows work (including forecasting limitations). Volcanological and sociological lessons will be important for inevitable future lava flow crises in Hawai‘i and, potentially, elsewhere in the world.

  15. Vanishing Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树仁

    1995-01-01

    Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano,is sinking into the Pacific Ocean——and it’s taking the main island of Hawaii with it! The problem:The mighty volcano has gained too much weight, says Peter Lipman of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  16. 75 FR 42470 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Wyoming Disaster WY-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  17. 76 FR 53019 - Texas Disaster #TX-00380

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00380 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  18. 76 FR 60959 - Texas Disaster # TX-00382

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00382 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small...

  19. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  20. 76 FR 61775 - Kansas Disaster #KS-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Kansas Disaster KS-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  1. 76 FR 11835 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  2. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  3. 76 FR 47637 - Kansas Disaster #KS-00055

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Kansas Disaster KS-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  4. 78 FR 51262 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  5. 78 FR 39821 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  6. 76 FR 44647 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  7. 76 FR 38263 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  8. Concerns of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members about troubles at the nuclear power plant: experience from the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, 16 July 2007, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Makoto; Kumagaya, Ken; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hirose, Yasuo

    2010-06-01

    An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 10:13 on 16 July 2007. The earthquake was followed by the sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, delaying the reconstruction of community lifelines. The earthquake affected the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plants (NPPs), the biggest NPP site in the world. The earthquake caused damage to NPPs, resulting in a small amount of radioactive materials being released into the air and the sea. However, no significant effects were detected in the public and the environment. As medical response to this earthquake, 42 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were sent to hospitals and first-aid care centers at the NPP site. In order to evaluate the perceptions of the deployed DMAT personnel regarding concerns about the health effects of radiation and information about the damage to NPPs, questionnaires were sent to 40 facilities that dispatched DMATs to the earthquake area. Most of them were concerned with the effects of radiation, and adequate information about the problems at the NPPs was not communicated to them. This preliminary study suggests that communication of information is extremely important for DMAT members in the case of disasters, in particular if there exists a possibility of radiation exposure, since radiation cannot be detected by our senses. DMAT members are critical to any mass casualty incident, whether caused by humans or nature. We have learned from this earthquake that there is urgent need for an all-hazards approach, including a "combined disaster" strategy, which should be emphasized for current disaster planning and response. This is the first report on DMATs deployed to an earthquake site with damage to NPPs.

  9. Dante's volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  10. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  11. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  12. Optimizing Transportation of Disaster Relief Material to Support U.S. Pacific Command Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    2013 Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew Carlyle Second Reader: Walter DeGrange THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved by: W. Matthew Carlyle, Professor Thesis Advisor Walter DeGrange, CDR, SC, USN Second Reader Robert F. Dell Chair...x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Disaster Relief Airlift Planner results for Malaysia cyclone scenario with

  13. 44 CFR 206.62 - Available assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and...

  14. 44 CFR 206.393 - Providing assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Fire Suppression Assistance § 206.393 Providing assistance. Following the Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorate's... requested by the State. For each fire or fire situation, the State shall prepare a separate Fire...

  15. 75 FR 67162 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Cass, Johnson, Nemaha, Otoe, Pawnee, Richardson... Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  16. 75 FR 22873 - Nebraska Disaster # NE-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ..., Pawnee, Pierce, Platte, Polk, Richardson, Saline, Seward, Stanton, Thurston, Valley, Wheeler, York The... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  17. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S..., Schuylkill, Susquehanna, Wayne. Delaware: New Castle. Maryland: Cecil. New Jersey: Burlington,...

  18. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel; Ramos-Hernández, Silvia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano in southeastern Mexico had a strong social and environmental impact. The eruption resulted in the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico, causing about 2,000 casualties, displacing thousands, and producing severe economic losses. Even when some villages were relocated after the 1982 eruption, many people still live and work in the vicinities of the volcano and may be affected in the case of a new eruption. The hazard map of El Chichón volcano (Macías et al., 2008) comprises pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, lahars and ash fall but not ballistic projectiles, which represent an important threat to people, infrastructure and vegetation in the case of an eruption. In fact, the fatalities reported in the first stage of the 1982 eruption were caused by roof collapse induced by ashfall and lithic ballistic projectiles. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for volcanic ballistic projectiles during volcanic eruptions is applied to El Chichón volcano. Different scenarios are defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with ballistic projectiles ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of the projectiles observed in the field. The maximum ranges expected for the ballistics in the different explosive scenarios defined for El Chichón volcano are presented in a ballistic hazard map which complements the published hazard map. These maps assist the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  19. 75 FR 27845 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ..., Hardin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, Macon, Robertson, Smith, Stewart, Trousdale, Wayne, Wilson... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR...

  20. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., Fayette, Gibson, Hardeman, Hardin, Haywood, Houston, Lake, Lauderdale, Obion, Stewart, Wayne. Arkansas... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance....

  1. 77 FR 16314 - Kansas Disaster # KS-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Kansas Disaster KS-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Kansas dated 03/12/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  2. 77 FR 16314 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alaska dated 03/13/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  3. 78 FR 39822 - Texas Disaster #TX-00409

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00409 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 06/25/2013... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  4. 78 FR 47816 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 07/29/2013... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  5. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  6. 77 FR 16315 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 03/13/2012... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  7. 76 FR 35260 - Illinois Disaster # IL-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster IL-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Illinois (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  8. 75 FR 70763 - Texas Disaster #TX-00363

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00363 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 11/09/2010... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  9. 77 FR 16315 - Indiana Disaster #IN-00041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Indiana Disaster IN-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Indiana (FEMA... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  10. 76 FR 35260 - Texas Disaster # TX-00375

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00375 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TEXAS dated 04/26... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  11. 78 FR 39822 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alaska (FEMA-4122-DR... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  12. 76 FR 59177 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of GEORGIA dated 09/13..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  13. 76 FR 59176 - Indiana Disaster #IN-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Indiana Disaster IN-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Indiana dated 09/12... 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small...

  14. Natural disasters and IDPs’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kälin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the understandable rush to provide assistance to the survivors of the tsunami, insufficient attention has been devoted to protecting the human rights of those forcibly displaced by the disaster.

  15. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  16. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  17. 75 FR 52964 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Harrison, Holt, Howard, Jackson, Lafayette, Lewis, Livingston, Mercer, Nodaway, Putnam, Ray, Schuyler...

  18. Gestão de desastres e política de assistência social Management of disasters and social assistance policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rúbia dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    ..., ausência de interdisciplinaridade e descompasso entre gestores, técnicos e afetados.This article reflects on the risk management system in the municipality of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, through actions undertaken by the Social Assistance Policy...

  19. Santorini Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  20. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief Mark Roberts1, Thomas Apker2, Benjamin Johnson1, Bryan Auslander3, Briana Wellman4 & David W...for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations. We demonstrate that the SDP responds to a dynamic, open world while ensuring that vehicles...facilitate such information gathering tasks, freeing humans to perform more critical tasks in Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR

  1. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  2. 13 CFR 302.2 - Procedures in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures in disaster areas. 302... COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.2 Procedures in disaster areas. When... cannot be met by an Eligible Applicant as the result of a disaster, EDA may waive such conditions....

  3. 75 FR 58419 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Cocke, Hardin, Jackson, Macon, Overton, Pickett, Putnam, Smith, and Wayne Counties for Public Assistance...

  4. Using corporate governance to enhance 'long-term situation awareness' and assist in the avoidance of organisation-induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of how corporate governance can and should deal with the long-term understanding of systems health-what we may call 'long-term situation awareness' (i.e. which evolves and is coherent over time) for organisational systems (and their component sub systems) in the engineering domain. Many characteristics affect long-term situation awareness-the rate of change to processes, pressures for greater efficiency from existing resources, changes in personnel, cultural changes and changes to the operational environment of the organisational systems. Many disasters (e.g. Chernobyl, Flixborough, Piper Alpha) have a causal path that indicates a loss of group situation awareness, over a long period of time. The problem of the gradual, slow drift over many years towards unsafe conduct of company operations is discussed and examples of possible consequences provided. A 'parable' from the world of manufacturing is used to exemplify the problem. The paper goes on to discuss some ways by which this problem could be addressed and longer-term system situational awareness increased; essentially by good corporate governance, knowledge management and ownership of processes. Links are made to the literature on these topics, and a route map to help organisations to gain the benefits is offered.

  5. Forecasting eruptions using pre-eruptive seismic patterns at Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Hendrasto, M.; Gunawan, H.; Indrastuti, N.; Triastuti, H.; Suparman, Y.; Putra, A.

    2015-12-01

    Forecasting the size, timing and style of volcanic eruptions is of primary interest to observatories and civil authorities world-wide, yet most observatories only have access to long-term data at a very limited number of volcanoes under their jurisdiction. When extensive long-term data sets are available to responsible agencies, volcanic eruptive size, timing and style can usually be successfully forecast using current monitoring data and knowledge of precursory eruptive patterns, enabling the communication of timely forecasts to civil authorities. Experienced agencies, such as Indonesia's Center for Volcanology and Geologic Hazards Mitigation and the USAID-USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, utilize extensive collective experiences with multiple monitoring streams over multiple eruption cycles and across volcano types to successfully forecast eruption size, style and onset, as well as changes in eruptive style and size within ongoing eruptions. The longest-term real-time monitoring parameter commonly available at volcanoes worldwide is seismic data. Seismic data is a direct measure of rate-dependent strain changes in the magmatic system from the deep magmatic input to shallow eruptive processes. Patterns of pre-eruptive earthquakes coupled with other available monitoring data and conceptual models of magma ascent enable short-term forecasting of eruption size, style, and onset. First order event locations, characterization of background seismicity, and changes in earthquake types and energy release are most important to successful eruption forecasting. This study demonstrates how this approach has been used to successfully forecast eruption onsets, changes in eruptive style, and to change alert levels and extend or contract evacuation zones during the ongoing eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia.

  6. Reflection on Disaster and Disaster Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhonggui

    2001-01-01

    The paper mainly deals with disaster and presents a discussion and analysis of disaster economy study and its development. It also addresses some noteworthy issues in disaster economy study with a view to promoting disaster prevention and reduction.

  7. 13 CFR 123.100 - Am I eligible to apply for a home disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disaster loan? 123.100 Section 123.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Home Disaster Loans § 123.100 Am I eligible to apply for a home disaster loan? (a) You are eligible to apply for a home disaster loan if you: (1) Own and occupy your primary...

  8. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  9. 77 FR 61774 - New Mexico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ..., Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4079-DR), dated August 24,...

  10. 76 FR 56778 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated...

  11. 78 FR 14319 - New Hampshire; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Hampshire; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New Hampshire (FEMA-4095-DR), dated November...

  12. 76 FR 56776 - New York; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New York (FEMA-4020-DR), dated August 31,...

  13. 76 FR 56779 - Vermont; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Vermont; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster for the State of Vermont (FEMA-4022-DR), dated September 1, 2011, and...

  14. 76 FR 56776 - New Jersey; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New Jersey (FEMA-4021-DR), dated August 31,...

  15. 77 FR 71813 - Connecticut; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Connecticut; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Connecticut (FEMA-4087-DR), dated October...

  16. 76 FR 64958 - New York; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ..., Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New York (FEMA-4031-DR), dated September 13,...

  17. Progresses in geology and hazards analysis of Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-quan; JIN Bo-lu; LIU Yong-shun

    2004-01-01

    A number of different lahars have been recognized from a systematic survey of a mapping project. The high setting temperature feature of the deposits indicates a relationship between the lahar and the Millennium eruption event of Tianchi Volcano. The lahars caused a dramatic disaster. Recognize of the huge avalanche scars and deposits around Tianchi Volcano imply another highly destructive hazard. Three types of different texture of the avalanche deposits have been recognized. There was often magma mixing processes during the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano, indicating a mixing and co-eruption regime of the eruption.

  18. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around ke...

  19. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  20. A New MOOC on Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Gyakum, J. R.; Caissy, K.; Guadagno, A.; Roop, F.; Vungoc, P. A.; Walker, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the summer of 2014 we taught a MOOC course on natural disasters under the auspices of McGillX and edX. The course was principally designed to provide students with an introduction to the science behind naturally hazardous phenomena and natural disasters. An important guiding element of the course was to link the solid earth (volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches) with the oceanic and atmospheric earth (hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino). These Earth components were also coupled by a section on climate change and global warming near the end of the course. This integrated approach demonstrated to students the highly linked nature of the Earth System. The course comprised a variety of materials with which students could engage. For each topic, the professors provided lecture materials as 5-10 minute video blocks sequenced to form a complete lecture of about 90 minutes. Typically the lectures would progress from scientific principles through case studies to mitigation. For nearly every topic we also provided a practical demonstration (e.g., supercooled water driving ice storms, liquid fragmentation driving volcanic eruptions), in order to illustrate principles in a dynamic fashion. Students also worked independently on a wide variety of exercises, and there were two non-cumulative, multiple-choice exams, as well as a case study which students would themselves research and present to their peers in the course. Finally, the professors provided weekly screenside chats to answer students' questions and to provide a more informal learning environment. This variety of approaches enhanced the course content. Two teaching assistants worked full-time during course delivery, ensuring that students received rapid feedback to their questions and issues. The initial course enrollment was approximately 10,000.

  1. DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu A. Joshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strategies. “Efficient management of Disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad.” Hospitals play a key role in Management of the affected population by providing immediate and effective treatment at the site and in the hospital. Considering the wide range of disasters and no bar for time, place and people it requires immediate intervention, and this management would be an extension of emergency or casualty services of hospital. It adds an extra load to hospital, functions, and to cope up this situation it requires to have a systematic, planned and effective approach. In this article, I have discussed a model disaster management plan for a hospital, clinical principles of management of casualties and specific problems of Disaster Management. A guide line for operational framework to face disaster in the form of Disaster manual is suggested for each hospital. A preplanned disaster management plan according to this guideline would provide an edge to a hospital in such crucial situations and in turn will serve the humanity & society.

  2. [Switch from emergency medicine to disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kentaro; Shimizu, Keiki

    2016-02-01

    Disaster medical system in Japan has been changing after huge disaster attack. Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) was established on 1995 after the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and played important role in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on 2011. The action of DMAT is specialized within acute phase. Continual medical aid activity is required from acute phase to chronic phase. After DMAT evacuation, Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT), Japanese Red Cross Teams, Medical university teams and many other medical teams work sequentially in the disaster area. On the other hand, unbalance in the disaster area is occurred. Disaster medical coordinator accommodates that unbalance situation. Development of receive system for many medical assistance teams will be required.

  3. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  4. Disaster Management for Cooling Tower- Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Deshmukh Azhar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are prone to numerous disasters that can arise naturally or through human intervention. The safety of cooling towers becomes utmost importance for the plants to function properly. The study focused on identification of various disasters and the risks associated with them. The disasters can be earthquake, volcanoes, storm, extreme temperature, fire incident, terror attack, hazardous material leakage etc. The impact and vulnerability analysis of these disasters is conducted to find the associated risks properly. Mitigating risks is as important as identifying them. The two most important risks identified are Design Risk and Bacterial Risk. The preparedness to these risks helps in mitigating them. A probabilistic catastrophic risk model has been identified which performs a cost benefit analysis for mitigating the risks

  5. 76 FR 36141 - Missouri; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Missouri; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Missouri (FEMA-1980-DR), dated May 9, 2011,...

  6. 78 FR 14319 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4100-DR), dated January 29,...

  7. 77 FR 71812 - New York; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New York (FEMA-4085-DR), dated October 30,...

  8. 76 FR 64958 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated...

  9. 75 FR 52962 - Texas; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Texas; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Texas (FEMA-1931-DR), dated ] August 3, 2010,...

  10. 78 FR 78993 - New Jersey; Amendment No. 10 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Amendment No. 10 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for State of New Jersey (FEMA-4086-DR), dated October 30,...

  11. 77 FR 55220 - Louisiana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Louisiana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Louisiana (FEMA-4080-DR), dated August 29,...

  12. 77 FR 71813 - New Jersey; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of New Jersey (FEMA-4086-DR), dated October 30,...

  13. 78 FR 26381 - Maine; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Maine; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108-DR), dated March 25, 2013,...

  14. 76 FR 47221 - South Dakota; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency South Dakota; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13,...

  15. 75 FR 22151 - Rhode Island; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29,...

  16. 76 FR 65740 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR),...

  17. 76 FR 36142 - Tennessee; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Tennessee; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated May 9, 2011,...

  18. 76 FR 36142 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated May 2, 2011,...

  19. 77 FR 55219 - Mississippi; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Mississippi; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Mississippi (FEMA-4081-DR), dated August 29,...

  20. 76 FR 45588 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10,...

  1. 77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... (English) Tele- Registration, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-1Int (English) Internet, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0- 2Int ] (Spanish) Internet, Registro Para Asistencia De...), FEMA Form 009-0-1T, 18 minutes; Internet Application for Disaster Assistance (English and...

  2. Development and implication of a human-volcano system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun

    2014-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be

  3. Health after disaster: A perspective of psychological/health reactions to disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.

  4. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  5. 75 FR 49506 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... major disaster: Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Maverick, Starr, Val Verde, Webb, and Zapata Counties for Individual Assistance. Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Maverick, Starr, Webb, Willacy, and...

  6. 75 FR 32820 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ...: Hardin, Massac, Pope. Indiana: Harrison. Tennessee: Montgomery, Pickett, Scott, Stewart. All other... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  7. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., Decatur, Dyer, Gibson, Hardeman, Haywood, Henderson, Lauderdale, Mcnairy, Stewart, Wayne, Weakley. Alabama...) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  8. 76 FR 32984 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... this declared major disaster: Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for Individual Assistance. Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for...

  9. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  10. THE NETTED HUMANITARIAN: IMPROVING THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT PROCESS FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE/DISASTER RELIEF (HA/DR) MISSIONS C

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Christian X.

    2013-01-01

    Setting up reliable communications after a disaster is an extremely difficult yet crucial requirement for coordinating relief efforts. Lessons learned from recent humanitarian disasters point to major difficulties in establishing communications to quickly and accurately assess responder needs in the affected area and communicating this information to first responders from government relief agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the military. The militarys growing role in Humanita...

  11. 76 FR 38263 - California Disaster #CA-00172

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Small Business Administration California Disaster CA-00172 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  12. 76 FR 5856 - California Disaster #CA-00164

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00164 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  13. 75 FR 13144 - California Disaster #CA-00151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00151 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  14. 77 FR 66083 - Florida Disaster # FL-00076

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  15. 76 FR 59177 - Maine Disaster #ME-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major ] disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  16. 77 FR 39559 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Vermont Disaster VT-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  17. 75 FR 11582 - IOWA Disaster # IA-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. 78 FR 28939 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  19. 78 FR 36010 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  20. 75 FR 53006 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only...

  1. 76 FR 55721 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  2. 76 FR 54522 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. 76 FR 54521 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major ] disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  4. 76 FR 29284 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  5. 78 FR 42147 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for...

  6. 75 FR 45681 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  7. 75 FR 47035 - Iowa Disaster # IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for...

  8. 75 FR 10329 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  9. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  10. 77 FR 25010 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Hawaii Disaster HI-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  11. 75 FR 22874 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  12. 76 FR 56853 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  13. 76 FR 36952 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  14. 77 FR 2600 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  15. 76 FR 13697 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  16. 75 FR 39994 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  17. 77 FR 47908 - MINNESOTA Disaster #MN-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MINNESOTA Disaster MN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  18. 76 FR 35261 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  19. 75 FR 22167 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  20. 78 FR 47815 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  1. 75 FR 65391 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the...

  2. 76 FR 47286 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  3. 77 FR 58902 - Louisiana Disaster #LA-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Louisiana Disaster LA-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  4. 77 FR 51101 - Indiana Disaster #IN-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Indiana Disaster IN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  5. 78 FR 36631 - Texas Disaster #TX-00408

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00408 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  6. 76 FR 77579 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00017 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  7. 78 FR 2708 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  8. 78 FR 2707 - Maryland Disaster # MD-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  9. 78 FR 48763 - Vermont Disaster #VT-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Vermont Disaster VT-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  10. 77 FR 32708 - Kansas Disaster #KS-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Kansas Disaster KS-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: 02/25/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  11. 78 FR 2708 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00039

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: 10/03/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  12. 77 FR 51099 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: 05/14/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  13. 76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: 09/07/2012. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  14. 78 FR 48763 - Florida Disaster #FL-00090

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00090 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  15. 78 FR 48762 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Missouri Disaster MO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  16. 78 FR 48762 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  17. 78 FR 25336 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 01/21/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  18. 78 FR 36631 - Michigan Disaster #MI-00039

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Michigan Disaster MI-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  19. 78 FR 23622 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00070

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00070 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  20. 77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Mississippi Disaster MS-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  1. 76 FR 77579 - Indiana Disaster #IN-00039

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Indiana Disaster IN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: 09/07/2012. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  2. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  3. 77 FR 51100 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  4. 77 FR 14853 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This.../03/2012. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  5. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  6. 78 FR 77195 - California Disaster #CA-00214

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster CA-00214 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of California (FEMA- 4158-DR), dated 12/13/2013. Incident: Rim Fire. Incident Period:...

  7. 75 FR 51294 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  8. 77 FR 48196 - WIsconsin Disaster #WI-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WIsconsin Disaster WI-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  9. 75 FR 67162 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  10. 76 FR 20799 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  11. 76 FR 15357 - Utah Disaster #UT-00009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Utah Disaster UT-00009 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only...

  12. 76 FR 10081 - Utah Disaster #UT-00009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Utah Disaster UT-00009 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  13. 77 FR 7229 - Utah Disaster #UT-00011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Utah Disaster UT-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  14. 76 FR 50807 - Utah Disaster #UT-00010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Utah Disaster UT-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 77 FR 67858 - Utah Disaster #UT-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Utah Disaster UT-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. Wildfire disasters: implications for rural nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Smolenski, Stephanie

    2014-08-01

    As natural disasters are increasing globally, nursing's role in responding to disasters is evolving. Disaster nursing has emerged as a specialty that focuses on the care of groups and communities during disaster response. The role of rural nurses in disasters is less well defined. A review of peer-reviewed literature combined with the International Council of Nurses framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies was conducted to understand the roles and functions of nurses in rural areas that experience disasters. The authors' findings from investigating the effects of four wildfires in rural Canadian communities are also discussed. Six major themes derived from our wildfire studies were generated within the context of nursing practice and are useful in the preparation of rural nurses involved in disaster management and recovery. This adds to the current literature which by and large has not addressed nursing in rural catastrophes. Well-prepared and educated rural nurses who combine theoretical knowledge with their understanding of a rural community potentially can reduce the impact of a disaster. Other nursing roles include mentoring nursing students in disaster preparation and assisting in initiatives to address community recovery in the aftermath of a disaster. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  18. A Disaster Preparedness Plan for Small Public Libraries, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jan, Comp.

    The State Library of Ohio designed this disaster preparedness plan to assist small libraries in gathering information that will be invaluable in the event of an emergency. This plan, which focuses on fire and water disaster prevention, is devoted to using simple and inexpensive measures to prevent a disaster or to lessen its effect. The plan…

  19. 42 CFR 485.64 - Condition of participation: Disaster procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s written disaster plan must be developed and maintained with assistance of qualified fire, safety... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster procedures... of participation: Disaster procedures. The facility must have written policies and procedures...

  20. Disaster response and the international charter program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy; Jones, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In a meeting held in Vienna, Austria in 1999, a small group of space agencies conceived and approved a program to provide emergency response satellite data to those affected by disasters anywhere in the world. The purpose of this group, which came to be known as the “International Charter - Space and Major Disasters”, is to promote cooperation among space agencies in the use of satellite data to manage crises during and after disasters. When tropical storms, floods, oil spills, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes or fires endanger human life, the Charter member agencies provide valuable information about these events’ extent and impact.

  1. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  2. 76 FR 53020 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ..., Otoe, Richardson. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Homeowners With Credit Available... and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  3. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  4. Mutual health assistance measures to be applied in the event of disasters or particularly serious accidents or diseases. Survey carried out in Member States

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    At their meeting in Brussels on 16 November 1978, the Health Ministers of the Member States noted with interest the Commission's proposals for action to facilitate the provision of cross-frontier aid in the event of disasters. In particular, the proposed action was aimed at streamlining administrative formalities, making emergency aid more effective and hastening its supply. In this connection, the Commission has worked hand in hand with experts in Member States in surveying existing resources, study ing ways of optimizing them, and detailing the various facilities available nationally for use in the event of disasters. The purpose of this publication is, simply, to provide information for the persons concerned in Member States who are likely to be consulted as to the possibility of supplying some form of aid to a neighbouring country, or to be responsible for requesting aid should a serious disaster occur in their own country

  5. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  6. 13 CFR 123.11 - Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any of its disaster loans? 123.11 Section 123.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.11 Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans? Generally, SBA will not require that you pledge collateral to secure a disaster home loan or a...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1150 - How we treat income received because of a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major disaster. 416.1150 Section 416.1150 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Disasters § 416.1150 How we treat income received because of a major disaster. (a) General. The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act...

  8. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  9. 13 CFR 123.303 - How can my business spend my economic injury disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economic injury disaster loan? 123.303 Section 123.303 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.303 How can my business spend my economic injury disaster loan? (a) You can only use the loan proceeds for working capital necessary...

  10. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan. You will be responsible for payment...

  11. 77 FR 61774 - Louisiana; Amendment No. 13 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Louisiana; Amendment No. 13 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Louisiana (FEMA-4080-DR), dated August 29,...

  12. 77 FR 61774 - Alabama; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ....033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Alabama; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Alabama (FEMA-4082-DR), dated September 21,...

  13. Surviving Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  15. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  16. Vulcan's fury: Man against the volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    I read this book on an 11-hour flight back from a field trip in the Andes, where I got first-hand insight into how people live with a volcano that now and then explodes. Appropriate reading, I felt, especially as the fascination of the human world with volcanoes and eruptive disasters is indeed long standing. This book is a recent addition to a list of titles in this genre (e.g., the new book by Sigurdsson to be reviewed in Eos shortly). The scope of the book is summarized in the introductory sentence of the preface: “This book is about an unequal contest. It describes human reactions to volcanic eruptions.” This is the perspective of the book's descriptions of 16 large and not-so-large eruptions over the last two millennia.

  17. Lake Elsinore disaster: The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphen, S

    1983-09-01

    A case study of a flood which occurred at Lake Elsinore, California, February, 1980, focuses upon the assistance which the community received during both the flood and recovery periods. Relevant literature on disaster research is examined, including a model of disaster recovery, and the study places the events which occurred din Lake Elsinore within that recovery model. Implications for policy include the recommendation that decision-makers consider the pre-disaster growth of the community indecisions to support recovery assistance.

  18. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  19. 13 CFR 123.4 - What is a disaster area and why is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a disaster area and why is it important? 123.4 Section 123.4 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.4 What is a disaster area and why is it important? Each...

  20. 76 FR 65740 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR),...

  1. 76 FR 65739 - Iowa; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... the notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated June 27,...

  2. 77 FR 53902 - Vermont; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Vermont; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for State of Vermont (FEMA-4066-DR), dated June 22, 2012,...

  3. 77 FR 71813 - Connecticut; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Connecticut; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Connecticut (FEMA-4087-DR), dated October...

  4. 77 FR 513 - Virginia; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virginia; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-4042-DR), dated November...

  5. 78 FR 5475 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4099-DR), dated...

  6. 78 FR 78993 - New York; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for State of New York (FEMA-4111-DR), dated April 23, 2013,...

  7. 78 FR 14320 - Mississippi; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Mississippi; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Mississippi (FEMA-4101-DR), dated February...

  8. 78 FR 20123 - New Jersey; Amendment No. 8 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Amendment No. 8 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for State of New Jersey (FEMA-4086-DR), dated October 30,...

  9. Foci of Volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, I.

    1974-01-01

    One may assume a center of volcanic activities beneath the edifice of an active volcano, which is here called the focus of the volcano. Sometimes it may be a ''magma reservoir''. Its depth may differ with types of magma and change with time. In this paper, foci of volcanoes are discussed from the viewpoints of four items: (1) Geomagnetic changes related with volcanic activities; (2) Crustal deformations related with volcanic activities; (3) Magma transfer through volcanoes; and (4) Subsurface structure of calderas.

  10. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  11. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    provides a cost effective means to protect the nation’s interest while maintaining a deterrent posture through global power projection. The United...Preemptive Deployment of Assets  Phased Deployment of Assets  Surge of Supplies and Services  Logistics Posture Disaster Lifecycle Response Phase...necessary shelter and hygienic resources 21 required to prevent the loss of life from exposure to the elements or unsanitary conditions. B. INDONESIAN

  12. Developing a Fly-Away-Kit (FLAK) to Support Hastily Formed Networks (HFN) for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    most people will agree that the global response to this disaster was unprecedented. It is the author’s belief that the greatest lesson learned is that...interface connecting to the satellite connection first before any remote configuring could be accomplished. The following list of lessons learned is...James L.; Perry, Michael W. Comunication During ComplexHmanitarian Emergencies: Using Technology to Bridge the Gap. Master Thesis. Naval

  13. Analysis of Distribution of Volcanoes around the Korean Peninsula and the Potential Effects on Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-kyeong; Kim, Sung-wook

    2017-04-01

    Since the scale and disaster characteristics of volcanic eruptions are determined by their geological features, it is important not only to grasp the current states of the volcanoes in neighboring countries around the Korean Peninsula, but also to analyze the tectonic settings, tectonic regions, geological features, volcanic types, and eruption histories of these volcanoes. Volcanic data were based on the volcano information registered with the Global Volcanism Program at the Smithsonian Institute. We created a database of 289 volcanoes around Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, and the Kamchatka area in Russia, and then identified a high-risk group of 29 volcanoes that are highly likely to affect the region, based on conditions such as volcanic activity, types of rock at risk of eruption, distance from Seoul, and volcanoes having Plinian eruption history with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or more. We selected 29 hazardous volcanoes, including Baekdusan, Ulleungdo, and 27 Japanese volcanoes that can cause widespread ashfall on the Korean peninsula by potentially explosive eruptions. In addition, we identified ten volcanoes that should be given the highest priority, through an analysis of data available in literature, such as volcanic ash dispersion results from previous Japanese eruptions, the definition of a large-scale volcano used by Japan's Cabinet Office, and examination of cumulative magma layer volumes from Japan's quaternary volcanoes. We expect that predicting the extent of the spread of ash caused by this hazardous activity and analyzing its impact on the Korean peninsula will be help to predict volcanic ash damage as well as provide direction for hazard mitigation research. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  14. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  15. Lava flow hazard at Fogo Volcano, Cabo Verde, before and after the 2014-2015 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Nicole; Favalli, Massimiliano; de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Elske; Fornaciai, Alessandro; da Silva Fernandes, Rui Manuel; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Levy, Judith; Silva Victória, Sónia; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-08-01

    Lava flow simulations help to better understand volcanic hazards and may assist emergency preparedness at active volcanoes. We demonstrate that at Fogo Volcano, Cabo Verde, such simulations can explain the 2014-2015 lava flow crisis and therefore provide a valuable base to better prepare for the next inevitable eruption. We conducted topographic mapping in the field and a satellite-based remote sensing analysis. We produced the first topographic model of the 2014-2015 lava flow from combined terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and photogrammetric data. This high-resolution topographic information facilitates lava flow volume estimates of 43.7 ± 5.2 × 106 m3 from the vertical difference between pre- and posteruptive topographies. Both the pre-eruptive and updated digital elevation models (DEMs) serve as the fundamental input data for lava flow simulations using the well-established DOWNFLOW algorithm. Based on thousands of simulations, we assess the lava flow hazard before and after the 2014-2015 eruption. We find that, although the lava flow hazard has changed significantly, it remains high at the locations of two villages that were destroyed during this eruption. This result is of particular importance as villagers have already started to rebuild the settlements. We also analysed satellite radar imagery acquired by the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite to map lava flow emplacement over time. We obtain the lava flow boundaries every 6 to 11 days during the eruption, which assists the interpretation and evaluation of the lava flow model performance. Our results highlight the fact that lava flow hazards change as a result of modifications of the local topography due to lava flow emplacement. This implies the need for up-to-date topographic information in order to assess lava flow hazards. We also emphasize that areas that were once overrun by lava flows are not necessarily safer, even if local lava flow thicknesses exceed the average lava flow thickness. Our

  16. Evaluation of volcanic risk management in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, S.; Stöetter, J.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Merapi (Central Java Province) and Bromo (East Java Province) volcanoes have human-environmental systems with unique characteristics, thus causing specific consequences on their risk management. Various efforts have been carried out by many parties (institutional government, scientists, and non-governmental organizations) to reduce the risk in these areas. However, it is likely that most of the actions have been done for temporary and partial purposes, leading to overlapping work and finally to a non-integrated scheme of volcanic risk management. This study, therefore, aims to identify and evaluate actions of risk and disaster reduction in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes. To achieve this aims, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify earlier studies in both areas. Afterward, the basic concept of risk management cycle, consisting of risk assessment, risk reduction, event management and regeneration, is used to map those earlier studies and already implemented risk management actions in Merapi and Bromo. The results show that risk studies in Merapi have been developed predominantly on physical aspects of volcanic eruptions, i.e. models of lahar flows, hazard maps as well as other geophysical modeling. Furthermore, after the 2006 eruption of Merapi, research such on risk communication, social vulnerability, cultural vulnerability have appeared on the social side of risk management research. Apart from that, disaster risk management activities in the Bromo area were emphasizing on physical process and historical religious aspects. This overview of both study areas provides information on how risk studies have been used for managing the volcano disaster. This result confirms that most of earlier studies emphasize on the risk assessment and only few of them consider the risk reduction phase. Further investigation in this field work in the near future will accomplish the findings and contribute to formulate integrated volcanic risk management cycles for both

  17. Turning the Tide on Domestic Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-30

    INTRODUCTION After a decade of some of the worst shaking ( Loma Prieta 1989 and Northridge 1994, both.in California), blowing (Hurricanes Hugo 1989, Andrew...assistance when three conditions are met. First, the disaster must be of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond state and local...with the language of the National Security Strategy. FEMA’s stated priorities are risk reduction and rapid and effective domestic disaster response

  18. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  19. UAVSAR for the Management of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The unique capabilities of imaging radar to penetrate cloud cover and collect data in darkness over large areas at high resolution makes it a key information provider for the management and mitigation of natural and human-induced disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, and wildfires. Researchers have demonstrated the use of UAVSAR's fully polarimetric data to determine flood extent, forest fire extent, lava flow, and landslide. The ability for UAVSAR to provide high accuracy repeated flight tracks and precise imaging geometry for measuring surface deformation to a few centimeter accuracy using InSAR techniques. In fact, UAVSAR's repeat-pass interferometry capability unleashed new potential approaches to manage the risk of natural disasters prior to the occurrence of these events by modeling and monitoring volcano inflation, earthquake fault movements, landslide rate and extent, and sink hole precursory movement. In this talk we will present examples of applications of UAVSAR for natural disaster management. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Volcanoes - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  1. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  2. 78 FR 72919 - New Mexico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...-0001 New Mexico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the notice of a major...

  3. Remote sensing for disaster mitigation of Sinabung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, T.; Yanti, J.

    2016-05-01

    Indonesia, a country with many active volcanoes, potentially occur natural disaster due to eruptions. One of volcanoes at Indonesia was Sinabung mountain, that located on Karo Regency, North Sumatera 3°10'12″ N 98°23'31" E, 2,460 masl. A fasile and new observation method for mapping the erupted areas was remote sensing. the remote sensing consisted of Landsat 8 OLI that was published on February 8th 2015 as input data ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10 as mapping tools. The Land surface temperature (LST) was applied on mapping this resulted. The highest LST was 90.929657 °C. In addition, the LST distribution indicated that the flowing lava through south east. Therefore, the south east areas should be considered as mitigated areas.

  4. Challenges in disaster data collection during recent disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Melinda; Levy, J Lee

    2011-06-01

    Gathering essential health data to provide rapid and effective medical relief to populations devastated by the effects of a disaster-producing event involves challenges. These challenges include response to environmental hazards, security of personnel and resources, political and economic issues, cultural barriers, and difficulties in communication, particularly between aid agencies. These barriers often impede the timely collection of key health data such as morbidity and mortality, rapid health and sheltering needs assessments, key infrastructure assessments, and nutritional needs assessments. Examples of these challenges following three recent events: (1) the Indian Ocean tsunami; (2) Hurricane Katrina; and (3) the 2010 earthquake in Haiti are reviewed. Some of the innovative and cutting-edge approaches for surmounting many of these challenges include: (1) the establishment of geographical information systems (GIS) mapping disaster databases; (2) establishing internet surveillance networks and data repositories; (3) utilization of personal digital assistant-based platforms for data collection; (4) involving key community stakeholders in the data collection process; (5) use of pre-established, local, collaborative networks to coordinate disaster efforts; and (6) exploring potential civil-military collaborative efforts. The application of these and other innovative techniques shows promise for surmounting formidable challenges to disaster data collection.

  5. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    Since the inception of disaster studies in academia after WWII, two kinds of actors have been distinguished as involved in disasters. On the one hand, disasters involve formal actors, such as professional aid workers employed by state-run relief agencies; on the other hand, disasters involve...... initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...

  6. 78 FR 56979 - Karuk Tribe Disaster #CA-00211

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Karuk Tribe Disaster CA-00211 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  7. 76 FR 72021 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00004 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  8. 77 FR 47907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00005 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  9. 77 FR 74907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  10. 76 FR 62131 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00003 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. 78 FR 53492 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Iowa Disaster Number IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only...

  12. 78 FR 32416 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Minnesota have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, and Rock Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  13. 76 FR 32388 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  14. 75 FR 39059 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  15. 75 FR 32821 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  16. 75 FR 65695 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  17. 75 FR 45680 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  18. 76 FR 33395 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  19. 75 FR 65696 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  20. 77 FR 74725 - New Hampshire Disaster #NH-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  1. 77 FR 56250 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  2. 78 FR 7848 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  3. 78 FR 2708 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  4. 78 FR 36630 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration Processing, And Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  5. 78 FR 48764 - New Hampshire Disaster # NH-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice.../02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  6. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster SD-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  7. 77 FR 51100 - Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  8. 76 FR 77578 - New Hampshire Disaster #NH-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  9. 78 FR 67210 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  11. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock

    2016-12-01

    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle.

  12. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  13. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  14. 44 CFR 206.253 - Insurance requirements for facilities damaged by disasters other than flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities damaged by disasters other than flood. 206.253 Section 206.253 Emergency Management and Assistance... by disasters other than flood. (a) Prior to approval of a Federal grant for the restoration of a facility and its contents which were damaged by a disaster other than flood, the Grantee shall notify...

  15. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  16. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  17. 76 FR 23638 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S..., Jones, Martin, Moore, Nash, Northampton, Pender, Pitt, Robeson, Sampson, Warren, Washington, Wayne....

  18. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida

    2005-03-01

    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  19. Leadership Opportunities for Mental Health Nurses in the Field of Disaster Preparation, Response, and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranse, Jamie; Hutton, Alison; Wilson, Rhonda; Usher, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Disasters occur internationally and are nondiscriminatory. The loss resulting from the destruction associated with disasters leads to the development of various levels of psychological trauma in survivors. Health teams provide assistance to survivors before, during and after disasters, and mental health nurses make an important contribution to these teams. However, the leadership role of mental health nurses in disaster situations has not been extensively explored in the literature. This article discusses aspects of mental health nursing leadership in preparation for, response to and recovery from disasters. In particular, recommendations are made to enhance the leadership of mental health nurses in the context of disasters.

  20. Leadership opportunities for mental health nurses in the field of disaster preparation, response, and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranse, Jamie; Hutton, Alison; Wilson, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    health nurses make an important contribution to these teams. However, the leadership role of mental health nurses in disaster situations has not been extensively explored in the literature. This article discusses aspects of mental health nursing leadership in preparation for, response to and recovery......Disasters occur internationally and are nondiscriminatory. The loss resulting from the destruction associated with disasters leads to the development of various levels of psychological trauma in survivors. Health teams provide assistance to survivors before, during and after disasters, and mental...... from disasters. In particular, recommendations are made to enhance the leadership of mental health nurses in the context of disasters....

  1. Pet Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Checklist – Arabic Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – Chinese Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – French Pets and ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  2. Disaster Case Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Disaster Case Management Program (DCM) is a time-limited process that involves a partnership between a case manager and a disaster survivor (also known as a...

  3. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  4. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  5. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sterett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  6. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  7. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  8. 77 FR 42352 - Florida Disaster #FL-00072

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925... Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC...

  9. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  10. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  11. Use of Bayesian event trees in semi-quantitative volcano eruption forecasting and hazard analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather; Pallister, John; Newhall, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Use of Bayesian event trees to forecast eruptive activity during volcano crises is an increasingly common practice for the USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) in collaboration with foreign counterparts. This semi-quantitative approach combines conceptual models of volcanic processes with current monitoring data and patterns of occurrence to reach consensus probabilities. This approach allows a response team to draw upon global datasets, local observations, and expert judgment, where the relative influence of these data depends upon the availability and quality of monitoring data and the degree to which the volcanic history is known. The construction of such event trees additionally relies upon existence and use of relevant global databases and documented past periods of unrest. Because relevant global databases may be underpopulated or nonexistent, uncertainty in probability estimations may be large. Our 'hybrid' approach of combining local and global monitoring data and expert judgment facilitates discussion and constructive debate between disciplines: including seismology, gas geochemistry, geodesy, petrology, physical volcanology and technology/engineering, where difference in opinion between response team members contributes to definition of the uncertainty in the probability estimations. In collaboration with foreign colleagues, we have created event trees for numerous areas experiencing volcanic unrest. Event trees are created for a specified time frame and are updated, revised, or replaced as the crisis proceeds. Creation of an initial tree is often prompted by a change in monitoring data, such that rapid assessment of probability is needed. These trees are intended as a vehicle for discussion and a way to document relevant data and models, where the target audience is the scientists themselves. However, the probabilities derived through the event-tree analysis can also be used to help inform communications with emergency managers and the

  12. Historical eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia, 1768-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B.; Constantine, E.K.; Siswowidjoyo, S.; Torley, R.

    2000-01-01

    Information on Merapi eruptive activity is scattered and much is remotely located. A concise and well-documented summary of this activity has been long needed to assist researchers and hazard-mitigation efforts, and the aim of this paper is to synthesize information from the mid-1700s to the present. A descriptive chronology is given, with an abbreviated chronology in a table that summarizes events by year, assigns preliminary Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) ratings and Hartmann classifications, and provides key references. The history of volcano monitoring is also outlined. The study reveals that a major difference in eruption style exists between the twentieth and nineteenth centuries, although the periodicity between larger events seems about the same. During the twentieth century, activity has comprised mainly the effusive growth of viscous lava domes and lava tongues, with occasional gravitational collapses of parts of oversteepened domes to produce the nue??es ardentes - commonly defined as "Merapi-type". In the 1800s, however, explosive eruptions of relatively large size occurred (to VEI 4), and some associated "fountain-collapse" nue??es ardentes were larger and farther reaching than any produced in the twentieth century. These events may also be regarded as typical eruptions for Merapi. The nineteenth century activity is consistent with the long-term pattern of one relatively large event every one or two centuries, based on the long-term eruptive record deduced by others from volcanic stratigraphy. It is uncertain whether or not a "recurrence-time" model continues to apply to Merapi, but if so, Merapi could soon be due for another large event and its occurrence with only modest (or inadequately appreciated) precursors could lead to a disaster unprecedented in Merapi's history because the area around the volcano is now much more densely populated. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  14. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  15. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “W

  16. The impact of Kelud Volcano eruption to food security case study: Ngantang district, Malang Regencys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Turniningtyas Ayu; Hidayat, Ar Rohman Taufiq; Wahyuningtyas, Loetvi; Rachmansyah, Arief

    2017-07-01

    Kelud volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Indonesia. Kelud volcano is located among Malang, Kediri and Blitar Regency. The last eruption occurred on February, 2014. Ngantang District, Malang Regency was the worst affected area with severe infrastructure damage including clean water, roads, and bridges, causing temporary isolation. This led to disturbance in food security that consists of aspects of food availability, food access and food utilization. Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals' access to it. This research focuses on achieving household food security by analyzing 1) disaster prone area of Kelud Volcano at Ngantang District after eruption 2014; and 2) food security that consists of the assessment of food availability, food access and food utilization at Ngantang District. This research finds that: 1) Pandansari village and Ngantru village are the worst prone area villages; and 2) The food security analysis shows that Pandansari Village is higly insecure of food security.

  17. New Hypocenter Relocation Results From Volcano-Tectonic Events (1995-2006) at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.; Nava, F. A.; Valdes-Gonzalez, C.

    2008-12-01

    Popocatepetl, one of the most active strato-volcanoes in Mexico, started a fumarolic and seismic reactivation in December 1994. New hypocenter relocation results have been calculated for some 1,800 volcano-tectonic (VT) events recorded by the seismic network operating at Popocatepetl during 1995-2006, and previously located by the National Center for Disasters Prevention (CENAPRED). We used two location programs to determine hypocenter relocation. One is a recently developed genetic algorithm program, Disloca, which adjusts the differences in arrival times between the recording seismic stations. The second is HypoDD, which uses the double difference earthquake location algorithm. Disloca allowed evaluation of station corrections, plus location of non-clustered hypocenters, while HypoDD refined the locations of clustered ones. Thus, for a given velocity model, hypocenters of clustered events varied slightly depending on the location program. For both programs, four different crustal velocity models were used, two of which include a low velocity zone (LVZ) below 6 km depth. This LVZ represents the presence of magma, which has been suggested to exist at this depth. The spatial distribution of the relocated hypocenters varies from one model to another, but a carefully considered combination of features common to the four distributions, allows a new characterization of the VT activity at Popocatepetl. The distribution of the relocated hypocenters found in this study differs from that of former investigations at Popocatépetl, and gives new insights into the volcano's structures. Hypocenters occur mainly above 10 km depth, with a horizontal range of about 5 km. Features of the spatial distribution allow a tentative interpretation of several internal volcanic structures. Chief among these are branched dike complexes and different sized zones free of volcano-tectonic events, which are in turn surrounded by zones of magma-rock interaction, as indicated by the presence of

  18. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  19. Development of the teaching materials of the elementary school science related to a Volcano, an Earthquake, and a Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, R.; Matsumoto, I.; Norimoto, S.; Kanagi, E.; Fujimoto, E.

    2014-12-01

    Importance of the learning about Volcano, Earthquake and Life is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. This research aims at the teaching-materials development of the science education of elementary school about natural disaster, disaster prevention, and life respect. We are carrying this research using the following three Methods. 1) We summarize the present student's knowledge and understanding about volcano, Earthquake and Life. 2) We summarize the state of the science teaching materials as disaster prevention, disaster reduction and life education. 3) We discuss about how depending on which the human beings to a natural disaster, and the state of the teaching materials which student study about the importance of a life. In this presentation we made preliminary report about developed teaching materials of Volcanoes of Mt. Sambe and Mt. Dai and the past earthquakes. According to above teaching materials, it found out It is important how a student is accompanied by realistic feelings.

  20. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  1. Ethics in disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Parkash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In any profession, a basic set of moral values needs to be followed to comply with what we call ethics. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise society about the possibilities of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geoscientists cannot only assess these hazards, but they can also estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and at a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientists among society and government is lost, due to some unethical practices for short-term gain, or due to incorrect understanding of geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecast by some pseudo-geoscientists, to draw social/ media attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There is the need to be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in providing information about natural hazards that are not yet fully understood by the professionals themselves. More specifically, the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of society as well as media in the developing countries where the ‘common’ people have different perceptions. Most often, popular myths take over scientific facts among the public, and this can lead to rumors about natural hazards. This article will mention some cases of rumors about natural disasters, and particularly earthquakes, and the response of society, media and government. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the actual situations and the geohazards, to avoid panic caused by rumors from non-specialists or hyperactive pseudo experts. This article indicates the recent rumors about a lake outburst, flash floods, and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M 6.9, September 18

  2. Ethics in disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, S.

    2012-04-01

    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  3. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  4. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  5. 44 CFR 300.2 - Technical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical assistance. 300.2... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ASSISTANCE § 300.2 Technical assistance. Requests for technical assistance under section 201(b) of the Act shall be made by the Governor or his/her designated...

  6. In Brief: Underwater volcano gets real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    A real-time underwater earthquake monitoring system was installed on the top of Kick'em Jenny, an underwater volcano located off the north coast of Grenada, on 6 May. The Real Time Offshore Seismic Station (RTOSS) consists of an ocean-bottom seismometer connected by a stretchy hose to a buoy on the ocean surface. The buoy is powered by solar panels and transmits seismic data by high-frequency radio to an observatory in Sauteurs, Grenada. The RTOSS research team, led by scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is coordinating with the Grenadian National Disaster Management Agency and the Seismic Unit of the University of the West Indies to incorporate the RTOSS data into existing regional monitoring. Kick'em Jenny, the only `live' submarine volcano in the West Indies, last erupted in 2001.

  7. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezant, David J; Levin, Stephen; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory consequences from occupational and environmental disasters are the result of inhalation exposures to chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers) and/or the incomplete products of combustion that are often liberated during disasters such as fires, building collapses, explosions and volcanoes. Unfortunately, experience has shown that environmental controls and effective respiratory protection are often unavailable during the first days to week after a large-scale disaster. The English literature was reviewed using the key words-disaster and any of the following: respiratory disease, pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or sarcoidosis. Respiratory health consequences after aerosolized exposures to high-concentrations of particulates and chemicals can be grouped into 4 major categories: 1) upper respiratory disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive upper airways dysfunction syndrome), 2) lower respiratory diseases (reactive [lower] airways dysfunction syndrome, irritant-induced asthma, and chronic obstructive airways diseases), 3) parenchymal or interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans, and 4) cancers of the lung and pleura. This review describes several respiratory consequences of occupational and environmental disasters and uses the World Trade Center disaster to illustrate in detail the consequences of chronic upper and lower respiratory inflammation.

  8. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  9. Hurricane Sandy nutrition support during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, Laura; Allen, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Natural disasters and weather-related emergencies can strike at a moment's notice. Individuals with chronic health conditions and other special needs are especially vulnerable. Basic services such as water, electricity, gas, and telephone service may not be available. Home parenteral and enteral nutrition consumers are at a serious risk as they depend on clean water and power for nutrient delivery. Creating a comprehensive emergency preparedness plan is imperative for both the home parenteral and enteral consumer and home care provider to ensure that special needs are met. Home care providers can assist home parenteral and enteral consumers in disaster and emergency planning.

  10. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  11. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  12. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  13. 4D volcano gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  14. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立

    2003-01-01

    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  15. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  16. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  17. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  18. Understanding and Identifying Natural Hazard for Bandung City Preparedness and Mitigation against Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Paulus P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Hazard is an important aspect for the City Planning and Implementation of Policy and Development. The Local Government of Bandung City is developing a map of Hazard and Disasters based on the Natural Condition, Geography and Existing Condition. This paper discuss the scenario of the natural and main emphasis on geological hazard in the City of Bandung related to the Mitigation and Disaster Management as an input that should be adopted by the Local Government. The City is surrounded by active volcanoes and a number of faults that might cause natural disasters including earthquakes, volcano eruptions, flood and landslides. on the other hand the city developement can be directed towards the mitigation and risk reduction against these hazards.

  19. Dynamic and Geological-Ecological Spatial Planning Approach in Hot Mud Volcano Affected Area in Porong-Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Sulistyarso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By May 29t h 2006 with an average hot mud volcano volume of 100,000 m3 /per day, disasters on well kick (i.e. Lapindo Brantas Ltd. in Banjar Panji 1 drilling well have deviated the Spatial Planning of Sidoarjo’s Regency for 2003- 2013. Regional Development Concept that is aimed at developing triangle growth pole model on SIBORIAN (SIdoarjo-JaBOn-KRIaAN could not be implemented. This planning cannot be applied due to environmental imbalance to sub district of Porong that was damaged by hot mud volcano. In order to anticipate deviations of the Regional and Spatial Planning of Sidoarjo Regency for 2003-2013, a review on regional planning and dynamic implementation as well as Spatial Planning Concept based on geologicalecological condition are required, especially the regions affected by well kick disaster. The spatial analysis is based on the geological and ecological condition by using an overlay technique using several maps of hot mud volcano affected areas. In this case, dynamic implementation is formulated to the responsiblity plan that can happen at any time because of uncertain ending of the hot mud volcano eruption disaster in Porong. The hot mud volcano affected areas in the Sidoarjo’s Spatial Planning 2009-2029 have been decided as a geologic protected zone. The result of this research is scenarios of spatial planning for the affected area (short term, medium term and long term spatial planning scenarios.

  20. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records.

  1. Volcanic Activities of Hakkoda Volcano after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake of 11 March 2011 generated large deformation in and around the Japanese islands, and the large crustal deformation raises fear of further disasters including triggered volcanic activities. In this presentation, as an example of such potential triggered volcanic activities, we report the recent seismic activities of Hakkoda volcano, and discuss the relation to the movement of volcanic fluids. Hakkoda volcano is a group of stratovolcanoes at the northern end of Honshu Island, Japan. There are fumaroles and hot springs around the volcano, and phreatic eruptions from Jigoku-numa on the southwestern flank of Odake volcano, which is the highest peak of the volcanic group, were documented in its history. Since just after the occurrence of the Tohokui Earthquake, the seismicity around the volcano became higher, and the migration of hypocenters of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes was observed.In addition to these VT earthquakes, long-period (LP) events started occurring beneath Odake at a depth of about 2-3 km since February, 2013, and subtle crustal deformation caused by deep inflation source was also detected by the GEONET GNSS network around the same time. The spectra of LP events are common between events irrespective of the magnitude of events, and they have several spectral peaks at 6-7 sec, 2-3 sec, 1 sec, and so on. These LP events sometimes occur like a swarm with an interval of several minutes. The characteristics of observed LP events at Hakkoda volcano are similar to those of LP events at other active volcanoes and hydrothermal area in the world, where abundant fluids exist. Our further analysis using far-field Rayleigh radiation pattern observed by NIED Hi-net stations reveals that the source of LP events is most likely to be a nearly vertical tensile crack whose strike is NE-SW direction. The strike is almost perpendicular to the direction of maximum extensional strain estimated from the geodetic analysis, and is almost parallel to

  2. Disasters of nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周靖

    2005-01-01

    Volcanoes There are thou-sands of volcanoes all over the world. What makes volcanoes? What happens? The inside of the earth is very hot. Be-cause it is very,very hot,the rock has melted like ice.It has become liquid,like water.It is always boiling, like water in a kettle. If you have seen a kettle boiling, you know that the steam and boiling water try to get out. The very hot melted rock inside the earth also tries to get out. Usually it cannot be-cause the outside of the earth is too thick and strong. But ...

  3. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  4. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  5. 77 FR 15787 - Washington; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... State of Washington have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Clallam, Grays Harbor, King, Klickitat, Lewis, Mason, Pierce, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, and Wahkiakum Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Washington are eligible to apply for assistance...

  6. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  7. AERIAL IMAGES AND LIDAR DATA FUSION FOR DISASTER CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Trinder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential applications of airborne LiDAR for disaster monitoring include flood prediction and assessment, monitoring of the growth of volcanoes and assistance in the prediction of eruptions, assessment of crustal elevation changes due to earthquakes, and monitoring of structural damage after earthquakes. Change detection in buildings is an important task in the context of disaster monitoring, especially after earthquakes. Traditionally, change detection is usually done by using multi-temporal images through spectral analyses. This provides two-dimensional spectral information without including heights. This paper will describe the capability of aerial images and LiDAR data fusion for rapid change detection in elevations, and methods of assessment of damage in made-made structures. In order to detect and evaluate changes in buildings, LiDAR-derived DEMs and aerial images from two epochs were used, showing changes in urban buildings due to construction and demolition. The proposed modelling scheme comprises three steps, namely, data pre-processing, change detection, and validation. In the first step for data pre-processing, data registration was carried out based on the multi-source data. In the second step, changes were detected by combining change detection techniques such as image differencing (ID, principal components analysis (PCA, minimum noise fraction (MNF and post-classification comparison (P-C based on support vector machines (SVM, each of which performs differently, based on simple majority vote. In the third step and to meet the objectives, the detected changes were compared against reference data that was generated manually. The comparison is based on two criteria: overall accuracy; and commission and omission errors. The results showed that the average detection accuracies were: 78.9%, 81.4%, 82.7% and 82.8% for post-classification, image differencing, PCA and MNF respectively. On the other hand, the commission and omission errors of

  8. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  9. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  10. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  11. Measured Maritime Responses to Disaster Relief Scenarios in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    organized response to urban disaster was possible due to well-developed civil relief institutions despite the lack of what many in the international...expressways leading to the impacted areas.66 MLIT’s planners diverted much if not all of the rail traffic from the Tohoku JR line to lines along the...assistance within the humanitarian disaster from his counterparts in Australia, Malaysia , New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States.111 A number

  12. Emergency Vehicle Scheduling Problem with Time Utility in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.

  13. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-19

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  14. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  15. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN LOCAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT: A PANACEA TO ALL LOCAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT ILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela van der Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the occurrence and intensity of disasters will increase globally and in South Africa where typical disasters include droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires and earthquakes, as well as sinkholes arising from mining activity in dolomitic areas. Disasters such as these result in human suffering and damage to the resources and infrastructure on which South Africans rely for their survival and the maintenance of their quality of life. Section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 affords to everyone the right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her health and well-being. It may be argued that a person's sense of environmental security in relation to the potential risks and dangers of disaster falls within the scope of the protection provided by section 24. The responsibility to intervene for the protection of the interests inherent in the constitutional environmental right lies with the government of South Africa. Disaster management specifically is a functional area of competence of national and provincial government, but practice has shown that the actual implementation of and planning for disaster management happens in the local government sphere. Against the backdrop of these introductory discussions and, given the fact that several municipalities in South Africa are under-resourced, this article very specifically aims to critically discuss and describe from a legal perspective the potential and function of public-private partnerships (PPPs between local government (municipalities and the private sector (such as industries in fulfilling the legally entrenched disaster management mandate of municipalities. Through a critical evaluation of some existing PPPs, this article illustrates that the private sector has a key role to play in assisting municipalities to fulfil their legally entrenched disaster management mandate.

  16. Tectono-Magmatic Investigations with Societal Implications: Progress on the Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Saria, E.; Jones, J. R.; Daniels, M. D.; Mencin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Cross-domain collaborations amongst geoscientists and technologists become necessary when the scientific and societal needs surpass current cyberinfrastructure and data access mechanisms. For example, characterizing magma movement and fault-slip in real-time on and around active volcanoes is crucial for volcanic hazards and risk assessment. The necessary real-time positioning sensors are available, however the technological capacity for import, export, and analysis are in the early phases of development. Here, we present progress on the new, multi-national Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO) initiated in June 2016. The observatory currently utilizes the pilot EarthCube cyberinfrastructure "Cloud-hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences" (CHORDS) to visualize near-real time positioning data (http://tzvolcano.chordsrt.com/) that are accessible through the UNAVCO real-time archive. Our work aligns with the "resilience to disasters" and "holistic disaster risk management at all levels" targets of Sustainable Development Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities.

  17. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramsen Inge

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s, and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

  18. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3,053-meter-high, ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano in the southwestern Cook Inlet region about 225 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 100 kilometers northwest of Homer. Historical eruptions of Iliamna Volcano have not been positively documented; however, the volcano regularly emits steam and gas, and small, shallow earthquakes are often detected beneath the summit area. The most recent eruptions of the volcano occurred about 300 years ago, and possibly as recently as 90-140 years ago. Prehistoric eruptions have generated plumes of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. Rock avalanches from the summit area have occurred numerous times in the past. These avalanches flowed several kilometers down the flanks and at least two large avalanches transformed to cohesive lahars. The number and distribution of known volcanic ash deposits from Iliamna Volcano indicate that volcanic ash clouds from prehistoric eruptions were significantly less voluminous and probably less common relative to ash clouds generated by eruptions of other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Plumes of volcanic ash from Iliamna Volcano would be a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International Airport and other local airports, and depending on wind direction, could drift at least as far as the Kenai Peninsula and beyond. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Because Iliamna Volcano has not erupted for several hundred years, a future eruption could involve significant amounts of ice and snow that could lead to the formation of large lahars and downstream flooding. The greatest hazards in order of importance are described below and shown on plate 1.

  19. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  20. Financial Protection Against Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to take stock of the global progress on financial protection against natural disasters over the last decade and bring together the latest thinking on disaster risk financing and insurance. Disaster risk financing and insurance helps minimize the cost and optimize the timing of meeting post-disaster funding needs without compromising development goals...

  1. Preliminary hyperspectral volcano observations using Airborne Radiative Spectral Scanner (ARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitsufuchi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne-imaging spectral systems can often efficiently identify volcanic phenomena that are difficult to detect by satellite imagery. Since 1990, the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has been developing our original airborne-imaging spectral systems for volcano observations. In 2006, we developed a new airborne hyperspectral sensor, the Airborne Radiative Transfer Spectral Scanner (ARTS), for hyperspectral volcano observations. ARTS is a push-broom imaging spectrometer covering wavelengths from 380 to 1100nm (VNIR; 288 bands), 950 to 2450nm (SWIR; 101 bands), and 8000 to 11500nm (LWIR; 32 bands) and has precise position and attitude measurement systems (GPS/IMU) to achieve direct geo-correction of the acquired image. The ARTS specifications were planned to provide hyperspectral images to support developing algorithms for remotely sensing the geothermal distribution, ash- fall areas, and content of volcanic gas columns. ARTS will also be useful for operational volcanic observations to assess volcanic activity and to mitigate volcanic disasters.Before beginning the operational use of ARTS, it is important to validate its in-flight performance. Therefore, we have been conducting validation on the B200 platform. In this study, we present the results of two experiment observations, the overflight of ARTS instrument at the NIED building site on April 5, 2007, and the volcano observations flight over active volcano (Sakurajima volcano) just after its eruption on April 8, 2008. At the NIED building site, we validated the radiometric fidelity of all bands and the accuracy of geo-corrections. At the Sakurajima volcano, we tried to demonstrate the functions of ARTS, especially those for volcano observation. At the NIED building site, the validation results indicate that the geo-correction accuracy is typically less than a two-pixel difference (RMS), and that there was good agreement between the predicted radiance at the sensor and

  2. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.H.; U. Soergel; Lanaras, Ch.; E. Baltsavias; Cho, K.; F. Remondino; Wakabayashi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two a...

  3. Elementary analysis of data from Tianchi Volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-ming; ZHANG Heng-rong; KONG Qing-jun; WU Cheng-zhi; GUO Feng; ZHANG Chao-fan

    2004-01-01

    Tianchi Volcano is the largest potential erupticve volcano in China. Analyzing these data on seismic monitoring, deformation observation and water chemistry investigation gained from the Tianchi Volcano Observatory (TVO), the authors consider that the Tianchi Volcano is in going into a new flourishing time.

  4. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for

  5. Soon After the Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's disaster relief departments have initiated a first-class emergency response for disaster relief in the wake of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that hit Qinghai Province at 7:49 a.m.on April 14. The decision was made by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Committee for Disaster Reduction at noon of the same day.As of 4:30 p.m.April 15,the shallow earthquake with its epicenter in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in the province has left at least 760 people dead,11,477 others injured and around 100,000 homeless,local authorities say.

  6. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  7. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  8. Lava flow hazard at Fogo Volcano, Cabo Verde, before and after the 2014-2015 eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Nicole; Favalli, Massimiliano; de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Elske; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Silva Fernandes, Rui Manuel; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Levy, Judith; Victória, Sónia Silva; Thomas R. Walter

    2016-01-01

    Lava flow simulations help to better understand volcanic hazards and may assist emergency preparedness at active volcanoes. We demonstrate that at Fogo Volcano, Cabo Verde, such simulations can explain the 2014–2015 lava flow crisis and therefore provide a valuable base to better prepare for the next inevitable eruption. We conducted topographic mapping in the field and a satellite-based remote sensing analysis. We produced the first topographic model of the 2014&ndash...

  9. Design of Deformation Monitoring System for Volcano Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamy, M. R. F.; Salam, R. A.; Munir, M. M.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Indonesia has many active volcanoes that are potentially disastrous. It needs good mitigation systems to prevent victims and to reduce casualties from potential disaster caused by volcanoes eruption. Therefore, the system to monitor the deformation of volcano was built. This system employed telemetry with the combination of Radio Frequency (RF) communications of XBEE and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) communication of SIM900. There are two types of modules in this system, first is the coordinator as a parent and second is the node as a child. Each node was connected to coordinator forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a star topology and it has an inclinometer based sensor, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an XBEE module. The coordinator collects data to each node, one a time, to prevent collision data between nodes, save data to SD Card and transmit data to web server via GPRS. Inclinometer was calibrated with self-built in calibrator and tested in high temperature environment to check the durability. The GPS was tested by displaying its position in web server via Google Map Application Protocol Interface (API v.3). It was shown that the coordinator can receive and transmit data from every node to web server very well and the system works well in a high temperature environment.

  10. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided.

  11. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  12. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  13. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  14. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  15. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  16. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  17. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  18. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  19. USGS Volcano Notification Service (VNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides a subscription service to receive an email when changes occur in the activity levels for monitored U.S. volcanoes and/or when information releases...

  20. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  1. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  2. FASA – Fire Airborne Spectral Analysis of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schrandt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At present the authors are developing the system FASA, an airborne combination of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and an imaging system. The aim is to provide a system that is usable to investigate and monitor emissions from natural disasters such as wild fires and from volcanoes. Besides temperatures and (burned areas FASA will also provide concentration profiles of the gaseous combustion products. These data are needed to improve the knowledge of the effects of such emissions on the global ecosystem. The paper presents a description of the instrumentation, the data evaluation procedure and shows first results of retrieval calculations based on simulated spectra.

  3. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  4. 78 FR 66756 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major... amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4147-DR), dated... disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo is hereby amended to include Public Assistance...

  5. 76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18897] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans... Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 22, 2011. Military Reservist Loan Program:...

  6. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  7. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  8. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank

    2017-05-08

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  9. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Cohen, Madeline A.; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine hazardous materials spills. Cyclone Winston's direct impact on Fiji in 2016 and Cyclone Pam's landfall over Vanuatu in 2015 provide case examples illustrating the special vulnerabilities of the SIDS.

  10. Routine healthcare for families in transition after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to present the healthcare routines of families in transition after natural disasters based on the Family Routines and Rituals theoretical framework. METHOD: this qualitative study of multiple cases was developed based on six rural families in southern Brazil, 2 years after a natural disaster. The data were collected through participant observation, interviews, narratives, genograms, ecomaps, and routine calendars, and a narrative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: families showed notable episodes of illness that required professional assistance during post-disaster care, daily routine care, and other routines associated with healthcare services. CONCLUSION: these results reinforce the need for nurses to attend to family experiences during transitions after natural disasters and to prepare for the changes and needs with regard to healthcare and its promotion.

  11. Recommendation for the management of crush victims in mass disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    "Recommendations for the management of crush victims in mass disasters" aims to assist medics, paramedics and rescue team members who provide care during disasters. Development of the recommendations followed an explicit process of literature review and, also internet and face-to-face discussions. The chapters cover medical and logistic measures, to be taken both at the disaster field and in the hospitals, to cope with the problems created by a catastrophe. Recommendations were based on retrospective analyses and case reports on past disasters, and also expert judgment or opinion. Since there are no randomized controlled trials, no GRADE approach was used to develop the recommendations, and no strengths of recommendations or levels of evidence are provided.

  12. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  13. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  14. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  15. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karanikola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  16. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Ernst G; Domres, Bernd D; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-02-16

    Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. The curriculum offers medical disaster education in a reasonable time

  17. Multidimensional High Spatiotemporal Resolution InSAR Time Series Assist Interdisciplinary Space- And Ground-Based Monitoring To Reveal Pre-Eruptive Signals At Nyamulagira Volcano (North Kivu, D.R.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oreye, N.; Smets, B.; Kervyn, F.; Kervyn, M.; Albino, F.; Arellano, S. R.; Arjona, A. A.; Carn, S. A.; Fernandez, J.; Galle, B.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Head, E.; Pallero, J.; Prieto, J. F.; Samsonov, S. V.; Tedesco, D.; Tiampo, K. F.; Wauthier, C.

    2013-12-01

    Interdisciplinary space- and ground-based monitoring systems allowed the quantitative and detailed study of the Nyamulagira 2010 eruption (Congo). Field observations revealed the event as 4 eruptive phases delimited by major changes in effusive activity. Signals from ground deformation, seismicity, SO2 emission and thermal flux correlate with these eruptive phases. Moreover, MSBAS InSAR time series combining data acquired under different geometries and with different satellites (Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012) allowed the detection of pre-, co- and inter-eruptive deformation in the Nyamulagira volcanic field. Using 8 years of ENVISAT, RADARSAT2 and ALOS data, the MSBAS method reveals the first unambiguous pre-eruptive ground deformations in the Virunga Volcanic Province. Precursory ground deformations are detected up to 3 weeks prior the onset of the 2010 eruption by images acquired by 3 different sensors in different geometries. These deformations took place in the main crater and along the SE flank of the volcano, where eruptive fractures will ultimately opened. Deformations coincide with small, though clear, increase of the short period seismicity and SO2 emissions.These seismic and SO2 variations alone were too small, however, to raise attention. The pre-eruptive ground deformation signals revealed by InSAR are of about the same amplitude and spatial extent as atmospheric noise and therefore cannot be identified on individual differential interferograms. Conventional time-series methods based on single acquisition geometry do not have a sufficient time resolution to discriminate such a precursory signal from an atmospheric artifact. The 3-week precursors detected at Nyamulagira contrast with the only precursory signal previously recognized so far in the Virunga, namely the increase of tremors and long period seismicity no more than few hours or days before the eruption onset. In January 2010, such short-term seismic precursors were detected less than two hours

  18. Review and reassessment of hazards owing to volcano-glacier interactions in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Ceballos, Jorge Luis; Pulgarín, Bernardo; Ramírez, Jair; Thouret, Jean-Claude

    The Cordillera Central in Colombia hosts four important glacier-clad volcanoes, namely Nevado del Ruiz, Nevado de Santa Isabel, Nevado del Tolima and Nevado del Huila. Public and scientific attention has been focused on volcano-glacier hazards in Colombia and worldwide by the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz/Armero catastrophe, the world's largest volcano-glacier disaster. Important volcanological and glaciological studies were undertaken after 1985. However, recent decades have brought strong changes in ice mass extent, volume and structure as a result of atmospheric warming. Population has grown and with it the sizes of numerouscommunities located around the volcanoes. This study reviews and reassesses the current conditions of and changes in the glaciers, the interaction processes between ice and volcanic activity and the resulting hazards. Results show a considerable hazard potential from Nevados delRuiz, Tolima and Huila. Explosive activity within environments of snow and ice as well as non-eruption-related mass movements induced by unstable slopes, or steep and fractured glaciers, can produce avalanches that are likely to be transformed into highly mobile debris flows. Such events can have severe consequences for the downstream communities. Integrated monitoring strategies are therefore essential for early detection of emerging activity that may result in hazardous volcano-ice interaction. Corresponding efforts are currently being strengthened within the framework of international programmes.

  19. 36 CFR 223.111 - Administration of contracts in designated disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sharing arrangement in paragraph (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of the contract... disaster, (2) The sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) The...

  20. Study Links Disasters to Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161672.html Study Links Disasters to Dementia Losing home was tied to greater mental decline ... Earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may raise dementia risk for seniors forced to leave their homes, ...

  1. Disaster Trauma: Federal Resources that Help Communities on Their Road to Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stephanie S; Seligman, Jamie; Burrows-McElwain, Cicely K; Robinson, Maryann E; Hierholzer, Erik

    2014-04-15

    During the past several years, the US federal government has increased its role in preparing for and responding to natural and manmade disasters. The support and services that federal agencies provide to communities to address the psychological impact of trauma on citizens of all ages are valuable assets before and after a disaster. We used trauma theory to analyze disaster behavior health, assess the needs of at-risk populations, and identify the resources that the Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, offers to the nation to assist communities in the psychological recovery process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;x:1-5).

  2. Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively

  3. Foreign Assistance: Implementing Disaster Recovery Assistance in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    route for transporting African palm oil to the coast for export and for local commerce. The U.S. engineer responsible for technical oversight agreed...infrastructure, decades of deforestation and other inappropriate environmental practices, and the lack of host government resources to sustain mitigation

  4. Translocal disaster interventions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2017-01-01

    to provide equal as well as equitable relief. Drawing attention to the practice of excluding the migrants households of origin from the receipt of targeted relief, the article suggests that disaster management should re-consider the assumption that such households are automatically (the sole) recipients......The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major point of origin of migrants worldwide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investigates citizens’ responses to the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I examine how individual migrants channel relief...... to their neighborhoods of origin through their networks of social relations abroad and within the areas of impact, and how these individual relief channels both complement and conflict with official disaster responses. Focusing on inter-household resource flows, I argue that individual relief channels form part of local...

  5. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  6. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  7. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  8. Disaster nursing experiences of Chinese nurses responding to the Sichuan Ya'an earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Li, S J; Chen, S H; Xie, X P; Song, Y Q; Jin, Z H; Zheng, X Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the disaster experiences of nurses called to assist survivors one month after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. China has experienced an increasing number of earthquake disasters in the past four decades. Although a health and disaster management system was initiated after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, nurses' roles and experiences in a disaster have been overlooked. The researchers used qualitative descriptive design that included 16 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observation notes, after which a qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three major themes emerged: the process of being dispatched from hospitals to the disaster zone, the effort involved in getting to and working in the affected site and reflecting on the challenges they encountered. About half of the participants had received disaster nursing training before deploying to the disaster site, but they consistently expressed a lack of physical and psychological preparedness regarding the process of being dispatched from their hospitals to the disaster zone. This was a single-incident experience. Caution should be taken when trying to extend the findings to other parts of China. These findings highlighted the need for disaster in-service training as well as for having disaster plans in place. Hospital and nursing leaders should provide disaster training opportunities that included topics such as compiling resource inventories, formulating disaster drills and simulations, managing emergencies, and using emergency communication methods. Health policy-makers should be required to prioritize capacity-building training for front-line nurses as well as to develop and implement disaster management plans to better prepare nurses for future disasters. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  10. 78 FR 42994 - Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925... Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC...

  11. Remote Sensing of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Rothery, David

    The synoptic coverage offered by satellites provides unparalleled opportunities for monitoring active volcanoes, and opens new avenues of scientific inquiry. Thermal infrared radiation can be used to monitor levels of activity, which is useful for automated eruption detection and for studying the emplacement of lava flows. Satellite radars can observe volcanoes through clouds or at night, and provide high-resolution topographic data. In favorable conditions, radar inteferometery can be used to measure ground deformation associated with eruptive activity on a centimetric scale. Clouds from explosive eruptions present a pressing hazard to aviation; therefore, techniques are being developed to assess eruption cloud height and to discriminate between ash and meterological clouds. The multitude of sensors to be launched on future generations of space platforms promises to greatly enhance volcanological studies, but a satellite dedicated to volcanology is needed to meet requirements of aviation safety and volcano monitoring.

  12. Mount Rainier: A decade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Samora, Barbara A.

    Mount Rainier, the highest (4392 m) volcano in the Cascade Range, towers over a population of more than 2.5 million in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, and its drainage system via the Columbia River potentially affects another 500,000 residents of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon (Figure 1). Mount Rainier is the most hazardous volcano in the Cascades in terms of its potential for magma-water interaction and sector collapse. Major eruptions, or debris flows even without eruption, pose significant dangers and economic threats to the region. Despite such hazard and risk, Mount Rainier has received little study; such important topics as its petrologic and geochemical character, its proximal eruptive history, its susceptibility to major edifice failure, and its development over time have been barely investigated. This situation may soon change because of Mount Rainier's recent designation as a “Decade Volcano.”

  13. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  14. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  15. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  16. Disaster Risk Profile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan’s rugged mountain landscape and generally arid climate make it prone to several natural hazards. Climate change also poses threat to Afghanistan’s natural resources, of which the majority of Afghans depend for their livelihood. The country’s low level of socio-economic development makes it extremely vulnerable to disasters, resulting in frequent loss of lives, livelihoods, and ...

  17. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel;

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims of disa...

  18. Mold After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  19. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  20. When Facing Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China last experienced a strong earthquake in 1976 in Tang Shan, Hehei Province. At the beginning of this year, severe snow storms struck more than half of China. What impact have these natural disasters left on China, especially the latest earthquake in Sichuan? Let's do a comparison.

  1. Disaster Changes Us

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    On scientists confirming that sex is a channel for HIV AIDS infection, the sexual emancipation that had flourished in America and Europe since the middle of the last century subsided. More stress has since been placed on family issues. A disaster can thus change moral standards and senses of value, as well as behavior.

  2. Knowledge and skills of Emergency Care During Disaster For Community Health Volunteers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Kamal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, disaster preparedness and responses are essential for everyone to be involved since the disaster becomes increasing. The Community Health Volunteers (CHVs in particular are the key partners required adequately prepared in emergency care during disaster event. Purpose: The study aims to examine the essential knowledge and skills of emergency care during natural disaster for CHVs. Method: The reviews published during 2000 and 2011 searching from PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, ProQuest Medical Library were conducted. Result: Twenty-four articles and documents related to community-based disaster preparedness programs were intensively reviewed. Based on the review, six components of knowledge and skills for emergency care in natural disaster for CHVs are required including 1 early warning, 2 disaster triage, 3 first aid, 4 search and rescue, 5 logistic and communication, and 6 team organizations. Conclusion: There was a few studies focusing on the emergency care in disaster management and some factors related to knowledge and skills were shown. It is therefore recommended that the current CHVs’ knowledge and skills should be explored in order to assist people in their community following disaster event when professional responders are not immediately available to help. Key words: Knowledge, Skill, Community health volunteers, Emergency care, Natural disaster.

  3. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  4. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  5. Controlling disasters: recognising latent goals after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Classic sociological theory can be used to interpret the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall in the United States on 29 August 2005. The delayed and ineffective response to the storm and the subsequent failure of the levees become more understandable when one considers the latent goals of social control in disaster recovery. Constructing the survivors as suspect or criminal and conceptualising the impacts of the disaster as individual problems occurred in order to justify the emphasis on controlling the survivors of Katrina rather than on assisting them. Parallels are drawn here between the disaster response featuring social control efforts and a recent paradigmatic shift in criminal justice from justice to 'risk management'. Recognition of the implicit aims of the inadequate disaster response provides a more complete explanation of why post-Katrina efforts failed to achieve the manifest goals of response and recovery. The conclusion suggests ways to ensure more equitable and just disaster responses. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  6. Improving Disaster Governance : Proposals for a Multi-Level Human Rights Disaster Governance Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Charlotte; Hesselman, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    'Good’ (natural) disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the broad range of resources, skills, expertise and international cooperation that adequate disaster response commands. Disaster governance needs coordinated action across space and time, at different levels and in the full disaste

  7. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. (Univ. of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  8. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  9. Upgrading the seismic and geodetic network of the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Iglesias Mendoza, Arturo; Legrand, Denis; Valdés González, Carlos Miguel; Perez Campos, Xyoli

    2017-04-01

    The Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and is located only 70 km from Mexico City, populated by more than 20 millions of people, and only 35 km from the Puebla municipality with almost 1.5 millions of people living. The recent activity of the volcano is generally marked by explosions emitting ash plumes often reaching the densely populated regions. In the framework of the Mexican Fund for Prevention of Natural Disasters (FOPREDEN) we are renovating and upgrading the existing geodetic and seismic networks monitoring the volcano. In this project we are installing 10 broadband seismic stations (120s-050Hz) in shallow boreholes (3-5m depth) and 4 GPS with real time sampling rate of 1 Hz. All instruments are equipped with continuous recording systems for real time monitoring purposes and research. The Popocatépetl exceeds 5400m, and the altitude of the stations ranges from 2200 m to 4300 m making it difficult their installation and maintenance. Because of ash emissions and the hard working condition, the real-time transmission is split into two systems in order to ensure the monitoring of the volcano also during the highest expected activity. Therefore we set up a network of "first order", consisting of four stations located about 20 km from the crater and equipped with satellite transmission. These stations, being far enough from the crater, ensure the real time monitoring of the major events also during intense periods of activity of the volcano. The remaining six stations are installed near to the crater (less than 10 km) and take part of the "second order" network equipped with a telemetered radio system transmitting the data either directly to the National Center of Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) and National Seismological Service (SSN) or to the first order stations (for the sites that have not direct visible line with the monitoring centers). The four GPS sensors are all installed in the second order sites in order to monitor the largest

  10. Developing monitoring capability of a volcano observatory: the example of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, S.; Garaebiti, E.; Jolly, G. E.; Sherburn, S.; Scott, B.; Jolly, A. D.; Fournier, N.; Miller, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Vanuatu lies on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. With 6 active subaerial and 3 submarine (identified so far) volcanoes, monitoring and following up their activities is a considerable work for a national observatory. The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory is a good example of what can be done from ‘scratch’ to develop a volcanic monitoring capability in a short space of time. A fire in June 2007 completely destroyed the old observatory building and many valuable records leaving Vanuatu with no volcano monitoring capacity. This situation forced the Government of Vanuatu to reconsider the structure of the hazards monitoring group and think about the best way to rebuild a complete volcano monitoring system. Taking the opportunity of the re-awakening of Gaua volcano (North of Vanuatu), the Vanuatu Geohazards section in partnership with GNS Science, New Zealand developed a new program including a strategic plan for Geohazards from 2010-2020, the installation of a portable seismic network with real-time data transmission in Gaua, the support of the first permanent monitoring station installation in Ambrym and the design and implementation of volcano monitoring infrastructure and protocol. Moreover the technology improvements of the last decade and the quick extension of enhanced communication systems across the islands of Vanuatu played a very important role for the development of this program. In less than one year, the implementation of this program was beyond expectations and showed considerable improvement of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory volcano monitoring capability. In response to increased volcanic activity (or unrest) in Ambae, the Geohazards section was fully capable of the installation of a portable seismic station in April 2010 and to follow the development of the activity. Ultimately, this increased capability results in better and timelier delivery of information and advice on the threat from volcanic activity to the National Disaster Management Office and

  11. Disaster management: Emergency nursing and medical personnel's knowledge, attitude and practices of the East Coast region hospitals of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahayalimudin, Nurul'Ain; Osman, Nor Naimah Saidah

    2016-11-01

    Disaster management is critical, as its insight could diminish the impact of a disaster, and participation of emergency medical personnel is crucial. This study explores emergency medical personnel's knowledge, attitude and practice towards disaster management. This study utilised a cross-sectional study design, and the data collected from 194 emergency nursing and medical personnel (staff nurses, doctors and assistant medical officers), using a questionnaire. Majority of the personnel had an adequate knowledge and practices, and portrayed a positive attitude towards disaster management. Amongst the sociodemographic factors studied, gender and education level were significantly associated with increased knowledge and practice scores. Working experience, involvement in disaster response and attended disaster training had a significant association with higher practice scores. None of the sociodemographic factors studied had an effect on attitude scores. Despite the diversity of their backgrounds, respondents exhibited their adequate knowledge and practice, and had positive attitudes towards disaster management. It is substantial for emergency nursing and medical personnel, to inhibit the severity of the impacts of the disasters. Their knowledge, attitude and practice studies could assist in the implementation of programmes relevant to disaster management to ensure their preparedness to assist the affected communities. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disaster Response in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    and preventative measures. The cumulative effects of deforestation, erosion, water-logging, salinity and nutrient depletion all over the country have...and the Sahel (Mali, Niger); and 1982-86 drought in the Sahel (Sudan, Ethiopia). during disasters) in terms of migration and loss of employment but...attribute drought in the country to the following major causes: • El Niño effect, the periodic appearance of warm and saline oce- anic currents in the

  13. Mental health response to community disasters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-08-07

    Exposure to a disaster is common, and one-third or more of individuals severely exposed may develop posttraumatic stress disorder or other disorders. A systematic approach to the delivery of timely and appropriate disaster mental health services may facilitate their integration into the emergency medical response. To review and summarize the evidence for how best to identify individuals in need of disaster mental health services and triage them to appropriate care. Search of the peer-reviewed English-language literature on disaster mental health response in PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Academic Search Complete, and Google Scholar (inception to September 2012) and PILOTS (inception to February 2013), using a combination of subject headings and text words (Disasters, Natural Disasters, Mental Health, Mental Health Programs, Public Health Services, Mental Disorders, Mental Health Services, Community Mental Health Services, Emergency Services Psychiatric, Emotional Trauma, Triage, and Response). Unlike physical injuries, adverse mental health outcomes of disasters may not be apparent, and therefore a systematic approach to case identification and triage to appropriate interventions is required. Symptomatic individuals in postdisaster settings may experience new-onset disaster-related psychiatric disorders, exacerbations of preexisting psychopathology, and/or psychological distress. Descriptive disaster mental health studies have found that many (11%-38%) distressed individuals presenting for evaluation at shelters and family assistance centers have stress-related and adjustment disorders; bereavement, major depression, and substance use disorders were also observed, and up to 40% of distressed individuals had preexisting disorders. Individuals with more intense reactions to disaster stress were more likely to accept referral to mental health services than those with less intense reactions. Evidence-based treatments are available for

  14. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  15. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  16. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  17. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  18. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  19. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major disaster recovery strategy finally. In the end, this paper verifies the feasibility of the disaster recovery strategy by two specific cases of disaster recovery implementation.

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  1. Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Stormont

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the first responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a firefighting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.

  2. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  3. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  4. Modeling eruptions of Karymsky volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerov, A.; Ispolatov, I.; Lees, J.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain temporal patterns of activity in a class of periodically exploding Strombolian-type volcanos. These patterns include major events (explosions) which follow each other every 10-30 minutes and subsequent tremor with a typical period of 1 second. This two-periodic activity is thought to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of accumulation of the elastic energy in the moving magma column: compressibility of the magma in the lower conduit and viscoelastic response of...

  5. 13 CFR 123.200 - Am I eligible to apply for a physical disaster business loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., corporation, limited liability company, or other legal entity recognized under State law. Your business' size... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible to apply for a physical disaster business loan? 123.200 Section 123.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  6. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  7. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  8. Campgrounds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides campground locations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Information about facilities, water availability, permit requirements and type of...

  9. Economic development and natural disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th

  10. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  11. [Disaster medicine, organization and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiette, Catherine; Houzé-Cerfon, Vanessa; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    A disaster situation requires an organised command of the emergency services as well as of the treatment of victims and their orientation. The aim is to avoid any deterioration in the quality of the emergency care provided to the patients. A medical speciality, disaster medicine requires specific training.

  12. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch g

  13. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  14. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a public assistance household. (a) Definition. A public assistance household is one in which every... mandatory supplements); (3) The Refugee Act of 1980 (Those payments based on need); (4) The Disaster...

  15. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  16. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  17. Disaster management following explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  18. Disaster event: Window of opportunity to implement global disaster policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siambabala B. Manyena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.

  19. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  20. Inter-agency collaboration for fire disaster management in Nairobi City

    OpenAIRE

    Alice A. Menya; O.A. K’Akumu

    2016-01-01

    The County Government of Nairobi faces a myriad of capacity challenges that have impeded fire disaster management in the City. This is further compounded by the lack of a comprehensive legal and institutional framework for disaster management in Kenya. Whereas the County Government enlists assistance from other public, private and civil society organizations, the approach employed is skewed towards interagency coordination rather than a collaborative approach. This paper looks at the concept ...

  1. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon

    2013-08-01

    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  2. Strong S-wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal volcano, Philippines, inferred from source location analysis using high-frequency seismic amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Lacson, R. _Jr., Jr.; Maeda, Y.; Figueroa, M. S., II; Yamashina, T.

    2014-12-01

    Taal volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A key feature of these eruptions is that the eruption vents were not limited to Main Crater but occurred on the flanks of Volcano Island. This complex eruption history and the fact that thousands of people inhabit the island, which has been declared a permanent danger zone, together imply an enormous potential for disasters. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) constantly monitors Taal, and international collaborations have conducted seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, and geochemical studies to investigate the volcano's magma system. Realtime broadband seismic, GPS, and magnetic networks were deployed in 2010 to improve monitoring capabilities and to better understand the volcano. The seismic network has recorded volcano-tectonic (VT) events beneath Volcano Island. We located these VT events based on high-frequency seismic amplitudes, and found that some events showed considerable discrepancies between the amplitude source locations and hypocenters determined by using onset arrival times. Our analysis of the source location discrepancies points to the existence of a region of strong S-wave attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. Our results, synthesized with previous results, suggest that this region represents actively degassing magma near the surface, and imply a high risk of future eruptions on the east flank of Volcano Island.

  3. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED, a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology: We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results: Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion: Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions: Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  4. Patterns and predictors of primary mental health service use following bushfire and flood disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifels, Lennart; Bassilios, Bridget; Spittal, Matthew; King, Kylie; Fletcher, Justine; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health care services play an important role following disasters (Reifels et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to examine patterns and predictors of primary mental health care service use, following two major Australian natural disaster events. Method Utilizing referral and session data from a national minimum dataset, descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to identify levels and predictors of the use of the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program over a 2-year period following two major Australian bushfire and flood/cyclone disasters. Predictor variables examined in negative binomial regression analysis included consumer (age, gender, household structure, previous mental health care history, and diagnosis) and event characteristics (disaster type). Results The bushfire disaster resulted in significantly greater service volume, with more than twice the number of referrals and nearly three times the number of sessions. Service delivery for both disasters peaked in the third quarter. Consumers affected by bushfires, diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or both of these disorders utilized sessions at significantly higher rates. Conclusions The substantial demand for primary mental health services following disaster can vary with disaster type. Disaster type and need-based variables as key drivers of service use intensity indicate an equitable level of service use. Established usage patterns assist with estimating future service capacity requirements. Flexible referral pathways can enhance access to disaster mental health care. Future research should examine the impact of program- and agency-level factors on mental health service use and factors underpinning treatment non-adherence following disaster. PMID:25511731

  5. Patterns and predictors of primary mental health service use following bushfire and flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Reifels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health care services play an important role following disasters (Reifels et al., 2013. The aim of this study is to examine patterns and predictors of primary mental health care service use, following two major Australian natural disaster events. Method: Utilizing referral and session data from a national minimum dataset, descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to identify levels and predictors of the use of the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS program over a 2-year period following two major Australian bushfire and flood/cyclone disasters. Predictor variables examined in negative binomial regression analysis included consumer (age, gender, household structure, previous mental health care history, and diagnosis and event characteristics (disaster type. Results: The bushfire disaster resulted in significantly greater service volume, with more than twice the number of referrals and nearly three times the number of sessions. Service delivery for both disasters peaked in the third quarter. Consumers affected by bushfires, diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or both of these disorders utilized sessions at significantly higher rates. Conclusions: The substantial demand for primary mental health services following disaster can vary with disaster type. Disaster type and need-based variables as key drivers of service use intensity indicate an equitable level of service use. Established usage patterns assist with estimating future service capacity requirements. Flexible referral pathways can enhance access to disaster mental health care. Future research should examine the impact of program- and agency-level factors on mental health service use and factors underpinning treatment non-adherence following disaster.

  6. An Overview of Environmental Disaster in Malaysia and Prepa-redness Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza ABDUL RAHMAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is affected by moderate environmental disasters but seldom affected by severe disaster. Cameron Highland mud floods 2013, Hulu Langat landslide 2011, tsunami 2004 and Highland Tower 1993 are some of environmental disaster in Malaysia. Some of these disasters carry heavy price tags as property and lives are damaged beyond full compensation and repair and health effects as well. This paper was focused on environmental disaster in Malaysia with reference to flood and landslide. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these disasters and how public could be safe from these hazards with preparedness strategies. This paper involved with secondary data collected from journal, proceedings, books, related agencies and internet sources as well. Normally, humankind is capable of saving their self and Earth as well, if they recover the principles of solidarity, complementarity and harmony with nature in contraposition to the reign of competition, profits and rampant consumption of natural resources. They also must strongly support a sustainable development and a sustainable land use concept in order to sustain the environment from degrades. In addition, community-based disaster preparedness is essential in preventing and responding to the full array of environmental disasters in keeping human losses as low as possible. Ways must be found to ensure that a community is strengthened, becoming less fragile and less susceptible to environmental disaster impact. In addition, community needs to be assist in order to survive despite receiving the impact of severe disasters. Keywords: Environmental disaster, Malaysia, Human activity

  7. Directed Volcanic Blast as a Tragedy of October 26Th, 2010 at Merapi Volcano, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.163Merapi is an active strato volcano located in Central Java. This volcano is regarded as the most active and most dangerous volcano in Indonesia. Since the twentieth century, the activities have comprised mainly the effusive growth of viscous lava domes and lava tongues, with occasional gravitational collapses of parts of over-steepened domes producing pyroclastic flows, commonly defined as “Merapi-Type”. Since October 2010, however, explosive eruptions of a relatively large size have occurred to VEI 4, and some associated pyroclastic flows were larger and had farther reach than any produced on July 2006. These events may also be regarded as another type of eruptions for Merapi. On October26th, 2010 such event happened, even though it was not caused by pyroclastic flows of the dome collapses, about thirty people were killed including Mbah Marijan, known as the Merapi volcano's spiritual gatekeeper, who was found dead at his home approximately 4 km from the crater. The Yogyakarta Palace subsequently confirmed his death. This time the disaster was caused by a sudden directed blast that took place at 17:02 pm throughout Cangkringan, Kinahrejo Village, at the south flank of Merapi Volcano. The victims were the local people who did not predict the blast threatened their areas, because they believed that the pyroclastic flows from the dome collapses as long as they knew, did not threaten their areas, and pyroclastic flows would flow down following the Boyong River as the closest valley to their village. The blast swept an area about 8 km2, reaching about 5 km in distance, deposited thin ash, and toppled all trees to the south around the Kinahrejo and Pakem areas. The blast that reached Kinahrejo Village seemed to have moderate temperatures, because all trees facing the crater were not burnt. However, the victims were affected by dehydration and blanketed by fine ash.

  8. The public health dimension of disasters: health outcome assessment of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Gutschmidt, K.; Lang, T.; Palmer, S.; Ruijten, M.; Stumpel, R.; Yzermans, J.

    2008-01-01

    A broad range of health problems are related to disasters. Insight into these health problems is needed for targeted disaster management. Disaster health outcome assessment can provide insight into the health effects of disasters. During the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine in

  9. Victimization of people by natural disasters: Spatial and temporal distribution of consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a descriptive statistical analysis of geospatial and temporal distributions of victimized people (killed, injured, affected and damage with specific reference to geophysical, meteorological, climatological, biological and hydrological disasters that have occurred in the world of from 1900 to 2013 year. In addition, people affected by the various natural disasters could be classified as invisible victims as they are not recognized as victims either by the state or society, and consequently they do not receive adequate protection, assistance and support. Statistical research was conducted on data from the international database of the Centre for Research on Disaster Epidemiology Disaster (CRED in Brussels. Temporal analysis examined the distribution and effects of natural disasters on people, at intervals of ten years. The same methodology was adopted for analyses of geospatial distribution of victimized people because of natural disasters by continent. The aim of the research is to determine the geospatial and temporal distribution of victimization of people with natural disasters in the world geospace in the period from 1900 to 2013. The survey results clearly indicate an increase in the number and severity of the consequences of natural disasters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  10. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  11. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  12. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster exists...

  13. The significance of SAR remote sensing in volcano-geology for hazard and resource potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepuloh, Asep; Bakker, Erwin; Suminar, Wulan

    2017-07-01

    Geological mapping at volcanic terrain is crucial for providing accurate information related to the distribution of volcanic products and volcano-related structures. The volcano-geology map is basis information, not only for hazard mitigation related to volcanic activity, but also for resource exploration as well as scientific purposes. Therefore, the accurate detection and observation of volcanic products and their genetics are necessary for volcano-geology mapping. The classical problem at Torrid Zone such as cloud, dense vegetation, heavy weathering, and erosion usually hamper the detection and observation of volcanic products and their structures. Moreover, the stratigraphic of volcanic products generally follows paleo-topography which was buried by the products. Overcoming the problem, we exploited the applicability of remotely sensed data to provide the great assistance for field based observations at volcanic field in Indonesia. The Geomorphologic and Structural Features (GSF) of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are the selected parameters to define the distribution of the volcanic products. We explained about the significant of SAR identification to detect and interpret volcano-geology parameters such as eruption centers, volcanic products, depositional mechanisms, and volcanic structures especially at complex of volcanoes. The fall and flowing mechanisms controlled the depositional process were also analyzed to obtain the genetic of volcanic products. For young volcanoes, the quantitative techniques based on SAR surface roughness and polarized signatures are effective to identify volcanic formations and their sources. However, for old volcanoes the visual analyses of GSF is superior to identify the volcanic units and structures. We selected two volcanic complexes at Mts. Guntur and Malabar in West Java (Indonesia) presenting the young and old volcanic field characteristics under Torrid Zone condition.

  14. Predictability of Volcano Eruption: lessons from a basaltic effusive volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, J R

    2003-01-01

    Volcano eruption forecast remains a challenging and controversial problem despite the fact that data from volcano monitoring significantly increased in quantity and quality during the last decades.This study uses pattern recognition techniques to quantify the predictability of the 15 Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) eruptions in the 1988-2001 period using increase of the daily seismicity rate as a precursor. Lead time of this prediction is a few days to weeks. Using the daily seismicity rate, we formulate a simple prediction rule, use it for retrospective prediction of the 15 eruptions,and test the prediction quality with error diagrams. The best prediction performance corresponds to averaging the daily seismicity rate over 5 days and issuing a prediction alarm for 5 days. 65% of the eruptions are predicted for an alarm duration less than 20% of the time considered. Even though this result is concomitant of a large number of false alarms, it is obtained with a crude counting of daily events that are available fro...

  15. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  16. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    The rapid changes in climate over the last decades, together with the explosion of human population, have shaped the context for a fragile biosphere, prone to natural and manmade disasters that result in massive flows of environmental immigrants and great disturbances of ecosystems. The magnitude of the latest great disasters have shown evidence for high quality Earth Observation (EO) services as it regards disaster risk reduction and emergency support (DRR & EMS). The EO community runs ambitious initiatives in order to generate services with direct impact in the biosphere, and intends to stimulate the wider participation of citizens, enabling the Openness effect through the Open Innovation paradigm. This by its turn results in the tremendous growth of open source software technologies associated with web, social media, mobile and Crowdsourcing. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of National Observatory of Athens has developed, in the framework of the BEYOND Centre of Excellence for EO-based monitoring of Natural Disasters (http://www.beyond-eocenter.eu), a rich ecosystem of Copernicus compliant services addressing diverse hazardous phenomena caused from climate and weather extremes (fires, floods, windstorms, heat waves), atmospheric disturbances (smoke, dust, ozone, UV), and geo-hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes). Several services are delivered in near-real time to the public and the institutional authorities at national and regional level in southeastern Europe. Specific ones have been recognized worldwide for their innovation and operational aspects (e.g. FIREHUB was awarded the first prize as Best Service Challenge in the Copernicus Masters Competition, 2014). However, a communication gap still exists between the BEYOND ecosystem and those directly concerned by the natural disasters, the citizens and emergency response managers. This disruption of information flow between interested parties is addressed

  17. Investigating the significance of disaster information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster information informs disaster risk management interventions. However, it is the systematic management of this key resource that has not yet been fully embraced. In some cases, information is still haphazardly collected, analysed, managed and disseminated. This paper, utilising mainly secondary literature sources, explores the importance of disaster information and its systematic management in disaster risk management programming. It presents challenges associated with information management in disaster situations and critiques the trend whereby the collection, management and dissemination of information are usually limited to disaster situations. This only serves to further marginalise post-disaster recovery processes, which are integral with regard to generating knowledge essential for the formulation of future disaster mitigation strategies. The paper concludes by arguing for the integration of disaster information management into current disaster risk management curriculum.

  18. C41SR and Urban Disasters Disaster Response & Recovery Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouillette, Greg A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Risk Analysis and Decision Support Group

    2007-03-27

    These are slides for various presentations on C41SR and urban disasters disasters response and recovery tools. These are all mainly charts and images of disaster response and recovery tools. Slides included have headings such as the following: vignette of a disaster response, situational awareness and common operating picture available to EOC, plume modeling capability, Program ASPECT Chemical Response Products, EPA ASPECT - Hurricane RITA Response 9/25/2005, Angel Fire Imagery, incident commander's view/police chief's view/ EMS' view, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training capability, systems diagram, Austere Challenge 06 Sim/C4 Requirements, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training environment, common situational awareness, real world, crisis response, and consequence management.

  19. University of North Carolina's experience with state medical assistance teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Jeff; Murtaugh, Lisa; Hoffman, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Events in the last several years have shown a clear need for better preparation regarding disaster management. In an effort to improve this preparation, North Carolina implemented state medical assistant teams to provide alternative care facilities, decontamination facilities, and shelter assistance during times of disaster. This article explores these teams from the perspective of the University of North Carolina, which serves as a lead agency for one of these teams. Key components of the team, training provided, and lessons learned will be discussed.

  20. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prepare a disaster kit for your pet. Leaving pets out of evacuation plans can put pets, ... during an evacuation Contact your local emergency management office and ask if they offer accommodations for owners ...