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Sample records for volcanism inception evolution

  1. Cenozoic volcanic geology and probable age of inception of basin-range faulting in the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1978-02-01

    A complex sequence of Oligocene-age volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks form a major volcanic center in the Picacho area of the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, Imperial County, California. Basal-volcanic rocks consist of lava flows and flow breccia of trachybasalt, pyroxene rhyodacite, and pyroxene dacite (32 My old). These volcanic rocks locally overlie fanglomerate and rest unconformably on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. South and southeast of a prominent arcuate fault zone in the central part of the area, the rhyolite ignimbrite (26 My old) forms a major ash-flow sheet. In the southwestern part of the Picacho area the rhyolite ignimbrite interfingers with and is overlain by dacite flows and laharic breccia. The rhyolite ignimbrite and the dacite of Picacho Peak are overlapped by lava flows and breccia of pyroxene andesite (25 My old) that locally rest on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Picacho area form a slightly bimodal volcanic suite consisting chiefly of silicic volcanic rocks with subordinate andesite. Late Miocene augite-olivine basalt is most similar in major-element abundances to transitional alkali-olivine basalt of the Basin and Range province. Normal separation faults in the Picacho area trend northwest and north parallel to major linear mountain ranges in the region. The areal distribution of the 26-My-old rhyolite ignimbrite and the local presence of megabreccia and fanglomerate flanking probable paleohighs suggest that the ignimbrite was erupted over irregular topography controlled by northwest- and north-trending probable basin-range faults. These relations date the inception of faulting in southeasternmost California at pre-26 and probably pre-32 My ago. A transition of basaltic volcanism in the area is dated at 13 My ago. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Role of volcanism in climate and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    Several major episodes of Tertiary explosive volcanism coincided with sharply lowered temperature as inferred from oxygen-isotope composition of foraminiferal tests in deep-sea cores. At these times, fossil floras in the western interior recorded significant changes. Reductions in taxa that required warmth occurred early in the Paleogene. Later, taxa that demand ample summer rain were reduced during a progressive change reflecting growth of the subtropic high. Other ecosystem changes that appear to have responded to volcanically induced climatic modifications include tachytely in Equidae (12 to 10 m.y. B.P.), rapid evolution of grasses (7 to 5 m.y. B.P.), evolution of marine mammals, and plankton flucuations. Although Lake Cretaceous extinctions commenced as epeiric seas retreated, the pulses of sharply lowered temperature induced by explosive volcanism, together with widespread falls of volcanic ash, may have led to extinction of dinosaurs, ammonites, cycadeoids, and other Cretaceous taxa. earlier, as Pangaea was assembled, Permian extinctions resulted not only from the elimination of oceans, epeiric seas, and shorelines, and the spread of more-continental climates, bu also from the climatic effects of major pulses of global volcanism and Gondwana glaciation.

  3. Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, evolution, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols have been the subject of scientific speculation since the 1880s, when the powerful eruption of Krakatoa attracted worldwide attention to the upper atmosphere through spectacular optical displays. The presence of a permanent tenuous dust layer in the lower stratosphere was postulated in the 1920s following studies of the twilight glow. Junge collected the first samples of these 'dust' particles and demonstrated that they were actually composed of sulfates, most likely concentrated sulfuric acid (Junge and Manson, 1961; Junge, 1963). Subsequent research has been spurred by the realization that stratospheric particles can influence the surface climate of earth through their effects on atmospheric radiation. Such aerosols can also influence, through chemical and physical effects, the trace composition of the atmosphere, ozone concentrations, and atmospheric electrical properties. The properties of stratospheric aerosols (both the background particles and those enhanced by volcanic eruptions) were measured in situ by balloon ascents and high altitude aircraft sorties. The aerosols were also observed remotely from the ground and from satellites using both active (lidar) and passive (solar occultation) techniques (remote sensing instruments were carried on aircraft and balloon platforms as well). In connection with the experimental work, models were developed to test theories of particle formation and evolution, to guide measurement strategies, to provide a means of connecting laboratory and field data, and to apply the knowledge gained to answer practical questions about global changes in climate, depletion of the ozone layer, and related environmental problems.

  4. Observation of the inception and evolution of a cavitation cloud in tissue with ultrafast ultrasound imaging

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    Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgani, Ali; Catheline, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The local application of ultrasound is known to improve drug intake by tumors. Cavitating bubbles are one of the contributing effects. A setup where two ultrasound transducers are placed confocally is used to generate cavitation in ex vivo tissue. As the transducers emit a series of short bursts, the creation and evolution of the cavitation activity is monitored using an ultrafast ultrasound imaging system. This system capable of frame rates up to 10000 frames per second provides several tens of images between consecutive bursts. A cross-correlation between consecutive images used for speckle tracking shows a decorrelation of the imaging signal due to changes induced by the cavitation cloud. This post-processed sequence of images reveals that once bubbles have been created in the tissue, they remain for a short time even when no ultrasound is applied. The evolution of the size and place of the cavitation cloud between bursts show a repeatable pattern through a burst sequence.

  5. Evolution of the Mascarene Basin with respect to the Reunion hotspot inception in the Deccan

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    Bissessur, Dass; Dyment, Jérôme; Deplus, Christine; Yatheesh, Vaddakeyakath

    2010-05-01

    Located between Madagascar in the west, the Mascarene Plateau in the east and separated from the Madagascar Basin by the Mauritius fracture zone in the south, the Mascarene Basin is marked by conjugate magnetic anomalies separated by a fossil ridge. In agreement with previous studies, the opening of this basin is dated to ~85 Ma by anomaly 34. Spreading rate has increased from slow between 83 Ma (A34) and 74 Ma (A33y), to intermediate between 74 Ma (A33y) and 68 Ma (A31y), and to fast between 69 Ma (A31y) and 63 Ma (A28), before the extinction of the ridge at ~60 Ma (A27y). Free air gravity data derived from satellite altimetry reveal a rather complex structure of the oceanic crust, with many fracture zones showing a trend evolving from N50°E - N60°E on the basin margins to N30°E - N40°E in the centre. These fracture zones segment the basin in seven main compartments and many small corridors. In the southernmost compartment, in the vicinity of Reunion Island, the isochrones shows two distinct orientations, N120°E-N140°E and N90°E-N110°E in the central and eastern part of the compartment respectively. We explain this observation by the presence of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction in this compartment between 74 and 64 Ma (A33y to A28o). Furthermore, a ridge jump at 62 Ma (A28y) has isolated a double anomaly 28 on the southern flank. This point, suggested by the observed magnetic anomalies, is further substantiated by the small N40°E-N50°E trending volcanic ridges south of Reunion Island, which seems to be also present on the northern flank of the A28 fossil spreading centre but are absent on the more recent crust emplaced between A28 and A27. This suggests that the hotspot- ridge interaction that may have created these ridges was active before A28 - maybe a far-field effect of the Deccan Trap volcanism? In the two central compartments, seafloor spreading is rather symmetrical and regular, with magnetic lineations perpendicular to the fracture zones. In the

  6. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    biomass burning portion of our nation's NEI at the crossroads of the applications 'largest cost-effective unknowns and uncertainties' and the 'best-available science and data'. Here, we will present a diagram tree of the completed evolution of a successful project, which includes the basic science on which this development is based and the succession of the use of satellite data within the applications and user communities.

  7. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  8. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

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    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability-related to the transition from HF to LF-occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes.

  9. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability–related to the transition from HF to LF–occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes. PMID:28074878

  10. The Records of the Tectonic Evolution From the Volcanics in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhonghua; Yang Deming; Li Cai; Pu Zhongyu

    2000-01-01

    The volcanism in Qiangtang Basin is very frequent due to the divergence and subduction of the various plates. The study indicates that these volcanics are formed in different tectonic settings: 1 )Hercynian volcanics are mainly basalts and are formed in the intraplate and intercontinental rift. 2 ) Indosinian volcanics markedly vary in the distribution and composition and reflect transitional MORB and island are environments respectively. 3) Yanshanian volcanics consist predominantly of basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites and are characterized by calc- alkaline volcanic suite, indicating island arc setting. 4)Himalayan volcanics are complicated and associated with intraplate orogency. The volcanism provides important tectonic information for recognizing the evolution of Qiangtang Basin.

  11. Evolution of Mesozoic Volcanic Basins and Red Basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic-Volcanic Metallogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly proposes six major regional geological events in the active continental-margin mantle uplift zone and discusses the oscillation nature of the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins and red basins, origin of erosion in the late stage of red basins and mechanism of volcanism.

  12. Causal link between Quaternary paleoclimatic changes and volcanic islands evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidelleur, X.; Hildenbrand, A.; Samper, A.

    2008-01-01

    Giant landslides and resulting tsunamis represent the main geologic hazards linked to volcanic island evolution. From offshore and onland studies, flank failures have been identified around numerous islands, in most geodynamic contexts. However, the triggering conditions are still poorly understood and several causes may act simultaneously to reach a critical threshold. Here we show that most large volume (>10 km3) landslides occur at glacial stages termination and we propose that a causal relationship between flank collapse of volcanic islands and global climatic changes has existed at least since 900 kyr. Moreover, ages reported here favour the hypothesis that major collapses occurred during the onset of glacial to interglacial transitions when sudden influx of melt water from polar ice caps causes rapid sea level rise. We propose that rapid sea level rise induces enhanced coastal erosion and sudden changes of pore pressure conditions within basal layers, which favour edifice failure.

  13. Age, distance, and geochemical evolution within a monogenetic volcanic field: Analyzing patterns in the Auckland Volcanic Field eruption sequence

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    Corvec, Nicolas Le; Bebbington, Mark S.; Lindsay, Jan M.; McGee, Lucy E.

    2013-09-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a young active monogenetic basaltic field, which contains ˜50 volcanoes scattered across the Auckland metropolitan area. Understanding the temporal, spatial, and chemical evolution of the AVF during the last c.a. 250 ka is crucial in order to forecast a future eruption. Recent studies have provided new age constraints and potential temporal sequences of the past eruptions within the AVF. We use this information to study how the spatial distribution of the volcanic centers evolves with time, and how the chemical composition of the erupted magmas evolves with time and space. We seek to develop a methodology which compares successive eruptions to describe the link between geochemical and spatiotemporal evolution of volcanic centers within a monogenetic volcanic field. This methodology is tested with the present day data of the AVF. The Poisson nearest neighbor analysis shows that the spatial behavior of the field has been constant overtime, with the spatial distribution of the volcanic centers fitting the Poisson model within the significance levels. The results of the meta-analysis show the existence of correlations between the chemical composition of the erupted magmas and distance, volume, and time. The apparent randomness of the spatiotemporal evolution of the volcanic centers observed at the surface is probably influenced by the activity of the source. The methodology developed in this study can be used to identify possible relationships between composition trends and volume, time and/or distance to the behavior of the source, for successive eruptions of the AVF.

  14. Co-evolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

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    T. Yoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment co-evolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow duration curves and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index. We found significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The age of the catchments was also significantly related to intra-annual flow variability. Younger catchments tend to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibit more flashy runoff. The decrease of baseflow with catchment age confirms previous studies that hypothesized that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways have changed over time, from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in similar volcanic catchments but of significant younger age than the ones explored here. In these younger catchments, an increase in drainage density with age was observed, and it was hypothesized that this was because of more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths in more mature catchments. Our results suggests two hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in matured catchments. One is that as

  15. The evolution of pore connectivity in volcanic rocks

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    Colombier, Mathieu; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Gurioli, Lucia; Scheu, Bettina; Kueppers, Ulrich; Di Muro, Andrea; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-03-01

    Pore connectivity is a measure of the fraction of pore space (vesicles, voids or cracks) in a material that is interconnected on the system length scale. Pore connectivity is fundamentally related to permeability, which has been shown to control magma outgassing and the explosive potential of magma during ascent in the shallowest part of the crust. Here, we compile a database of connectivity and porosity from published sources and supplement this with additional measurements, using natural volcanic rocks produced in a broad range of eruptive styles and with a range of bulk composition. The database comprises 2715 pairs of connectivity C and porosity ϕ values for rocks from 35 volcanoes as well as 116 products of experimental work. For 535 volcanic rock samples, the permeability k was also measured. Data from experimental studies constrain the general features of the relationship between C and ϕ associated with both vesiculation and densification processes, which can then be used to interpret natural data. To a first order, we show that a suite of rocks originating from effusive eruptive behaviour can be distinguished from rocks originating from explosive eruptive behaviour using C and ϕ. We observe that on this basis, a particularly clear distinction can be made between scoria formed in fire-fountains and that formed in Strombolian activity. With increasing ϕ, the onset of connectivity occurs at the percolation threshold ϕc which in turn can be hugely variable. We demonstrate that C is an excellent metric for constraining ϕc in suites of porous rocks formed in a common process and discuss the range of ϕc values recorded in volcanic rocks. The percolation threshold is key to understanding the onset of permeability, outgassing and compaction in shallow magmas. We show that this threshold is dramatically different in rocks formed during densification processes than in rocks formed in vesiculating processes and propose that this value is the biggest factor in

  16. Magmatic Evolution in the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

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    Koster, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Magma evolution within the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (LTVF) is poorly understood. The LTVF is a basaltic, monogenetic field in Veracruz, Mexico, that contains approximately 400 vents and has been active for the last 7 Ma, including a sub-Plinian eruption in 1793. The field is structurally controlled, with cones forming NW-SE lines consistent with local extension. By understanding magmatic evolution through ascent, storage, and mixing, it is possible to more accurately predict future trends in the system. Samples from two alignments of cinder cones located between San Martin Tuxtlas volcano and Laguna Catemaco were analyzed petrographically and geochemically. Geochemical data were plotted in Fenner and Harker diagrams to identify trends, including fractional crystallization and magma recharge. Mineral modes were calculated via point counting in thin sections, and micro-textural variations were noted. Cone morphometry was used as a rough proxy for age along with field relationships to develop an approximate order of events along the alignments. Preliminary data suggest that the aligned vents are part of a linked magmatic plumbing system undergoing periodic recharge.

  17. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

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    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was

  18. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

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    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  19. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field

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    Kobs Nawotniak, S. E.; Espindola, J.; Godinez, L.

    2010-12-01

    Mapping of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF), located in Veracruz, Mexico, through the use of digital elevation models, aerial photography, and field confirmation has found 353 distinct cones, 4 large composite volcanoes, and 42 maars. Eruptive activity in the TVF began in the late Miocene, underwent a quiescent period approximately 2.6-0.8 Ma, and continues into historic times with the most recent eruption occurring at San Martín Tuxtla volcano in 1793. The covariance of the minimum cone separation in the TVF indicates that, despite the influence of clear vent alignments following regional faulting trends, the field as a whole is anticlustered. Dividing the cones by morphometric age shows that while the older cones have an anti-clustered distribution, the younger cones (Catemaco. These areas of concentrated volcanism roughly correspond to the locations of two gravity anomalies previously identified in the area. While the average height/width ratio is equal between the two clusters, the cones in the eastern group are significantly smaller than their counterparts in the western group. The maars of the TVF are mostly located within the younger volcanic series, west of Laguna Catemaco, and have an anticlustered distribution; many of the maars are evenly spaced along curved lines, where they are weakly grouped according to crater diameter. Results indicate volcanism TVF has undergone continued spatial restriction over time, concentrating in the western half of the TVF with the onset of the eruption of the younger volcanic series 0.8 Ma and further contracting along the principle fault system within the last 50 Ka.

  20. Evolution of Geochemical Variations Along the Central American Volcanic Front

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    Saginor, I. S.; Gazel, E.; Condie, C.; Carr, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma shows that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab, however our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  1. Geochemical regularities in the evolution of volcanism (from the results of multidimensional statistical analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golynko, I.N.

    1976-10-01

    By using the method of principal components, calculations and analyses are made on geochemical parameters describing the mutual relations of chemical products in volcanic materials. It is shown that with spontaneous development of volcanism the degree of order in the mutual relations of chemical products increases in a regular fashion in a series of successively formed associations of volcanic ores. The regularity is independent of the types and scale of volcanism, and is manifested both for petrogenic and for small chemical products. This tendency is shown for examples of the evolution of typical volcanic series, the evolution of basaltoids in zones of riftogenesis, and the evolution of volcano-plutonic associations in the tectonic-magmatic cycle of a large ring structure. A discussion is presented on the theoretical significance of this phenomenon from the point of view of a general theory of evolution, and also of the possibility of its practical use in solving a number of petrological problems and in investigating postvolcanic mineralization. (SJR)

  2. Geologic and chemical evolution of volcan tepetiltic, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deremer, L.A.; Nelson, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcan Tepetiltic is located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic Belt, about 40 km SW of the city of Tepic. The structure is a calc-alkaline stratovolcano composed primarily of andesite and dacite lava flows topped by an elliptical caldera measuring approximately 5 by 2.5 km. At least two cycles of andesite volcanism followed by rapid differentiation into volumetrically subordinate dacite flows and dikes built the majority of the complex. The second pulse of andesitic lavas were more basic than the first and appear to have been the result of reinjection of mafic magma into the shallow andesitic magma chamber. This was closely followed by the emplacement of two rhyolite domes and associated ash deposits on the eastern flank of the volcano. Finally, two small hornblende andesite domes were erupted on the floor of the caldera, and a lake formed in the northeastern corner of the caldera. Cinder cones on the flanks of the volcano have erupted alkaline lavas of mugearitic affinity. These are chemically unrelated to the calc-alkaline lavas erupted from Tepetiltic itself. The latest activity of Tepetiltic was the emplacement of a crystal rich rhyolite domes on the southern flank, which has blocked stream drainages to form a coulee lake. This last event has occurred within the last several thousand years. The rocks erupted from Tepetiltic form a chemically continuous suite which could have been derived through crystal fractionation of andesitic magma. No basic parental magmas, however, have erupted throughout the area.

  3. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  4. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10/sup -9//km/sup 2//y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10/sup -7//y.

  5. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  6. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus - Implications for formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Large-scale volcanism, in the form of areally extensive flow fields, is a previously unrecognized important aspect of the evolution of at least 41 percent of all coronae on Venus. The timing and scale of many coronae flow fields is consistent with an origin due to the arrival and pressure-release melting of material in the head of a mantle plume or diapir. The production of voluminous amounts of volcanism at some coronae is proposed to be the result of larger plume size and/or the intersection of mantle upwellings with regions of lithospheric extension and rifting.

  7. Volcanism and Tectonic Evolution in the North Qilian Mountains during Ordovician Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The Ordovician marine volcanic rocks in the north Qilian mountains are discussed in this paper. According to geology, petrotectonic assemblage and geochemistry, a new model about plate tectonic evolution of the north Qilian mountains is set up. The Ordovician marine volcanic rocks in the north Qilian mountains which characterized by the geological features of tectonic melange of continent to continent collision underwent complicated tectonic movement, and can be classified into three main kinds of petrotectonic assemblages. During Ordovician period, north Qilian area was a polyisland ocean which consisted of three ocean basins separated by the middle microcontinental blocks.

  8. Evolution and genesis of volcanic rocks from Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Robertson, K.; Smith, E.; Selyangin, O.; Kiryukhin, A.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Walker, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents new geochemical data for Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the volcanic front of the southern portion of the Kamchatka arc. Field relationships show that Mutnovsky Volcano is comprised of four distinct stratocones, which have grown over that past 80 ka. The youngest center, Mutnovsky IV, has produced basalts and basaltic andesites only. The three older centers (Mutnovsky I, II, III) are dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite (60-80% by volume), but each has also produced small volumes of andesite and dacite. Across centers of all ages, Mutnovsky lavas define a tholeiitic igneous series, from 48-70% SiO2. Basalts and basaltic andesites have relatively low K2O and Na2O, and high FeO* and Al2O3 compared to volcanic rocks throughout Kamchatka. The mafic lavas are also depleted in the light rare earth elements (REEs), with chondrite-normalized La/Sm arc volcanic rocks worldwide. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) are similar for samples from all four eruptive centers, and indicate that all samples were produced by melting of a similar source mixture. No clear age-progressive changes are evident in the compositions of Mutnovsky lavas. Mass balance and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) modeling of major and rare earth elements (REEs) indicate that basaltic andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine from a parental basalt, combined with assimilation of a melt composition similar to dacite lavas present at Mutnovsky. This modeling also indicates that andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase from basaltic andesite, combined with assimilation of dacite. Dacites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II have low abundances of REEs, and do not appear to be related to mafic magmas by FC or AFC processes. These dacites are modeled as the products of dehydration partial melting at mid-crustal levels of a garnet-free, amphibole-bearing basaltic rock, which itself formed in the mid-crust by emplacement of magma that

  9. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  10. Sr, Nd, Pb Isotope geochemistry and magma evolution of the potassic volcanic rocks, Wudalianchi, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.; Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Wudalianchi volcanic rocks are the most typical Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in eastern China. Compositional comparisons between whole rocks and glasses of various occurrences indicate that the magma tends to become rich in silica and alkalis as a result of crystal differentiation in the course of evolution. They are unique in isotopic composition with more radiogenic Sr but less radiogenic Pb.87Sr /86 Sr is higher and143Nd/144Nd is lower than the undifferentiated global values. In comparison to continental potash volcanic rocks, Pb isotopes are apparently lower. These various threads of evidence indicate that the rocks were derived from a primary enriched mantle which had not been subjected to reworking and shows no sign of incorporation of crustal material. The correlation between Pb and Sr suggests the regional heterogeneity in the upper mantle in terms of chemical composition. ?? 1989 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Abundances of F,Cl S and P in Volcanic Magmas and Their Evolution,Wudalianchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    F,Cl,S and P were determined,using electron microprobe,in magmatic inclusions trapped within minerals and glass mesostasis from Wudalianchi volcanic rocks.The initial volcanic magma from Wudalianchi corresponds to the basanitic magma crystallized near the surface(pressure<91Mpa).The potential H2O content of this magma is in the range2-4wt.%.The initial composition of volcanic magmas varies regularly from early to late volcanic events.From the Middle Pleistocene to the recent eruptions(1719-1721yr.),the basicity of volcanic magma tends to increase,as reflected by an increase in MgO and CaO contents and by a progressive decrease in SiO2 and K2O contents.Meanwhile ,from early(Q2) to late(Q3) episodic eruptions of the Middle Pleistocene,the initial concentrations of chlorine in volcanic magmas range from 1430-1930 ppm to 1700 ppm and decrease to 700-970ppm for the first episodic eruption during the Holcene(Q41).The chlorine concentrations of vokanic magmas of recent eruption(Q42) are increased again to 2600-2870 ppm.A parallel evolution trend for phosphorus and chlorine concentrations in magmas has been certified:1500-5970ppm(Q2)→3500-4210ppm(Q3)→1100-3500ppm(Q41)→6800-7900ppm(Q42).The fluorine contents of volcanic magmas,from early to late volcanic events ,show the same trend:770-2470ppm→200-700ppm→700-800ppm.During the crystallization-evolution of volcanic magmas,fluorine and phosphorus tend to be enriched in residual magmas as a result of crystal-melt differentiation,for example,the fluorine contents reach 5000-6800ppm and the phosphorus contents,2.93wt.% in residual magmas.An appreciable amount of chlorine may be lost from water rich volcanic magmas prior to eruption as a result of degassing.Apparently,water serves as a gas carrier for the chlorine.The chlorine contents of residual magmas may decrease to 100-300ppm.The volcanic magmas from Wudalianchi are poor in sulfur,normally ranging from 200 to 400ppm .On account of the behavior of sulfur in magmas

  12. Distribution and Evolution of Volcanism of the Bolaven Plateau, Southern Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, J. S.; Sieh, K.; Wiwegwin, W.; Charusiri, P.; Singer, B. S.; Singsomboun, K.; Jicha, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Bolaven Plateau of southern Laos hosts a 6000 km2 basaltic volcanic complex erupted through flat-lying Mesozoic non-marine clastic sedimentary rocks. It is among the largest of dozens of isolated intracontinental Neogene-Quaternary volcanic centers in southeast Asia. The most voluminous flow sequences are tholeiitic, but a significant component of alkalic basalt is also present as morphologically younger cinder cones and related flows that cap the Plateau. Two salient aspects of the volcanic field are these: (1) Lava compositions appear to transition temporally from tholeiitic to alkaline, suggesting that the field tapped low-degree partial melts of a fresh mantle source toward the end of its lifespan. Circumstantial evidence for this can be found in abundant spinel lherzolite, wehrlite, and olivine websterite xenoliths within the alkaline basalts. (2) The volcanic center appears to have initiated atop a pre-existing 1000 m high, 90 km wide bedrock plateau, with nearly all visible vents confined to a 30-km wide zone that extends 80-km north to south. Our work on the Bolaven volcanic complex aims at establishment of a geochemical and temporal framework for its evolution. Using field relationships, petrologic and geochemical studies, and 40Ar/39Ar dating, we hope to unravel the genetic and age relationships of these compositionally varied lava sequences. Another objective of our investigation is to assess the possibility that lavas of the Bolaven might mask the heretofore undiscovered impact site of the Australasian tektite strewnfield (see Sieh et al, this meeting). Toward this aim, we will determine whether a sufficient expanse of the volcanic field is younger than the 0.8 Ma tektites. Finally, we intend to constrain the timing of incision of the Bolaven Plateau by the Mekong River and its tributaries.

  13. Magma evolution and ascent at the Craters of the Moon and neighboring volcanic fields, southern Idaho, USA: implications for the evolution of polygenetic and monogenetic volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putirka, Keith D.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Vaid, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of polygenetic and monogenetic volcanic fields must reflect differences in magma processing during ascent. To assess their evolution we use thermobarometry and geochemistry to evaluate ascent paths for neighboring, nearly coeval volcanic fields in the Snake River Plain, in south-central Idaho, derived from (1) dominantly Holocene polygenetic evolved lavas from the Craters of the Moon lava field (COME) and (2) Quaternary non-evolved, olivine tholeiites (NEOT) from nearby monogenetic volcanic fields. These data show that NEOT have high magmatic temperatures (1205 + or - 27 degrees C) and a narrow temperature range (50 degrees C). Prolonged storage of COME magmas allows them to evolve to higher 87Sr/86Sr and SiO2, and lower MgO and 143Nd/144Nd. Most importantly, ascent paths control evolution: NEOT often erupt near the axis of the plain where high-flux (Yellowstone-related), pre-Holocene magmatic activity replaces granitic middle crust with basaltic sills, resulting in a net increase in NEOT magma buoyancy. COME flows erupt off-axis, where felsic crustal lithologies sometimes remain intact, providing a barrier to ascent and a source for crustal contamination. A three-stage ascent process explains the entire range of erupted compositions. Stage 1 (40-20 km): picrites are transported to the middle crust, undergoing partial crystallization of olivine + or - clinopyroxene. COME magmas pass through unarmored conduits and assimilate 1% or less of ancient gabbroic crust having high Sr and 87Sr/86Sr and low SiO2. Stage 2 (20-10 km): magmas are stored within the middle crust, and evolve to moderate MgO (10%). NEOT magmas, reaching 10% MgO, are positively buoyant and migrate through the middle crust. COME magmas remain negatively buoyant and so crystallize further and assimilate middle crust. Stage 3 (15-0 km): final ascent and eruption occurs when volatile contents, increased by differentiation, are sufficient (1-2 wt % H2O) to provide magma buoyancy through the

  14. Volcanic and glacial evolution of Chachani-Nocarane complex (Southern Peru) deduced from the geomorphologic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Chachani-Nocarane (16°11'S; 71°31'W; 6.057 m asl) is a large volcanic complex located in the western Central-Andean Cordillera, South of Peru. The date of the last eruption is not known and there are no registers of recent volcanic activity. The complex is shaped by glacial forms belonging to different phases, and periglacial forms (several generations of rock glaciers) which alternate with volcanic forms. The aim of this research is to establish the glacio-volcanic evolution of the volcanic complex Chachani-Nocarane. In order to do so, a detailed 1:20.000 scale geomorphological map was elaborated by integrating the following techniques: interpretation of the 1:35.000 scale aerial photographs (Instituto Geográfico Nacional de Perú, 1956) and the analysis of satellite images (Mrsid; NASA, 2000). Finally, the cartography was corrected though field work campaigns. Through the geomorphologic analysis of the landforms and their relative position, we have identified twelve phases, seven volcanic and five glacial phases. The most ancient volcanic phase is locate to the north area of the study area and correspond with Nocarane and Chingana volcanoes, alignment NW-SE. Above those ensemble the rest of the large delimited geomorphological units overlap. The most recent is located to the SW and consists of a complex series of domes, lava cones and voluminous lavas. Within the glacial phases, the most ancient one is related to the Last Glacial Maximum during the Pleistocene. Over this period, glaciers formed moraines from 3150 to 3600 m asl. The most recent glacier pulsation corresponds to the Little Ice Age (LIA). The moraines related to that event are the closest to the summits, located between 5.100 and 5.300 m asl, and they represent the last trace of glacial activity on the volcanic complex. Currently, this tropical mountain does not have glaciers. The only solid-state water reserves are found in the form of permafrost, as shown by various generations of rock

  15. A record of igneous evolution in Elysium, a major martian volcanic province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, David; Karunatillake, Suniti; Kodikara, Gayantha; Skok, J R; Wray, James; Heldmann, Jennifer; Cousin, Agnes; Judice, Taylor

    2017-02-24

    A major knowledge gap exists on how eruptive compositions of a single martian volcanic province change over time. Here we seek to fill that gap by assessing the compositional evolution of Elysium, a major martian volcanic province. A unique geochemical signature overlaps with the southeastern flows of this volcano, which provides the context for this study of variability of martian magmatism. The southeastern lava fields of Elysium Planitia show distinct chemistry in the shallow subsurface (down to several decimeters) relative to the rest of the martian mid-to-low latitudes (average crust) and flows in northwest Elysium. By impact crater counting chronology we estimated the age of the southeastern province to be 0.85 ± 0.08 Ga younger than the northwestern fields. This study of the geochemical and temporal differences between the NW and SE Elysium lava fields is the first to demonstrate compositional variation within a single volcanic province on Mars. We interpret the geochemical and temporal differences between the SE and NW lava fields to be consistent with primary magmatic processes, such as mantle heterogeneity or change in depth of melt formation within the martian mantle due to crustal loading.

  16. Inception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2016-01-01

    The paper uses H.P. Grice’s concept of conversational implicature, and concepts based on Gricean thinking, in a rhetorical analysis of several passages in President George W. Bush’s speeches prior to the invasion of Iraq. It is suggested that the passages in question, along with many others, were...... apt to suggest to audiences something that Bush never asserted and ostensibly denied, namely that he believed Saddam Hussein to have been complicit in the 9/11 terrorist acts. Three types of suggestive mechanism are analyzed. They are offered as examples of rhetorical devices used in political...

  17. Volatile Evolution of Magma Associated with the Solchiaro Eruption in the Phlegrean Volcanic District (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R. J.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Fedele, L.; Shimizu, N.; Hunter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Phlegrean volcanic district (PVD) in southern Italy is one of the best known volcanic hazard areas in the world. More than 1.5 million people live in close proximity to the volcanic centers. The PVD comprises three volcanic fields: the Campi Flegrei caldera and the islands of Ischia and Procida. We studied volatiles plus major and trace elements in the magma associated with the Solchiaro eruption on the Island of Procida, Italy, to gain a better understanding of the relationship between pre-eruptive volatiles and magmatic evolution. The Solchiaro eruption is one of the more primitive products erupted in the PVD and provides information on the source of later more evolved magmas associated with this volcanic system. The composition of the magma before eruption was determined by analyzing 104 melt inclusions (MIs) in forsteritic olivine, glass embayment plus rim glasses, and high vesciculated glasses selected from 4 representative samples. The composition of MIs was recalculated and ranges from basaltic to trachy-basaltic. Among major elements potassium shows the highest variability, from 0.5 to 6 wt%. MI define a continuous trend based on major and minor element compositions. Embayments matrix glass and high vesciculated glasses define a field that suggests a discontinuous process. Compatible to incompatible trace element ratios in early melts are highly variable and represent the melt phase before or at the very beginning of assimilation-fractional crystallization (FCA) processes. Intermediate melt compositions reflect continuing FCA processes, late melt compositions suggest that the FCA process was aborted before eruption. Volatile contents of early melt are highly variable and reflect source heterogeneities, and the melts are interpreted to be undersaturated. Intermediate melts were volatile saturated and H2O-CO2 contents define a degassing path. Depths of trapping of MI range from 4.4 to 2.2 km, and are calculated based on Newman and Lowenstern (2002) and

  18. Morphodynamics of submarine channel inception revealed by new experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.

    2016-03-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.

  19. Geochemistry of Mesoproterozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Western Kunlun Mountains:Evidence for Plate Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuanlin; DONG Yongguan; ZHAO Yu; WANG Aiguo; GUO Kunyi

    2003-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks occurring in the north of the western Kunlun Mountains can be divided into two groups. The first group (north belt) is an reversely-evolved bimodal series. Petrochemistry shows that the alkalinity of the rocks decreases from early to late: alkaline→calc-alkaline→tholeiite, and geochemistry proves that the volcanic rocks were formed in rifting tectonic systems. The sedimentary facies shows characteristics of back-arc basins. The second (south belt) group, which occurs to the south of Yutian-Minfeng-Cele, is composed of calc-alkaline island arc (basaltic) andesite and minor rhyolite. The space distribution, age and geochemistry of the two volcanite groups indicate that they were formed in a back-arc basin (the first group) and an island arc (the second group) respectively and indicate the plate evolution during the Mesoproterozoic. The orogeny took place at ~1.05 Ga, which was coeval with the Grenville orogeny. This study has provided important geological data for exploring the position of the Paleo-Tarim plate in the Rodinia super-continent.

  20. On the potential for lunar highlands Mg-suite extrusive volcanism and implications concerning crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prissel, Tabb C.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Parman, Stephen W.; Head, James W.

    2016-10-01

    The lunar magnesian-suite (Mg-suite) was produced during the earliest periods of magmatic activity on the Moon. Based on the cumulate textures of the samples and a lack of evidence for Mg-suite extrusives in both the sample and remote sensing databases, several petrogenetic models deduce a predominantly intrusive magmatic history for Mg-suite lithologies. Considering that ∼18% of the lunar surface is covered by mare basalt flows, which are substantially higher in density than estimated Mg-suite magmas (∼2900 versus ∼2700 kg/m3), the apparent absence of low-density Mg-suite volcanics is surprising. Were Mg-suite magmas predominantly intrusive, or have their extrusive equivalents been covered by subsequent impact ejecta and/or later stage volcanism? If Mg-suite magmas were predominantly intrusive, what prevented these melts from erupting? Or, if they are present as extrusives, what regions of the Moon are most likely to contain Mg-suite volcanic deposits? This study investigates buoyancy-driven ascent of Mg-suite parental melts and is motivated by recent measurements of crustal density from GRAIL. Mg-suite dunite, troctolite, and spinel anorthosite parental melts (2742, 2699, and 2648 kg/m3, respectively) are considered, all of which have much lower melt densities relative to mare basalts and picritic glasses. Mg-suite parental melts are more dense than most of the crust and would not be expected to buoyantly erupt. However, about 10% of the lunar crust is greater in density than Mg-suite melts. These areas are primarily within the nearside southern highlands and South Pole-Aitken (SP-A) basin. Mg-suite extrusions and/or shallow intrusions were possible within these regions, assuming crustal density structure at >4.1 Ga was similar to the present day crust. We review evidence for Mg-suite activity within both the southern highlands and SP-A and discuss the implications concerning crustal evolution as well as Mg-suite petrogenesis. Lower crustal densities

  1. Geomorphologic map and derived geomorphological evolution model of the Ampato volcanic complex (Southern Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´-15° 51´S, 73°W; 6.288 m asl) from a geomorphological perspective based on the analysis of landforms, both volcanic and derived from cold processes such as moraines and rock glaciers. In order to do so, a detailed 1:20.000 scale geomorphological map was elaborated by integrating the following techniques: the interpretation of the 1:35.000 scale aerial photographs (Instituto Geográfico Nacional de Perú, 1956) and the analysis of satellite images (Mrsid; NASA, 2000). The cartography was corrected through field work campaigns. A geomorphological cross-section traversing the map from North to South was elaborated in order facilitate the interpretation of the landforms. From the thorough analysis of the landforms represented in the geomorphological map and their relative position we have identified six main volcanic phases, mainly constructive but also, to a lesser extent, destructive (related with a Sant. Helens eruption), interspersed by five large glacial phases. From the three andesitic stratovolcanoes that form the complex (HualcaHualca, Sabancaya and Ampato) we suggest that the oldest of them is HualcaHualca representing the first step of the process over which the other units were placed. The most recent phase corresponds to the main cone of Sabancaya and its sets of domes and large lavas flows. Also we have detected a number of well-preserved vents on the Southern slope of volcano HualcaHualca close to the 1955 glacier tongues. Their presence is an evidence of recent volcanic activity in a volcano considered extinct. The glacial activity has been very active during the Quaternary on the Ampato Complex. The most ancient glacial phase is linked to the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene. During this event, the paleoglaciers descended down to 3650 m asl and builted moraines of 25- 30 m height. The most recent advance is related to the global event known as Little Ice Age (LIA

  2. Rhyolite magma evolution recorded in isotope and trace element composition of zircon from Halle Volcanic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, E.; Pietranik, A.; Breitkreuz, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Anczkiewicz, R.; Ehling, B.-C.

    2016-04-01

    Voluminous felsic volcanic magmas were formed in Central Europe at the Carboniferous/Permian boundary in numerous pull-apart basins; one of which is the Saale Basin, which holds the Halle Volcanic Complex (HVC), the focus of this study. The rhyolites in the HVC formed laccoliths and scarce lavas, and occur in two different textural types: fine and coarse porphyritic. Zircon isotope and trace element composition was analysed in four units, two per each textural type. Zircon from the different units shows similar ranges in εHf (- 4.1 to - 8.1) and δ18O values (6.51-8.26), indicating similar sources and evolution processes for texturally diverse rhyolites from the HVC. Scarce inherited zircon ranges from ~ 315 Ma to ~ 2100 Ma with the major groupings around 315-550 Ma. These ages are typical for Devonian arc magmatic activity (350-400 Ma) and Cadomian igneous rocks (500-600 Ma), which occur in the basement presently underlying the HVC. Therefore, the source of the rhyolites was multicomponent and probably represented by a basement composed of various crystalline rocks. Trace elements in zircon show similar distributions in all analysed samples, which is broadly consistent with zircon cores crystallizing in a less evolved magma undergoing limited fractional crystallization, whilst the zircon rims crystallized from a magma undergoing extensive fractional crystallization of major and accessory minerals. Interestingly, comparison of the zircon composition in HVC rhyolites and other rhyolites worldwide shows that the observed trends are similar in such rhyolites despite the values being different. This may suggest that most of the zircon in rhyolites crystallizes at a similar stage in the rhyolite magma evolution, from magmas undergoing extensive crystallization of major phases and apatite. The implication is that most of the zircon represents late stage crystallization, but also that antecrystic component may be present and preserve information on the development of

  3. Geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the evolution of volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Joseph P.

    The tectonic mechanisms producing Pliocene to active volcanism in eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) have been debated for decades. In order to assess mechanisms that produce volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, we evaluate the evolution of volcanism in eastern PNG using 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology and whole rock geochemistry. Active volcanism in southeastern Papua New Guinea occurs on the Papuan Peninsula (Mt. Lamington, Mt. Victory and Waiwa), in the Woodlark Rift (Dobu Island, SE Goodenough Island, and Western Fergusson Island), and in the Woodlark Basin. In the Woodlark Basin, seafloor spreading is active and decompression melting of the upper mantle is producing basaltic magmatism. However, the cause of Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift is controversial. Two hypotheses for the tectonic setting have been proposed to explain Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift: (1) southward subduction of Solomon Sea lithosphere beneath eastern PNG at the Trobriand Tough and (2) decompression melting of mantle, previously modified by subduction, as the lithosphere undergoes extension associated with the opening of the Woodlark Basin. A comparison of 40Ar/39Ar ages with high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations in primary magmas indicates that HFSE concentrations correlate with age in the Woodlark rift. These data support the hypothesis that Pliocene to active volcanism in the Woodlark Rise and D'Entrecasteaux Islands results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. The subduction zone geochemical signatures (negative HFSE anomalies) in Woodlark Rift lavas younger than 4 m.y. are a relict from older subduction beneath eastern Papua, likely in the middle Miocene. As the lithosphere is extended ahead of the tip of the westward propagating seafloor spreading center in the Woodlark Basin, the composition of volcanism is inherited from prior arc magmatism (via flux melting) and through time evolves toward magmatism associated with a rifting

  4. Post-Eocene volcanics of the Abazar district, Qazvin, Iran: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiabanha, A.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Kananian, A.; Rahimi, G.

    2012-02-01

    The style of volcanism of post-Eocene volcanism in the Alborz zone of northern Iran is different to that of Eocene volcanism (Karaj Formation). Indeed, the volcanic succession of the Abazar district, located in a narrow volcanic strip within the Alborz magmatic assemblage, is characterized by distinct mineralogical and chemical compositions linked to a complex magmatic evolution. The succession was produced by explosive eruptions followed by effusive eruptions. Two main volcanic events are recognized: (1) a thin rhyolitic ignimbritic sheet underlain by a thicker lithic breccia, and (2) lava flows including shoshonite, latite, and andesite that overlie the first event across a reddish soil horizon. Plagioclase in shoshonite (An 48-92) shows normal zoning, whereas plagioclase in latite and andesite (An 48-75) has a similar composition but shows reverse and oscillatory zoning. QUILF temperature calculations for shoshonites and andesites yield temperatures of 1035 °C and 1029 °C, respectively. The geothermometers proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Holland and Blundy (1994) yield temperatures of 960 °C and 944 °C for latitic lava, respectively. The samples of volcanic rock show a typical geochemical signature of the continental arc regime, but the andesites clearly differ from the shoshonites, the latites and the rhyolites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these rocks are explained by the following petrogenesis: (1) intrusion of a hot, mantle-depth mafic (shoshonitic) magma, which differentiated in the magma chamber to produce a latitic and then a rhyolitic liquid; (2) rhyolitic ignimbritic eruptions from the top of the magma chamber, following by shoshonitic and then latitic extrusions; (3) magma mingling between the latitic and andesitic magmas, as indicated by the occurrence of andesite clasts within the latite; and (4) andesitic effusions. The youngest volcanic events in the Alborz zone show a close chemical relationship with continental arc

  5. The arc arises: The links between volcanic output, arc evolution and melt composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Philipp A.; Hamada, Morihisa; Arculus, Richard J.; Johnson, Kyle; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Subduction initiation is a key process for global plate tectonics. Individual lithologies developed during subduction initiation and arc inception have been identified in the trench wall of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc but a continuous record of this process has not previously been described. Here, we present results from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351 that drilled a single site west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a chain of extinct stratovolcanoes that represents the proto-IBM island arc, active for ∼25 Ma following subduction initiation. Site U1438 recovered 150 m of oceanic igneous basement and ∼1450 m of overlying sediments. The lower 1300 m of these sediments comprise volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits shed from the evolving KPR arc front. We separated fresh magmatic minerals from Site U1438 sediments, and analyzed 304 glass (formerly melt) inclusions, hosted by clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Compositions of glass inclusions preserve a temporal magmatic record of the juvenile island arc, complementary to the predominant mid-Miocene to recent activity determined from tephra layers recovered by drilling in the IBM forearc. The glass inclusions record the progressive transition of melt compositions dominated by an early 'calc-alkalic', high-Mg andesitic stage to a younger tholeiitic stage over a time period of 11 Ma. High-precision trace element analytical data record a simultaneously increasing influence of a deep subduction component (e.g., increase in Th vs. Nb, light rare earth element enrichment) and a more fertile mantle source (reflected in increased high field strength element abundances). This compositional change is accompanied by increased deposition rates of volcaniclastic sediments reflecting magmatic output and maturity of the arc. We conclude the 'calc-alkalic' stage of arc evolution may endure as long as mantle wedge sources are not mostly advected away from the zones of arc magma generation, or the rate of

  6. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  7. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model......The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years...

  8. Quaternary volcanic-sedimentary sequences and evolution of the Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza, Western Argentina) evidenced from geoelectric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Matias; Lopez, Ernesto; Osella, Ana; Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.

    2012-12-01

    Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza Province, Western Argentina) is a key area for investigating the regional evolution of a tectonic basin affected by intense arc- and back-arc volcanism. However, the lack of enough outcrops makes it difficult to perform such reconstructions. In order to solve this problem, and with the aim of depicting the subsurface stratigraphy, 22 geoelectric surveys reaching more than 100 m depth were performed. The applied methodology, that combined geoelectrical measurements and field observations, is a continuation of previous works carried out in the region, and allowed for the first time to establish a near-surface stratigraphy that records the last evolutive stages of the lake. The studied region is mainly composed of Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary sequences. Four units were recognized on the basis of the geoelectrical differences (resistivity signal) supported by field observations where they crop out. Two of them have very high resistivity and are composed of basaltic lava flows, hence indicating the volcanic influence in the region. The other two have very low resistivity and correspond to sedimentary deposits, being the uppermost one composed of lacustrine sediments. The units were named according to the well-known stratigraphic scheme valid for the region. The studied stratigraphic sequence encompasses the time-span from the Pliocene to the present, and its interpretation allowed to establish the main evolutive stages, characterized by a complex interaction among tectonic, volcanic and climatic factors. The damming of the lake by basaltic flows and the consequent reduction of the lake's extension at times of intensive volcanic activity is one of the most significant events in its evolution.

  9. Chemical evolution at the coasts of active volcanic islands in a primordial salty ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasdeit, H.; Fox, S.

    2008-09-01

    formula (CaCl2)3(Hala)2 · 6H2O. The coordination has a significant influence on the thermal behavior of the amino acids. It prevents them from subliming and forces them to undergo chemical reactions when heated. In fact, the hot-volcanic-coast scenario comprises not only the formation of solid sea salt-amino acid mixtures but also their subsequent exposure to higher temperatures. Chemical evolution I: from amino acids to pyrroles On heating to 350 °C in a slow stream of nitrogen gas, the solid salt-amino acid mixtures described above produced several methylated and ethylated pyrroles 1 (amino acid = rac-alanine, rac-valine, α-aminoisobutyric acid and rac-isovaline, respectively; see Fig. 1). The quantitative importance of this reaction in a prebiotic environment can be estimated as follows. During a volcanic eruption, more than 108 m3 of lava can enter the sea and evaporate the same volume of seawater [4]. Assuming that (i) the amino acid concentration in the upper ocean layer was 0.3 mmol/L [9], and (ii) only 10 mol-% of the amino acids formed pyrroles, we calculate from our experimental chemical yield that ca. 103 kg of pyrroles could have been formed in a single volcanic eruption. Thus, over long periods of time, large amounts of alkylpyrroles may have accumulated. Alkylpyrroles are thermally quite stable and easily evaporate at higher temperatures. Therefore they must have escaped from the very hot places of their formation and condensed at cooler ones. Chemical evolution II: oligomerization of pyrroles Another interesting aspect of the hot-volcanic-coast scenario is the formation of hydrogen chloride (HCl) when lava flows into the ocean and decomposes the sea salt component MgCl2 · 6H2O [4]. It is known that HCl catalyzes the reaction between pyrrole and aldehydes, for example formaldehyde, in water. Formaldehyde is regarded as a prebiotic molecule [10]. We therefore studied the reaction of kryptopyrrole 2 with formaldehyde in HCl-containing artificial seawater

  10. Genesis and evolution of the Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, L.; Macías, J. L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Arce, J. L.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Saucedo, R.; Avellán, D. R.; Rangel, E.; Layer, P. W.; López-Loera, H.; Rocha, V. S.; Cisneros, G.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Jiménez, A.; Benowitz, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex (CPVC), located in northwestern Mexico, is the only surface manifestation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, the third largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. This geothermal field and the Salton Sea in the USA sit in a pull-apart basin that belongs to the trans-tensional tectonic zone that includes the San Andreas Fault system and the Salton Trough basin to the NW and the East Pacific Rise to the SE. In spite of its strategic importance in the generation of geothermal energy, the origin of Cerro Prieto and its relationship with the geothermal reservoir were unknown. In this contribution, we discuss the origin, evolution, and mechanisms of formation of this small monogenetic volcano and the magmas that fed the system. The volcanic complex is located on top of the Cerro Prieto left lateral fault to the northwest of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The complex consists of a lava cone and a series of domes (˜0.15 km3) protruding from Tertiary sandstones and recent unconsolidated sediments of the alluvial plain of the Colorado River. The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex consists of seven stratigraphic units emplaced in a brief time span around 78-81 ka. Its activity began with the extrusion of a dacitic lava that came into contact with water-saturated sediments, causing brecciation of the lava. The activity continued with the emplacement of dacitic domes and a dyke that were destroyed by a phreatic explosion emplacing a lithic-rich breccia. This phreatic explosion formed a 300-m-wide and 40-m-deep circular crater. The activity then migrated ˜650 m to the SW where three dacitic lava domes were extruded and ended with the emplacement of a fissure-fed lava flow. Subsequent remobilization of the rocks in the complex has generated debris and hyperconcentrated flow deposits interbedded with fluviatile sediments in the surrounding terrain. All rocks of the CPVC are dacites with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe

  11. ST-HASSET for volcanic hazard assessment: A Python tool for evaluating the evolution of unrest indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Short-term hazard assessment is an important part of the volcanic management cycle, above all at the onset of an episode of volcanic agitation (unrest). For this reason, one of the main tasks of modern volcanology is to use monitoring data to identify and analyse precursory signals and so determine where and when an eruption might occur. This work follows from Sobradelo and Martí [Short-term volcanic hazard assessment through Bayesian inference: retrospective application to the Pinatubo 1991 volcanic crisis. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 290, 111, 2015] who defined the principle for a new methodology for conducting short-term hazard assessment in unrest volcanoes. Using the same case study, the eruption on Pinatubo (15 June 1991), this work introduces a new free Python tool, ST-HASSET, for implementing Sobradelo and Martí (2015) methodology in the time evolution of unrest indicators in the volcanic short-term hazard assessment. Moreover, this tool is designed for complementing long-term hazard assessment with continuous monitoring data when the volcano goes into unrest. It is based on Bayesian inference and transforms different pre-eruptive monitoring parameters into a common probabilistic scale for comparison among unrest episodes from the same volcano or from similar ones. This allows identifying common pre-eruptive behaviours and patterns. ST-HASSET is especially designed to assist experts and decision makers as a crisis unfolds, and allows detecting sudden changes in the activity of a volcano. Therefore, it makes an important contribution to the analysis and interpretation of relevant data for understanding the evolution of volcanic unrest.

  12. Evolution of the Plumbing System Beneath a Primitive Cinder Cone: Volcan Jorullo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E.; Wallace, P.; Cashman, K.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2006-12-01

    Detailed studies of the explosive products of monogenetic cinder cones can provide insight into the evolution of the plumbing systems beneath these volcanoes. We have studied tephra deposits from the 1759-1774 eruption of Volcan Jorullo in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The lava from Jorullo evolved during the eruption from primitive basalts to basaltic andesites (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). In addition to lava flows, Jorullo erupted explosively, depositing a thick blanket of tephra and ash. We analyzed melt inclusions and their olivine hosts from two thick proximal ash fall sequences. Olivine are abundant as loose crystals in the tephra and their compositions evolve from the base (Fo88-91 cores) to the top (Fo84-87 cores) of the tephra sequence. Crystallization pressures for olivine, obtained from the concentration of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions, decreased from early (50-4200 bars) to late (40-100 bars) in the eruption. The early erupted olivine crystallized over a much wider range in pressures, and interestingly, the most Fo-rich olivine (Fo90- 91) crystallized at the shallowest depths (~50 bars pressure) beneath the volcano, requiring rapid ascent rates of primitive melts. Olivine zoning profiles allow us to calculate crystal residence times, which increase from the early (~1-45 days) to late (~12-225 days) stages of the eruption. This increase in residence time, combined with the decrease in crystallization depth over time, suggest the formation of a shallow reservoir beneath the volcano as the eruption progressed. Formation of a shallow reservoir of degassed magma in which plagioclase and minor augite fractionation occurred together with assimilation of granitic wall rock is consistent with the temporal changes in lava flow and melt inclusion compositions. While the olivine and melt inclusion compositions evolve throughout our tephra section, we never see the most evolved values present in the lava flows. Although this may be the result of erosion of the

  13. Geochronology and magmatic evolution of the Dieng Volcanic Complex, Central Java, Indonesia and their relationships to geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijoko, Agung; Uruma, Ryusuke; Wibowo, Haryo Edi; Setijadji, Lucas Doni; Imai, Akira; Yonezu, Kotaro; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed new radiometric dating and petrological data of DVC in an attempt to reconstruct volcanic history as groundwork to understand magmatic temporal and spatial evolution. The magma of DVC can be divided on the basis of mineral composition into three types: olivine bearing basalt-basaltic andesite, pyroxene basaltic andesite-andesite, and biotite andesite-dacite, which coincide with three volcanic episodes of DVC: pre-caldera, second, and youngest episode, respectively. The pre-caldera episode was active no later than 1 Ma, the second episode occurred between 0.3 and 0.4 Ma, and the youngest occurred after 0.27 Ma. Plots of CaO, K2O, Al2O3, and Rb/Sr against FeO*/MgO and/or MgO suggest that each volcanic episode has distinct differentiation trends, indicating the presence of multiple shallow magma chambers. The close spatial relationship between the geothermal manifestation, geophysical anomalies, geothermal production zones and volcanic edifices supports the presence of multiple shallow magma chambers beneath DVC, which act as a heat source for the existing geothermal system.

  14. K—Ar Geochronology and Evolution of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Eastrn China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧芬; 杨学昌; 等

    1989-01-01

    Cenozoic volcanic rocks widespread in eastern China constitute an important part of the circum-Pacific volcanic belt.This paper presents more than 150K-Ar dates and a great deal of petrochemical analysis data from the Cenozoic volcanic rocks distributed in Tengchong,China's southeast coast,Shandong,Hebei,Nei Monggol and Northeast China.An integrated study shows that ubiquitous but uneven volcanic activities prevailed from the Eogene to the Holocene,characterized as being multi-eqisodic and multicycled.For example,in the Paleocene(67-58Ma),Eocene(57-37.5Ma),Miocene(22-18,16-19Ma),Pliocene(8-3Ma),and Early Pleistocene-Middle Pleistocene(1.2-0.5Ma) there were upsurges of volcanism,while in the Oligocene there was a repose period.In space,the older Eogene volcanic rocks are distributed within the region or in the central part of the NE-NNE-striking fault depression,while the younger Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are distributed in the eastern and western parts.Petrologically,they belong essentially to tholeiite-series and alkali-series basalts,with alkalinity in the rocks increasing from old to youg.The above regularities are controlled by both global plate movement and regional inherent tectonic pattern.

  15. The 2010 Eyja eruption evolution by using IR satellite sensors measurements: retrieval comparison and insights into explosive volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Scollo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 April-May Eyja eruption caused an unprecedented disruption to economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, many European airports were in fact closed causing millions of passengers to be stranded, and with a worldwide airline industry loss estimated of about 2.5 billion Euros. Both security and economical issues require robust and affordable volcanic cloud retrievals that may be really improved through the intercomparison among different remote sensing instruments. In this work the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) measurements of different polar and geostationary satellites instruments as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), have been used to retrieve the volcanic ash and SO2 in the entire eruption period over Iceland. The ash retrievals (mass, AOD and effective radius) have been carried out by means of the split window BTD technique using the channels centered around 11 and 12 micron. The least square fit procedure is used for the SO2 retrieval by using the 7.3 and 8.7 micron channels. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT) needed for both the ash and SO2 column abundance retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. Further, the volcanic plume column altitude and ash density have been computed and compared, when available, with ground observations. The results coming from the retrieval of different IR sensors show a good agreement over the entire eruption period. The column height, the volcanic ash and the SO2 emission trend confirm the indentified different phases occurred during the Eyja eruption. We remark that the retrieved volcanic plume evolution can give important insights into eruptive dynamics during long-lived explosive activity.

  16. The Thermal Evolution of Mercury and the Implications for Volcanism, Topography and Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convenction and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm. Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formes relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200 km to 300 km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by a numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding there spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder but not less numerous. The hot upwellings cause pressure released melting at least in the early stages of the evolution. Due to the more or less uniform distribution of plumes the regions of partial melt are also homogeneously distributed. This would be consistent with observations of evidences for volcanic material at the hermean surface by the MESSENGER spacecraft. The upwelling plumes also deform the surface and the resulting dynamic topography causes gravity anomalies. A global mapping of the entire planet including topography and geoid will therefore help drawing conclusions on the interior dynamics.

  17. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  18. New radiometric and petrological constraints on the evolution of the Pichincha volcanic complex (Ecuador)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Fornari, Michel; Mothes, Patricia; van der Plicht, Johannes; Stix, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fieldwork, radiometric ((40)Ar/(39)Ar and (14)C) ages and whole-rock geochemistry allow a reconstruction of eruptive stages at the active, mainly dacitic, Pichincha Volcanic Complex (PVC), whose eruptions have repeatedly threatened Quito, most recently from 1999 to 2001. After the emplacement of bas

  19. New radiometric and petrological constraints on the evolution of the Pichincha volcanic complex (Ecuador)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Fornari, Michel; Mothes, Patricia; van der Plicht, Johannes; Stix, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fieldwork, radiometric ((40)Ar/(39)Ar and (14)C) ages and whole-rock geochemistry allow a reconstruction of eruptive stages at the active, mainly dacitic, Pichincha Volcanic Complex (PVC), whose eruptions have repeatedly threatened Quito, most recently from 1999 to 2001. After the emplacement of bas

  20. How can a glacial inception be predicted?

    CERN Document Server

    Crucifix, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis considers that greenhouse gas concentrations should have declined during the Holocene in absence of humankind activity, leading to glacial inception around the present. It partly relies on the fact that present levels of northern summer incoming solar radiation are close to those that, in the past, preceded a glacial inception phenomenon, associated to declines in greenhouse gas concentrations. However, experiments with various numerical models of glacial cycles show that next glacial inception may still be delayed by several ten thousands of years, even with the assumption of greenhouse gas concentration declines during the Holocene. Furthermore, as we show here, conceptual models designed to capture the gross dynamics of the climate system as a whole suggest also that small disturbances may sometimes cause substantial delays in glacial events, causing a fair level of unpredictability on ice age dynamics. This suggests the need of a validated mathematical description of the...

  1. Forearc Deformation, Arc Volcanism, and Landscape Evolution near the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Fisher, D.; Gardner, T.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    New geologic mapping in SE Costa Rica and SW Panama reveals a system of structures and landscape features that are actively propagating with the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean Triple Junction. The triple junction migrates to the SE at ~50 km/my, so the upper plate inboard of the Nazca plate experiences a rapid change from steep, slow subduction of the Nazca plate to shallow, rapid subduction of the Cocos plate. High plate boundary coupling for ~100 km NW of the triple junction has led to the development of the Fila Costena Thrust Belt. Balanced cross-sections indicate that shortening rates are highest near the center of the thrust belt, and decrease to the SE nearest the triple junction, where the thrust belt abruptly terminates. Right lateral tear faults cut the thrusts of the Fila Costena and allow for a sharp gradient in upper plate shortening above the subducted projection of the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ), or the Cocos-Nazca boundary. East of the triple junction, a ridge exposes a fault-related anticline that may represent the incipient propagation of the Fila Costena into Panama. The volcanic arc is active just to the east of the onland projection of the subducting PFZ (e.g., Volcan Baru), with the extinct Talamanca arc lying to the west of this projection. Lahar fans on the slopes of the active Volcan Baru are analogous to the backtilted lahars now restricted to the rear of the Fila Costena. The spatial and temporal distribution of arc volcanism is consistent with a mantle wedge restricted to the east of the PFZ that migrates eastward with the triple junction. The Rio Chiriqui drainage system is currently the only river that carries arc volcanics to the eastern thrust front. The river skirts the southeast edge of the thrust belt and is inset into lahar fans on the slopes of Volcan Baru. Uplifted Quaternary fluvial terraces, located several kilometers west from the current drainage system, are offset at the thrust front by about 100-150 m. Andesite clasts in these

  2. Cenozoic volcanism and lithospheric tectonic evolution in Qiangtang area, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Xiaoguo; LI Cai; JIN Wei

    2005-01-01

    Following the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the Cenozoic volcanic activities are rather frequent in the Qiangtang area of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They can be divided into four series: alkaline basalt series, high-K calc-alkaline series, shoshonitic series and peralkaline potassic-ultrapotassic series. Geochemical data suggest that the magma sources of Cenozoic volcanic rocks have transferred from spinel Iherzolite mantle in the early stage to garnet peridotite enriched mantle (EM2) in the later stage. The high Mg# number and extremely high Cr-Ni-Co abundance of high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series andesites in the Qiangtang area indicate that the primary magma might be derived from subduction of continent lithosphere from the Lhasa block. Incompatible element ratios of La/Rb, Zr/Rb, Rb/Nb, K/Nb,Pb/La and K/La of peralkaline potassic-ultrapotassic series lavas in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are lower than island arc volcanic rocks and higher than and similar to oceanic island basalts. This signature indicates that the primary magma derive from a paleo-mantle wedge interfused by fluids derived from asthenosphere and/or subducted mantle lithosphere. But the above element ratios of ultrapotassic lavas in southern Tibet and ultrapotassic lamprophyres in eastern Tibet are higher than and similar to island arc volcanic rocks, which means that the primary magma sources contained a large quantity of crust contaminant from fluids and/or melts derived from subducted continent lithosphere. The studies result supports that the indian continental .lithosphere has underthrust beneath Tibet to about the middle of the plateau, and Eurasian (Qaidam basin) mantle lithosphere has underthrust beneath the Qiangtang area of northern Tibet Plateau. In the paper we demonstrate further that the pulsing cycles of potassic-ultrapotassic volcanism of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau result from an asthenospher pulsing upwelling caused by the intraplate subduction

  3. The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field: petrological diversity and implications for magmatic evolution of mafic volcanic centers from the northern Puna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maro, Guadalupe; Caffe, Pablo J.

    2016-07-01

    The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field (CBAF) is one of the two largest mafic volcanic fields in northern Puna (22-24° S) and is spatially and temporally associated with ignimbrites erupted from some central Andean Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex calderas. The CBAF comprises seven scoria cones and widespread high-K calcalkaline lava flows that cover an area of 200 km2. Although all erupted rocks have a relatively narrow chemical range (56-62 % SiO2, 3-6 % MgO), there is a broad diversity of mineral compositions and textures. The least evolved lavas (˜58-61 % SiO2) are high-Mg andesites with scarce (andesites (˜62 wt% SiO2), on the other hand, are porphyritic rocks with plagioclase + orthopyroxene + biotite and ubiquitous phenocryst disequilibrium textures. These magmas were likely stored in crustal reservoirs, where they experienced convection caused by mafic magma underplating, magma mixing, and/or assimilation. Trace element and mineral compositions of CBAF lavas provide evidence for complex evolution of distinct magma batches.

  4. Evolution of silicic volcanism following the transition to the modern High Cascades, Deschutes Formation, central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungard, D.; Kent, A. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the controls on silicic volcanism within convergent margin environments has important implications for crustal growth and modification during subduction. In the central Oregon Cascade range silicic volcanism has generally decreased in both size and frequency of eruptions over the last ~40 million years. Despite the general decrease, an increased abundance of silicic volcanism is observed from 5-8 Ma, corresponding to the transition from the Western Cascades to High Cascades volcanic regime. In order to constrain the processes that lead to formation of silicic magmas at this time we have studied the petrogenesis of two extensive and well-preserved ash-flow tuffs from this time period hosted within the Deschutes Formation of central Oregon. The Lower Bridge (LBT) and McKenzie Canyon Tuffs (MCT) produced ~5 km3 each of magma of predominantly rhyolitic and basaltic andesite composition. Both include large volumes of rhyolite, although the MCT also contains a significant mafic component. Both tuffs are normally zoned with mafic ejecta concentrated upsection. Geothermometry also shows that the rhyolitic component in both magmas was relatively hot (~830 degrees C). Distribution, thickness, welding facies, and paleoflow indications from imbricated pumice suggest that both eruptions derive from the same source region, probably near the present day Three Sisters complex, and were likely produced from the same magmatic system. Variations in major and trace element geochemistry also indicate that the magmas involved in both eruptions were produced through fractionation and mixing of mantle melts with a silicic partial melt derived from melting of mafic crust. Production of these voluminous silicic magmas required both crystal fractionation of incoming melts from the mantle, together with mixing with silicic partial melts derived from relatively hot mafic crust. This observation provides a potential explanation for the decrease in silicic melt production

  5. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  6. Human Impact on the Geomorphological Evolution of the Opak River Following the 2010 Large Volcanic Event of the Merapi (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gob, F.; Gautier, E.; Virmoux, C.; Grancher, D.; Tamisier, V.; Primanda, K. W.; Wibowo, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    During large eruptions, active volcanos may introduce very large quantities of sediment to the drainage system through tephra falls and pyroclastic flows, thus modifying the river system. Once remobilized, the sediment inputs propagate downstream as a sediment wave modifying the channel geometry of the river and reloading the sediment cascade of the catchments. Considering the extreme nature of the volcanic events, the parameters that control the post-eruption evolution of the river system are generally only described as natural and the role played by human activities seems negligible. Communities that live on the volcano slopes and foothills are rather considered to suffer from natural disasters associated with the eruption and its consequences (lahars, etc.) or take advantage of the benefits of the volcanic environment (rich soil, mining and geothermal resources, etc.). This study examines the impact of human influence on the fluvial readjustment of a Javanese river impacted by a major eruption of the Merapi volcano (Indonesia) in October/November 2010. The basin of the Opak River was subject to substantial sediment input related to massive pyroclastic deposits that were remobilized by numerous lahars during the year after the eruption. Two study sites were equipped in order to evaluate the morphodynamic evolution of the riverbed of the Opak River. Topographic surveys, bedload particle marking and suspended sediment sampling revealed an important sediment mobilization during efficient flash-floods. Surprisingly, no bed aggradation related to the progradation of a sediment wave was observed. Two years after the eruptive event, marked bed incision was observed. The Opak River readjustment differs from that of other fluvial systems affected by massive eruptions in two ways. Firstly, the local population massively extracted the sand and blocks injected by the eruption as they represent a valuable economic resource. Secondly, several dams trapped the major part of the

  7. Dynamics and Evolution of SO2 Gas Condensation Around Prometheus-like Volcanic Plumes on Io as Seen by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doute, S.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L. W.; Carlson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer data acquired during the I24, 25, and 27 Io's Fly-bys by Galileo are analyzed to map the SO2 frost abundance and granularity. This allows a better understanding of the dynamics and evolution of gas condensation around volcanic plumes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Fluvial dissection, isostatic uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Inmaculada; Silva, Pablo G.; Martín-Betancor, Moises; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco José; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, S.

    2008-11-01

    Digital analysis of torrential gullies ('barrancos') deeply incised into the volcanic Island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) allows us to extract the longitudinal profiles and pre-incision surfaces for individual basins, from which morphometric parameters (length, elevation, area, slope) have been calculated. Other derived parameters, such as ridgeline profiles, maximum incision values, volume removed by fluvial erosion, geophysical relief and isostatic uplift, have also been computed. Based on K/Ar ages for the island, well-constrained incision-uplift rates have been calculated by means of the combination of different methodological approaches commonly used in orogens and large mountain ranges. The geomorphological and morphometric analyses reveal that the island is clearly divided into four environmental quadrants determined by the combination of a couple of key-factors: the age of the volcanic surfaces and the climatic conditions. These factors determine a young sector covered with Plio-Quaternary platform-forming lavas (finished at 1.9-1.5 Ma) evolving under contrasting wet (NE) to dry (SE) climates, and an older sector, conserving the residual surfaces of the Miocene shield building (14.5-8.7 Ma) at the ridgelines, also subjected to wet (NW) and dry (SW) climates. Incision is related to the age zonation of the island. Maximum incisions (< 1200 m) are logically recorded in the older SW sector of the island, but incision rates are directly related to the climatic zonation, with maximum mean values in the wet Northern quadrants (0.18-0.12 mm/yr). The evaluation of the material removed by fluvial erosion for individual basins allows us to assess the consequent theoretical isostatic response in the different sectors of the island. The obtained uplift rates indicate that water availability (by drainage area and elevation) is a relevant controlling factor: the records from the wet Northern sectors show uplift values of between 0.09 and 0.03 mm/yr, whereas in the

  9. Glacial and volcanic evolution on Nevado Coropuna (Tropical Andes) based on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, J.; Palacios, D.; Vázquez-Selém, L.

    2012-04-01

    We have reconstructed the evolution of the paleo-glaciers of the volcanic complex Nevado Coropuna (15°S, 72°W; 6377 m asl) through the interpretation and dating of geomorphological evidences. Surface exposure dating (SED) based on the accumulation of 36Cl on the surface of moraine boulders, polished bedrock and lava flows allowed: 1) to confirm that the presence of ice masses in the region dates back to >80ka; 2) to produce chronologies of glacial and volcanic phases for the last ~21 ka; and 3) to obtain evidences of the reactivation of volcanic activity after the Last Glacial Maximum. Bromley et al. (2009) presented 3He SED ages of 21 ka for moraine boulders on the Mapa Mayo valley, to the North of Nevado Coropuna. Our 36Cl SED SED for moraine boulders from the valleys on the NE sector of the volcanic complex suggest a maximum initial advance between 20 and 16 ka, followed by another expansion of similar extent at 12-11 ka. On the Southern slope of Nevado Coropuna, the 36Cl ages show a maximum initial advance that reaches to the level of the Altiplano at 14 ka, and a re-advance at ~10-9 ka BP. Other data show minor re-advances at 9 ka on the Northern slope and at 6 ka to the South of the volcanic complex. These minor positive pulses interrupted a fast deglaciation process during the Holocene as shown by two series of 36Cl SED from polished rock surfaces on successively higher altitudes along the valleys of rivers Blanco and Cospanja, to the SW and SE. Despite the global warming occuring since 20 ka, deduced from the record of sea surface paleo-temperature of the Galapago Islands (Lea et al, 2006), the evolution of the fresh-water plankton from Lake Titicaca (Fritz et al, 2007) is consistent with sustained glacial conditions until 10-9 ka as suggested by the present work. Exposure ages of three lava flows indicate a reactivation of the magmatic system as the paleo-glaciers abandonned the slopes. The eruptive activity migrated from the West, where we found a lava

  10. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  11. Superhydrophobic resistance to dynamic freshwater biofouling inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K Ghokulla; Malm, Peter; Loth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanotextured surfaces have gained increased usage in various applications due to their non-wetting and self-cleaning abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate nanotextured surfaces with respect to their resistance to the inception of freshwater biofouling at transitional flow conditions. Several coatings were tested including industry standard polyurethane (PUR), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), capstone mixed polyurethane (PUR + CAP) and nanocomposite infused polyurethane (PUR + NC). Each surface was exposed to freshwater conditions in a lake at 4 m s(-1) for a duration of 45 min. The polyurethane exhibited the greatest fouling elements, in terms of both height and number of elements, with the superhydrophobic nanocomposite based polyurethane (PUR + NC) showing very little to no fouling. A correlation between the surface characteristics and the degree of fouling inception was observed.

  12. Temporal Evolution of a Seismic Swarm at Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The increasing seismic activity in the area of the Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located on the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto (OVSP), a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area, and more than 400.000 events have been recorded since November 2013. The largest and most recent swarm has a daily average of 3894 events between March and the 12th of December 2014. Currently a seismic network of 13 short- and broad-band stations (5 Colombian, 8 Ecuadorian) was deployed in this area. High quality epicenters of seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0, RMSChiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Fifteen events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 including an event that occurred on October 20, 2014. This event had a local magnitude of 5.7 and an oblique (strike-slip with some thrusting) focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. However, events with moderate to large magnitudes (above 3.0) contain pronounced very-long-period components. Position time series recorded by a dual-frequency GPS receiver at the SE flank of Chiles show a slight departure from the normal tectonic trend beginning with the appearance of the last seismic swarm on or around September 30, 2014. This trend is subsequently punctuated by a sharp deformation transient related to the coseismic displacement of the October 20 event. After more than a year of very anomalous seismic activity and concurrent minor deformation, no evidence of surficial volcanic activity has been documented.

  13. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  14. Quantitative Flow Morphology, Recent Volcanic Evolution and Future Activity of the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.; Pyle, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The fundamental importance of careful field investigation, and the long term value of detailed published volcanic eruption reports, means that much can be learned about eruption processes even many decades after an eruption has ceased. We illustrate this with reference to the young dacite lava flows of the Kameni islands, Santorini. We have created a new, high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) for the intra-caldera Kameni islands, Santorini, based on new data from a recent airborne laser-ranging (LiDAR) and aerial photography mission. This DEM reveals a wealth of surface morphological information on the dacite lava flows that comprise the Kameni islands. When combined with a re-analysis of contemporary eruption accounts, these data yield important insights into the physical properties and flow behaviour of dacite magma during slow effusive eruptions. Kameni island lava flows exhibit the classic surface morphologies associated with viscous aa: levees, and compression folds. Levee heights and flow widths are consistent with a Bingham rheology, and lava yield strengths of (3 to 7)× 104 Pa. Analysis of the shapes of flow edges confirms that the blocky aa dacite lava flows show a scale-invariant morphology with a typical fractal dimension that is indistinguishable from Hawaiian aa. Dome-growth rates during eruptions of the Kameni islands in 1866 and 1939 are consistent with a model of slow inflation of a dome with a strong crust. Lava domes on the Kameni islands have a crustal yield strength (4×107 Pa) that is lower by a factor of 2 to 4 than the domes at Pinatubo and Mount St Helens. The dome height model, combined with the apparent time-predictable nature of volcanic eruptions of the Kameni islands, allows us to predict that the next eruption of the Kameni islands will last for > 2.6 years (in 2005) and will involve formation of a dome ca. 115 to 123 m high.

  15. Time Evolution of the Basse Terre Island (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) Effusive Volcanism from New K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Mollex, D.; Komorowski, J. C.; Boudon, G.

    2004-12-01

    Radiometric dating and geochemistry of effusive volcanics have been combined with geomorphological observations in order to provide a general evolution model of the volcanic island of Basse Terre, Guadeloupe (French West Indies). More than forty new Cassignol-Gillot K-Ar ages distributed within the entire island, together with the twenty ages (Blanc, 1983; Carlut et al., 2000) previously obtained with the same technique, makes the Guadeloupe Island the best place to study the evolution of volcanic processes within the Lesser Antilles Arc. Dating was performed on the carefully separated groundmass in order to avoid K loss due to weathering and excess argon carried by mafic minerals. Ages obtained are relatively younger than previously thought on Basse Terre and range from a few ka to 2.79+-0.04 Ma. When available, the paleomagnetic polarity of the dated flows agree with the GPTS and a very good coherence of ages is observed for each massif. Our results demonstrate the general north to south migration of volcanism through time. It correlates with the main volcanic stages previously identified. The 2.75 Ma Basal Complex, the 1.81+-0.03 _ 1.15+-0.02 Ma Septentrional Chain, the 1.02+-0.02 Ma _ 0.606+-0.02 Ma Axial Chain, the 442+-6 _ 207+-28 ka Mateliane _ Sans Toucher Complex and the basaltic andesites and andesites although a few basalt and dacite have also been dated. All of them are characterized by low MgO values (geochemical characteristics similar to that of the central islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. Within Basse Terre, geochemical characteristics are relatively constant through time, indicating no major change of volcanic processes during the whole subaerial activity. Finally the detailed chronological framework now available provides new constraints for estimating rates of edification and destruction at the island scale and, more generally, to help better understand the evolution of the still active Guadeloupe island Soufriere volcano.

  16. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2016-07-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  17. Geodynamical evolution of Central Andes at 24°S as inferred by magma composition along the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro transversal volcanic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Mazzuoli, R.; Omarini, R.; Cas, R.; Maas, R.

    2002-11-01

    Miocene to Recent volcanism on the Puna plateau (Central Andes) developed in three geological settings: (a) volcanic arc in the Western Cordillera (Miocene-Recent); (b) trans-arc along the main NW-SE transverse fault systems (Miocene); and (c) back-arc, mainly monogenic volcanic centres (Pliocene-Quaternary). We have studied the evolution of the arc-trans-arc volcanism along one of the most extensive transverse structures of Central Andes, the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro, at 24°S. Compositional variations from arc to trans-arc volcanism provide insights into petrogenesis and magma source regions. Puntas Negras and Rincon volcanic centres are arc-type and have typical calc-alkaline geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics. East of the arc, lavas of the Tul-Tul, Del Medio and Pocitos complexes (TUMEPO) are heavy rare earth element-depleted and could be derived from 20-30% of partial melting of a lower crustal garnet-bearing metabasite. These liquids could be variably mixed with arc magmas at the base of the crust (MASH). This suggests important contributions from lower crustal sources to TUMEPO centres. Products at the Quevar and Aguas Calientes volcanic complexes to the east of TUMEPO show a prominent upper crustal signature (high 86Sr/ 87Sr, low 143Nd/ 144Nd) and could represent mixtures of 20-30% TUMEPO-type liquids with up to 70-80% of upper crustal melts. We propose a geodynamic model to explain geochemical variations for the arc-trans-arc transverse volcanism from the Upper Miocene to Recent. In our model, arc volcanism is linked to dehydration of the subducting Nazca plate, which produces typical calc-alkaline compositions. During the Upper Miocene (10-5 Ma), lithospheric evolution in the Puna plateau was dominated by thickening of ductile lower crust and thinning of the lithosphere. Lower crustal melting was promoted by concomitant asthenospheric upwelling and water release from the amphibolite-eclogite transformation, yielding TUMEPO magmas with lower

  18. Le Pico de Orizaba (Mexique): Structure et evolution d'un grand volcan andesitique complexe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C.; Cantagrel, J. M.

    1982-12-01

    Volcan Pico de Orizaba, which marks the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is one of the largest andesitic composite volcanoes in America. It is located above a series of crustal distensive faults making the boundary of the Coast Plains of the Gulf of Mexico from the Altiplano. For this reason, the volcano shows an asymmetry: from the west, its elevation is about 3,000 m whereas on the eastern side it reaches 4,000 to 4,500 m from its base. The Pico de Orizaba is composed of a primitive stratovolcano raised by a recent summit cone. It has been built by three very distinct volcanic and magmatic phases. 1. The first one, probably discontinuous effusive activity, lasted more than one million years. It is mainly composed of two pyroxenes-andesites with scarce associated basaltic and dacitic lava-flows. Amphibole is an accessory mineral in most differentiated lavas. On the eastern flank, numerous massive and autobrecciated lava-flows pass outward into thick conglomeratic formations. This effusive phase has built a primitive central volcano and a parasitic cone: the Sierra Negra. 2. The second phase is of short duration — about 100,000 years or less — in comparison with the first period. It seems that this period began with the formation of a caldera followed by the extrusion of amphibole dacite domes and the overflow of viscous silica-rich (andesite to dacite) lava flows on the northern flank. An intense explosive activity develops: pelean nuées ardentes are associated with extrusion of the domes; numerous plinian eruptions leading to widespread dacitic pumiceous air-falls are produced by both the central and the adventive volcanoes. This sequence of events is interpreted as the progressive emptying of a superficial chamber containing differenciated magma. A rhyolite flow erupted during this phase. 3. The age of the recent phase is better defined. It started 13,000 years B.P. with the eruption of a dacitic ash-flow containing pumice and scoria

  19. Slab Detachment, Flat Subduction and Slab Rollback in Central Mexico: Fitting the Neogene Evolution of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt into the History and Dynamics of Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, L.

    2001-12-01

    I present a comparative analysis of the volcanic record of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the plate tectonic history since 16 Ma in central Mexico that has important implications for the dynamic of the Cocos-Rivera subduction system. The TMVB volcanism has occurred in episodes characterized by across-arc and along strike variation and/or migration. In its first stage (16 to 10 Ma) the TMVB consisted of a broad andesitic arc emplaced between Long. 102° and 97° 30' (central Mexico). During this period volcanism was absent in the western and eastern TMVB. Between 11 and 6 Ma a voluminous mafic volcanism was emplaced to the northof the previous arc with ages progressively younger from west (Tepic-Guadalajara) to east (Queretaro-Hidalgo). Large calderas and silicic dome complexes developed in latest Miocene and early Pliocene (7.5 to 3.5 Ma) west of the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system (TSMA). East of the TSMA a volcanic gap is clearly observed between ~9 and 3.5 Ma. In the western TMVB small amount of lavas with an intra-plate affinity started to be emplaced since 5 Ma. At the same time the volcanic front migrated to the south by about 70 km. East of the TSMA volcanism resumed at about 3.5 Ma in the Mexico City region and at the end of Pliocene in the eastern TMVB (excluding the Palma Sola area). In the Toluca - Mexico City area the volcanic front migrated trenchward in the Quaternary. No southward migration of the volcanic front is observed in the eastern TMVB. The Middle Miocene volcanism represent a "normal" volcanic arc developed after a gap of ~15 Ma following the formation of the Acapulco trench. I propose that the following unusual volcanic evolution was controlled by the detachment of the deeper part of the Cocos slab and the resulting variation in slab inclination. Slab must have detached after 12.5 following the end of subduction off Baja California. This is a kinematic-dynamic requirement, also supported by the fact that the present

  20. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    New 40Ar/39Ar, major and trace element, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for the c. 24-7 Ma volcanic rocks from the Andean back-arc (35°S – 38°S) in the Mendoza and Neuquén (Argentina) regions shed light on the Miocene evolution of the back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone. Incipient shallowing...... lasting from ~17 to ~9 Ma. The reoccurrence of extensive magmatism in the Sierra de Palaoco provides evidence for a retreat of the shallow subduction zone towards the west during the Late Miocene. Evidence for the ending of the time of flat subduction comes from major- and trace element chemistry and Nd...

  1. Volcanic Evolution in the Galapagos: The Geochemistry and Petrology of Espanola Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M.; Varga, K. C.; Harpp, K. S.; Geist, D.; Hall, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago consists of a series of volcanic islands located ~1,000 km west of South America that are thought to be the result of a mantle plume. The southeasternmost island, Espanola, is one of the smallest of the major islands, measuring only 7 by 14 km and reaching an elevation of 200 m. Espanola is also the oldest island in the chain, with K-Ar dates from 3.01 ± 0.11 to 3.31 ± 0.36 million years (Hall et al. 1983; White et al., 1993). The southern coast is defined by cliffs that exceed 100 m in height, made up of nearly flat-lying lavas that are each several meters thick. The northern coastline consists of lavas that dip gently toward the ocean from the highlands, as well as remnants of eroded cinder cones. Paleomagnetic measurements made in the field indicate that the western half of the island is reversely polarized, whereas most lavas measured across the eastern half are normally polarized. Major element analyses of samples from across the island indicate that fractional crystallization is the dominant process controlling chemical variations in Espanola lavas, suggesting a relatively long-lived magmatic plumbing system. Stratigraphically constrained chemical variations suggest the magma chamber may have experienced periodic replenishment by compositionally homogeneous primitive melts. Variable fluid-mobile trace element concentrations provide some evidence for contributions from ancient, recycled oceanic crust to the parental melts. Espanola lavas have more depleted Sr and Pb radiogenic isotope ratios than either Floreana or Fernandina, and lie on a mixing curve between the composition of the plume and that of the depleted upper mantle. Between ~3 and 8 Ma, the Galapagos Spreading Center was closer to the Galapagos plume than it is today. Given that Espanola was constructed during the same period, the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that plume-ridge interaction may have been a strong influence on the island's geochemical composition.

  2. Volcanic evolution of central Basse-Terre Island revisited on the basis of new geochronology and geomorphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, J.; Quidelleur, X.; Lahitte, P.

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-six new and seven previous K-Ar ages obtained on groundmass separates for samples from the Axial Chain massif (Guadeloupe, F.W.I.), associated with geomorphological investigations, allow us to propose a new model of the volcanic evolution of the central part of Basse-Terre Island. The Axial Chain is composed of four edifices, Moustique, Matéliane, Capesterre, and Icaque mounts, showing coeval activity from 681 ± 12 to 509 ± 10 ka, which contradicts a previous hypothesis that flank collapse affected them successively. Our geomorphological reconstruction shows that the Axial Chain can be considered as a single large volcano, named the Southern Axial Chain volcano (SCA), rather than a succession of several smaller volcanoes. It raises questions regarding the formation of a large depression within the SCA volcano, prior to the construction of the Sans-Toucher volcano between 451 ± 13 and 412 ± 8 ka. Given presently available evidence, a slump affecting the western part of the SCA volcano is the most probable scenario to reconcile the complete age dataset and the present-day morphology of central Basse-Terre. Finally, our study shows that the SCA volcano had a post-activity volume of 90 km3, implying a construction rate of 0.5 km3/kyr. This value strongly constrains interpretations of magma generation processes throughout the Lesser Antilles arc.

  3. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year, and sensitivity to eruption season is quantified as the difference between the maximum and minimum cumulative anomalies.

    Eruption season has a significant influence on aerosol optical depth (AOD and clear-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~80 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to eruption season of the global mean all-sky SW anomalies is comparable to the sensitivity of global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies. Our estimates of sensitivity to eruption season

  4. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year. Sensitivity to eruption season of aerosol optical depth (AOD, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux is quantified by first integrating each field for four years after the eruption, then calculating for each cumulative field the absolute or percent difference between the maximum and minimum response from the four eruption seasons. Eruption season has a significant influence on AOD and clear-sky SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~75 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for Pinatubo-magnitude eruption, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to

  5. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  6. Heating dominated inception of pulsed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Ashutosh; Hundsdorfer, Willem; Ebert, Ute

    2016-09-01

    We simulate the inception of pulsed discharges with heating as the driving agent that leads to spark formation. To understand the phenomenon, we developed a 2D-cylindrically symmetric model that couples the electric discharge dynamics with the background gas dynamics. To capture the ion dynamics well, we reduced the classical drift-diffusion-reaction model of electric discharges to the timescale of ion motion. Additionally, we include secondary emission of electrons from the cathode. We employed the model to study electrical breakdown in air at STP conditions between planar electrodes under the application of pulsed voltages. Our model captures space-charge effects, thermal shocks and induced pressure waves. We observe a cycle of discharge pulses heating the gas and the thermal expansion helping the discharge. This cycle might either lead to spark formation or to discharge decay.

  7. A quantitative geomorphological approach to constraining the volcanic and tectonic evolution of the active Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphaël; Burnard, Peter; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Blard, Pierre-Henri; France, Lydéric; Dumont, Stéphanie; Grandin, Raphaël; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Benedetti, Lucilla; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn

    2013-04-01

    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is organised along rift segments that morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well-documented 2005 rifting event on the Dabbahu rift segment. This tectono-volcanic crisis was observed in detail via remote sensing techniques, providing invaluable information on the present-day tectonic - magmatic interplay during a sequence of dyke intrusions. However, lack of data remains on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of the rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He and 36Cl) to determine the ages of young (<100 kyr) lava flows and to date the initiation and movement of fault scarps, which cut the lavas. Where possible, we analysed vertical profiles along fault scarps, in an attempt to distinguish individual tectonic events that offset the scarp, estimate their amplitudes and date the recurrence intervals. These geochronological constraints, combined with major & trace element compositions, field mapping and digital mapping (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), provide valuable insights on the magmatic and tectonic history of the segment. The results show that over the last 100 ka, the northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by at least two different magma reservoirs, which can be identified from their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano at the northern tip of the rift segment, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. The second reservoir is located further south on the rift axis and corresponds to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. Two magmatic cycles linked to the Dabbahu magma chamber were recorded, lasting 20-30 kyr

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Jurassic volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif, northeast China: Petrogenesis and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Jie; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    The Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt played an important role in the tectonic evolution of northeast Asia during the Mesozoic. However, few studies have examined the influence of this tectonic belt on the geological evolution of northeast China. In this paper, we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, major and trace element geochemistry, and zircon Hf-O isotopic data for Early Jurassic volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif of northeast China, with the aim of constraining the evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt and its influence on the tectonic history of China during the Early Jurassic. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the trachybasalt and basaltic andesite in the study area were erupted between 193 ± 5 Ma and 181 ± 9 Ma (i.e., in the Early Jurassic). These Early Jurassic volcanic rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, as well as being depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements such as Nb and Ta. The rocks show a small negative Eu anomaly. The zircon εHf (182 Ma) values of the volcanic rocks range from - 1.9 to + 5.1, corresponding to TDM1 values of 640-901 Ma and TDM2 values of 901-1345 Ma. Zircons from two volcanic rocks yield δ18O values of 7.2‰ ± 1.5‰ (n = 19) and 6.6‰ ± 0.7‰ (n = 35). Geochemically, these Early Jurassic volcanic rocks are similar to those from active continental margin settings, and their primary magmas could have been derived from the partial melting of a lithospheric mantle wedge modified by fluid from a subducted slab. The discovery of Early Jurassic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif, together with the coeval porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, indicates that an active continental margin existed in the Erguna area during the Early Jurassic. Taken together, we conclude that southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate took place beneath the Erguna Massif during the Early Jurassic.

  9. Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous high-K volcanics in the southern Part of the Eastern Pontides: Implications for Mesozoic Geodynamic Evolution of NE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt is one of the most complex geodynamic settings in the Alpine-Mediterranean region. Its geodynamic evolution is very controversial due to lack of systematic, quantitative structural, geochemical and geochronological data. This belt is divided into three subgroups: northern, southern and axial zones, distinguished from north to south by different lithological units, facies changes and tectonic characteristics. Especially, the southern zone is very attractive with its numerous rock associations such as alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions, shoshonitic and ultrapotassic volcanics, adakitic magmatics, glaucophane-bearing gabbros, metamorphic and ultramafic massifes. This study focuses on the petrology, geotectonic setting and evidence for subduction polarity of the Upper Cretaceous shoshonitic and ultrapotassic volcanics exposed in the most southerly part of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc. Geological, geochemical and isotopic data indicate that there were two distinct cycles of high-K volcanic activity in the southern part of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc during the Late Cretaceous. The first cycle (Early Campanian), represented by shoshonitic trachyandesites and associated pyroclastics, containing high K2O (2.74-4.81 wt %) and Na2O (3.60-5.51 wt %), overlies the Middle-Cretaceous ophiolitic-olistostromal melange formed during the rifting stage of a back-arc basin (Neotethys). The second cycle of high-K volcanism is characterized by potassic or ultrapotassic analcime-bearing volcanics, erupted in a lagoonal environment during the Maastrichtian. Progressive shallowing of the basin indicates that Upper Cretaceous high-K volcanism developed during the final stage of pull-apart basin development in the southern zone of the eastern Pontides. These volcanic rocks, intercalated with continental detritus, are characterized by high Na2O (3.22-7.16 wt %) concentrated in secondary analcime crystals. Their K2O contents also range between 0

  10. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  11. Supracrustal rocks in the Kuovila area, Southern Finland: structural evolution, geochemical characteristics and the age of volcanism

    OpenAIRE

    Pietari Skyttä; Asko Käpyaho; Irmeli Mänttäri

    2005-01-01

    The supracrustal rocks of the Kuovila area in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, southern Finland, consist mainly of volcaniclastic rocks associated with banded iron formations (BIFs) and marbles. Small ZnS and PbS mineralizations are occasionally located within the marbles. Some primary features are well preserved in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks, including lamination in tuffites and banded iron formations. Geochemical results show that the volcanism was bimodal and it mai...

  12. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  13. Transition from alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanism during evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon (Western Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéblemont, Denis; Bouton, Pascal; Préat, Alain; Goujou, Jean-Christian; Tegyey, Monique; Weber, Francis; Ebang Obiang, Michel; Joron, Jean Louis; Treuil, Michel

    2014-11-01

    We report new geochemical data for the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks associated with the evolution of the Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon during Paleoproterozoic times (c. 2.1-2 Ga). Filling of this basin has proceeded through four main sedimentary or volcano-sedimentary episodes, namely FA, FB, FC and FD. Volcanism started during the FB episode being present only in the northern part of the basin (Okondja sub-basin). This volcanism is ultramafic to trachytic in composition and displays a rather constant alkaline geochemical signature. This signature is typical of a within-plate environment, consistent with the rift-setting generally postulated for the Francevillian basin during the FB period. Following FB, the FC unit is 10-20 m-thick silicic horizon (jasper) attesting for a massive input of silica in the basin. Following FC, the FD unit is a c. 200-400 m-thick volcano-sedimentary sequence including felsic tuffs and epiclastic rocks. The geochemical signatures of these rocks are totally distinct from those of the FB alkaline lavas. High Th/Ta and La/Ta ratios attest for a calc-alkaline signature and slight fractionation between heavy rare-earth suggests melting at a rather low pressure. Such characteristics are comparable to those of felsic lavas associated with the Taupo zone of New Zealand, a modern ensialic back-arc basin. Following FD, the FE detrital unit is defined only in the Okondja region, probably associated with a late-stage collapse of the northern part of the basin. It is suggested that the alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanic transition reflects the evolution of the Francevillian basin from a diverging to a converging setting, in response to the onset of converging movements in the Eburnean Belt of Central Africa.

  14. The Volatile Element Evolution of Intra-plate Alkaline Rocks as Recorded by Apatite: An Example from the Hegau Volcanic Field (Southwest Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Der Handt, A.; Rahn, M. K. W.; Wang, L. X.; Marks, M. A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The role of volatiles in the petrogenesis of alkaline intra-plate magmas has been the subject of an increasing number of experimental studies. The study of naturally occurring rocks and their volatile contents is often complicated by syn- and post-eruptive degassing and alteration processes. Minerals that incorporate volatiles into their structure such as apatites are often more faithful recorders of the pre-eruptive volatile budget. The Hegau volcanic field in Southwest Germany is part of the Central European Volcanic Province, lies around 60-70 km to the east of the Upper Rhine graben and of Miocene age. Three main lithological units can be distinguished (1) olivine melilites (2) phonolites and (3) the "Deckentuff" series referring to a series of diatreme-filling pipe breccias and lapilli tuff layers. Carbonatites occur subordinately in the Hegau province. Earlier radiometric age dating suggested distinct phases of volcanic activity of Deckentuffs, melilites and phonolites with little overlap, but new apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He age data suggest a synchronous activity. Apatite is an abundant accessory phase in the Deckentuff and phonolite series and we investigated its major, trace and volatile element composition by EPMA, SIMS and cathodoluminescence imaging. Pronounced core-rim zoning of apatite in places attests that diffusional equilibration was very limited and they likely retained their primary compositions. This allows us to trace the entire magmatic evolution of the Hegau province from its most primitive to most evolved products as well as resolve it in time by combining age dating with compositional analysis. Apatite compositions fall along the OH-F join with low Cl-contents (<0.5 wt%). Volatile contents (Cl, OH, S) are highest in most primitive compositions and decrease with further evolution while F increases. Multiple magmatic cycles can be discerned with a general trend to the more evolved phonolite compositions toward the end of volcanic

  15. Inception and evolution of Oklo natural nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentridi, Salah-Eddine; Gall, Benoît; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Seghour, Abdeslam; Medjadi, Djamel-Eddine

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of more than 15 natural nuclear Reactor Zones (RZ) in a geological environment remains a mystery even 40 years after their discovery. The present work gives for the first time an explanation of the chemical and physical processes that caused the start-up of the fission reactions with two opposite processes, uranium enrichments and progressive impoverishment in 235U. Based on Monte-Carlo neutronics simulations, a solution space was defined taking into account realistic combinations of relevant parameters acting on geological conditions and neutron transport physics. This study explains criticality occurrence, operation, expansion and end of life conditions of Oklo natural nuclear reactors, from the smallest to the biggest ones.

  16. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century, geologist Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., argued that, to fully understand volcanic and associated hazards, the expeditionary mode of studying eruptions only after they occurred was inadequate. Instead, he fervently advocated the use of permanent observatories to record and measure volcanic phenomena—at and below the surface—before, during, and after eruptions to obtain the basic scientific information needed to protect people and property from volcanic hazards. With the crucial early help of American volcanologist Frank Alvord Perret and the Hawaiian business community, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established in 1912, and Jaggar’s vision became reality. From its inception, HVO’s mission has centered on several goals: (1) measuring and documenting the seismic, eruptive, and geodetic processes of active Hawaiian volcanoes (principally Kīlauea and Mauna Loa); (2) geological mapping and dating of deposits to reconstruct volcanic histories, understand island evolution, and determine eruptive frequencies and volcanic hazards; (3) systematically collecting eruptive products, including gases, for laboratory analysis; and (4) widely disseminating observatory-acquired data and analysis, reports, and hazard warnings to the global scientific community, emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public. The long-term focus on these goals by HVO scientists, in collaboration with investigators from many other organizations, continues to fulfill Jaggar’s career-long vision of reducing risks from volcanic and earthquake hazards across the globe.

  17. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  18. Composition, structure, origin, and evolution of off-axis linear volcanic structures of the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the conditions and mechanisms of the formation of linear volcanic structures in the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic. Among these objects, those related to the ascent of deep mantle plumes predominate. It is shown that the ascent of melts from plume sources leads to the formation of (a) hot spot tracks in the form of linear volcanic ridges and (b) active hot lines in the form of submarine mountain chains with trends differing from those of hot spot tracks and with a more variable character of the age distribution of volcanic rocks. Fault tectonics affects the character of plume activity. In addition, plume material from a hot spot area is dragged by a moving plate as a flow or a sublithospheric lens, which leads to the long-term existence of particular independent segments of linear structures and sometimes to late volcanism reactivation within their limits. Decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle in zones where thin lithosphere undergoes tension causes the formation of passive hot lines. The main mantle source for the considered volcanic rocks was a mixture of DMM and HIMU mantle components, with the latter abruptly dominating. In marginal oceanic regions, the EM1 component is also present (the EM2 component is found more rarely) within fragments of tectonically delaminated continental mantle that was trapped by the oceanic mantle during the breakup of Gondwana.

  19. Evolution of the Latir volcanic field, Northern New Mexico, and its relation to the Rio Grande Rift, as indicated by potassium-argon and fission track dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Mehnert, Harald H.; Naeser, Charles W.

    1986-05-01

    Remnants of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic plutonic rocks are exceptionally exposed along the east margin of the present-day Rio Grande rift by topographic and structural relief in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico. Evolution of the magmatic system associated with the Latir field, which culminated in eruption of a regional ash flow sheet (the Amalia Tuff) and collapse of the Questa caldera 26 m.y. ago, has been documented by 74 new potassium-argon (K-Ar) and fission track (F-T) ages. The bulk of the precaldera volcanism, ash flow eruptions and caldera formation, and initial crystallization of the associated shallow granitic batholith took place between 28 and 25 Ma; economically important molybdenum mineralization is related to smaller granitic intrusions along the south margin of the Questa caldera at about 23 Ma. Interpretation of the radiogenic ages within this relatively restricted time span is complicated by widespread thermal resetting of earlier parts of the igneous sequence by later intrusions. Many samples yielded discordant ages for different mineral phases. Thermal blocking temperatures decrease in the order: K-Ar sanidine > K-Ar biotite > F-T zircon ≫ F-T apatite. The F-T results are especially useful indicators of cooling and uplift rates. Upper portions of the subvolcanic batholith, that underlay the Questa caldera, cooled to about 100°C within about a million years of emplacement; uplift of the batholith increases to the south along this segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Activity in the Latir volcanic field was concurrent with southwest directed extension along the early Rio Grande rift zone in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The geometry of this early rifting is compatible with interpretation as back arc extension related to a subduction system dipping gently beneath the cordilleran region of the American plate. The Latir field lies at the southern end of a southward migrating Tertiary magmatic

  20. Supracrustal rocks in the Kuovila area, Southern Finland: structural evolution, geochemical characteristics and the age of volcanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietari Skyttä

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The supracrustal rocks of the Kuovila area in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, southern Finland, consist mainly of volcaniclastic rocks associated with banded iron formations (BIFs and marbles. Small ZnS and PbS mineralizations are occasionally located within the marbles. Some primary features are well preserved in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks, including lamination in tuffites and banded iron formations. Geochemical results show that the volcanism was bimodal and it mainly had volcanic arc affinity. Specific geochemical indicators suggesting a volcanic arc origin for the Kuovila volcanic rocks include: 1 Enrichment of LILE over the HFSE elements and 2 Distinctly low Nb and Ta contents in relation to Th, Ce and LREE. Geochemistry of the Kuovila area volcanic rocks is very similar to those of the Orijärvi and Kisko formations, located ~15 km NE of Kuovila. Felsic tuff in the Kuovila area was dated at 1891±4 Ma by the U-Pb system on zircons. Consequently volcanism was contemporaneous with magmatism in the adjacent Orijärvi area, thus representing the earliest identified volcanic stage in the southern Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt. Early deformation structures within the Kuovila area are suggested to relate to low-metamorphic or localized low-angle thrusting during D1. F1 folds were recumbent and the S1 cleavages are generally weak. Thrusting was followed by approximately N–S contraction with upright, peak-metamorphic F2 folding overprinting D1 structures and defining the Kuovila synform. Two separate intrusive phases include a synvolcanic granodiorite-diorite-gabbro association and a weakly S2-foliated syn-D2 granodiorite. Anatectic granites and associated migmatizing veins are absent, therefore suggesting that D2 pre-dates the ~1.84–1.82 Ga metamorphic event in the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC. D2 structuresin the Kuovila area are suggested to correlate with the early structures with associated axial planar

  1. Simulating the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2013-09-01

    With 3D particle simulations we study the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes. In different geometries, we first determine the breakdown voltage. Then we study the probability of inception for a fast voltage pulse. This probability mostly depends on the availability of seed electrons to generate the initial electron avalanches. These results are compared with experimental observations. Then we investigate how the shape of a starting discharge affects its further development. In particular, we discuss the formation of so-called ``inception clouds.'' JT was supported by STW-project 10755.

  2. Eruptive response of oceanic islands to giant landslides: New insights from the geomorphologic evolution of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex (Tenerife, Canary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulesteix, Thomas; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente

    2012-02-01

    Large sector collapses are a major component of oceanic islands evolution. Here we show that voluminous events such as the Icod landslide on Tenerife (Canary Islands) cause dramatic changes on the magma feeding system and control the subsequent volcanic and geomorphologic evolution of the eruptive complex over a period of more than 150 kyr. Instantaneous unloading by the Icod landslide is marked by the development of a large phonolitic explosive eruption dated at 175 ± 3 ka and interpreted as reflecting the immediate emptying of a shallow pre-existing magma chamber. Geochronological, geomorphological and geochemical analyses, carried out on the post-landslide volcanic succession sampled in a 4.4 km-long underground water-recovery gallery, provide further evidence for an enhanced extrusion of primitive lavas starting in the 10 kyr time interval following the failure. Rapid construction (scar at high eruptive rates (up to 8 km 3 kyr -1) increased the lithostatic pressure which then favored the intermittent storage of basic magma under the edifice. This resulted in more episodic construction evidenced by a significant decrease in output rates and the increasing occurrence of lavas with intermediate composition from 117 ± 7 to 52 ± 7 ka. An apparent volcanic gap is observed between 52 ± 7 and 18 ± 1 ka, after which highly differentiated lavas have been dominantly erupted. We propose that part of the gap can be explained by the individualization of a shallow magma reservoir a few kilometers below the base of the Teide volcano. During recent periods, vertical and lateral extrusions of trachytic and phonolitic viscous bodies from this storage area contributed to increase the slope of the main edifice up to 35°, overall favoring its present-day instability.

  3. Growth and erosion: The volcanic geology and morphological evolution of La Fossa (Island of Vulcano, Southern Italy) in the last 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, F.; Pistolesi, M.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Fusillo, R.; Roverato, M.

    2013-07-01

    The Island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) consists of several volcanic edifices whose formation overlapped in time and space beginning 120 ka ago. The most recent volcano is the La Fossa cone, a 391 m-high active composite cone that began to erupt 5.5 ka ago. Eruptive activity at the La Fossa cone occurred in several cyclic phases separated by prolonged periods of erosion. The last 1000 years of eruptive activity and morphological variations in the cone and its surrounding area were investigated through a stratigraphic reconstruction. This was based on 139 natural cuts, 26 machine-excavated and 5 hand-dug trenches in the volcaniclastic succession. The revised stratigraphy of the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence was compared with geological maps based on the Unconformity-bounded Stratigraphic Units criteria compiled in 2006-2010. It was found that the last 1000-year period can be divided into (in hierarchical order) Eruptive Clusters and Units. Several unconformities of different hierarchical order were also identified (erosional surfaces and/or palaeosols). Stratigraphic relationships with the Vulcanello products and with rhyolitic tephras related to the eruptions of Mt. Pilato (the last-formed volcanic edifice of the Island of Lipari) were fundamental in assigning a calendar age to most of the tephra units in the studied sequence. The morphological evolution of the upper part of the cone was also reconstructed in order to assess the average cone growth rate. This work suggests a new stratigraphic and chronological interpretation of the evolution and "cyclic" activity of the La Fossa cone in the last 1000 years. Several eruptions occurred in two main clusters. The stratigraphic record and morphological features reveal that the areas around the cone were affected by the deposition of reworked materials, with large amounts of tephra deposited on the steep slopes and within the major streams.

  4. The polycyclic Lausche Volcano (Lausitz Volcanic Field) and its message concerning landscape evolution in the Lausitz Mountains (northern Bohemian Massif, Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Erik; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf; Mrlina, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The Tertiary Lausitz Volcanic Field covers a broad area encompassing parts of Eastern Saxony (Germany), Lower Silesia (Poland) and North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Volcanism was predominantly controlled by the volcano-tectonic evolution of the Ohře Rift and culminated in the Lower Oligocene. This paper deals with the highest volcano of this area, the Lausche Hill (792.6 m a.s.l.) situated in the Lausitz Mountains. We offer a reconstruction of the volcanic edifice and its eruptive history. Its complex genesis is reflected by six different eruption styles and an associated petrographic variety. Furthermore, the Lausche Volcano provides valuable information concerning the morphological evolution of its broader environs. The remnant of an alluvial fan marking a Middle Paleocene-Lower Eocene (62-50 Ma) palaeo-surface is preserved at the base of the volcano. The deposition of this fan can be attributed to a period of erosion of its nearby source area, the Lausitz Block that has undergone intermittent uplift at the Lausitz Overthrust since the Upper Cretaceous. The Lausche Hill is one of at least six volcanoes in the Lausitz Mountains which show an eminent low level of erosion despite their Oligocene age and position on elevated terrain. These volcanoes are exposed in their superficial level which clearly contradicts their former interpretation as subvolcanoes. Among further indications, this implies that the final morphotectonic uplift of the Lausitz Mountains started in the upper Lower Pleistocene ( 1.3 Ma) due to revived subsidence of the nearby Zittau Basin. It is likely that this neotectonic activity culminated between the Elsterian and Saalian Glaciation ( 320 ka). The formation of the low mountain range was substantially controlled by the intersection of the Lausitz Overthrust and the Ohře Rift.

  5. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  6. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleogene - Neogene volcanism in the NW Anatolia: Its implications for the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Akal, Cüneyt; Genç, Ş. Can; Candan, Osman; Palmer, Martin R.; Prelević, Dejan; Uysal, İbrahim; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We suggest that comparison of the Cenozoic magmatic events of these two regions may provide insights into the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Aegean. With this aim, we present an improved Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Biga Peninsula derived from a new comprehensive set of U-Pb zircon age data obtained from the Eocene to Miocene volcanic units in the region. The compiled radiometric age data show that calc-alkaline volcanic activity occurred at 43-15 Ma in the Biga Peninsula, 43-17 Ma in the Rhodope and Thrace regions, and 53-38 Ma in the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region, which are slightly overlapping. We discuss the possible cause for the distinct Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western parts of the region, and propose that the Rhodope, Thrace and Biga regions in the north Aegean share the same Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic geodynamic evolution, which is consistent with continuous subduction, crustal accretion, southwestward trench migration and accompanying extension; all preceded by the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the Vardar suture zone. In contrast, the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region was shaped by slab break-off and related processes following the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. The eastern and western parts of the region are presently separated by a northeast-southwest trending transfer zone that was likely originally present as a transform fault in the subducted Tethys oceanic crust, and demonstrates that the regional geodynamic evolution can be strongly influenced by the geographical distribution of geologic features on the

  7. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, paleomagnetism, and evolution of the Boring volcanic field, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Evarts, Russell C.; Conrey, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar investigations of a large suite of fine-grained basaltic rocks of the Boring volcanic field (BVF), Oregon and Washington (USA), yielded two primary results. (1) Using age control from paleomagnetic polarity, stratigraphy, and available plateau ages, 40Ar/39Ar recoil model ages are defined that provide reliable age results in the absence of an age plateau, even in cases of significant Ar redistribution. (2) Grouping of eruptive ages either by period of activity or by composition defines a broadly northward progression of BVF volcanism during latest Pliocene and Pleistocene time that reflects rates consistent with regional plate movements. Based on the frequency distribution of measured ages, periods of greatest volcanic activity within the BVF occurred 2.7–2.2 Ma, 1.7–0.5 Ma, and 350–50 ka. Grouped by eruptive episode, geographic distributions of samples define a series of northeast-southwest–trending strips whose centers migrate from south-southeast to north-northwest at an average rate of 9.3 ± 1.6 mm/yr. Volcanic activity in the western part of the BVF migrated more rapidly than that to the east, causing trends of eruptive episodes to progress in an irregular, clockwise sense. The K2O and CaO values of dated samples exhibit well-defined temporal trends, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with age of eruption. Divided into two groups by K2O, the centers of these two distributions define a northward migration rate similar to that determined from eruptive age groups. This age and compositional migration rate of Boring volcanism is similar to the clockwise rotation rate of the Oregon Coast Range with respect to North America, and might reflect localized extension on the trailing edge of that rotating crustal block.

  8. The temporal evolution of back-arc magmas from the Auca Mahuida shield volcano (Payenia Volcanic Province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Carlos; Quidelleur, Xavier; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Kluska, Jean-Michel; Tchilinguirian, Paul; Sarda, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    In order to better constrain the temporal volcanic activity of the back-arc context in Payenia Volcanic Province (PVP, Argentina), we present new K-Ar dating, petrographic data, major and trace elements from 23 samples collected on the Auca Mahuida shield volcano. Our new data, coupled with published data, show that this volcano was built from about 1.8 to 1.0 Ma during five volcanic phases, and that Auca Mahuida magmas were extracted from, at least, two slightly different OIB-type mantle sources with a low partial melting rate. The first one, containing more garnet, was located deeper in the mantle, while the second contains more spinel and was thus shallower. The high-MgO basalts (or primitive basalts) and the low-MgO basalts (or evolved basalts), produced from the deeper and shallower lherzolite mantle sources, respectively, are found within each volcanic phase, suggesting that both magmatic reservoirs were sampled during the 1 Myr lifetime of the Auca Mahuida volcano. However, a slight increase of the proportion of low-MgO basalts, as well as of magmas sampled from the shallowest source, can be observed through time. Similar overall petrological characteristics found in the Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic rocks from Los Volcanes and Auca Mahuida volcano suggest that they originated from the same magmatic source. Consequently, it can be proposed that the thermal asthenospheric anomaly is probably still present beneath the PVP. Finally, our data further support the hypothesis that the injection of hot asthenosphere with an OIB mantle source signature, which was triggered by the steepening of the Nazca subducting plate, induced the production of a large volume of lavas within the PVP since 2 Ma.

  9. Stratigraphic and geochemical evolution of an oceanic arc upper crustal section: The Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P.D.; Draut, A.E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Blusztajn, J.; Greene, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Early Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation forms the upper stratigraphic level of an oceanic volcanic arc complex within the Peninsular Terrane of south-central Alaska. The section comprises a series of lavas, tuffs, and volcaniclastic debris-How and flow turbidite deposits, showing significant lateral facies variability. There is a general trend toward more volcaniclastic sediment at the top of the section and more lavas and tuff breccias toward the base. Evidence for dominant submarine, mostly mid-bathyal or deeper (>500 m) emplacement is seen throughout the section, which totals ???7 km in thickness, similar to modern western Pacific arcs, and far more than any other known exposed section. Subaerial sedimentation was rare but occurred over short intervals in the middle of the section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is dominantly calc-alkatine and shows no clear trend to increasing SiO2 up-section. An oceanic subduction petrogenesis is shown by trace element and Nd isotope data. Rocks at the base of the section show no relative enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) versus heavy rare earth elements (REES) or in melt-incompatible versus compatible high field strength elements (HFSEs). Relative enrichment of LREEs and HFSEs increases slightly up-section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is typically more REE depleted than average continental crust, although small volumes of light REE-enriched and heavy REE-depleted mafic lavas are recognized low in the stratigraphy. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation was formed in an intraoceanic arc above a north-dipping subduction zone and contains no preserved record of its subsequent collisions with Wrangellia or North America. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  10. A Numerical Study of Cavitation Inception in Complex Flow Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    INCEPTION OF FINITE-SPAN HYDROFOIL [4] .........................................8 2.2 EFFECT OF VORTEX/VORTEX INTERACTION ON CAVITATION INCEPTION FOR...2M4001-1-ONR - p. 3 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF THE POWER CONSTANT IN THE SCALING LAW FOR THE NACA HYDROFOILS IN THE CASE OF A RELATIVELY...SUMMARY OF THE POWER CONSTANT IN THE SCALING LAW FOR THE NACA HYDROFOILS IN THE CASE OF A RELATIVELY LOW VOID FRACTION

  11. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2006-11-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age located within the central and eastern sectors of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Morphostructural analysis, aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation, structural analysis and geological fieldwork were methods used to investigate the relationship between the evolution of the volcano and the tectonic framework of its basement. The study revealed that the area of Nevado de Toluca is affected by three main fault systems that intersect close to the volcanic edifice. These are from oldest to youngest, the Taxco-Querétaro, San Antonio and Tenango fault systems. The NNW-SSE Taxco-Querétaro fault system was active in the area since Early Miocene, and is characterized by right-lateral transtensive movement. Its reactivation during Early to Middle Pleistocene was responsible for the emplacement of andesitic to dacitic lava flows and domes of La Cieneguilla Supersynthem. The NE-SW San Antonio fault system was active during Late Pliocene, before the reactivation of the Taxco-Querétaro fault system, and is characterized by extensional left-lateral oblique-slip kinematics. The youngest is the E-W Tenango fault system that has been active since Late Pleistocene. This fault system is characterized by transtensive left-lateral strike-slip movement, and partly coeval with the youngest eruptive phase, the Nevado Supersynthem, which formed the present summit cone of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The stress re-orientation from the Taxco-Querétaro to the Tenango fault system during Late Pleistocene is responsible for the ˜ 1 Ma hiatus in the magmatic activity between 1.15 Ma and 42 ka. After this period of repose, the eruptive style drastically changed from effusive to explosive with the emission of dacitic products. The methodology presented here furnish new data that can be used to better assess the complex structural evolution of this sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

  12. A kinematic model for the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the Tyrrhenian Apenninic system: implications for rifting processes and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, E.; Zuppetta, A.

    1998-06-01

    During the frontal accretion due to the Late Miocene-Quaternary thrusting, the interior of the Apenninic chain underwent large-scale extension which produced the opening of the Tyrrhenian Oceanic Basin, a back-arc basin in respect to the late Cenozoic Apenninic chain, and the onset of the Quaternary volcanic activity in the Campanian Plain and more generally in the Tyrrhenian area. To outline the space/time distribution and the geotectonic setting of the Tyrrhenian volcanics we approached the problem from a kinematic point of view. A synthesis of the available geological and geophysical data leads us to suggest that the progressive migration of the Apenninic Arcs is responsible for the extension phenomena which took place during the last 5 Ma. At first, the extension resulted from the kinematic interaction between the Northern Apenninic Arc and the Southern Apenninic Arc during the Late Pliocene. Then, from the Early Pleistocene the extension was controlled by the SE migration of the Southern arc only, and therefore it can be regarded as part of the general Southern Tyrrhenian extension phenomenon. Due to the intense thinning, the isotherms migrated upward very rapidly within the Toscana, Latium and Campania lithosphere where the melting point was reached, giving rise to the onset of volcanic activity at the end of the Early Pleistocene.

  13. Catastrophic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  14. Geomorphological evolution of volcanic fluvial channels: Eighteen years of morphological monitoring of the upper strect of the Tenenepanco Gorge, Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Juan Zamorano, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    , February 5, 2008, November 5, 2009, November 5, 2010, November 9, 2011, November 6, 2013). An additional map (May-1989) was made based on photo-interpretation of aerial photographs taken during that period. A set of 13 morphological units were recognized in each of the maps. Subsequently, the maps were georeferenced using a 2010 orthophoto and the image of Google Earth from 2013. In a second step the 15 maps were digitized and the topology created in a CAD environment (Bentley Microstation V8i). Finally a spatial analysis was carried out in a GIS (ESRI ArcMap 10) in order to study the morphological variations of the channel gorge. The preliminary results show that during the initial period (1995-2001) channel evolution is more variable, with episodes in which the bottom of the gorge is eroded with multiple channels alternating with others where there is only a single channel. These moments presumably coincide with volcanic activity which provides abundant material that fills the smaller gullies and concentrates the lahars in a single channel. However, the secondary flows in the 2002-2013 period tend to merge into one wide channel that drops in depth, creating pseudo-terraces. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain

  15. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  16. Evolution of volcanically-induced palaeoenvironmental changes leading to the onset of OAE1a (early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During the Cretaceous, several major volcanic events occurred that initiated climate warming, altered marine circulation and increased marine productivity, which in turn often resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Therefore the negative C-isotope excursion covers the interval between the time, when volcanic activity became important enough to be recorded in the C-isotope composition of the oceans to the onset of widespread anoxic conditions (OAE1a). We chose this interval at the locality of Pusiano (N-Italy) to study the effect of a volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 on the marine palaeoenvironment and to observe the evolving palaeoenvironmental conditions that finally led to OAE1a. The Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation) was deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and has been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). We selected 18 samples from 12 black shale horizons for palynofacies analyses. Palynofacies assemblages consist of several types of particulate organic matter, providing information on the origin of the organic matter (terrestrial/marine) and conditions during deposition (oxic/anoxic). We then linked the palynofacies results to high-resolution inorganic and organic C-isotope values and total organic carbon content measurements. The pelagic Pusiano section consists of repeated limestone-black shale couplets, which are interpreted to be the result of changes in oxygenation of bottom waters. Towards the end of the negative C-isotope excursion we observe enhanced preservation of the fragile amorphous organic matter resulting in increased

  17. The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

  18. The eruptive history and magmatic evolution of Aluto volcano: new insights into silicic peralkaline volcanism in the Ethiopian rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Biggs, Juliet; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Barfod, Dan N.; Lewi, Elias

    2016-12-01

    The silicic peralkaline volcanoes of the East African Rift are some of the least studied volcanoes on Earth. Here we bring together new constraints from fieldwork, remote sensing, geochronology and geochemistry to present the first detailed account of the eruptive history of Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in a densely populated section of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Prior to the growth of the Aluto volcanic complex (before 500 ka) the region was characterized by a significant period of fault development and mafic fissure eruptions. The earliest volcanism at Aluto built up a trachytic complex over 8 km in diameter. Aluto then underwent large-volume ignimbrite eruptions at 316 ± 19 ka and 306 ± 12 ka developing a 42 km2 collapse structure. After a hiatus of 250 ka, a phase of post-caldera volcanism initiated at 55 ± 19 ka and the most recent eruption of Aluto has a radiocarbon age of 0.40 ± 0.05 cal. ka BP. During this post-caldera phase highly-evolved peralkaline rhyolite lavas, ignimbrites and pumice fall deposits have erupted from vents across the complex. Geochemical modelling is consistent with rhyolite genesis from protracted fractionation (> 80%) of basalt that is compositionally similar to rift-related basalts found east of the complex. Based on the style and volume of recent eruptions we suggest that silicic eruptions occur at an average rate of 1 per 1000 years, and that future eruptions of Aluto will involve explosive emplacement of localised pumice cones and effusive obsidian coulees of volumes in the range 1-100 × 106 m3.

  19. Structure and evolution of the volcanic rift zone at Ponta de São Lourenço, eastern Madeira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Schwarz, Stefanie; van den Bogaard, Paul; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Köster, Jana J.

    2009-08-01

    Ponta de São Lourenço is the deeply eroded eastern end of Madeira’s east-west trending rift zone, located near the geometric intersection of the Madeira rift axis with that of the Desertas Islands to the southeast. It dominantly consists of basaltic pyroclastic deposits from Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions, lava flows, and a dike swarm. Main differences compared to highly productive rift zones such as in Hawai’i are a lower dike intensity (50-60 dikes/km) and the lack of a shallow magma reservoir or summit caldera. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that volcanic activity at Ponta de São Lourenço lasted from >5.2 to 4 Ma (early Madeira rift phase) and from 2.4 to 0.9 Ma (late Madeira rift phase), with a hiatus dividing the stratigraphy into lower and upper units. Toward the east, the distribution of eruptive centers becomes diffuse, and the rift axis bends to parallel the Desertas ridge. The bending may have resulted from mutual gravitational influence of the Madeira and Desertas volcanic edifices. We propose that Ponta de São Lourenço represents a type example for the interior of a fading rift arm on oceanic volcanoes, with modern analogues being the terminations of the rift zones at La Palma and El Hierro (Canary Islands). There is no evidence for Ponta de São Lourenço representing a former central volcano that interconnected and fed the Madeira and Desertas rifts. Our results suggest a subdivision of volcanic rift zones into (1) a highly productive endmember characterized by a central volcano with a shallow magma chamber feeding one or more rift arms, and (2) a less productive endmember characterized by rifts fed from deep-seated magma reservoirs rather than from a central volcano, as is the case for Ponta de São Lourenço.

  20. Simulation of long-term future climate changes with the green McGill paleoclimate model. The next glacial inception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochelin, A.S.B.; Mysak, L.A.; Wang, Zhaomin Wang [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The multi-component 'green' McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM), which includes interactive vegetation, is used to simulate the next glacial inception under orbital and prescribed atmospheric CO2 forcing. This intermediate complexity model is first run for short-term periods with an increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration; the model's response is in general agreement with the results of GCMs for CO2 doubling. The green MPM is then used to derive projections of the climate for the next 100 kyr. Under a constant CO2 level, the model produces three types of evolution for the ice volume: an imminent glacial inception (low CO2 levels), a glacial inception in 50 kyr (CO2 levels of 280 or 290 ppm), or no glacial inception during the next 100 kyr (CO2 levels of 300 ppm and higher). This high sensitivity to the CO2 level is due to the exceptionally weak future variations of the summer insolation at high northern latitudes. The changes in vegetation re-inforce the buildup of ice sheets after glacial inception. Finally, if an initial global warming episode of finite duration is included, after which the atmospheric CO2 level is assumed to stabilize at 280, 290 or 300 ppm, the impact of this warming is seen only in the first 5 kyr of the run; after this time the response is insensitive to the early warming perturbation.

  1. Relato da história da inserção e evolução do atendimento psicológico a bebês e suas famílias em uma Unidade de Neonatologia The history of the inception and evolution of psychological care for infants and their families in a Neonatal Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia V. Setúbal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo apresenta o histórico de atuação de uma psicóloga na área de Neonatologia e sua evolução, desde as primeiras tentativas de mudar certas rotinas da unidade para que favorecessem a humanização do atendimento até a sua completa inserção na equipe multidisciplinar. São descritas em detalhes as atuações específicas junto aos bebês e suas famílias no contexto da internação hospitalar, com o intuito de auxiliar os profissionais de saúde que trabalham na área de implementação de programas afins. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Relato da história de inserção e da evolução do trabalho de uma psicóloga na equipe de Neonatologia do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, num período de dez anos (1993 a 2003. Descrevem-se as atividades específicas da Psicologia, o embasamento teórico dos programas desenvolvidos na unidade e os recursos técnicos utilizados no atendimento à clientela. COMENTÁRIOS: O saber específico do psicólogo pode ser estendido a toda a equipe, favorecendo ações de prevenção em Saúde Mental, principalmente a proteção da relação mãe-bebê. Além disso, pode ser disseminado, ganhar relevância e fazer parte do cotidiano de todas as unidades de terapia neonatais.OBJECTIVE: This article describes the evolution of a psychologist's work in a Neonatal Care Unit, from simple interventions that changed certain routines to foster humanization of care, to the complete integration of this professional into the multidisciplinary neonatal team. Detailed descriptions of the work's implementation in the hospital setting offer health professionals of the field a model for similar programs. CASE DESCRIPTION: The history of the inception and evolution of a psychologist's work at the Neonatal Care Unit of Universidade Estadual de Campinas in a ten-year period (1993 to 2003 was described. Specific activities developed within this period have

  2. The mechanics of sill inception, propagation and growth: Experimental evidence for rapid reduction in magmatic overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, J. L.; Boutelier, D.; Cruden, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    A model of magma propagation in the crust is presented using a series of analogue experiments, where dyed water is injected at a constant flux into layers of solidified gelatine. The gelatine layers are transparent and, when intruded, deform in an almost ideal-elastic manner under the experimental conditions (low gelatine concentration: 2.5 or 3 wt%, and low temperature: 5-10 °C). The upper gelatine layer was 1.0 to 1.5 times stiffer than the lower layer, with either a 'weak' or 'strong' interface strength between the gelatine layers. The gelatine is seeded with 20- 50 μm-diameter PMMA-RhB neutrally buoyant particles that are fluoresced by a pulsed, vertical laser sheet centred on the injection point. Digital image correlation (DIC) is used to calculate incremental strain and finite strain in the deforming host material as it is intruded. This is mapped in 2D for the developing experimental volcanic plumbing system that comprises a feeder dyke and sill. Since the gelatine deforms elastically, strain measurements correlate with stress. Our results indicate that, for constant magma flux, the moment of sill inception is characterised by a significant magmatic pressure decrease of up to ∼ 60%. This is evidenced by the rapid contraction of the feeder dyke at the moment the sill forms. Sill propagation is then controlled by the fracture properties of the weak interface, with fluid from the feeder dyke extracted to help grow the sill. Pressure drops during sill inception and growth are likely to be important in volcanic systems, where destabilisation of the magmatic plumbing system could trigger an eruption.

  3. Modelling Greenland ice sheet inception and sustainability during the Late Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoux, C.; Dumas, C.; Ramstein, G.; Jost, A.; Dolan, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the evolution and dynamics of ice sheet growth during past warm periods is a very important topic considering the potential total removal of the Greenland ice sheet. In this regard, one key event is the full glaciation of Greenland that occurred at the end of the Pliocene warm period, which remains partially unexplained. Previous modelling studies succeeded in reproducing this full glaciation either by imposing an unrealistically low CO2 value or by imposing a partial ice sheet over the surface of Greenland. Although they highlight some fundamental mechanisms, none of these studies are fully satisfactory because they do not reflect realistic conditions occurring during the Late Pliocene. Through a series of simulations with the IPSL-CM5A coupled climate model used to force the GRISLI ice sheet model, we show that a drop in CO2 levels does not lead to an abrupt inception of the Greenland ice sheet. High ablation rates in central and northern Greenland combined with low accumulation prevent such an abrupt inception. Ice sheet inception occurs when low summer insolation and CO2 levels below modern values are combined, the Greenland ice sheet being restricted to the southeast region, where high topography favours this build-up. This ice sheet experiences only partial melting during summer insolation maxima combined with high CO2 levels. Further growth of the ice sheet with recoupling experiments is important at 360 and 280 ppm during insolation minima. Thus, the full glaciation at 2.6 Ma could be the result of a cumulative build-up of the Greenland ice sheet over several orbital cycles, leading to progressively more intense glaciations during low summer insolation periods. Although this result could be a shortcoming of the modelling framework itself, the gradual glacial inception interpreted from the oxygen isotope record could support our scenario.

  4. Cavitation Inception in Turbulent Flows Around a Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-di; WANG Guo-yu; ZHANG Zhen; GAO Yuan-yin

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation inception around a hydrofoil is studied experimentally. The flow velocities around the foil are measured by a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The inception cavitation aspects are observed by using a high-speed video camera. In the experiment, the Reynolds number is fixed at a value of 7 .0×105. The boundary layer around the foil undergoes turbulent flow under the experiment condition. The LDV measurement results show that the flow in the boundary layer around the foil doesn't separate from the surface. It is found that the cavitation inception in non-separated turbulent flow is related to the coherent structures in the boundary layer. It is clear that the turbulent bursting and the hairpin-shaped vortex structure accompany the incipient cavitation.

  5. The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption: new data on volcanic ash dispersal and its potential impact on human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Fitzsimmons

    Full Text Available The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4 approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.

  6. The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption: new data on volcanic ash dispersal and its potential impact on human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Iovita, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra) deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.

  7. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean Back-arc of Western Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando, I.R.; Aragón, E.; Frei, R.; González, P.D.; Spakman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit cald

  8. Centre of Excellence in Horticulture of Agadir : inception report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, Cecilia; Baeza Romero, Esteban; Ruijs, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This report is the result of the inception phase of a project aiming at a Centre of Excellence in Horticulture (CEH) at the Complex Horticole d’Agadir (CHA) of the Institut Agronomique et Véterinaire Hassan II. The project is commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and financed by The

  9. Capture and inception of bubbles near line vortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oweis, G.F.; Van der Hout, I.E.; Tryggvason, G.; Ceccio, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the need to predict vortex cavitation inception, a study has been conducted to investigate bubble capture by a concentrated line vortex of core size rc and circulation Γ0 under noncavitating and cavitating conditions. Direct numerical simulations that solve simultaneously for the two ph

  10. Cavitation Inception on Microparticles: A Self-Propelled Particle Accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, M.; Ohl, C.-D.; Mørch, Knud Aage

    2004-01-01

    Corrugated, hydrophilic particles with diameters between 30 and 150 mum are found to cause cavitation inception at their surfaces when they are exposed to a short, intensive tensile stress wave. The growing cavity accelerates the particle into translatory motion until the tensile stress decreases...

  11. What is the phase space of the last glacial inception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadory, Taimaz; Tarasov, Lev

    2017-04-01

    Would the ice and climate pattern of glacial inception changed much with small tweaks to the initial Eemian climate state? Given the very limited available geological constraints, what is the range of potential spatio-temporal patterns of ice sheet inception and associated climate? What positive and negative feedbacks between ice, atmospheric and ocean circulation, and vegetation dominate glacial inception? As a step towards answering these questions, we examine the phase space of glacial inception in response to a subset of uncertainties in a coupled 3D model through an ensemble of simulations. The coupled model consists of the GSM (Glacial Systems Model) and LOVECLIM earth systems model of intermediate complexity. The former includes a 3D ice sheet model, asynchronously coupled glacio isostatic adjustment, surface drainage solver, and permafrost resolving bed thermal model. The latter includes an ocean GCM, atmospheric component, dynamic/thermodynamic seaice, and simplified dynamical vegetation. Our phase space exploration probes uncertainties in: initial conditions, downscaling and upscaling, the radiative effect of clouds, snow and ice albedo, precipitation parameterization, and freshwater discharge. The probe is constrained by model fit to present day climate and LGM climate.

  12. Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is introduced,

  13. Volcanic evolution of an active magmatic rift segment on a 100 Kyr timescale: exposure dating of lavas from the Manda Hararo/Dabbahu segment of the Afar Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Vye, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is already organised along rift segments which morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation here results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well documented 2005 event on the Dabbahu rift segment. During this tectono-volcanic crisis, a megadyke was injected, followed by 12 subsequent dike intrusions, sometimes associated with fissure flow eruptions. Despite the accurate surveying of the magmatic and tectonic interplay during this event via remote sensing techniques, there is a lack of data on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of a rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. It is possible to constrain the timing of fault growth relative to the infilling of the rift axial depression by lava flows, and to assess the influence of the different magma bodies involved in lava production along the rift-segment. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He) to determine the ages of young (cartography (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), the rift geomorphology can be linked to the magmatic and tectonic history defined by surface exposure dating. The results show that over the last 100 ka the Northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by two different magma reservoirs which can be identified based on their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. This magmatic centre supplies magma to most of the northern third of the rift segment. The second reservoir is located further south, on the axis, close to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. This second magmatic centre supplies magma to the remaining 2/3 of the segment, but scarcely impacts its Northern termination (where the Dabbahu

  14. Geochemical evolution of the acid crater lake of Poas volcano (Costa Rica): Insights into volcanic-hydrothermal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Cruz, María

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the evolution of Laguna Caliente, an acid crater lake at the summit of Po:is, a persistently active volcano in central Costa Rica. The appearance, volume, temperature and chemical composition of the lake have continuously changed over the entire known period of its existence. O

  15. Appraisal and evolution of hydrochemical processes from proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Sahya, Ashalata; Mondal, N. C.; Harikumar, P.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryThis paper deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out at proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India to assess groundwater quality and evaluate the hydrochemical processes. A total of 40 groundwater samples were collected equally from these areas and analyzed. Results showed that the groundwaters rich in alkaline earth in the basalt and alkali rich element in the granite. The dominancy of cations was observed as Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ in the basalt and Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Ca2+ in the granite, whereas anions as HCO3->Cl>SO42- and Cl>HCO3->SO42-, respectively. Hydrochemical processes were identified with the helps of ion exchange, carbonate weathering and dissolution, multiple ionic ratios, and silicate weathering, which shown the predominance of carbonate, dolomite, calcite and silicate (anorthite) weathering in basalt, but in granite, silicate (alkali feldspar) weathering was dominated. Factor analysis also showed that there were multiple processes acting on groundwaters, were separated from the main cluster. Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Kelley's Ratio (KR) and Permeability Index (PI) in well samples showed that groundwater in basalt was more suitable for irrigation purposes. Further, a digital elevation model (DEM) was generated using Global mapper (8.0 version) software, which aided to decipher the thickness of basalt trap, and vertical transition zone of basaltic (trap) and granitic (basement) aquifer at this DVP comprising with the well depths and groundwater chemistry.

  16. Pore Fluid Evolution Influenced by Volcanic Activities and Related Diagenetic Processes in a Rift Basin: Evidence from the Paleogene Medium-Deep Reservoirs of Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activities exert a significant influence on pore fluid property and related diagenetic processes that substantially controlled reservoirs quality. Analysis of Paleogene medium-deep sandstones on the Huanghekou Sag provides insight into relating the diagenetic processes to pore fluid property evolution influenced by volcanic activities. Three distinct types of pore fluids were identified on the basis of an integrated and systematic analysis including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, and trace element. Alkaline aqueous medium environment occurred in E2s1+2 where volcanic activities have insignificant influence on pore fluids, evidenced by typical alkaline diagenetic events such as K-feldspar albitization, quartz dissolution, feldspar dissolution, and carbonate cementation. During the deposition of E3d3, influx of terrestrial freshwater and alteration of ferromagnesian-rich pore water result in the formation of mixing aqueous medium environment through volcanic eruption dormancy causing zeolite dissolution, clay mineral transformation, and K-feldspar albitization. Ferromagnesian-rich aqueous medium environment developed resulting from the intensive hydrolysis of the unstable ferromagnesian minerals formed due to intense volcanic activities during E3d1+2 and corresponding predominant diagenetic processes were characterized by the precipitation and dissolution of low-silica zeolites. Therefore, the differential properties of pore fluids caused various diagenetic processes controlling reservoir quality.

  17. Stall inception in a high-speed axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Joshua David

    A research program designed to provide understanding of the fluid dynamic mechanisms that lead to rotating stall in the Notre Dame Stage 01 high-speed axial compressor is described. The stalling behavior of this compressor was studied with unsteady casing pressure measurements from a circumferentially spaced array of sensors. In addition, over rotor casing surface streak measurements were performed to investigate the time-averaged end-wall flow near the rotor at operating points near stall. Several investigative tools were applied to the analysis and interpretation of the unsteady casing pressure data. Traditional methods such as visual inspection, spatial Fourier decomposition, traveling wave energy and wavelet analysis were shown to be insufficient to characterize the pre-stall and stall inception behavior of the compressor. A new technique based on a windowed two-point correlation between adjacent sensors was developed and demonstrated to provide spatial and temporal resolution of both pre-stall and stall inception behavior. The spatial correlation technique was then applied to the analysis of stall inception data from experiments with asymmetric tip clearance. The non-uniform tip clearance was produced using the magnetic bearings which levitate the rotor shaft of the Notre Dame Transonic Axial Compressor facility. Both steady rotor centerline offset and rotor whirl were investigated. The results of these experiments, along with the surface streak measurements, provide evidence in support of recent computational observations (found in the literature) that predict that short length scale stall inception is related to specific features of the rotor tip clearance flow.

  18. IODP workshop: developing scientific drilling proposals for the Argentina Passive Volcanic Continental Margin (APVCM) - basin evolution, deep biosphere, hydrates, sediment dynamics and ocean evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Roger D.; Violante, Roberto A.; Gorgas, Thomas; Schwarz, Ernesto; Grützner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Biddle, Jennifer; St-Onge, Guillaume; Workshop Participants, Apvcm

    2017-05-01

    The Argentine margin contains important sedimentological, paleontological and chemical records of regional and local tectonic evolution, sea level, climate evolution and ocean circulation since the opening of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as well as the present-day results of post-depositional chemical and biological alteration. Despite its important location, which underlies the exchange of southern- and northern-sourced water masses, the Argentine margin has not been investigated in detail using scientific drilling techniques, perhaps because the margin has the reputation of being erosional. However, a number of papers published since 2009 have reported new high-resolution and/or multichannel seismic surveys, often combined with multi-beam bathymetric data, which show the common occurrence of layered sediments and prominent sediment drifts on the Argentine and adjacent Uruguayan margins. There has also been significant progress in studying the climatic records in surficial and near-surface sediments recovered in sediment cores from the Argentine margin. Encouraged by these recent results, our 3.5-day IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) workshop in Buenos Aires (8-11 September 2015) focused on opportunities for scientific drilling on the Atlantic margin of Argentina, which lies beneath a key portion of the global ocean conveyor belt of thermohaline circulation. Significant opportunities exist to study the tectonic evolution, paleoceanography and stratigraphy, sedimentology, and biosphere and geochemistry of this margin.

  19. What do we need to know to model the microphysical evolution of volcanic clouds and how can we make these measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions can inject millions of tons of ash, sulfate and gaseous precursors into the stratosphere. The magnitude and duration of the volcanic cloud on Earth's temperatures, circulation, clouds, and stratospheric ozone is strongly affected by the microphysical properties of the aerosol size distribution, which can evolve in complex ways. This presentation will cover the impacts and uncertainties associated with microphysical aerosol measurements and modeling of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, and valuable future measurements after the next large volcanic eruption. These additional measurements can help improve our understanding of stratospheric processes as well as possible consequences of large volcanic eruptions and hypothetical geoengineering scenarios on radiative forcing and chemistry.

  20. Felsic Magmatism through Intracrustal Melting of Previously Formed Volcanic-Arc Crust: Implications for Differentiation and Secular Evolution of the Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    G R, R. K.; C, S.

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental challenge in understanding the origin and evolution of the continental crust is to recognize how primary mantle source, and oceanic crust, which are essentially mafic to ultramafic in composition, could differentiate into a more or less felsic compositions. It is possible to understand growth and differentiation of the continental crust by constraining the interplay of magmatism, deformation, and high-grade metamorphism in the lower crust. Here, we apply this knowledge on the lower crustal granitoids of southern India and speculate on the variations in geochemistry as a consequence of differentiation and secular evolution of the continental crust.The major groups of granitoids of southern India are classified as metatonalites, comparable to typical Archaean TTGs with pronounced calc-alkaline affinity, and metagranites which are magmatic fractionation produced by reworking of early crust. Metatonalites are sodic-trondhjemites with slightly magnesian, moderate LREE (average LaN = 103) and low HREE (average YbN = 2) characerestics, where as metagranites are calc-alkaline ferroan types with enriched LREE (average LaN = 427) and HREE (average YbN = 23). Petrogenetic characteristics of granitoids illustrate continuous evolution of a primary crust into diverse magmatic units by multiple stages of intracrustal differentiation processes attributed to following tectonic scenarios: (1) formation of tonalitic magma by low- to moderate-degree partial melting of hydrated basaltic crust at pressures high enough to stabilize garnet-amphibole residue and (2) genesis of granite in a continental arc-accretion setting by an episode of crustal remelting of the tonalitic crust, within plagioclase stability field. The first-stage formed in a flat-subduction setting of an volcanic-arc, leading to the formation of tonalites. The heat budget required is ascribed to the upwelling of the mantle and/or basaltic underplating. Progressive decline in mantle potential temperature

  1. Paleomagnetic Results of Permo-Carboniferous Volcanic-sedimentary Strata in Mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern CAOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.; Bai, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, T.

    2015-12-01

    There has been hotly debating over the closure time of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean and the tectonic evolution of the eastern CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) for decades. To better puzzle out this controversy, we carried out a detailed paleomagnetic study on the Permo-Carboniferous volcanic-sedimentary strata in mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, northeast of China. More than 820 samples were collected from 81 sites and titanium-poor magnetite and hematite are proved as the principal magnetic carriers. (1)In Kingan Block, 9 sites of volcanic rocks from Dashizhai Formation (P1) were calculated to get a mean magnetic direction Dg/Ig = 285.5°/77.4°, kg = 68.2, α95 = 6.8° before and Ds/Is = 206.5°/48.2°, ks = 100.8, α95 = 5.5°, N = 9 after bedding correction, which suggests a paleolatitude of 34.5°±5°N. Both the positive fold test and reversal test suggest a pre-folding magnetization and thus may indicate a primary remanence. (2)Three volcanic sections of Baoligaomiao Formation (C3-P1) from Uliastai Passive Margin were sampled and a mean magnetic direction derived from 16 sites is Dg/Ig = 30.1°/31.8°, kg = 16.3, α95 = 9.8° before and Ds/Is = 65.6°/58.1°, ks = 39.8, α95 = 6.1°, N = 16 after bedding correction. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole Plat. /Plong = 43.1° N/186.7°E, A95=8° suggests a paleolatitude of 38.7°±6.3°N. A primary remanence is confirmed by positive fold test. (3) In the northern margin of NCB (North China Block), a ChRM is successfully isolated from 6 sites of basaltic rocks in Elitu Formation (P2) as Dg/Ig = 351.1°/67.2°, kg = 2.1, α95 = 71.8° before and Ds/Is = 351.1°/29.1°, ks = 32.7, α95 = 71.8°, N = 16 after bedding correction, and thus yielded a paleomagnetic pole as Plat. /Plong = 63.1° N/313.5°E, A95=9.5°, which suggests a paleolatitude of 17.2°±7.2°N. A positive fold test and reversal test indicate that the remanence should be primary. The paleomagetic pole of Kingan Block and Uliastai Passive Margin are

  2. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for low-δ18O magmas of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, T.; Kitajima, K.; Nakashima, D.; Valley, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain - Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot trend is one of the largest known low-δ18O magmatic provinces, yet the timing and distribution of hydrothermal alteration relative to hotspot magmatism remains incompletely understood. Existing models for SRP-Y low-δ18O magma genesis differ regarding the timing of protolith alteration (e.g. Eocene vs. present), depth at which alteration occurs (e.g. 15 km vs. Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east central Oregon to further identify magmatic oxygen isotope trends within the field. These data offer insight into the timing of alteration and the extent of the greater SRP-Y low-δ18O province, as well as the conditions that generate large low-δ18O provinces. 16-14 Ma silicic volcanism in the LOVF is linked to the pre-14 Ma SRP-Y hotspot, with volcanism partially overlapping extension in the north-south trending Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG). Ion microprobe analyses of zircons from 16 LOVF silicic lavas and tuffs reveal homogeneous zircons on both the single grain and hand sample scales: individual samples have 2 S.D. for δ18O ranging from 0.27 to 0.96‰ (SMOW), and sample averages ranging from 1.8 to 6.0‰, excluding texturally chaotic and/or porous zircons which have δ18O values as low as 0.0‰. All low-δ18O LOVF magmas, including the caldera-forming Tuff of Leslie Gulch and Tuff of Spring Creek, are confined to the OIG, although not all zircons from within the OIG have low δ18O values. The presence and sequence of low-δ18O magmas in the LOVF and adjacent central Snake River Plain (CSRP) cannot be explained by existing caldera subsidence or pre-hotspot source models. These data, however, combined with volumetrically limited low-δ18O material in the adjacent Idaho Batholith and Basin and Range, are consistent with low-δ18O magmas generated by the superposition of high hotspot-derived thermal fluxes on active extensional structures (OIG extension in the LOVF, and Basin and Range rifting in the CSRP) thereby

  3. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    of the subducting slab at ca. 20 Ma is inferred. The eruption of 24-20 Ma alkali olivine basalt up to 500 km east of the trench marks the beginning of a long-lasting magmatic episode with widespread volcanism north of the Cortaderas lineament following a regional magmatic hiatus lasting from 39 Ma to 26 Ma...

  4. Petrogenesis of the Miocene volcanism along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone in western Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for origin and evolution of potassic volcanism in post-collisional areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yalçın E.; Helvacı, Cahit; Uysal, İbrahim; Karaoğlu, Özgür; Palmer, Martin R.; Dindi, Fulya

    2012-10-01

    The Miocene volcanic rocks along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone along the western margin of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC) in western Anatolian Volcanic Province (WAVP), where strike-slip deformation is dominant, comprise: (Group 1) early-middle Miocene high-K to shoshonitic rocks with high-Mg# and relatively low SiO2, (Group 2) middle Miocene phonolitic rocks with low-Mg# and intermediate SiO2, (Group 3) early-middle Miocene medium- to high-K series from andesites to rhyolites, (Group 4) middle Miocene rhyolites with distinct trace element compositions; and (Group 5) late Miocene high-MgO basalts, K-trachybasalts and (Group 6) late Miocene high-MgO basaltic andesites. The geochemical features of these rocks are comparable with the other Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks, but differ from the Eocene volcanic rocks in WAVP. The geochemical features of the most primitive early-middle Miocene Group 1 rocks indicate that they were derived from an anomalously metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The mineralogical and geochemical properties of garnet-amphibole peridotite from the Ulten Zone (UZP), Eastern Alps, which is thought to represent a fossil metasomatic mantle wedge contaminated by continental subduction, is similar to the model mantle composition previously proposed for the genesis of the mafic rocks. Together with the presence of Eocene to early Miocene continental subduction beneath the Aegean-west Anatolia region, this strongly suggests that continental subduction was an important factor in the genesis of the high-MgO shoshonitic to ultrapotassic volcanism in this post-collisional area. The origin of the Group 3 andesitic to rhyolitic rocks includes; (1) lower crustal melting, (2) mixing between lower crustally-derived and mantle-derived melts, and (3) FC-AFC processes. The late Miocene Group 5 and 6 rocks, however, derived from a more depleted mantle source, indicating that the mantle became depleted over time. The rhyolites of Group 4 are most probably

  5. The latest geodynamics in Asia: Synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, lithosphere motion, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rasskazov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, movement of the lithosphere, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region, we propose a comprehensive model for deep dynamics of Asia that assumes an important role of the Gobi, Baikal, and North Transbaikal transition-layer melting anomalies. This layer was distorted by lower-mantle fluxes at the beginning of the latest geodynamic stage (i.e. in the early late Cretaceous due to avalanches of slab material that were stagnated beneath the closed fragments of the Solonker, Ural-Mongolian paleoceans and Mongol-Okhotsk Gulf of Paleo-Pacific. At the latest geodynamic stage, Asia was involved in east–southeast movement, and the Pacific plate moved in the opposite direction with subduction under Asia. The weakened upper mantle region of the Gobi melting anomaly provided a counterflow connected with rollback in the Japan Sea area. These dynamics resulted in the formation of the Honshu-Korea flexure of the Pacific slab. A similar weakened upper mantle region of the North Transbaikal melting anomaly was associated with the formation of the Hokkaido-Amur flexure of the Pacific slab, formed due to progressive pull-down of the slab material into the transition layer in the direction of the Pacific plate and Asia convergence. The early–middle Miocene structural reorganization of the mantle processes in Asia resulted in the development of upper mantle low-velocity domains associated with the development of rifts and orogens. We propose that extension at the Baikal Rift was caused by deviator flowing mantle material, initiated under the moving lithosphere in the Baikal melting anomaly. Contraction at the Hangay orogen was created by facilitation of the tectonic stress transfer from the Indo-Asian interaction zone due to the low-viscosity mantle in the Gobi melting anomaly.

  6. Experimental investigation of the inception of a spilling breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Dan; Shemer, Lev

    2013-11-01

    Conditions for the inception of a spilling breaker were studied in 18 m long tank. Peregrine breather-type wave train was excited to generate breaker at a desired location. Parameters of the breaker were obtained using wave gages and two synchronized 2 Mega pixel cameras operating at 60 fps. The instantaneous surface elevation in the vicinity of the breaker's crest was measured by 5 wave gages, while the local wave shape and the inception of breaking were identified from 18 Mpixel video records of the contact line shape variation at the side wall of the tank. An additional identical camera looking at the wave field from above was used to measure the velocity field in the vicinity of the breaking location using Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Floating particles with diameter of about 3 mm were used for that purpose. Both cameras were synchronized. The instantaneous crest location and velocity were determined from surface elevation fluctuations records. Actual local instantaneous crest velocities differ from both the phase and group velocities of the dominant wave and are compared with the instantaneous horizontal water velocities at various stages of waves breaking.

  7. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  8. Geochronology, Nd isotopes and reconnaissance geochemistry of volcanic and metavolcanic rocks of the São Luís Craton, northern Brazil: Implications for tectonic setting and crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evandro L.; Luzardo, Renê; Moura, Candido A. V.; Lobato, Denise C.; Brito, Reinaldo S. C.; Armstrong, Richard

    2009-02-01

    New field work, in addition to zircon geochronology, Nd isotopes and reconnaissance geochemical data allow the recognition of Paleoproterozoic volcanic and metavolcanic sequences in the São Luís Craton of northern Brazil. These sequences record at least five volcanic pulses occurring probably in three distinct epochs and in different tectonic settings. (1) The Pirocaua Formation of the Aurizona Group comprises early arc-related calc-alkaline metapyroclastic rocks of 2240 ± 5 Ma formed from juvenile protoliths in addition to minor older crustal components. (2) The Matará Formation of the Aurizona Group holds mafic tholeiitic and ultramafic metavolcanic rocks of back arc and/or island arc setting, which are likely coeval to the Pirocaua Formation. (3) The Serra do Jacaré volcanic unit is composed of tholeiitic basalts and predominantly metaluminous, normal- to high- K calc-alkaline andesites of 2164 ± 3 Ma formed in mature arc or active continental margin from juvenile protoliths along with subordinate older (Paleoproterozoic) materials and associated to the main calc-alkaline orogenic stage. (4) The Rio Diamante Formation consists of late-orogenic metaluminous, medium- K, calc-alkaline rhyolite to dacite and tuffs of 2160 ± 8 Ma formed in continental margin setting from reworked Paleoproterozoic crust (island arc) with incipient Archean contribution. (5) The Rosilha volcanic unit is composed of weakly peraluminous, medium- K, calc-alkaline dacite and tuff formed probably at about 2068 Ma from reworked crustal protoliths. As a whole the volcanic and metavolcanic rocks record and characterized better the previously proposed orogenic evolution of the São Luís Craton.

  9. Geology and geochemistry of Late Quaternary volcanism in northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: implications for eruption dynamics, regional stratigraphy and magma evolution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Murcia; J. M. Lindsay; K. Németh; I. E. M. Smith; S. J. Cronin; M. R. H. Moufti; N. N. El-Masry; Samuel Niedermann

    2017-01-01

    Harrat Rahat (,10 Ma) is one of the largest volcanic fields on western Arabia. In the north of the field, some of the youngest volcanic centres evolved through either point-like, complex or multiple aligned vents (i.e. along fissures), and have pyroclastic cones, lapilli fall deposits and/ or lava flows associated with them. The products reflect dominantly Hawaiian eruptions, and only one centre experienced phreatomagmatism. Results from new 3He surface-exposure dating provide ...

  10. From a stratigraphic sequence to a landscape evolution model: Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanism, soil formation and land use in the shade of Mount Vesuvius (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Vogel; Michael Märker; Ivano Rellini; Philipp Hoelzmann; Sabine Wulf; Mark Robinson; Linda Steinhübel; Giovanni Di Maio; Catello Imperatore; Pia Kastenmeier; Liana Liebmann; Domenico Esposito; Florian Seiler

    2016-01-01

    Detailed lithostratigraphic, geochemical, pedological, micromorphological and archaeological analyses were carried out at a stratigraphic sequence of Scafati, about 3 km east of ancient Pompeii. It comprises roughly the last 22,000 years of landscape history consisting of a multilayered succession of repeated volcanic deposition and pedogenesis. The former is caused by several phases of volcanic activity of Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, reflecting a large spectrum of eruption type...

  11. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  12. History of Red Crater volcano, Tongariro Volcanic Centre (New Zealand): Abrupt shift in magmatism following recharge and contrasting evolution between neighboring volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Phil; Maas, Roland; Lindsay, Jan

    2017-06-01

    also evident, larger volumes of magma with more radiogenic compositions were erupted and the history of activity extends farther back in time than that of Red Crater. This is consistent with the development of a larger silicic reservoir beneath Ngauruhoe that could have acted as a buoyancy filter preventing direct eruption of mafic magma. The eruptive products of the two volcanoes reveal the diverging development of adjacent magmatic reservoirs that lack lateral connectivity at a scale in the order of 102-103 m. There is limited literature on the comparative magmatic evolution of closely-spaced conduit/storage systems at arc volcanoes, reflecting the limitations of geochronological data at centennial and millennial timescales. However, such investigations provide insight into andesite assembly and the contrasting volcanism that could be expected in future activity.

  13. Inception of supraglacial channelization under turbulent flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, E.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier surfaces exhibit an amazing variety of meltwater-induced morphologies, ranging from small scale ripples and dunes on the bed of supraglacial channels to meandering patterns, till to large scale drainage networks. Even though the structure and geometry of these morphologies play a key role in the glacier melting processes, the physical-based modeling of such spatial patterns have attracted less attention than englacial and subglacial channels. In order to partially fill this gap, our work concerns the large scale channelization occurring on the ice slopes and focuses on the role of turbulence on the wavelength selection processes during the channelization inception. In a recent study[1], two of us showed that the morphological instability induced by a laminar film flowing over an ice bed is characterized by transversal length scales of order of centimeters. Being these scales much smaller than the spacing observed in the channelization of supraglacial drainage networks (that are of order of meters) and considering that the water films flowing on glaciers can exhibit Reynolds numbers larger than 104, we investigated the role of turbulence in the inception of channelization. The flow-field is modeled by means of two-dimensional shallow water equations, where Reynolds stresses are also considered. In the depth-averaged heat balance equation an incoming heat flux from air is assumed and forced convection heat exchange with the wall is taken into account, in addition to convection and diffusion in the liquid. The temperature profile in the ice is finally coupled to the liquid through Stefan equation. We then perform a linear stability analysis and, under the assumption of small Stefan number, we solve the differential eigenvalue problem analytically. As main outcome of such an analysis, the morphological instability of the ice-water interface is detected and investigated in a wide range of the independent parameters: longitudinal and transversal wavenumbers

  14. Inception horizon concept as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Kopp, L.; Chantry, R.

    2012-04-01

    The office for natural hazards of the Vaud canton (Switzerland) is interested for a pragmatic approach to map sinkhole hazard in karst areas. A team was created by merging resources from a geoengineering company (CSD) and a karst specialist (SISKA). Large areas in Vaud territory are limestone karst in which the collapse hazard is essentially related to the collapse of soft-rocks covering underground cavities, rather than the collapse of limestone roofs or underground chambers. This statement is probably not valid for cases in gypsum and salt. Thus, for limestone areas, zones of highest danger are voids covered by a thin layer of soft-sediments. The spatial distributions of void and cover-thickness should therefore be used for the hazard assessment. VOID ASSESSMENT Inception features (IF) are millimetre to decimetre thick planes (mainly bedding but also fractures) showing a mineralogical, a granulometrical or a physical contrast with the surrounding formation that make them especially susceptible to karst development (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2009). The analysis of more than 1500 km of cave passage showed that karst conduits are mainly developed along such discrete layers within a limestone series. The so-called Karst-ALEA method (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2011) is based on this concept and aims at assessing the probability of karst conduit occurrences in the drilling of a tunnel. This approach requires as entries the identification of inception features (IF), the recognition of paleo-water-table (PWT), and their respective spatial distribution in a 3D geological model. We suggest the Karst-ALEA method to be adjusted in order to assess the void distribution in subsurface as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping. Inception features (horizons or fractures) and paleo-water-tables (PWT) have to be first identified using visible caves and dolines. These features should then be introduced into a 3D geological model. Intersections of HI and PWT located close to landsurface are areas with a

  15. Volcanic Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  16. El Estribo Volcanic Complex: Evolution from a shield volcano to a cinder cone, Pátzcuaro Lake, Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, A.; Macías, J. L.; Osorio-Ocampo, S.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Martínez-Martínez, J.

    2015-09-01

    El Estribo Volcanic Complex (EVC) is located in the northern part of the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). El Estribo is located at the southern edge of the E-W Pátzcuaro fault that belongs to the Pátzcuaro-Jarácuaro graben, a western extension of the E-W Morelia-Acambay fault system. Stratigraphy, geochronology, chemistry, and mineral assemblages suggest that the volcanic complex was constructed in two periods separated by a ~ 100 ka volcanic hiatus: a) emission of lava flows that constructed a shield volcano between 126 ka, and b) mixed phreatomagmatic to Strombolian activity that formed a cinder cone ~ 28 ka. The magmas that fed these monogenetic volcanoes were able to use the same feeding system. The cinder cone itself was constructed by Strombolian fallouts and remobilized scoria beds, followed by an erosion period, and by a mixed phreatomagmatic to magmatic phase (Strombolian fallouts ending with lava flows). Soft-sedimentary deformation of beds and impact sags, cross-bedding, as well as pitting and hydrothermal cracks found in particles support the phreatomagmatic phase. The erupted magmas through time ejected basaltic andesitic lava flows (56.21-58.88% SiO2) that built the shield volcano and then basaltic andesitic scoria (57.65-59.05% SiO2) that constructed the cinder cone. Although they used the same feeding system, the geochemical data and the mineral chemistry of the magmas indicate that the shield volcano and the cinder cone were fed by different magma batches erupted thousands of years apart. Therefore, the location of El Estribo Volcanic Complex along an E-W fault that has generated two sector collapses of the shield volcano to the north may be directly linked to this complex redistribution of the magmatic paths to the surface. Our findings show that magmatic feeding systems within monogenetic volcanic fields could be long lived, questioning the classic view of the monogenetic nature of their

  17. From olivine nephelinite, basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyphonolite and comendite in the Ankaratra volcanic complex, Madagascar: 40Ar/39Ar ages, phase compositions and bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; le Roex, Anton P.; Jourdan, Fred; Morra, Vincenzo; de'Gennaro, Roberto; Grifa, Celestino

    2017-03-01

    The Ankaratra volcanic field covers an area of 3800 km2 in central Madagascar and comprises of lava flows, lava domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars emplaced at different ages (Miocene to Recent). The volcanic products include ultramafic-mafic (olivine-leucite nephelinite, basanite, alkali basalt, hawaiite and tholeiitic basalt), intermediate (mugearite and benmoreite) and felsic rocks (trachyphonolite, quartz trachyte and rhyolite), the latter often peralkaline. The 40Ar/39Ar determinations for mafic lavas yield ages of 17.45 ± 0.12 Ma, 16.63 ± 0.08 Ma and 8.62 ± 0.09 Ma, indicating a prolonged magmatic activity. The mineralogical and geochemical variations suggest that the magmatic evolution of the alkali basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte series can be accounted for by removal of olivine, feldspars, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and accessory phases, producing residual trachytic and trachyphonolitic compositions mineralogically very similar to those of other volcanic areas and tectonic settings. The Ankaratra olivine leucite nephelinites, basanites and tholeiitic basalts do not seem to be associated with significant amounts of evolved comagmatic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70504-0.71012), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51259-0.51244) and 206Pb/204Pb (17.705-18.563) isotopic ratios of trachytes and comendite are consistent with open-system processes. However, other trachyphonolites have 143Nd/144Nd (0.51280), 206Pb/204Pb (18.648), 207Pb/204Pb (15.582) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.795) similar to those of mafic rocks, suggesting differentiation processes without appreciable interaction with crustal materials. The Ankaratra volcanism is to be directly linked to a broadly E-W-trending intracontinental extension. A large-scale thermal anomaly, associated with an anomalously hot source region, is not required to explain the Cenozoic magmatism of Madagascar.

  18. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes of Early Paleozoic arc-related volcanic rocks in Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-11-01

    An Early Paleozoic acid volcanic sequence has been recently detected southeast of Sonid Zuoqi in central Inner Mongolia to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in this area. First, the volcanic rocks have zircon U-Pb ages of 439-445 Ma. They are characterized by (a) a high silica content, moderate alkali content and low iron content; (b) enrichment in light rare earth elements, depletion of heavy rare earth elements, and negative Eu anomalies; and (c) negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Finally, the volcanic samples yield εHf(t) values of - 4.7 to + 9.2 with TDM2 ages of 835-1724 Ma. For petrogenesis, they were possibly arc derived, from predominant juvenile materials with subordinate ancient continental crust. Combined with previous studies, the Early Paleozoic Sonid Zuoqi arc magmatism can be divided into three stages: a primitive arc stage represented by 464-490 Ma low-K, calcic granitoids; a normal continental arc stage represented by 439-445 Ma medium-K, calcic to calcic-alkalic plutons and volcanic rocks and a syn-collisional stage represented by 423-424 Ma high-K granites. Furthermore, the timing and tectonic settings of the above magmatic rocks show similarities to those in Xilinhot and other areas of the northern Early to Mid-Paleozoic orogenic belt (NOB), although the rock assemblies and their proportions vary more or less in different areas. Accordingly, the NOB that formed on this arc was probably attributed to the northward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean beginning at 500 Ma, which experienced this type of arc development and was terminated by a soft collision before the Late Devonian.

  19. Nature, Source and Composition of Volcanic Ash in Surficial Sediments Around the Zhongsha Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; WANG Xinyu

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic detrital sediments are a unique indicator for reconstructing the petrogenetie evolution of submarine volcanic terrains. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments around the Zhongsha Islands includes three kinds of volcanogenic detritus, i.e., brown volcanic glass, colorless volcanic glass and volcanic scoria. The major element characteristics show that bimodal volcanic activity may have taken place in the northern margin of the South China Sea, with brown volcanic glass and colorless volcanic glass repre-senting the maric end-member and felsie end-member, respectively. Fractional crystallization is the main process for magma evolu-tion. The nature of the volcanic activity implies that the origin of volcanic activity was related to extensional tectonic settings, which is corresponding to an extensional geodynamie setting in the Xisha Trench, and supports the notion, which is based on geophysical data and petrology, that there may exist a mantle plume around the Hainan Island.

  20. Sandstone provenance and U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Permian-Triassic forearc sediments within the Sukhothai Arc, northern Thailand: Record of volcanic-arc evolution in response to Paleo-Tethys subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Kunii, Miyuki; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Hisada, Ken-ichiro; Kamata, Yoshihito; Ueno, Katsumi; Kon, Yoshiaki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Hayato; Assavapatchara, San; Treerotchananon, Anuwat; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Charusiri, Punya

    2017-09-01

    Provenance analysis and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in Permian-Triassic forearc sediments from the Sukhothai Arc in northern Thailand clarify the evolution of a missing arc system associated with Paleo-Tethys subduction. The turbidite-dominant formations within the forearc sediments include the Permian Ngao Group (Kiu Lom, Pha Huat, and Huai Thak formations), the Early to earliest Late Triassic Lampang Group (Phra That and Hong Hoi formations), and the Late Triassic Song Group (Pha Daeng and Wang Chin formations). The sandstones are quartzose in the Pha Huat, Huai Thak, and Wang Chin formations, and lithic wacke in the Kiu Lom, Phra That, Hong Hoi and Pha Daeng formations. The quartzose sandstones contain abundant quartz, felsic volcanic and plutonic fragments, whereas the lithic sandstones contain mainly basaltic to felsic volcanic fragments. The youngest single-grain (YSG) zircon U-Pb age generally approximates the depositional age in the study area, but in the case of the limestone-dominant Pha Huat Formation the YSG age is clearly older. On the other hand, the youngest cluster U-Pb age (YC1σ) represents the peak of igneous activity in the source area. Geological evidence, geochemical signatures, and the YC1σ ages of the sandstones have allowed us to reconstruct the Sukhothai arc evolution. The initial Sukhothai Arc (Late Carboniferous-Early Permian) developed as a continental island arc. Subsequently, there was general magmatic quiescence with minor I-type granitic activity during the Middle to early Late Permian. In the latest Permian to early Late Triassic, the Sukhothai Arc developed in tandem with Early to Middle Triassic I-type granitic activity, Middle to Late Triassic volcanism, evolution of an accretionary complex, and an abundant supply of sediments from the volcanic rocks to the trench through a forearc basin. Subsequently, the Sukhothai Arc became quiescent as the Paleo-Tethys closed after the Late Triassic. In addition, parts of sediments of

  1. The Choiyoi volcanic province at 34°S-36°S (San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina): Implications for the Late Palaeozoic evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Laura E.; Japas, María S.

    2009-08-01

    The Choiyoi rhyolitic province of Chile and Argentina (23°S-42°S) was emplaced at the SW margin of Gondwana during the Permian. The San Rafael Massif (Mendoza, Argentina, 34°-36°S), is a key area to analyse the relative timing of Choyoi magmatism and related deformation as it bears one of the most complete and well exposed succession. Stratigraphic, structural and magmatic studies indicate that major changes of geodynamic conditions occurred during the Permian since arc-related sequences syntectonic with transpression (lower Choiyoi) were followed by transitional to intraplate, postorogenic suites coeval with transtension (upper Choiyoi). During the Early Permian, a major event of N-NNW dextral transpressional motions deformed the Carboniferous foreland basin in the San Rafael Massif. This event is attributed to the first episode of the San Rafael orogeny and can be related to oblique subduction (Az. 30°) of the Palaeo-Pacific plate. Ca. 280 Ma the inception of voluminous calc-alkaline volcanism (lower Choiyoi) syntectonic with WNW sinistral transpression of the second episode of the San Rafael orogeny, is associated with an eastward migration of the magmatic arc at this latitude. To the southeast of San Rafael, magmatism and transpression continued to migrate inland suggesting that a progressively younger, WNW, sinistral, thick skinned deformation belt broadens into the foreland and can be traced from San Rafael to Sierra de la Ventana, linking the San Rafael orogeny with the Gondwanide orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa. This distribution of magmatism and deformation is interpreted as being the consequence of a progressive shallowing of the Palaeo-Pacific plate starting to the north of San Rafael, and culminating with a flat-slab region south of 36°S. Ca. 265 Ma the onset of predominantly felsic volcanism (upper Choiyoi) in San Rafael occurred in a Post-San Rafael extensional setting. Kinematic indicators and strain fabric analyses of San Rafael

  2. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  3. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashima Saikia; Bibhuti Gogoi; Mansoor Ahmad; Talat Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  4. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Ashima; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-06-01

    The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

  5. Excess mortality emerges after 10 years in an inception cohort of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovits, B.J.; Fransen, J.; Shamma, S. Al; Eijsbouts, A.M.M.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality rates, causes of death, time trends in mortality, prognostic factors for mortality, and the relationship between disease activity and mortality over a 23-year period in an inception cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: A prospective inception coh

  6. Zircon age and geochemistry of the Tost bimodal volcanic rocks: Constraints on the Early Carboniferous tectonic evolution of the South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunhu; Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fochin; Meng, Qingren; Zhu, Mingshuai; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Anaad, Chimedtseren

    2016-04-01

    SIMS zircon U-Pb dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for the Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from Tost area in Mongolia, the southern portion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Tost volcanic rocks show a bimodal feature characterized by a mafic member of basalt and a felsic component of rhyolite, which are temporally and spatially related each other, implying a genetic relationship. Zircon U-Pb isotopic data of the rhyolite constrain the Tost bimodal magmatism occurring from 355 Ma to 320 Ma. The Tost basalt is characterized by high abundances in Th, U and Pb, slightly enriched LREE patterns and low HFSE/LREE ratios. These features, together with their OIB-like isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7039378-0.704397, εNd(t) = 3.55-5.02), suggest that they were likely derived from low-degree partial melting of a metasomatized asthenospheric mantle source with subordinate input of subduction components. The Tost rhyolite, which displays an intimate affinity to Tost basalt, with enrichment in Th, U and Pb, depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti, and gently right-tilted REE patterns, is inferred to be generated by partial melting of a juvenile lower crustal source heated by underplating mafic magmas which rise from asthenosphere during continued rifting. The Tost bimodal volcanic rocks are comparable both in age and composition with those in the East Tianshan, which together constitute an E-W-oriented belt of bimodal volcanic rocks, marking an Early Carboniferous rifting event. Considering regional geology, we propose that the rifting took place in a back-arc extensional setting, probably induced by the subduction of the Dzungaria Ocean between the East Tianshan and Junggar-Kazakhstan plate during the Early Carboniferous.

  7. A review of studies of mechanism and prediction of tip vortex cavitation inception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌新; 张娜; 彭晓星; 王本龙; 邵雪明

    2015-01-01

    The inception of the tip vortex cavitation (TVC) is a very important problem in cavitation researches. The study of the mechanism of the TVC inception is not only conducive to its prediction, but also helps to suppress or suspend the occurrence of cavitation. In this paper, the research progresses on the TVC inception including theoretical, experimental and numerical studies mainly in the last two decades are reviewed. It is shown that the TVC inception is affected by complicated factors, such as the water quality, the average pressure and the fluctuating pressure. In the scaling law for the determination of the TVC inception, all these factors are considered. To precisely describe the scaling law, more investigations are needed to understand the effects of the water quality and the fluctuating pressure.

  8. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  9. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  10. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-01

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  11. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    [eng] One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology, which represents a significant socio-economic implication, is to conduct hazard assessment in active volcanic systems. These volcanological studies are aimed at hazard that allows to constructing hazard maps and simulating different eruptive scenarios, and are mainly addressed to contribute to territorial planning, definition of emergency plans or managing volcanic crisis. The impact of a natural event, as a volcanic eruption, can s...

  12. Inception mechanism and suppression of rotating stall in an axial-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, T.

    2013-12-01

    Inception patterns of rotating stall at two stagger-angle settings for the highly loaded rotor blades were experimentally investigated in a low-speed axial-flow fan. Rotor-tip flow fields were also numerically investigated to clarify the mechanism behind the rotating stall inception. The stall inception patterns depended on the rotor stagger-angle settings. The stall inception from a rotating instability was confirmed at the design stagger-angle settings. The stall inception from a short length-scale stall cell (spike) was also confirmed at the small stagger-angle setting. The spillage of tip-leakage flow and the tip-leakage vortex breakdown influence the rotating stall inception. An air-separator has been developed based on the clarified inception mechanism of rotating stall. The rotating stall was suppressed by the developed air-separator, and the operating range of fan was extended towards low flow rate. The effect of developed air-separator was also confirmed by application to a primary air fan used in a coal fired power plant. It is concluded from these results that the developed air-separator can provide a wide operating range for an axial-flow fan.

  13. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Ash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, S.C. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Warren, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of sedimentary provenance and altitude distribution of volcanic strata along Fortymile Wash, the primary desert wash east of Yucca Mountain, NV, indicates a major change in surface drainage basins related to late Miocene volcanic disruption. This event resulted in the establishment of the modern Fortymile Wash basin before 3 Ma, and probably by latest Miocene time. An understanding of this event is useful for evaluation of extensive alluviation east of Yucca Mountain and its relation to paleoclimate, hydrology and tectonics. To the northeast of Yucca Mountain, Fortymile Wash provides southward surface drainage from 60% of the area of the 11 Ma Timber Mountain caldera via Fortymile Canyon, a major breach in the caldera wall. In the southeast caldera moat, the distribution of volcanic units that predate and include the 9.4 Ma Thirsty Canyon Group and the characteristics of intercalated sediments indicate a northward paleoslope and sediment transport from a major drainage divide near Dome Mountain, a shield volcano now deeply incised by Fortymile Canyon. Eruption of the Thirsty Canyon Group from the Black Mountain area, 10 km northwest of the Timber Mountain caldera, is likely to have dammed a counterclockwise drainage system of the east moat. Following drainage disruption, the east moat filled with sediment up to the level of a new southward outlet at the saddle between Dome Mountain and the onlapping rhyolite of Shoshone Mountain. An older canyon south of this saddle received the overflow from the east moat and became the throughgoing Fortymile Canyon, integrating the east moat basin with a lower base level in Jackass Flats. Well-integrated southward drainage existed by the time the trachybasalt flows of Buckboard Mesa (2.8 Ma) were emplaced, because basal elevations of these flows slope southward about 100 m above modern Fortymile Wash.

  14. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of low-grade metamorphosed volcanic rocks from the Dantazi Complex: Implications for the evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Songsheng; Zhai, Mingguo; Li, Tiesheng; Peng, Peng; Santosh, M.; Shan, Houxiang; Zuo, Pengfei

    2015-11-01

    The late Neoarchean witnessed the cratonization of the North China Craton (NCC) through amalgamation of several micro-blocks to form a coherent basement. The Archean orthogneisses and supracrustal rocks in this craton have experienced various grades of metamorphism ranging up to upper amphibolite and granulite facies at ∼2500 Ma. Recently, a suite of low-grade metamorphosed (greenschist to lower amphibolite facies) volcanic rocks was discovered in the late Neoarchean Dantazi Complex in northern Hebei province. These meta-volcanic rocks consist of bimodal basalt-andesite and trachyte-dacite with a SiO2 gap between 54.4 wt.% and 60.7 wt.%. Here we report SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 2490 ± 19 Ma (MSWD = 2.0) and 2502 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 0.83) from the meta-mafic and meta-felsic volcanics, respectively, representing the timing of igneous activity. All the meta-mafic volcanic rocks display coherent trace element and REE patterns which are characterized by enriched LILE and LREE but depleted HFSE and HREE ((La/Yb)N = 6.29-15.10). Combining these trace element features with the positive zircon εHf(t) values (+1.3 to +6.6), we propose that the mafic rocks were likely derived from partial melting of a previously metasomatized lithospheric mantle. In the primitive mantle-normalized diagram, the felsic rocks display uniform patterns enriched in LILE but depleted in Nb and Ta, similar to those of lower crust. Furthermore, their strongly fractionated REE ((La/Yb)N = 15.24-61.20), lower HREE concentrations (Yb = 0.47-1.65 ppm) and positive zircon εHf(t) values (+1.6 to +5.3) suggest that they were derived from partial melting of the lower crust with garnet in the residue. This coeval occurrence of metasomatized mantle-derived mafic magmas and potassic felsic magmas from different source regions reflects an intracontinental extensional setting during the late Neoarchean to earliest Paleoproterozoic following the cratonization of the NCC. Our new data, combined with previous

  15. ZERO-TENSILE STRENGTH FOR RESULT COMPARISON IN CAVITATION INCEPTION TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The tensile strength of test liquid affects the cavitation inception numbers very seriously, and the zero-tensile strength as a criterion for detection of the cavitation inception numbers can be used, in order to reduce the influence of tensile strength. The scale effect on measuring zero-tensile strength of test liquid based on hydraulic methods must be considered. it is supposed that the zero-tensile strength can be defined by use of the comparative method, which unites the classical theory of cavitation inception with the modern one based on an identical criterion.

  16. Sphene and zircon in the Highland Range volcanic sequence (Miocene, southern Nevada, USA): Elemental partitioning, phase relations, and influence on evolution of silicic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Gualda, G.A.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphene is prominent in Miocene plutonic rocks ranging from diorite to granite in southern Nevada, USA, but it is restricted to rhyolites in coeval volcanic sequences. In the Highland Range volcanic sequence, sphene appears as a phenocryst only in the most evolved rocks (72-77 mass% SiO2; matrix glass 77-78 mass% SiO2). Zr-in-sphene temperatures of crystallization are mostly restricted to 715 and 755??C, in contrast to zircon (710-920??C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry). Sphene rim/glass Kds for rare earth elements are extremely high (La 120, Sm 1200, Gd 1300, Lu 240). Rare earth elements, especially the middle REE (MREE), decrease from centers to rims of sphene phenocrysts along with Zr, demonstrating the effect of progressive sphene fractionation. Whole rocks and glasses have MREE-depleted, U-shaped REE patterns as a consequence of sphene fractionation. Within the co-genetic, sphene-rich Searchlight pluton, only evolved leucogranites show comparable MREE depletion. These results indicate that sphene saturation in intruded and extruded magmas occurred only in highly evolved melts: abundant sphene in less silicic plutonic rocks represents a late-stage 'bloom' in fractionated interstitial melt. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Laminar Plunging Jets - Interfacial Rupture and Inception of Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Aravind

    Interfacial rupture and entrainment are commonly observed, e.g., air bubbles within a container being filled with water from a faucet. The example involves a liquid jet (density, rho, and viscosity, η) plunging into a receiving pool of liquid. Below a critical liquid-jet velocity, the interface develops a cusp-like shape within the receiving pool. The cusp becomes sharper with increasing liquid-jet velocity, and at a critical velocity ( Vc), the interface between the liquid and the surrounding fluid (density, rho0, and viscosity, η0) ruptures. Interfacial tension (sigma) can no longer preserve the integrity of the interface between the two immiscible fluids, and the plunging jet drags/entrains surrounding fluid into the receiving pool. Subsequently, the entrained fluid breaks up into bubbles within the receiving pool. The focus of this dissertation is the numerical prediction of the critical entrainment inception velocities for laminar plunging jets using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to simulate multi-fluid flows. Canonical to bottle-filling operations in the industry is the plunging-jet configuration -- the liquid jet issues from a nozzle and plunges into a container filled with liquid. Simulations of this configuration require capturing flow phenomena over a large range of length scales (4 orders of magnitude). Results show severe under-prediction of critical entrainment velocities when the maximum resolution is insufficient to capture the sharpening, and eventual rupture, of the interfacial cusp. Higher resolutions resulted in computational meshes with prohibitively large number of cells, and a drastic reduction in time-step values. Experimental results in the literature suggest at least a 100-fold increase in the smallest length scale when the entrained fluid is a liquid instead of air. This narrows the range of length scales in the problem. We exploit the experimental correlation between critical capillary

  18. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the over...

  19. Mixing and mingling in the evolution of andesite dacite magmas; evidence from co-magmatic plutonic enclaves, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Gamble, J. A.; Burt, R. M.; Carroll, L. D.; Shelley, D.

    2001-10-01

    The southeastern side of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand is marked by a line of andesite/dacite/low-silica rhyolite complexes. Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves occur within the lavas of the four youngest complexes: White Island, Motuhora (Whale Island), Edgecumbe and Tauhara. The enclaves range from coarse-grained gabbros, diorites, granodiorites and a syenite to finer-grained dolerites and microdiorites. The more mafic types are generally porphyritic with large phenocrysts of plagioclase, usually with extensive sieve textures in the cores and corroded margins. Most of these enclaves, including the coarser-grained plutonic examples, contain glass and many are miarolitic. Diorites and microdiorites/dolerites predominate at White Island, Motuhora and Edgecumbe; many are porphyritic. Enclaves at Tauhara are more variable; those collected from Hipaua Dome include a range from microdiorites to quartz microdiorites and those from Rubbish Tip Dome include microdiorites, a granodiorite, and a syenite. Most enclaves show textural evidence for disequilibrium with multiple populations of plagioclase and pyroxene. They also show considerable textural variation, even within a thin section, with coarse-grained gabbros/diorites intimately mixed with finer-grained dolerites/microdiorites. Geochemically and isotopically, most enclaves have a similar composition with their host lavas, although some have lower silica contents. Enclaves at Motuhora and Tauhara are isotopically more variable, indicating multiple sources and a more complex petrogenesis. Most diorite/microdiorite enclaves are interpreted to represent parts of a crystal mush formed during fractionation of andesite/dacite magma, and entrained during later rise of magma to the surface. The granodiorite from Rubbish Tip Dome, Tauhara, probably represents part of a silicic magma chamber within the crust that fed the host low-silica rhyolite lava dome. Variability within the enclaves indicates the complexity likely to occur

  20. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  1. Timing, origin and emplacement dynamics of mass flows offshore of SE Montserrat in the last 110 ka: implications for landslide and tsunami hazards, eruption history, and volcanic island evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimovs, J.; Talling, P. J.; Fisher, J. K.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Watt, S.F.L.; Hart, M. B.; Smart, C.; Le Friant, A.; Cassidy, M.; Moreton, S.G.; Leng, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass flows on volcanic islands generated by volcanic lava dome collapse and by larger volume flank collapse, can be highly dangerous locally and may generate tsunamis that threaten a wider area. It is therefore important to understand their frequency, emplacement dynamics and relationship to volcanic eruption cycles. The best record of mass flow on volcanic islands may be found offshore, where most material is deposited, and where intervening hemipelagic sediment aids dating. Here we analyse ...

  2. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  3. Sphene (Titanite) as Both Monitor and Driver of Evolution of Felsic Magma: Miocene Volcanic Plutonic and Rocks of the Colorado River Region, NV-AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. F.; Colombini, L. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.; Gualda, G. A.; Claiborne, L. E.; Ayers, J. C.

    2009-05-01

    Sphene is commonly the most abundant accessory mineral in metaluminous to weakly peraluminous igneous rocks. Its relatively large crystals preserve a wide array of zoning patterns and inclusions - notably, abundant other accessories and melt inclusions - and it is a major host for REE, U, Th, and HFSE. Thus it is a valuable repository of information about the history of the magmas from which it forms. Recent development of a Zr-in- sphene thermometer (Hayden et al CMP 155:529 2008) and of sensitive and precise in situ trace element analysis by SHRIMP-RG (Mazdab et al GSA abst 39:6:406 2007) permit more powerful exploitation of this repository. We have initiated a study of sphene in Miocene intrusive and extrusive rocks of the Colorado River extensional corridor for which extensive field, geochemical, and geochronological data provide context. Sphene is present as a late interstitial phase in some gabbros and diorites and common in quartz monzonites and granites. Among extrusive rocks, it occurs as phenocrysts in rhyolite lavas and tuffs that are products of small to giant eruptions (Peach Spring Tuff, >600 km3). Glasses that host sphene in the rhyolites are highly evolved (>76 wt% SiO2). Applying the Zr-in-sphene thermometer (TZr), SHRIMP-RG analyses indicate crystallization T between 730 and 810 C in both plutonic and volcanic rocks. This range is narrower than T estimates for zircon growth (Ti thermometry) for the same suite, which extend to somewhat lower and considerably higher values; zircons also tend to record more events and, evidently, longer histories. Ranges of REE patterns are variable and to some extent sample-specific, but all reveal common characteristics: (1) extremely high concentrations, especially for middle REE (maximum Sm in interiors 10-40x103 x chondrite); (2) deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* ca. 0.1-0.2); (3) TZr and REE dropping toward rims - especially pronounced for MREE. Estimated Kds for REE from sphene rims and rhyolite glass or

  4. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  5. The inception and evolution of a unique masters program in cancer biology, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Carolyn; Blancato, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (LCCC), Georgetown University Medical Center established a Masters Degree Program in Cancer Biology, Prevention and Control at UDC that is jointly administered and taught by UDC and LCCC faculty. The goal of the Masters Degree Program is to educate students as master-level cancer professionals capable of conducting research and service in cancer biology, prevention, and control or to further advance the education of students to pursue doctoral studies. The Program's unique nature is reflected in its philosophy "the best cancer prevention and control researchers are those with a sound understanding of cancer biology". This program is a full-time, 2-year, 36-credit degree in which students take half of their coursework at UDC and half of their coursework at LCCC. During the second year, students are required to conduct research either at LCCC or UDC. Unlike most cancer biology programs, this unique Program emphasizes both cancer biology and cancer outreach training.

  6. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island...... basalt (La/Nb = 0·8–1·5, La/Ba = 0·05–0·08). The Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic to trachytic rocks range between 0·703813 and 0·703841 (87Sr/86Sr) and 0·512743 and 0·512834 (143Nd/144Nd). Mass-balance and Rayleigh fractionation models support the proposed origin of the trachytes...... that the basaltic lavas originated in the asthenospheric mantle, probably within the spinel stability field and beneath an attenuated continental lithosphere in the back-arc area. The lack of a slab-fluid signature in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field rocks, along with unpublished and published geophysical results...

  7. Fusion characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to aviation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Damby, David E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-04-01

    The fusion dynamics of volcanic ash strongly impacts deposition in hot parts of jet engines. In this study, we investigate the sintering behavior of volcanic ash using natural ash of intermediate composition, erupted in 2012 at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala. A material science procedure was followed in which we monitored the geometrical evolution of cylindrical-shaped volcanic ash compact upon heating from 50 to 1400°C in a heating microscope. Combined morphological, mineralogical, and rheological analyses helped define the evolution of volcanic ash during fusion and sintering and constrain their sticking potential as well as their ability to flow at characteristic temperatures. For the ash investigated, 1240°C marks the onset of adhesion and flowability. The much higher fusibility of ash compared to that of typical test sands demonstrates for the need of a more extensive fusion characterization of volcanic ash in order to mitigate the risk posed on jet engine operation.

  8. Volcanic geology of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢光福; 王德滋; 金庆民; 沈渭洲; 陶奎元

    2002-01-01

    At Admiralty Bay of central King George Island, Keller Peninsula, Ullman Spur and Point Hennequin are main Tertiary volcanic terranes. Field investigation and isotopic datings indicate that, there occurred three periods of eruptions ( three volcanic cycles) and accompanying N-toward migration of the volcanic center on Keller Peninsula. After the second period of eruptions, the crater collapsed and a caldera was formed, then later eruptions were limited at the northern end of the peninsula and finally migrated to Ullman Spur. Thus Keller Peninsula is a revived caldera, and its volcanism migrated toward E with time. Point Hennequin volcanism happened more or less simultaneously with the above two areas, but has no clear relation in chemical evolution with them, frequently it belongs to another independent volcanic center.

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. Lagrangian kinematics of steep waves up to the inception of a spilling breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Lev; Liberzon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal Lagrangian velocities and accelerations at the surface of steep water-waves are studied by Particle Tracking Velocimetry for gradually increasing crest heights up to the inception of a spilling breaker. Localized steep waves are excited using wavemaker-generated Peregrine breather-type wave trains. Actual crest and phase velocities are estimated from video recorded sequences of the instantaneous wave shape as well as from surface elevation measurements by wave gauges. Effects of nonlinearity and spectral width on phase velocity, as well as the relation between phase velocity and crest propagation speed are discussed. The inception of a spilling breaker is associated with the horizontal velocity of water particles at the crest attaining that of the crest, thus confirming the kinematic criterion for inception of breaking.

  11. Lagrangian kinematics of steep waves up to the inception of a spilling breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Shemer, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal Lagrangian velocities and accelerations at the surface of steep water-waves are studied by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) for gradually increasing crest heights up to the inception of a spilling breaker. Localized steep waves are excited using wavemaker-generated Peregrine breather-type wave trains. Actual crest and phase velocities are estimated from video recorded sequences of the instantaneous wave shape as well as from surface elevation measurements by wave gauges. Effects of nonlinearity and spectral width on phase velocity, as well as relation between the phase velocity and crest propagation speed are discussed. The inception of a spilling breaker is associated with the horizontal velocity of water particles at the crest attaining that of the crest, thus confirming the kinematic criterion for inception of breaking.

  12. Evolution Of An Upper Crustal Plutonic-Volcanic Plumbing System:Insights From High Precision U-Pb Zircon Geochronology Of Intracaldera Tuff And Intrusions In Silver Creek Caldera, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Mundil, R.; Miller, C. F.; Miller, J. S.; Paterson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Study of both plutonic and volcanic regimes in one single magmatic system is a powerful approach towards obtaining a more complete view of the long-term evolution of magma systems. The recently discovered Silver Creek caldera is the source of the voluminous Peach Spring Tuff (PST) (Ferguson, 2008) and presents a unique opportunity to study a field laboratory of a linked plutonic-volcanic system. This relict west-facing half caldera is predominantly filled with trachytic intracaldera tuff with the caldera margin intruded by several petrologically distinct hypabyssal intrusions. These include porphyritic granite with granophyric texture, felsic leucogranite, porphyritic monzonite exposed on NE side of the caldera that is zoned from more felsic to more mafic, and quartz-phyric dikes that intrude the caldera fill. We present preliminary single zircon ages from 4 samples that have been analyzed using the CA-TIMS method after thermal annealing and chemical leaching (Mattinson 2005), including 1 sample from intracaldera tuff and 3 samples from caldera-related intrusions. 3-D total U/Pb isochron ages from all four samples fall within a range of 18.32-18.90 Ma with uncertainties between 0.09 and 0.39 Ma, although some of them lack precision and are compromised by elevated common Pb. For example, zircon from the dated porphyritic monzonite yields an age of 18.32±0.42 Ma (MSWD=2.7) where the excess scatter may result from real age dispersion and/or different compositions of the common Pb contribution. The PST had been dated to ~18.5 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar techniques (Nielson et al., 1990). In order to be compared to U/Pb ages the 40Ar/39Ar age must be adjusted for a revised age for the then used flux monitor (MMbh-1) and corrected for the now quantified systematic bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages (Renne et al., 2010), which results in a corrected age of 18.8 Ma. Thus, the ages for our samples match that of the PST within error. Based on current results, the age difference

  13. Geochemical constraints on komatiite volcanism from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for Mesoarchean mantle evolution and continental growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushipokla

    2013-05-01

    different depths in hot spot environments possibly with a rising plume. The low content of incompatible elements in studied komatiites suggest existence of depleted mantle during ca. 3.2 Ga which in turn imply an earlier episode of mantle differentiation, greenstone volcanism and continental growth probably during ca. 3.6–3.3 Ga which is substantiated by Nd and Pb isotope data of gneisses and komatiites in western Dharwar craton (WDC.

  14. Protocol for the establishment and operation of LTPP sections - Inception report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, DJ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available /7 February 2003 Report: CR-2003/7 A protocol for the establishment and operation of LTPP sections - Inception report Authors: D Jones and P Paige-Green PREPARED FOR: Gautrans PBag x3 LYNN EAST 0027... PREPARED BY: CSIR Transportek PO Box 395 PRETORIA 0001 Tel: +27 12 841-2905 Fax+27 12 841-3232 CR-2003/7: Protocol for the establishment and operation of LTPP sections - Inception Report i DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL PAGE Report No: CR-2003...

  15. The Birimian volcanism in the northeastern Ivory-Coast, evidence for two distinct volcano-tectonic phases in the geodynamical evolution during the Palaeo-Proterozoic; Le volcanisme birimien du nord-est de la Cote-d`Ivoire, mise en evidence de deux phases volcano-tectoniques distinctes dans l`evolution geodynamique du Paleoproterozoique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouclet, A.; Vidal, M. [Orleans Univ., 45 (France); Delor, C.; Simeon, Y. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Alric, G.

    1996-12-31

    In the northeastern Ivory-Coast, volcanic formations having different geochemical features are located in the Haute-Comoe volcano-sedimentary Birimian terrains (Palaeo-Proterozoic). They consist of tholeiites belonging to greenstone belts and showing an oceanic magmatic signature, andesitic calc-alkaline lavas interbedded in the sediments of the Haute-Comoe Basin and related to an active margin-type magmatic genesis, and rhyodacitic intrusions spatially and geochemically linked to granitoid plutons. The magmatic characterization, in terms of geotectonic contexts leads to the following scheme: formation of the greenstone belts in a juvenile oceanic context with building of oceanic plateau (2.195 Ga), genesis of granitoid batholites with metamorphose the belts and beget a first continental crust (2.15 Ga), opening of a sedimentary basin in a shear-zone corridor with local production of calc-alkaline volcanism due to heat transfer along a major lithospheric fault (2.15 - 2.10 Ga), shortening of the basin with leucogranite intrusions in the same transcurrent context (2.09 Ga). This geodynamical scheme takes account of the distinction between two major volcano-tectonic phases: a tholeiitic phase with the greenstone belt formation and then, a calc-alkaline phase linked to the structural evolution of the sedimentary basin. This model could be applied to other Ivory-Coast Birimian terrains, but it is necessary to distinguish the volcanics and the sediments belonging to the greenstone belts and those of the basins which were emplaced between the batholiths. (authors). 78 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fluid evolution in a volcanic-hosted epithermal carbonate-base metal-gold vein system: Alto de la Blenda, Farallón Negro, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Zavalía, M. Florencia; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Alto de la Blenda is a ˜6.6-Ma intermediate-sulphidation epithermal vein system in the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex, which also hosts the 7.1-Ma porphyry-Cu-Au deposit of Bajo de la Alumbrera. The epithermal vein system is characterised by a large extent and continuity (2 km × 400 m open to depth × 6 m maximum width) and an average gold grade of ˜8 g/t. The vein is best developed within an intrusion of a fine-grained equigranular monzonite, interpreted as the central conduit of a stratovolcano whose extrusive activity ended prior to porphyry-Cu-Au emplacement at Bajo de la Alumbrera, which is in turn cut by minor epithermal veins. The Alto de la Blenda vein consists predominantly of variably Mn-rich carbonates and quartz, with a few percent of pyrite, sphalerite, galena and other sulphide and sulphosalt minerals. Four phases of vein opening, hydrothermal mineralisation and repeated brecciation can be correlated between different vein segments. Stages 2 and 3 contain the greatest fraction of sulphide and gold. They are separated by the emplacement of a polymictic breccia containing clasts of quartz feldspar porphyry as well as basement rocks. Fluid inclusions in quartz related to stages 2 to 4 are liquid rich with 2-4 wt% NaCl(eq). They homogenise between 160 and 300 °C, with very consistent values within each assemblage. Vapour inclusions are practically absent in the epithermal vein. Quartz fragments in the polymictic breccia contain inclusions of intermediate to vapour-like density and similar low salinity (˜3 wt% NaCl(eq)), besides rare brine inclusions containing halite. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of epithermal inclusions indicate high concentrations of K, Fe, As, Sb, Cs, and Pb that significantly vary within and through subsequent vein stages. Careful consideration of detection limits for individual inclusions shows high gold concentrations of ˜0.5 to 3 ppm dissolved in the ore fluid, which

  17. Numerical study of cavitation inception in the near field of an axisymmetric jet at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Stefano; Knio, Omar M.; Katz, Joseph

    2000-10-01

    Cavitation inception in the near field of high Reynolds number axisymmetric jets is analyzed using a simplified computational model. The model combines a vorticity-stream-function finite-difference scheme for the simulation of the unsteady flow field with a simplified representation for microscopic bubbles that are injected at the jet inlet. The motion of the bubbles is tracked in a Lagrangian reference frame by integrating a semiempirical dynamical equation which accounts for pressure, drag, and lift forces. The likelihood of cavitation inception is estimated based on the distributions of pressure and microscopic bubbles. The computations are used to examine the role of jet slenderness ratio, Reynolds number, bubble size, and bubble injection location on the cavitation inception indices. The results indicate that, for all bubble sizes considered, the cavitation inception index increases as the jet slenderness ratio decreases. Larger bubbles entrain more rapidly into the cores of concentrated vortices than smaller bubbles, and the corresponding inception indices are generally higher than those of smaller bubbles. The inception indices for larger bubbles are insensitive to the injection location, while the inception indices of smaller bubbles tend to increase when they are injected inside the shear layer near the nozzle lip. Although it affects the bubble distributions, variation of the Reynolds number leads to insignificant changes in pressure minima and in the inception indices of larger bubbles, having noticeable effect only on the inception indices of smaller bubbles. Computed results are consistent with, and provide plausible explanations for, several trends observed in recent jet cavitation experiments.

  18. Inception and Trapping of ZnO Nanoparticles within Desilicated Mordenite and ZSM-5 Zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey Arce, A.; Hernandez-Espinosa, M.A.; Rojas-Gonzalez, F.; Reed, C.P.; Petranovskii, V.; Licea, A.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle inception within mordenite and ZSM-5 zeolites, of varied Si/Al ratios, was achieved via the exchange of zeolite cations with Zn2+, followed by NaOH leaching, and thermal treatment at 550 °C under O2. ZnO particles were observed by electron microscopy; further characterization includ

  19. Initial Disease Course and Treatment in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inception Cohort in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Pedersen, Natalia; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EpiCom cohort is a prospective, population-based, inception cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients from 31 European centers covering a background population of 10.1 million. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year outcome in the EpiCom cohort. METHODS: Patients...

  20. Mechanisms and time scales of glacial inception simulated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate glacial inception and glacial thresholds in the climate-cryosphere system utilising the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2, which includes modules for atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, ocean and interactive ice sheets. The latter are described by the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. A bifurcation which represents glacial inception is analysed with two different model setups: one setup with dynamical ice-sheet model and another setup without it. The respective glacial thresholds differ in terms of maximum boreal summer insolation at 65° N (hereafter referred as Milankovich forcing (MF. The glacial threshold of the configuration without ice-sheet dynamics corresponds to a much lower value of the MF compared to the full model. If MF attains values only slightly below the aforementioned threshold there is fast transient response. Depending on the value of MF relative to the glacial threshold, the transient response time of inland-ice volume in the model configuration with ice-sheet dynamics ranges from 10 000 to 100 000 years. We investigate implications of these time scales for past glacial inceptions and for the overdue Holocene glaciation hypothesis by Ruddiman (W. F. Ruddiman, Climatic Change 2003, Vol. 61, 261–293. We also have shown that the asynchronous coupling between climate and inland-ice components allows one sufficient realistic simulation of glacial inception and, at the same time, a considerable reduction of computational costs.

  1. Thirty Years of "International Journal of Behavioral Development": Scope, Internationality, and Impact since Its Inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schui, Gabriel; Krampen, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    The article presents 30-year bibliometrical results on trends in the scope, internationality, and impact of the "International Journal of Behavioral Development" ("IJBD") from its inception in 1978 to 2007. Bibliometric data were collected using the databases PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and the "IJBD" itself. In comparison…

  2. Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Muirhead, James D.; Ort, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    Monogenetic volcanoes have limited magma supply and lack long-lived sustained magma plumbing systems. They erupt once, often from multiple vents and sometimes over several years, and are rarely or never re-activated. Eruptive behavior is very sensitive to physical processes (e.g., volatile exsolution, magma-water interaction) occurring in the later stages of magma ascent at shallow crustal depths (flowing through dikes fragmented and conduits were formed. We have identified three main types of fragmental deposits, (1) buds (which emerge from dikes), (2) pyroclastic massifs, and (3) diatremes; these represent three different styles and intensities of shallow-depth magma fragmentation. They may develop successively and at different sites during the evolution of a monogenetic volcano. The deposits consist of a mixture of pyroclasts with varying degrees of welding and country-rock debris in various proportions. Pyroclasts are commonly welded together, but also reveal in places features consistent with phreatomagmatism, such as blocky shapes, dense groundmasses, and composite clasts (loaded and cored). The extent of fragmentation and the formation of subterranean open space controlled the nature of the particles and the architecture and geometry of these conduit structures and their deposits.

  3. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopolski, A; Winkelmann, R; Schellnhuber, H J

    2016-01-14

    The past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated warm and stable climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes. Yet such summer insolation is near to its minimum at present, and there are no signs of a new ice age. This challenges our understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception. Here we propose a critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and might anticipate future periods of glacial inception. Using an ensemble of simulations generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by palaeoclimatic data, we suggest that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The missed inception can be accounted for by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentrations and the low orbital eccentricity of the Earth. Additionally, our analysis suggests that even in the absence of human perturbations no substantial build-up of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would probably last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1,000 to 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon will postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years. Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to remain in the present delicately balanced interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time.

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the island of Panarea: implications for mantle evolution beneath the Aeolian island arc (southern Tyrrhenian sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanchi, N.; Peccerillo, A.; Tranne, C. A.; Lucchini, F.; Rossi, P. L.; Kempton, P.; Barbieri, M.; Wu, T. W.

    2002-06-01

    Major, trace element and radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb) data are reported for a suite of rocks from the Panarea volcano, a large structure that is largely hidden below sea level and outcrops only as a group of small islands between Lipari-Vulcano and Stromboli in the eastern Aeolian arc. The exposed rocks mostly consist of high-potassium calc-alkaline (HKCA) andesites, dacites and some rhyolites; shoshonitic basalts have been collected from submarine centres; mafic calc-alkaline (CA) rocks occur as thin layers of late-erupted strombolian scoriae. Major and trace element data are scattered, but define generally linear trends on inter-element diagrams; Sr-isotope ratios do not display significant increase with evolution, although rough positive trends of 87Sr/ 86Sr versus SiO 2 and Rb/Sr can be recognised within some units. The mafic rocks display varying enrichment in potassium, from CA to shoshonitic compositions, and are characterised by variable abundances of incompatible trace elements, which increase with potassium. There is an increase of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios and a decrease of 143Nd/ 144Nd and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios from CA to HKCA and shoshonitic mafic rocks. The scattered and incomplete nature of the outcrops make it difficult to constrain magmatic evolution at Panarea; geochemical and isotopic data suggest that AFC and mixing were important evolutionary processes. However, geochemical modelling does not support the possibility that the first-order compositional variations observed in the mafic rocks are the result of these processes, and suggests a genesis in a heterogeneous mantle source. Recent studies have highlighted strong differences in terms of incompatible trace element ratios and isotopic signatures, between the western-central and the eastern Aeolian arc. Rocks from the western islands (Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina, Vulcano) have typical magmatic arc geochemical signatures and relatively unradiogenic Sr-isotope compositions. By contrast, the eastern

  5. Evolution of fluid-rock interactions: fluid inclusion, isotopic, and major/minor element chemistry of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock in core RN-17B, Reykjanes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    The Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, hosts a seawater-dominated geothermal system. Previous studies indicate an evolution of the system from meteoric to seawater. The inclined 4-inch diameter RN-17B drill core was collected from 2798.5 m to 2808.5 m (~2555 m below surface) at in situ temperature of approximately 330°C. Samples for this study were obtained from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The core contains hydrothermally altered rocks of basaltic composition. Hydrothermal alteration ranges from upper greenschist to lower amphibolite grade, dependent on protolith size and composition. Veins in the core grade inward from radial epidote + acicular hornblende + titanite + pyrite, to clearer equant and compositionally zoned epidote vein centers. Felted amphibole replaces hyaloclastite and smaller crystalline clasts within the core, but is absent from the centers of crystalline pillow basalt fragments. Amphibole in vein selvages and vesicle fillings is green and acicular. Electron microprobe analyses of amphibole indicate it spans a compositional range of ferrohornblende through paragasite. The pistacite component (Xps) of vein epidote ranges from 16.5 to 36.7. The Xps component shows both normal and reverse zoning within single epidote crystals across this range, and follows no distinct pattern. Vein epidote adjacent to the wall rock has a higher aluminum concentration than vein centers. This may be due to mobilization of aluminum from plagioclase in the wall rock during albitization. Solutions flowing through open fractures may have lower Al-content and thus precipitate more Fe-rich epidote than those next to the fracture walls. Primary fluid inclusions in epidote range in size from <1 to 10 μm in diameter. Secondary fluid inclusions are <1 μm in diameter and not measurable. Calculated fluid inclusion salinities range from 0.5 to 7.6 weight percent NaCl, with lower salinities adjacent to the wall rock and higher salinities in the vein centers

  6. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution through successive extensional events of the Anydros Basin, hosting Kolumbo volcanic field at the Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Ruhnau, M.; Bejelou, K.

    2016-03-01

    The structural evolution of the South Aegean Sea is little explored due to the lack of marine seismic data. Our present day understanding is mainly based on some island outcrops and GPS measurements. In this study we discuss the rather incremental opening of the Anydros Basin in the Pliocene during six major tectonic pulses and the subsequent basin fill processes by interpreting seismic data and derived time isochore maps. Between the active pulses basin floor tilting persisted on a much lower rate. Seismic data illustrate the depositional processes in the emerging Anydros Basin. The observation of onlap fill strata, divergent reflection pattern, moat channels and contourite drifts imply that deposition was controlled by turbidity and contour currents as well as the tilting basin floor. The metamorphic Attico-Cycladic basement shows a rise that aligns along an NW-SE directed axis crossing Anydros island. This axis marks a structural change of the Santorini-Amorgos Ridge and thus represents a major structural boundary. Dip angles of NE-SW trending major faults, like the Santorini-Amorgos Fault, indicate normal faulting to be the superior mechanism forming the present horst and graben environment. Hence, the area is likely to be in a state of NW-SE directed extensional stresses forming the asymmetric graben structure of Anydros. Secondary fault clusters strike the same direction but show much steeper dip angles, possibly indicating strike-slip movement or resulting from deformational stresses along the hinge zones of the normal faults. The majority of the faults we discovered are located in the area of earthquake clusters, which is another indication of recent faulting. Ring faults around Kolumbo submarine volcano, result from caldera collapse and mark the diameter of the magma chamber approximately to 20 km.

  7. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  8. Inception and evolution of Oklo natural nuclear reactors; Genese et evolution des reacteurs nucleaires fossiles d'Oklo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentridi, Salah-Eddine [UMR 7517, laboratoire d' hydrologie et de geochimie de Strasbourg, CNRS/universite de Strasbourg, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Laboratoire de l' energie et des systemes intelligents, CUKM, route de Theniet, El-Hed 44225 (Algeria); Gall, Benoit [UMR 7178, institut pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, CNRS-IN2P3/universite de Strasbourg, 23, rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois [UMR 7517, laboratoire d' hydrologie et de geochimie de Strasbourg, CNRS/universite de Strasbourg, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Seghour, Abdeslam [Centre de recherches nucleaires d' Alger - CRNA, 2, boulevard Frantz-Fanon, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Medjadi, Djamel-Eddine [Ecole normale superieure, Vieux-Kouba, 16050 Alger (Algeria)

    2011-11-15

    The occurrence of more than 15 natural nuclear Reactor Zones (RZ) in a geological environment remains a mystery even 40 years after their discovery. The present work gives for the first time an explanation of the chemical and physical processes that caused the start-up of the fission reactions with two opposite processes, uranium enrichments and progressive impoverishment in {sup 235}U. Based on Monte-Carlo neutronics simulations, a solution space was defined taking into account realistic combinations of relevant parameters acting on geological conditions and neutron transport physics. This study explains criticality occurrence, operation, expansion and end of life conditions of Oklo natural nuclear reactors, from the smallest to the biggest ones. (authors)

  9. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  10. The Navy Job Performance Measurement Program: Background, Inception, and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    This report details the inception and institutionalization of the Navy’s job performance measurement project, part of the Congressionally-mandated...Joint-Service Project. Specifically, this report traces the history of the Joint-Service effort to link enlistment standards to actual job performance measurement...project will provide the Navy with the capability to measure and predict job performance and will contribute to major improvements in personnel system functions and measurement technology.

  11. Mechanisms and time scales of glacial inception simulated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate glacial inception and glacial thresholds in the climate-cryosphere system utilising the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2, which includes modules for atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, ocean and interactive ice sheets. The latter are described by the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. A bifurcation which represents glacial inception is analysed with two different model setups: one setup with dynamical ice-sheet model and another setup without it. The respective glacial thresholds differ in terms of maximum boreal summer insolation at 65° N (hereafter referred as Milankovitch forcing (MF. The glacial threshold of the configuration without ice-sheet dynamics corresponds to a much lower value of MF compared to the full model. If MF attains values only slightly below the aforementioned threshold there is fast transient response. Depending on the value of MF relative to the glacial threshold, the transient response time of inland-ice volume in the model configuration with ice-sheet dynamics ranges from 10 000 to 100 000 years. Due to these long response times, a glacial threshold obtained in an equilibrium simulation is not directly applicable to the transient response of the climate-cryosphere system to time-dependent orbital forcing. It is demonstrated that in transient simulations just crossing of the glacial threshold does not imply large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. We found that in transient simulations MF has to drop well below the glacial threshold determined in an equilibrium simulation to initiate glacial inception. Finally, we show that the asynchronous coupling between climate and inland-ice components allows one sufficient realistic simulation of glacial inception and, at the same time, a considerable reduction of computational costs.

  12. Glacial Inception in north-east Canada: The Role of Topography and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leah; Tziperman, Eli; Cronin, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 0.8 million years, ice ages have dominated Earth's climate on a 100 thousand year cycle. Interglacials were brief, sometimes lasting only a few thousand years, leading to the next inception. Currently, state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) are incapable of simulating the transition of Earth's climate from interglacial to glaciated. We hypothesize that this failure may be related to their coarse spatial resolution, which does not allow resolving the topography of inception areas, and their parameterized representation of clouds and atmospheric convection. To better understand the small scale topographic and cloud processes mis-represented by GCMs, we run the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), which is a regional, cloud-resolving atmospheric model capable of a realistic simulation of the regional mountain climate and therefore of surface ice and snow mass balance. We focus our study on the mountain glaciers of Canada's Baffin Island, where geologic evidence indicates the last inception occurred at 115kya. We examine the sensitivity of mountain glaciers to Milankovitch Forcing, topography, and meteorology, while observing impacts of a cloud resolving model. We first verify WRF's ability to simulate present day climate in the region surrounding the Penny Ice Cap, and then investigate how a GCM-like biased representation of topography affects sensitivity of this mountain glacier to Milankovitch forcing. Our results show the possibility of ice cap growth on an initially snow-free landscape with realistic topography and insolation values from the last glacial inception. Whereas, smoothed topography as seen in GCMs has a negative surface mass balance, even with the relevant orbital parameter configuration. We also explore the surface mass balance feedbacks from an initially ice-covered Baffin Island and discuss the role of clouds and convection.

  13. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopolski, Andrey; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated rather stable and warm climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes (Milanković , 1941; Hays et al., 1976, Paillard, 1998). Yet pertinent summer insolation is near to its minimum at present (Berger and Loutre, 2002), and there are no signs of a new ice age (Kemp et al., 2011). This challenges our scientific understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception (Masson-Delmotte et al., 2013). Here we propose a fundamental functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global CO2 concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and can anticipate future periods when glacial inception may occur again. Using a simulations ensemble generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by paleoclimatic data, we show that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This can be explained by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentration and low orbital eccentricity of the Earth (Loutre and Berger, 2003). Additionally, our analysis shows that even in the absence of human perturbations no significant buildup of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would likely last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1000 to 1500 GtC may already postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years (Archer and Ganopolski, 2005; Paillard, 2006). Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to stay in the delicate interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time.

  14. Single Image Super-Resolution with Dilated Convolution based Multi-Scale Information Learning Inception Module

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wuzhen; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Debin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional works have shown that patches in a natural image tend to redundantly recur many times inside the image, both within the same scale, as well as across different scales. Make full use of these multi-scale information can improve the image restoration performance. However, the current proposed deep learning based restoration methods do not take the multi-scale information into account. In this paper, we propose a dilated convolution based inception module to learn multi-scale informa...

  15. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    investigate the sintering process of volcanic ash. In order to analyze the mineral transformation and microstructure evolution, the qualitative as well as quantitative crystalline phase analysis of volcanic ash samples directly taken from furnace by per 100 oC in the range of between 100 and 1400 oC as well as evaluation of microstructure of volcanic ash taken from from furnace by per 20 oC in the range of between 1000 and 1300 oC has been made by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we obtain the viscosity temperature curve for volcanic ash during melting process on the basis of the characteristic temperature obtained by HSM.

  16. Alleviation of poverty through the provision of local energy services (APPLES). Inception report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Cooper, D.; Cowan, B.; Mackenzie, G.; Mann, P.

    2005-11-15

    The inception phase of the APPLES project lasted from June to September 2005 and was meant to discuss the proposed approach among the project members, to present the project to relevant stakeholders in South Africa and to revise the work plan, time schedule and list of deliverables as a result of the changed context of the APPLES project since it was proposed to the European Commission. The inception report presents the proposed changes compared to the original project proposal for each of the eight Work Packages. It was agreed to establish a Project Steering Committee comprising the project funders and project partners. The National Action Plan of the South African Government to which APPLES was expected to contribute is already in place and it was decided to contribute to the National Strategy for Integrated energy centres instead. Four locations have been identified during the inception phase as initial target locations for APPLES: Highflats (rural), Hluleka (rural), Buffalo City (urban/peri-urban) and Cape Town (urban/peri-urban). A range of possible types of 'best energy practices' was identified and a broad list of categories of energy-related needs among poor communities was drawn up. It was agreed that the focus and objectives of WP7 on monitoring and evaluation should be on the impacts of the APPLES project and that monitoring of progress of individual Work Packages is undertaken and reported as part of the general management Work Package.

  17. Using Social Media to Accelerate the Internationalization of Startups from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Maltby

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A set of principles, processes, and tools that entrepreneurs can use to rapidly internationalize their technology startups from inception does not exist. This article discusses entrepreneurs’ use of online social media networks to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception. The article was inspired by how the founders of Dewak S.A. rapidly internationalized their technology startup. Dewak was founded by five unemployed Colombians in June 2008. Two years later, foreign sales comprised 95% of the firm’s revenue and provided the founders with full-time employment. Dewak’s only channel to market was via online social media networks. Recognizing that entrepreneurs can use social media to amplify their tacit knowledge and convert it into sellable products and services contributes to the development of a learning-based view of rapid internationalization from inception. The article provides entrepreneurs seeking to launch and grow global businesses with four recommendations that may save them time and money and increase the size of their addressable markets.

  18. 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology, Isotope Geochemistry (Sr, Nd, Pb), and petrology of alkaline lavas near Yampa, Colorado: migration of alkaline volcanism and evolution of the northern Rio Grande rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Thompson, Ren A.; Lee, John P.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic rocks near Yampa, Colorado (USA), represent one of several small late Miocene to Quaternary alkaline volcanic fields along the northeast margin of the Colorado Plateau. Basanite, trachybasalt, and basalt collected from six sites within the Yampa volcanic field were investigated to assess correlations with late Cenozoic extension and Rio Grande rifting. In this paper we report major and trace element rock and mineral compositions and Ar, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data for these volcanic rocks. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology indicates westward migration of volcanism within the Yampa volcanic field between 6 and 4.5 Ma, and the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope values are consistent with a primary source in the Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Relict olivine phenocrysts have Mg- and Ni-rich cores, whereas unmelted clinopyroxene cores are Na and Si enriched with finely banded Ca-, Mg-, Al-, and Ti-enriched rims, thus tracing their crystallization history from a lithospheric mantle source region to one in contact with melt prior to eruption. A regional synthesis of Neogene and younger volcanism within the Rio Grande rift corridor, from northern New Mexico to southern Wyoming, supports a systematic overall southwest migration of alkaline volcanism. We interpret this Neogene to Quaternary migration of volcanism toward the northeast margin of the Colorado Plateau to record passage of melt through subvertical zones within the lithosphere weakened by late Cenozoic extension. If the locus of Quaternary alkaline magmatism defines the current location of the Rio Grande rift, it includes the Leucite Hills, Wyoming. We suggest that alkaline volcanism in the incipient northern Rio Grande rift, north of Leadville, Colorado, represents melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in response to transient infiltration of asthenospheric mantle into deep, subvertical zones of dilational crustal weakness developed during late Cenozoic extension that have been

  19. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  20. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (Ga - 2.9 Ga). Our results indicate that Late Amazonian volcanism is more widespread in Tharsis than previously recognized. Based on our results it appears possible that Mars is volcanologically not dead yet. Ongoing work investigates the volumes of erupted products and implications for the outgassing history and atmospheric evolution of Mars. [1] Greeley R. (1982) JGR 87, 2705-2712. [2] Plescia J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  1. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  2. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for the low-δ18O magmatism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone hotspot and other low-δ18O large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Tyler B.; Kitajima, Kouki; Nakashima, Daisuke; Strickland, Ariel; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Valley, John W.

    2016-11-01

    The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot track represents the largest known low-δ18O igneous province; however, debate persists regarding the timing and distribution of meteoric hydrothermal alteration and subsequent melting/assimilation relative to hotspot magmatism. To further constrain alteration relations for SRP-Y low-δ18O magmatism, we present in situ δ18O and U-Pb analyses of zircon, and laser fluorination δ18O analyses of phenocrysts, from the Lake Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east-central Oregon. U-Pb data place LOVF magmatism between 16.3 and 15.4 Ma, and contain no evidence for xenocrystic zircon. LOVF δ18O(Zrc) values demonstrate (1) both low-δ18O and high-δ18O caldera-forming and pre-/post-caldera magmas, (2) relative increases in δ18O between low-δ18O caldera-forming and post-caldera units, and (3) low-δ18O magmatism associated with extension of the Oregon-Idaho Graben. The new data, along with new compilations of (1) in situ zircon δ18O data for the SRP-Y, and (2) regional δ18O(WR) and δ18O(magma) patterns, further constrain the thermal and structural associations for hydrothermal alteration in the SRP-Y. Models for low-δ18O magmatism must be compatible with (1) δ18O(magma) trends within individual SRP-Y eruptive centers, (2) along axis trends in δ18O(magma), and (3) the high concentration of low-δ18O magmas relative to the surrounding regions. When considered with the structural and thermal evolution of the SRP-Y, these constraints support low-δ18O magma genesis originating from syn-hotspot meteoric hydrothermal alteration, driven by hotspot-derived thermal fluxes superimposed on extensional tectonics. This model is not restricted to continental hotspot settings and may apply to several other low-δ18O igneous provinces with similar thermal and structural associations.

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian bimodal volcanic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Jinfu; Qian, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation. These rocks are widely distributed in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in central Inner Mongolia, China. The volcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, subordinate dacite and local andesite, and exhibit bimodal geochemical features. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that the volcanic rocks formed during the early Permian (292-279 Ma). The mafic volcanic rocks belong to low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline series. These mafic volcanic rocks are also characterised by moderately enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns; high abundances of Th, U, Zr and Hf; negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies; initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70514-0.70623; and positive εNd(t) values (+1.9 to +3.8). These features indicate that the mafic volcanic rocks were likely derived from the high-percentage partial melting of subduction-related metasomatised asthenospheric mantle. The felsic rocks show an A-type affinity, with enrichments in alkalis, Th, U and LREEs. The felsic rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and exhibit moderately LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.09-6.45) and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.04-0.25). These features, along with the positive εNd(t) values (+2.6 to +7.7) and young TDM2 ages (TDM2 = 435-916 Ma), indicate that the felsic rocks were likely derived from a juvenile crustal source that mainly consisted of juvenile mid-ocean ridge basalt-related rocks. The volcanic association in this study and in previously published work widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia. The observations in this study suggest that the lower Permian volcanic rocks formed in an identical tectonic environment. The regional geological data indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the study area formed in an extensional setting that was

  4. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  5. Lung problems and volcanic smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...

  6. Reconstructing Volcanic Forcing of Climate: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Sigl, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from major volcanic eruptions has been a dominant driver of climate variability during Earth's history. Including volcanic forcing in climate model simulations is therefore essential to recreate past climate variability, and provides the opportunity to test the ability of models to respond accurately to external forcing. Ice cores provide estimates of the volcanic sulfate loadings from past eruptions, from which radiative forcing can be reconstructed, with associated uncertainties. Using prior reconstructions, climate models have reproduced the gross features of global mean temperature variability reconstructed from climate proxies, although some significant differences between model results and reconstructions remain. There is much less confidence in the accuracy of the dynamical responses to volcanic forcing produced by climate models, and thus the regional aspects of post-volcanic climate anomalies are much more uncertain—a result which mirrors uncertainties in the dynamical responses to future climate change. Improvements in model's response to volcanic forcing may be possible through improving the accuracy of the forcing data. Recent advances on multiple fronts have motivated the development of a next-generation volcanic forcing timeseries for use in climate models, based on (1) improved dating and precision of ice core records, (2) better understanding of the atmospheric transport and microphysical evolution of volcanic aerosol, including its size distribution, and (3) improved representations of the spatiotemporal structure of volcanic radiative forcing. A new volcanic forcing data set, covering the past 2500 years, will be introduced and compared with prior reconstructions. Preliminary results of climate model simulations using the new forcing will also be shown, and current and future applications of the forcing set discussed.

  7. Simulating Streamer Inception From Hydrometeors as a Stochastic Process with a Particle-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, C.; Dubinova, A.; Ebert, U.; Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.

    2016-12-01

    In thunderstorms, streamers (as a precursor for lightning) can be initiated from hydrometeors (droplets, graupel, ice needles, etc.) which enhance the thundercloud electric field to values above electric breakdown; and initial electrons may come from extensive air showers [1]. Typically, streamer inception from hydrometeors is theoretically studied with deterministic fluid simulations (i.e. drift-diffusion-reaction coupled with Poisson), see [1, 2, 3] and references therein. However, electrons will only multiply in the area above breakdown, which is of the order of a cubic millimeter for hydrometeors of sub-centimeter scale. Initial electron densities, even in extreme extensive air showers events, do not exceed 10 per cubic millimeter. Hence only individual electron avalanches - with their intrinsically random nature - are entering the breakdown area sequentially. On these scales, a deterministic fluid description is thus not valid. Ideally one would do fully 3D particle simulations, like in [4], but they are computationally too costly for a parameter study with many geometries. Therefore, we developed a new stochastic particle-based model to study the behavior of the system described above. We do not follow individual electrons but complete electron avalanches. We have calculated the probability distribution of streamer inception for various hydrometeor geometries, which potentially makes it possible - when having accurate enough meteorological data - to predict where, when and how many streamers in a thundercloud occur. Besides in geophysics, the new model is also important in the context of high voltage technology, and it gives new insight in the validity of the Meek-criterion for discharge inception. [1] Dubinova et al. 2015. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(1), 015002.[2] Liu et al. 2012. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 025002.[3] Babich et al. 2016. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121, 6393-6403.[4] Teunissen, T. & Ebert, U. 2016. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25(4), 044005.

  8. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong

    2000-01-01

    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  9. MANHATTAN DISTRICT HISTORY PROJECT Y THE LOS ALAMOS PROJECT VOL. I INCEPTION UNTIL AUGUST 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1961-12-01

    THESE TWO VOLUMES CONSTITUTE A RECORD OF THE TECHNICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE , AND POLICY-MAKING ACTIVITIES OF THE LOS ALAMOS PROJECT (PROJECT Y) FROM ITS INCEPTION UNDER THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOMIC BOMB (VOL. I), AND DURING THE PERIOD FOLLOWING THE END OF WORLD WAR II UNTIL THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT RELINQUISHED CONTROL TO THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION AS OF JANUARY 1947 (VOL. II). ALTHOUGH SECURITY REGULATIONS HAVE REQUIRED SOME DELETIONS IN THE ORIGINAL TEXT OF THE TWO VOLUMES, EVERY EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO RETAIN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE AND EXPRESSIONS OF THE AUTHORS.

  10. Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is one of the few countries in which karst cavities are scarce with respect to volcanic ones, which are widespread throughout the whole country. The great variability in lava composition allowed the evolution of very different cavities, some of which are amongst the largest lava tubes of the world. As normal for such a kind of cave, the hosted speleothems and cave minerals are scarce but important from the minerogenetic point of view. Anyway up to present no specific mineralogical research have been carried out therein. During the 8th International Symposium on Volcanospeleology, held in Nairobi in February 1998, some of the most important volcanic caves of Kenya have been visited and their speleothems and/or chemical deposits sampled: most of them were related to thick guano deposits once present inside these cavities. Speleothems mainly consisted of opal or gypsum, while the deposits related to guano often resulted in a mixture of sulphates and phosphates. The analyses confirmed the great variability in the minerogenetic mechanisms active inside the volcanic caves, which consequently allow the evolution of several different minerals even if the total amount of chemical deposit is scarce. Among the observed minerals kogarkoite, phillipsite and hydroxyapophyllite, must be cited because they are new cave minerals not only for the lava tubes of Kenya, but also for the world cave environment. The achieved results are compared with the available random data from previous literature in order to allow an updated overview on the secondary cave minerals of Kenya.

  11. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  12. Volcanic hazard studies for the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Harrington, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Turrin, B.; Champion, D. [US Geological Survey (US); Wells, S.; Perry, F.; McFadden, L.; Renault, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1989-12-31

    Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located between 8 and 47 km from the outer boundary of the exploration block. The conditional probability of disruption of a repository by future basaltic volcanism is bounded by the range of 10-8 to 10-10 yr-1. These bounds are currently being reexamined based on new developments in the understanding of the evolution of small volume, basaltic volcanic centers including: Many of the volcanic centers exhibit brief periods of eruptive activity separated by longer periods of inactivity, The centers may be active for time spans exceeding 105 yrs, There is a decline in the volume of eruptions of the centers through time, and Small volume eruptions occurred at two of the Quaternary centers during latest Pleistocene or Holocene. The authors classify the basalt centers as polycyclic, and distinguish them from polygenetic volcanoes. Polycyclic volcanism is characterized by small volume, episodic eruptions of magma of uniform composition over time spans of 103 to 105 yrs. magma eruption rates are low and the time between eruptions exceeds the cooling time of the magma volumes.

  13. A reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the last glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schneider

    2013-11-01

    δ13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 yr BP and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 yr BP, which can be explained by either (i changes in the isotopic composition or (ii intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 yr, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 yr lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS5.5 (120 000 yr BP. Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  14. What’s in a song: the case of Christopher Nolan’s Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Waeber

    2013-12-01

    In Inception, one of these things — indeed, the most important of all — is not an object defined by its tactile materiality, but the fragment of a song: Edith Piaf’s 1960 recording of “Non, je ne regrette rien.” In this essay, I argue that Inception privileges a haptic treatment of this aural fragment in order to present the song as thing. While this song may be replete with pre-existing connotations that could potentially impact on the audience’s perception, its reduction to a brief fragment renders the meaning of its inter-textual potentialities illegible, but also singles out its sonic fabric in the aural foreground. Thus the paradoxical choice of a “vintage” recording that literally clashes with the glossy artificiality of the visual treatment (from objects to actors themselves. Although located at the purely aural level, the song fragment nevertheless resonates with Nolan’s well-known claim to anchor his visual effects in “real life” by giving them a “realistic style of patina”.

  15. Physical mechanism and numerical simulation of the inception of the lightning upward leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingmin [Beijing Key Lab of High Voltage and EMC, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China) and State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Xinchang; Shi Wei; Zhang Li; Zou Liang; Lou Jie [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The upward leader is a key physical process of the leader progression model of lightning shielding. The inception mechanism and criterion of the upward leader need further understanding and clarification. Based on leader discharge theory, this paper proposes the critical electric field intensity of the stable upward leader (CEFISUL) and characterizes it by the valve electric field intensity on the conductor surface, E{sub L}, which is the basis of a new inception criterion for the upward leader. Through numerical simulation under various physical conditions, we verified that E{sub L} is mainly related to the conductor radius, and data fitting yields the mathematical expression of E{sub L}. We further establish a computational model for lightning shielding performance of the transmission lines based on the proposed CEFISUL criterion, which reproduces the shielding failure rate of typical UHV transmission lines. The model-based calculation results agree well with the statistical data from on-site operations, which show the effectiveness and validity of the CEFISUL criterion.

  16. Detecting Inception of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Noise of Ships using Quadratic Phase Coupling Index as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is ever increasing interest in underwater noise control onboard ships as part of concerted efforts to reduce ship’s radiated noise. Reduction of radiated noise is considered important as it will affect the performance of hydro-acoustic systems such as sonars, echo sounders, towed systems, etc. Out of three major sources of noise onboard ships, viz., machinery, propeller, and hydrodynamic noise, propeller noise is considered a major source beyond certain speed at which propellers cavitate produces cavitation noise. The inception speed of propeller cavitation is generally accompanied by sudden increase in radiated noise level of 8-15 dB when measured using a hydrophone placed on the seabed. This paper attempts to establish the concept of quadratic phase coupling index as an indicator to detect inception of cavitation of ship propellers. This concept was tested on actual ship radiated noise data measured at sea for evaluating its effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.53-62, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7885

  17. A Model to Predict Stall Inception of Transonic Axial Flow Fan/Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; SUN Dakun; YU Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    A stall inception model for transonic fan/compressors is presented in this paper.It can be shown that under some assumptions the solution of unsteady flow field consists of pressure wave which propagates upstream or downstream,vortex wave and entropy wave convected with the mean flow speed.By further using the mode-matching technique and applying the conservation law and conditions reflecting the loss characteristics of a compressor in the inlet and outlet of the rotor or stator blade rows,a group of homogeneous equations can be obtained from which the stability equation can be derived.Based on the analysis of the unsteady phenomenon caused by casing treatments,the function of casing treatments has been modeled by a wall impedance condition which has been included in the stability model through the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the system.Besides,the effect of shock waves in cascade channel on the stability prediction is also considered in the stall inception model.Finally,some numerical analysis and experimental investigation are also conducted with emphasis on the mutual comparison.

  18. Simulations of the last interglacial and the subsequent glacial inception with the Planet Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Donat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Planet Simulator was used to perform equilibrium simulations of the Eemian interglacial at 125 kyBP and the glacial inception at 115 kyBP. Additionally, an accelerated transient simulation of that interval was performed. During this period the changes of Earth's orbital parameters led to a reduction of summer insolation in the northern latitudes. The model has been run in different configurations in order to evaluate the influence of the individual sub-models. The strongest reaction on the insolation change was observed when the atmosphere was coupled with all available sub-systems: a mixed-layer ocean and a sea-ice model as well as a vegetation model. In the simulations representing the interglacial, the near-surface temperature in northern latitudes is higher compared to the preindustrial reference run and almost no perennial snow cover occurs. In the run for the glacial inception, wide areas in mid and high northern latitudes show negative temperature anomalies and wide areas are covered by snow or ice. The transient simulation shows that snow volume starts to increase after summer insolation has fallen below a critical value. The main reason for the beginning glaciation is the locally reduced (summer temperature as a consequence of reduced summer insolation. Therefore, a larger fraction of precipitation falls as snow and less snow can melt. That mechanism is amplified by the snow-albedo-feedback.

  19. Exploring Hawaiian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-02-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai`i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO's founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists' understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  20. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  1. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Mt.Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Mt. Etna in Sicily, Italy, from the viewpoint of science of complex systems, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them regarding their exotic spatio-temporal properties is reported. In both of the volcanic seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions follow the power law. In particular, a careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and accordingly, the previously reported results for Mt. Etna [S. Abe and N. Suzuki, EPL 110, 59001 (2015)] are reinterpreted. It is shown that spreads of the volcanic earthquakes are subdiffusive at both of the volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on presence/absence of long term memories in the context of t...

  2. Aurorae and Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    1 month, and a very high temperature, more than 1000 K (700 °C). However, the Tvashtar outburst is quite anomalous and has lasted more than one year. The temperature has been estimated at about 1000-1300 K (700-1000 °C); this range is typical for silicate-based volcanism observed on the Earth. The Galileo spacecraft observed the onset of this eruption, and twice again this year. Monitoring of this event by means of ground-based telescopes, as here with ISAAC at the VLT or by the ADONIS Adaptive Optics system on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, gives the astronomers a most welcome opportunity to follow more closely the temperature evolution of the eruption and hence provides excellent support to the space observations. The forthcoming arrival on Paranal of NAOS (the adaptive optics system for the VLT) and CONICA (the connected IR camera equipped with an Aladdin detector) will lead to a significant improvement of the achievable image quality. It will be employed for a large variety of astronomical programmes and will, among others, allow the detection and frequent monitoring of a large number of hot spots on the surface of Io . Note [1]: ISAAC registers (infrared) electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths between approx. 1.0 and 5.0 µm which we sense as heat. The human eye registers electromagnetic radiation (light) at shorter wavelengths, from about 0.4 to 0.7 µm. Technical information about the photos PR Photos 21a-d/01 are based on on-target exposures lasting a total of 30 sec (L-band), 44 sec (4.07 µm), 58 sec (3.28 µm) and 58 sec (3.21 µm), respectively. The real observing time is twice as much, with half of the time spent in the off-target chop position. The fields shown measure 72 x 72 arcsec 2 ; 1 pixel = 0.07 arcsec. PR Photo 21e/01 is a colour-coded combination of these four exposures. North is up and East is left. Addendum: About the Jovian aurorae and polar haze Aurorae Borealis and Aurorae Australis ('Northern and Southern Lights') are observed

  3. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    This research project adopted an interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). New data were produced that: (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  4. The inception of pulsed discharges in air: simulations in background fields above and below breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Anbang; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2014-11-01

    We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and \\text{O}2- ions. In background fields below breakdown, we use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions to enhance the field locally. In the region of enhanced field, we observe the growth of positive streamers, as in previous simulations with 2D plasma fluid models. The inclusion of background ionization has little effect in this case. When the background field is above the breakdown threshold, the situation is very different. Electrons can then detach from \\text{O}2- and start ionization avalanches in the whole volume. These avalanches together create one extended discharge, in contrast to the ‘double-headed’ streamers found in many fluid simulations.

  5. The inception of pulsed discharges in air: simulations in background fields above and below breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Anbang; Ebert, Ute

    2014-01-01

    We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and O$_{2}^-$ ions. When the electric field rises above the breakdown and the detachment threshold, which are similar in air, electrons can detach from O$_{2}^-$ and start ionization avalanches. These avalanches together create one large discharge, in contrast to the `double-headed' streamers found in many fluid simulations. On the other hand, in background fields below breakdown, something must enhance the field sufficiently for a streamer to form. We use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions for this, with which we observe the growth of positive streamers. Negative streamers were not observed. Below breakdown, the inclusion of electron detachment does not change the results much, and we observe similar discharge development as in fluid simulations.

  6. River bedform inception by flow unsteadiness: A modal and nonmodal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Schmid, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    River bedforms arise as a result of morphological instabilities of the stream-sediment interface. Dunes and antidunes constitute the most typical patterns, and their occurrence and dynamics are relevant for a number of engineering and environmental applications. Although flow variability is a typical feature of all rivers, the bedform-triggering morphological instabilities have generally been studied under the assumption of a constant flow rate. In order to partially address this shortcoming, we here discuss the influence of (periodic) flow unsteadiness on bedform inception. To this end, our recent one-dimensional validated model coupling Dressler's equations with a refined mechanistic sediment transport formulation is adopted, and both the asymptotic and transient dynamics are investigated by modal and nonmodal analyses.

  7. Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

  8. Modelling snow accumulation on Greenland in Eemian, glacial inception, and modern climates in a GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Punge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changing climate conditions on Greenland influence the snow accumulation rate and surface mass balance (SMB on the ice sheet and, ultimately, its shape. This can in turn affect local climate via orography and albedo variations and, potentially, remote areas via changes in ocean circulation triggered by melt water or calving from the ice sheet. Examining these interactions in the IPSL global model requires improving the representation of snow at the ice sheet surface. In this paper, we present a new snow scheme implemented in LMDZ, the atmospheric component of the IPSL coupled model. We analyse surface climate and SMB on the Greenland ice sheet under insolation and oceanic boundary conditions for modern, but also for two different past climates, the last glacial inception (115 kyr BP and the Eemian (126 kyr BP. While being limited by the low resolution of the general circulation model (GCM, present-day SMB is on the same order of magnitude as recent regional model findings. It is affected by a moist bias of the GCM in Western Greenland and a dry bias in the north-east. Under Eemian conditions, the SMB decreases largely, and melting affects areas in which the ice sheet surface is today at high altitude, including recent ice core drilling sites as NEEM. In contrast, glacial inception conditions lead to a higher mass balance overall due to the reduced melting in the colder summer climate. Compared to the widely applied positive degree-day (PDD parameterization of SMB, our direct modelling results suggest a weaker sensitivity of SMB to changing climatic forcing. For the Eemian climate, our model simulations using interannually varying monthly mean forcings for the ocean surface temperature and sea ice cover lead to significantly higher SMB in southern Greenland compared to simulations forced with climatological monthly means.

  9. Pan-African adakitic rocks of the north Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrological and geochemical constraints on the evolution of the Dokhan volcanics in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Mohamed A.; Azer, Mokhles K.

    2015-04-01

    The Precambrian basement of Egypt is part of the Red Sea Mountains and represents the north-western part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Five volcanic sections are exposed in the Egyptian basement complex, namely El Kharaza, Monqul, Abu Had, Mellaha and Abu Marwa. They are located in the north Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt and were selected for petrological and geochemical studies as they represent the Dokhan volcanics. The volcanics divide into two main pulses, and each pulse was frequently accompanied by deposition of immature molasse type sediments, which represent a thick sequence of the Hammamat group in the north ED. Compositionally, the rocks form a continuum from basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite (lower succession) to rhyodacite and rhyolite (upper succession), with no apparent compositional gaps. These high-K calc-alkaline rocks have strong affinities to subduction-related rocks with enriched LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce) relative to high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, P, Ti) and negative Nb anomalies relative to NMORB. The lower succession displays geochemical characteristics of adakitic rocks with SiO2 >53 wt%, Al2O3 >15 wt%, MgO >2.5 wt%, Mg# >49, Sr >650 ppm, Y 25 ppm, Cr >50 ppm and Sr/Y >42.4. They also have low Nb, Rb and Zr compared to the coexisting calc-alkaline rhyodacites and rhyolites. The highly fractionated rhyolitic rocks have strong negative Eu anomalies and possess the geochemical characteristics of A-type suites. Trace element geochemical signatures indicate a magma source consistent with post-collisional suites that retain destructive plate signatures associated with subduction zones. The adakitic rocks in the northern ANS are generated through partial melting of delaminated mafic lower crust interacting with overlying mantle-derived magma. The Dokhan volcanics were likely generated by a combination of processes, including partial melting, crystal fractionation and assimilation.

  10. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of alkaline volcanic rocks in the Antarctic Peninsula: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, J. L.

    1987-06-01

    The numerous Miocene-Recent alkaline volcanic outcrops in the Antarctic Peninsula form a substantial volcanic province, the least well-known part of a major belt of alkaline volcanism that extends between South America and New Zealand. The outcrops consists mainly of aa and pahoehoe lavas and hyaloclastites which locally contain accidental nodules of spinel lherzolite and other mantle-derived lithologies. The province is predominantly basaltic with two major differentiation lineages: (1) a sodic series of olivine and alkali basalt, hawaiite, mugearite, trachy-phonolite and trachyte; and (2) a relatively potassic, highly undersaturated series of basanite, tephrite and phono-tephrite. All the lavas show varying effects of fractionation by crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene, joined by plagioclase in the hawaiites to trachytes. Fractional crystallization can probably explain most of the chemical variation observed within each outcrop, but variable partial melting is necessary to account for the differences in incompatible element enrichment between the two series, and between the individual outcrops. The degree of partial melting may not have exceeded 3%, as is the case for many other alkaline magmas. The volcanism is an intraplate phenomenon but there is no correlation in timing between the cessation of subduction and the inception of alkaline volcanism. The activity cannot be related to the passage of the coupled Pacific-Antarctic plate over a stationary mantle hot-spot. Although the precise causal relationship with tectonic setting is unknown, regional extension was a prerequisite for giving the magmas rapid access to the surface.

  11. Amazonian volcanism inside Valles Marineris on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, Ernst; Wray, James J.; Michael, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    The giant trough system of Valles Marineris is one of the most spectacular landforms on Mars, yet its origin is still unclear. Although often referred to as a rift, it also shows some characteristics that are indicative of collapse processes. For decades, one of the major open questions was whether volcanism was active inside the Valles Marineris. Here we present evidence for a volcanic field on the floor of the deepest trough of Valles Marineris, Coprates Chasma. More than 130 individual edifices resemble scoria and tuff cones, and are associated with units that are interpreted as lava flows. Crater counts indicate that the volcanic field was emplaced sometime between ∼0.4 Ga and ∼0.2 Ga. The spatial distribution of the cones displays a control by trough-parallel subsurface structures, suggesting magma ascent in feeder dikes along trough-bounding normal faults. Spectral data reveal an opaline-silica-rich unit associated with at least one of the cones, indicative of hydrothermal processes. Our results point to magma-water interaction, an environment of astrobiological interest, perhaps associated with late-stage activity in the evolution of Valles Marineris, and suggest that the floor of Coprates Chasma is promising target for the in situ exploration of Mars.

  12. Venus volcanism: initial analysis from magellan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J W; Campbell, D B; Elachi, C; Guest, J E; McKenzie, D P; Saunders, R S; Schaber, G G; Schubert, G

    1991-04-12

    Magellan images confirm that volcanism is widespread and has been fimdamentally important in the formation and evolution of the crust of Venus. High-resolution imaging data reveal evidence for intrusion (dike formation and cryptodomes) and extrusion (a wide range of lava flows). Also observed are thousands of small shield volcanoes, larger edifices up to several hundred kilometers in diameter, massive outpourings of lavas, and local pyroclastic deposits. Although most features are consistent with basaltic compositions, a number of large pancake-like domes are morphologically similar to rhyolite-dacite domes on Earth. Flows and sinuous channels with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers suggest that extremely high effusion rates or very fluid magmas (perhaps komatiites) may be present. Volcanism is evident in various tectonic settings (coronae, linear extensional and compressional zones, mountain belts, upland rises, highland plateaus, and tesserae). Volcanic resurfacing rates appear to be low (less than 2 Km(3)/yr) but the significance of dike formation and intrusions, and the mode of crustal formation and loss remain to be established.

  13. Venus volcanism: Initial analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J.W.; Campbell, D.B.; Elachi, C.; Guest, J.E.; Mckenzie, D.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Schaber, G.G.; Schubert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Magellan images confirm that volcanism is widespread and has been fundamentally important in the formation and evolution of the crust of Venus. High-resolution imaging data reveal evidence for intrusion (dike formation and cryptodomes) and extrusion (a wide range of lava flows). Also observed are thousands of small shield volcanoes, larger edifices up to several hundred kilometers in diameter, massive outpourings of lavas, and local pyroclastic deposits. Although most features are consistent with basaltic compositions, a number of large pancake-like domes are morphologically similar to rhyolite-dacite domes on Earth. Flows and sinuous channels with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers suggest that extremely high effusion rates or very fluid magmas (perhaps komatiites) may be present. Volcanism is evident in various tectonic settings (coronae, linear extensional and compressional zones, mountain belts, upland rises, highland plateaus, and tesserae). Volcanic resurfacing rates appear to be low (less than 2 km3/yr) but the significance of dike formation and intrusions, and the mode of crustal formation and loss remain to be established.

  14. Stall Inception Process and Prospects for Active Hub-Flap Control in Three-Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoya OKADA; Atsushi KAWAJIRI; Yutaka OHTA; Eisuke OUTA

    2008-01-01

    The possibility to apply the active hub-flap control method, which is a proven rotating stall control method for a single-stage compressor, to a 3-stage axial compressor is experimentally discussed, where complex rotating stall inception processes ate observed. The research compressor is a 3-stage one and could change the stagger angle settings for rotor blades and stator vanes. Sixteen rotor blade/stator vane configuration patterns were tested by changing stagger angle for the stator vanes. By measurement of surface-pressure fluctuation, stall inception proc-esses are investigated and the measured pressure fluctuation data is used as a predictive signal for rotating stall. The experimental results show that the stall detection system applied to active hub-flap control in a single-stage compressor could be usefully applied to that in a 3-stage compressor with a more complex stall inception process.

  15. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  16. Volcanic Ash Nephelometer Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes may enable unprecedented observations of...

  17. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  18. Short-term volcanic hazard assessment through Bayesian inference: retrospective application to the Pinatubo 1991 volcanic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of managing a volcanic crisis is the interpretation of the monitoring data, so as to anticipate to the evolution of the unrest and implement timely mitigation actions. An unrest episode may include different stages or time intervals of increasing activity that may or may not precede a volcanic eruption, depending on the causes of the unrest (magmatic, geothermal or tectonic). Therefore, one of the main goals in monitoring volcanic unrest is to forecast whether or not such increase of activity will end up with an eruption, and if this is the case, how, when, and where this eruption will take place. As an alternative method to expert elicitation for assessing and merging monitoring data and relevant past information, we present a probabilistic method to transform precursory activity into the probability of experiencing a significant variation by the next time interval (i.e. the next step in the unrest), given its preceding evolution, and by further estimating the probability of the occurrence of a particular eruptive scenario combining monitoring and past data. With the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic crisis as a reference, we have developed such a method to assess short-term volcanic hazard using Bayesian inference.

  19. Occurrence of ignimbrite volcanics in the northern Espirito Santo Basin, Brazil: an advance in the model of tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the basin; Ocorrencia de rochas vulcanicas ignimbriticas na porcao norte da Bacia do Espirito Santo: evolucao do modelo tectono-sedimentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Luis Carlos Chaves [PETROBRAS, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo. Gerencia de Reservatorios], e-mail: novais@petrobras.com.br; Zelenka, Tibor [University of Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Geology], e-mail: zelenka.tibor@freemail.hu; Szatmari, Peter [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello. Gerencia de Geologia Estrutural e Geotectonica], e-mail: szatmari@petrobras.com.br; Motoki, Akihisa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Mineralogia e Petrologia Ignea], e-mail: motoki@uerj.br; Aires, Jose Ribeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento-Petroquimica e Fertilizantes. Gerencia Setorial de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude], e-mail: aires@petrobras.com.br; Tagliari, Claudio VInicius [PETROBRAS, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica], e-mail: tagliari@petrobras.com.br

    2007-11-15

    The intention of this work is to provide information on ignimbrite volcanoclastics, outcropping in the northern onshore part of the Espirito Santo Basin, and to examine their role in the tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the basin. We identified ignimbrites, pyroclastics of rhyolitic to dacitic composition, along the NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending transcurrent fault system named here Sao Mateus Alignment or Sao Mateus Arch. We followed the mostly horizontally layered ignimbrites, at least 50 m thick, for about 10 km along and close to the margins of the Sao Mateus River. These ignimbrite bodies had been mapped before as fluvio-lacustrine sandstones of the Tertiary Rio Doce/Barreiras Formation, without recognizing their partially volcanoclastic character. Microscopic examination suggests idiomorphic and fragmented {proportional_to}-quartz phenocrysts, contained in a hydrothermally altered matrix of clay minerals and zeolites. The fragmented form of the phenocrysts points to explosive volcanic activity; grain size tends to increase westward, probably indicating the principal place of volcanic centers. The outcropping sequence of ignimbritic rocks provides a major advance in the understanding of the basin's Cenozoic tectonic-structural history contributing to a revision of its stratigraphy. (author)

  20. Volcan Reventador's Unusual Umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the past two decades, field observations of the deposits of volcanoes have been supplemented by systemmatic, and sometimes, opportunistic photographic documentation. Two photographs of the umbrella of the December 3, 2002 eruption of Volcan Reventador, Ecuador, reveal a prominently scalloped umbrella that is unlike any umbrella previously documented on a volcanic column. The material in the umbrella was being swept off a descending pyroclastic flow, and was, therefore, a co-ignimbrite cloud. We propose that the scallops are the result of a turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with no precedents in volcanology. We ascribe the rare loss of buoyancy that drives this instability to the fact that the Reventador column fed on a cool co-ignimbrite cloud. On the basis of the observed wavelength of the scallops, we estimate a value for the eddy viscosity of the umbrella of 4000 ~m2/s. This value is consistent with a previously obtained lower bound (200 ~m2/s, K. Wohletz, priv. comm., 2005). We do not know the fate of the material in the umbrella subsequent to the photos. The analysis suggests that the umbrella was negatively buoyant. Field work on the co-ignimbrite deposits might reveal whether or not the material reimpacted, and if so, where and whether or not this material was involved in the hazardous flows that affected the main oil pipeline across Ecuador.

  1. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  2. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  3. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  4. A high resolution record of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schneider

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the stable carbon isotope evolution in atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm, as archived in Antarctic ice cores, bears the potential to disentangle the contributions of the different carbon cycle fluxes causing past CO2 variations. Here we present a highly resolved record of δ13Catm before, during and after the Marine Isotope Stage 5.5 (155 000 to 105 000 yr BP. The record was derived with a well established sublimation method using ice from the EPICA Dome C (EDC and the Talos Dome ice cores in East Antarctica. We find an 0.4‰ offset between the mean δ13Catm level in the Penultimate (~140 000 yr BP and Last Glacial Maximum (~22 000 yr BP, which can be explained by either (i changes in the isotopic composition or (ii intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 yr, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 yr lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS 5.5 (120 000 yr BP. Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  5. The Inception and Evolution of EIA and Environmental Clearance Process – Laying Emphasis on Sustainable Development and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarshi Tathagat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available EIA which stands for environmental impact assessment is a domain which encompasses almost all areas of environmental engineering. EIA and environmental clearance (EC are two things which MoEF, Govt. Of India has mandated for many categories of project before their commissioning. Buildings with built up area of more than 20000 metre square and townships with area more than 50 Ha or 150000 square metre of built up area comes under it. A thorough report is made for the possible outcomes of the project (i.e..it‟s impact on surrounding environment. If the impact is within the limits as specified by MoEF and SEAC, it is sent for approval otherwise client is suggested to take corrective steps. Scope of the topic trespasses the boundaries of green house gas emissions and global warming, water and energy crises, carbon emission and sequestration, environmental pollution of various kind. It was EIA that brought in an element on environment in all projects. It lead to eco friendly and sustainable construction techniques which paved way for the concept of green building. Today EIA and environmental clearance are the only protectors of environment from the greeds of corporate sector across globe. If applied with stringency it will usher us to an era where any advancement will be apsolutely in tune with nature.This technical paper deals with the birth and growth of EIA in the world and in India. It deals with the processes that are involved in carrying out EIA for a project and subsequently providing it with environmental clearance. Also it emphasizes on how EIA led to a general awareness and paved way for the concept of sustainable construction.

  6. A very simple criterion for the orbital-scale occurrence of interglacials and glacial inceptions over the last 800 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takahito; Crucifix, Michel; Wolff, Eric; Tzedakis, Chronis

    2017-04-01

    Past Interglacials Working Group of PAGES (2016) identifies eleven interglacials during the last 800 kyr based on a sea level definition: Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1, 5e, 7a-7c (as a single interglacial), 7e, 9e, 11c, 13a, 15a, 15e, 17c, and 19c. An important aspect of this definition is the occurrence of more than one interglacial within an MIS. Recently, the authors of this study proposed a simple rule to determine which insolation cycles lead to interglacials (Tzedakis et al. in press). During the last 800 kyr, interglacial onsets occur when a peak of caloric summer half-year insolation at 65oN exceeds a certain threshold which decreases with time. On the other hand, Ganopolski et al. (2016) proposed a criterion to diagnose the glacial inceptions over the last 800 kyr. Based on the experiments with CLIMBER-2, they derived a critical insolation-CO2 relation curve, below which a glacial inception occurs. It is consistent with all the glacial inceptions happened, but incompatible with the lack of glacial inception near the insolation minimum at 209 kyr BP (MIS 7b). While the summer solstice (or mid-June) mean daily insolation at 65oN has about 20 % of variance in obliquity band, the caloric summer half-year insolation at at 65oN has about 50 % of variance in the obliquity band. In this study, we show that the critical insolation-CO2 relation in terms of caloric summer-half year insolation successfully diagnoses all the glacial inceptions over the last 800 kyr and its lack near MIS 7b. This is due to the fact that, near MIS 7b, the effect of precession maximum (boreal summer solstice at aphelion) is counteracted by the effect of average-above obliquity more strongly in the caloric summer insolation than in the summer solstice insolation. Unifying those two theories with the single caloric summer insolation metric, we present a particularly simple criterion for the orbital-scale occurrence of interglacials and glacial inceptions over the last 800 kyr. We also

  7. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  8. Evolution of Eocene to Oligocene arc-related volcanism in the North Patagonian Andes (39-41°S), prior to the break-up of the Farallon plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Sofía B.; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Fernández Paz, Lucía; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Miguel E.; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Voluminous Paleogene magmatic rocks (44 to 29 Ma) are found in a retroarc position in the Northern Patagonian to Southern Central Andes ( 39-42°S), whose origin remains controversial. Geochemical data in these Eocene to Oligocene volcanic associations are herein used to unravel their origin and understand changes in subduction parameters. Geochemical signatures indicate arc-related associations and reflect changing geodynamic boundary conditions of the Andean margin through time. In particular, Eocene magmatism ( 44 Ma; Pilcaniyeu Belt) shows an alkaline-like signature and limited slab influence. Reported contemporaneous within-plate magmatism ( 47-43 Ma) in an easternmost position reflects a more typical enriched source. Oligocene arc-like volcanism ( 29 Ma; El Maitén Belt), which developed in an extensional retroarc setting, shows a higher contribution from slab-derived fluids and a calc-alkaline source. A comparison with younger arc-related magmas from the region ( 26-20 Ma), emplaced in an intra- to retroarc position (Cura Mallín and Abanico basins), indicates a progressive increase in slab-signature, associated with a tholeiitic magma source. We propose that these compositional variations could be directly related to changes in plate configuration before and after the Farallon plate break-up and the initiation of a more orthogonal convergence typical of the present Andean-type subduction zone.

  9. Integrated Data Capturing Requirements for 3d Semantic Modelling of Cultural Heritage: the Inception Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, R.; Maietti, F.; Piaia, E.; Medici, M.; Ferrari, F.; Turillazzi, B.

    2017-02-01

    The generation of high quality 3D models can be still very time-consuming and expensive, and the outcome of digital reconstructions is frequently provided in formats that are not interoperable, and therefore cannot be easily accessed. This challenge is even more crucial for complex architectures and large heritage sites, which involve a large amount of data to be acquired, managed and enriched by metadata. In this framework, the ongoing EU funded project INCEPTION - Inclusive Cultural Heritage in Europe through 3D semantic modelling proposes a workflow aimed at the achievements of efficient 3D digitization methods, post-processing tools for an enriched semantic modelling, web-based solutions and applications to ensure a wide access to experts and non-experts. In order to face these challenges and to start solving the issue of the large amount of captured data and time-consuming processes in the production of 3D digital models, an Optimized Data Acquisition Protocol (DAP) has been set up. The purpose is to guide the processes of digitization of cultural heritage, respecting needs, requirements and specificities of cultural assets.

  10. Simulated northern hemispheric storm tracks of the Eemian interglacial and the last glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaspar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate simulations of the Eemian interglacial and the last glacial inception have been performed by forcing a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model with insolation patterns of these periods. The parameters of the Earth's orbit have been set to conditions of 125 000 and 115 000 years before present (yr BP. Compared to today, these dates represent periods with enhanced and weakened seasonality of insolation on the northern hemisphere. Here we analyze the simulated change in winter storm tracks. The change in the orbital configuration has a strong impact on the meridional temperature gradients and therefore on strength and location of the storm tracks. The North Atlantic storm track is strenghtened, shifted northward and extends further to the east in the simulation for the Eemian at 125 kyr BP. As one consequence, the northern parts of Europe experience an increase in winter precipitation. The frequency of winter storm days increases over large parts of the North Atlantic. Opposite but weaker changes in storm track activity are simulated for 115 kyr BP.

  11. Inception of a false memory by optogenetic manipulation of a hippocampal memory engram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Ramirez, Steve; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-01-05

    Memories can be easily distorted, and a lack of relevant animal models has largely hindered our understanding of false-memory formation. Here, we first identified a population of cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus that bear the engrams for a specific context; these cells were naturally activated during the encoding phase of fear conditioning and their artificial reactivation using optogenetics in an unrelated context was sufficient for inducing the fear memory specific to the conditioned context. In a further study, DG or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear-memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Together, our data demonstrate that by substituting a natural conditioned stimulus with optogenetically reactivated DG cells that bear contextual memory engrams, it is possible to incept an internally and behaviourally represented false fear memory.

  12. Inception and demise of a Neoproterozoic ocean basin: evidence from the Ougda complex, western Hoggar (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, J.; Caby, R.; Dupuy, C.; Mevel, C.; Owen, J. V.

    1996-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ougda magmatic complex occurs within platformal carbonate rocks in the western part of the Pan-African fold belt of the Tuareg shield (NW Africa). It is composed of - 800 Ma old, relatively high P-T (i.e., Grt + Cpx-bearing: P > 5 kbar; T≈900'Q, tholeiitic mafic/ultramafic cumulates and related rocks intruded by intermediate to mafic calcalkali plutons (e.g., Cpx+Hbl-bearing gabbro) and dikes. Apparent contrasts in structural level of crystallization indicate that the calc-alkali rocks are significantly younger than the tholeiites, which temporally correlate with a period of regional extension in this part of Africa. Intrusion of the calc-alkali rocks may have occurred during the formation of an arc after the tholeiitic rocks had been (diapirically?) emplaced within the shelf carbonates, and prior to (> 630 Ma) the Pan-African orogeny. Data reported herein indicate that the Ougda complex records the inception and demise of a Neoproterozoic ocean basin. Similar crustal sections have been described from collisional (e.g., Aleutian islands) and extensional (e.g., Ivreä-Verbano zone) settings, indicating that processes operating in both environments can generate nearly indistinguishable igneous suites; the prevalence of shallow-level calc-alkali rocks in both settings may mask the presence of more mafic, tholeiitic rocks at depth.

  13. Northern hemisphere winter storm tracks of the Eemian interglacial and the last glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaspar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate simulations of the Eemian interglacial and the last glacial inception have been performed by forcing a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model with insolation patterns of these periods. The parameters of the Earth's orbit have been set to conditions of 125 000 and 115 000 years before present (yr BP. Compared to today, these dates represent periods with enhanced and weakened seasonality of insolation in the northern hemisphere. Here we analyse the simulated change in northern hemisphere winter storm tracks. The change in the orbital configuration has a strong impact on the meridional temperature gradients and therefore on strength and location of the storm tracks. The North Atlantic storm track is strengthened, shifted northward and extends further to the east in the simulation for the Eemian at 125 kyr BP. As one consequence, the northern parts of Europe experience an increase in winter precipitation. The frequency of winter storm days increases over large parts of the North Atlantic including the British Isles and the coastal zones of north-western Europe. Opposite but weaker changes in storm track activity are simulated for 115 kyr BP.

  14. Volcanic studies at Katmai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) is a national effort supported by the Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation. One of the projects proposed for the CSDP consists of drilling a series of holes in Katmai National Park in Alaska to give a third dimension to the model of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, and to investigate the processes of explosive volcanism and hydrothermal transport of metals (Eichelberger et al., 1988). The proposal for research drilling at Katmai states that ``the size, youth, elevated temperature, and simplicity of the Novarupta vent make it a truly unique scientific target.`` The National Park Service (NPS), which has jurisdiction, is sympathetic to aims of the study. However, NPS wishes to know whether Katmai is indeed uniquely suited to the research, and has asked the Interagency Coordinating Group to support an independent assessment of this claim. NPS suggested the National Academy of Sciences as an appropriate organization to conduct the assessment. In response, the National Research Council -- the working arm of the Academy -- established, under the aegis of its US Geodynamics Committee, a panel whose specific charge states: ``The proposed investigation at Katmai has been extensively reviewed for scientific merit by the three sponsoring and participating agencies. Thus, the scientific merit of the proposed drilling at Katmai is not at issue. The panel will review the proposal for scientific drilling at Katmai and prepare a short report addressing the specific question of the degree to which it is essential that the drilling be conducted at Katmai as opposed to volcanic areas elsewhere in the world.``

  15. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... in basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...

  16. The Sierra de Mil Cumbres, Michoacán, México: Transitional volcanism between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vasconcelos, Martha Gabriela; Garduño-Monroy, Víctor Hugo; Macías, José Luis; Layer, Paul W.; Benowitz, Jeff A.

    2015-08-01

    The Sierra de Mil Cumbres is a Miocene volcanic range located in central México, in the north-eastern part of the State of Michoacán, near the city of Morelia. Structurally it is a ENE-trending horst that covers an area of 1022 km2 (approximately 20 km wide × 60 km long) and contains exposures of chemically-bimodal volcanism in the form of ignimbrites, lava domes, lava flows, cinder cones, and related deposits. The main volcanic manifestations of this range are the La Escalera Caldera (16.3-23 Ma), the Garnica Volcanic Complex (18.3-17.9 Ma), the Atécuaro Caldera (16.3-19.4 Ma), and the Indaparapeo Volcanic Complex (14.1-17.5 Ma). The Sierra de Mil Cumbres stands in space and time at the intersection between the Miocene-Recent Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Late Cretaceous-Early Miocene Sierra Madre Occidental, and so provides new insights into the geological evolution of central México. Arc volcanism in the Sierra de Mil Cumbres was initiated by a massive NNW-SSE extension, probably during the counterclockwise rotation of the Sierra Madre Occidental. New geological mapping, stratigraphic analysis, detailed geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology demonstrates that this intra-plate volcanism was emplaced between 14 and 23 Ma.

  17. Laboratory simulations of volcanic ash charging and conditions for volcanic lightning on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Warriner-Bacon, Elliot; Aplin, Karen

    2017-04-01

    to a high-precision electrometer. The separate effects of varying the atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure on the charges attained and the relationship between particle size and charge polarity will be addressed, and the implications discussed. The key questions considered here are: (a) is volcanic activity a feasible mechanism for lightning generation on Venus, (b) how do the extreme environmental conditions on Venus affect the mechanisms required to generate lightning, (c) what are the implications for volcanic lightning's role in the emergence of life on other planets? [1] Navarro-Gonzalez, R. and Segura, A., (2001) Volcanic lightning and the availability of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus for chemical evolution. [2] Marcq, E., et al. (2012) Nature Geoscience, 1-4 [3] Shalygin, E.V., et al. (2015) Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 [4] Smrekar, S.E., et al. (2010) Science, 328, 5978, 605-608 [5] Russell, C.T., et al. (2008) Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 113 [6] Aplin, K.L. and Fischer, G. (In press) Weather, (preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.03285) [7] Takahashi, Y., et al. (2008) Space Sci. Rev., 137, 1-4, 317-334 [8] Airey, M.W., et al. (2015) Planetary and Space Science, 113-114, 33-48 [9] James, M.R., et al. (2000) Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 105, B7, 16641-16649

  18. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  19. Using multiple data sets to populate probabilistic volcanic event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, C.G.; Pallister, John S.

    2014-01-01

    The key parameters one needs to forecast outcomes of volcanic unrest are hidden kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface, and volcanic systems are so complex that there will invariably be stochastic elements in the evolution of any unrest. Fortunately, there is sufficient regularity in behaviour that some, perhaps many, eruptions can be forecast with enough certainty for populations to be evacuated and kept safe. Volcanologists charged with forecasting eruptions must try to understand each volcanic system well enough that unrest can be interpreted in terms of pre-eruptive process, but must simultaneously recognize and convey uncertainties in their assessment. We have found that use of event trees helps to focus discussion, integrate data from multiple sources, reach consensus among scientists about both pre-eruptive process and uncertainties and, in some cases, to explain all of this to officials. Figure 1 shows a generic volcanic event tree from Newhall and Hoblitt (2002) that can be modified as needed for each specific volcano. This paper reviews how we and our colleagues have used such trees during a number of volcanic crises worldwide, for rapid hazard assessments in situations in which more formal expert elicitations could not be conducted. We describe how Multiple Data Sets can be used to estimate probabilities at each node and branch. We also present case histories of probability estimation during crises, how the estimates were used by public officials, and some suggestions for future improvements.

  20. Modelling large-scale ice-sheet–climate interactions following glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have coupled the FAMOUS global AOGCM (atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to the Glimmer thermomechanical ice-sheet model in order to study the development of ice-sheets in north-east America (Laurentia and north-west Europe (Fennoscandia following glacial inception. This first use of a coupled AOGCM–ice-sheet model for a study of change on long palæoclimate timescales is made possible by the low computational cost of FAMOUS, despite its inclusion of physical parameterisations similar in complexity to higher-resolution AOGCMs. With the orbital forcing of 115 ka BP, FAMOUS–Glimmer produces ice caps on the Canadian Arctic islands, on the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and in southern Scandinavia, which grow to occupy the Keewatin region of the Canadian mainland and all of Fennoscandia over 50 ka. Their growth is eventually halted by increasing coastal ice discharge. The expansion of the ice-sheets influences the regional climate, which becomes cooler, reducing the ablation, and ice accumulates in places that initially do not have positive surface mass balance. The results suggest the possibility that the glaciation of north-east America could have begun on the Canadian Arctic islands, producing a regional climate change that caused or enhanced the growth of ice on the mainland. The increase in albedo (due to snow and ice cover is the dominant feedback on the area of the ice-sheets and acts rapidly, whereas the feedback of topography on SMB does not become significant for several centuries, but eventually has a large effect on the thickening of the ice-sheets. These two positive feedbacks are mutually reinforcing. In addition, the change in topography perturbs the tropospheric circulation, producing some reduction of cloud, and mitigating the local cooling along the margin of the Laurentide ice-sheet. Our experiments demonstrate the importance and complexity of the interactions between ice-sheets and local climate.

  1. The influence of true polar wander on glacial inception in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradich, A.; Huybers, P.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Chan, N.-H.; Austermann, J.

    2017-03-01

    The impact that long-term changes in Earth's rotation axis relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW), and continental drift have had in driving cooling of high-latitude North America since the Eocene is explored. Recent reanalyses of paleomagnetic pole positions suggest a secular drift in Earth's rotation axis of ∼ 8 ° over the last 40 Myr, in a direction that has brought North America to increasingly higher latitudes. Using modern temperature data in tandem with a simple model, a reduction in the annual sum of positive degree days (PDDs) driven by this polar and plate motion over the last 20 Myr is quantified. At sites in Baffin Island, the TPW- and continental drift-driven decrease in insolation forcing over the last 20 Myr rivals changes in insolation forcing caused by variations in Earth's obliquity and precession. Using conservative PDD scaling factors and an annual snowfall equal to modern station observations, the snowiest location in Baffin Island 20 Myr ago had a mass balance deficit of ∼0.75-2 m yr-1 (water equivalent thickness) relative to its projected mass balance at 2.7 Ma. This mass balance deficit would have continued to increase as one goes back in time until ∼40 Myr ago based on adopted paleopole locations. TPW and continental drift that moved Arctic North America poleward would have strongly promoted glacial inception in Baffin Island at ∼3 Ma, a location where the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet is thought to have originated.

  2. Sensitivity of the last glacial inception to initial and surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubatzki, Claudia [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Claussen, Martin [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulations of the last glacial inception (LGI) with respect to initial (size of the Greenland ice sheet) and surface (state of ocean/vegetation) conditions and two different CO{sub 2} reconstructions. Utilizing the CLIMBER-2 Earth system model, we obtain the following results: (a) ice-sheet expansion in North America at the end of the Eemian can be reduced or even completely suppressed when pre-industrial or Eemian ocean/vegetation is prescribed. (b) A warmer surrounding ocean and, in particular, a large Laurentide ice sheet reduce the size of the Greenland ice sheet before and during the LGI. (c) A changing ocean contributes much stronger to the expansion of the Laurentide ice sheet when we apply the CO{sub 2} reconstruction according to Barnola et al. (Nature 329:408-414, 1987) instead of Petit et al. (Nature 399:429-436, 1999). (d) In the fully coupled model, the CO{sub 2} reconstruction used has only a small impact on the simulated ice sheets but it does impact the course of the climatic variables. (e) For the Greenland ice sheet, two equilibrium states exist under the insolation and CO{sub 2} forcing at 128,000 years before present (128 kyear BP); the one with an ice sheet reduced by about one quarter as compared to its simulated pre-industrial size and the other with nearly no inland ice in Greenland. (f) Even the extreme assumption of no ice sheet in Greenland at the beginning of our transient simulations does not alter the simulated expansion of northern hemispheric ice sheets at the LGI. (orig.)

  3. Modelling large-scale ice-sheet–climate interactions following glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have coupled the FAMOUS global AOGCM (atmosphere–ocean general circulation model to the Glimmer thermomechanical ice-sheet model in order to study the development of ice-sheets in North-East America (Laurentia and North-West Europe (Fennoscandia following glacial inception. This first use of a coupled AOGCM-ice-sheet model for a study of change on long palæoclimate timescales is made possible by the low computational cost of FAMOUS, despite its inclusion of physical parameterisations of a similar complexity to those of higher-resolution AOGCMs. With the orbital forcing of 115 ka BP, FAMOUS-Glimmer produces ice-caps on the Canadian Arctic islands, on the north-west coast of Hudson Bay, and in Southern Scandinavia, which over 50 ka grow to occupy the Keewatin region of the Canadian mainland and all of Fennoscandia. Their growth is eventually halted by increasing coastal ice discharge. The expansion of the ice-sheets influences the regional climate, which becomes cooler, reducing the ablation, while precipitation increases. Ice accumulates in places that initially do not have positive surface mass balance. The results suggest the possibility that the Laurentide glaciation could have begun on the Canadian Arctic islands, producing a regional climate change that caused or enhanced the growth of ice on the mainland. The increase in albedo due to snow and ice cover is the dominant feedback on the area of the ice-sheets, and acts rapidly, whereas the feedback of topography on SMB does not become significant for several centuries, but eventually has a large effect on the thickening of the ice-sheets. These two positive feedbacks are mutually reinforcing. In addition the change in topography perturbs the tropospheric circulation, producing some reduction of cloud and mitigating the local cooling along the margin of the Laurentide ice-sheet. Our experiments demonstrate the importance and complexity of the interactions between ice-sheets and local

  4. Exceptional Volumes of Rejuvenated Volcanism in Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Jackson, M.; Storm, L.

    2010-12-01

    The internal structure of within-plate volcanoes is typically compared to the stages of volcanic evolution in Hawaii. In Samoa, these stages show some differences with the Hawaiian model, in terms of the duration, volume and geochemical composition of the stages. Particularly, the rejuvenated stage of volcanism in Samoa is significantly more voluminous, with increasing geographic coverage with age, completely repaving the island of Savai’i. This unusual outpouring of rejuvenated lavas has previously been proposed to be related to the tectonic setting, near the northern terminus of the Tonga Trench. Therefore, Samoan volcanism might be caused by lithospheric fracturing, a mantle plume, or potentially a combination of the two. We collected new samples from a deeply eroded canyon on Savai’i to determine a time evolution of the transition from shield to eventual rejuvenated lavas. The canyon exposes several hundred meters of lavas, and we collected samples about 200m vertically down into the canyon. These samples are dominantly olivine basalts, and their Pb isotope compositions fall within the compositional field of young rejuvenated lavas on Savai’i and Upolu. This canyon section, therefore, represents a minimum thickness for the rejuvenated lavas of 200m. Assuming eruption of rejuvenated lavas only occurred subaerially, with a universal thickness of 200m, the new data suggest more than one percent of the volume of Savai’i consists of rejuvenated lavas. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest relative volumes in Hawaii (Kauai), and implies a different cause for rejuvenated volcanism in Samoa. Another feature that suggests different processes may be important is the transition between the shield and rejuvenated stage. Although Samoan volcanoes do not seem to erupt exactly the same rock types as characteristic Hawaiian post-shield stage lavas, there is a definite shift to more evolved compositions (including trachytes) during the later stages of

  5. Morphometric characterization of monogenetic volcanic cones of the Chichinautzin and Michoacán-Guanajuato monogenetic volcanic fields in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazua-Carbajal, Maria Cristina; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Morphometric characterization of volcanic edifices is one of the main approaches providing information about a volcano eruptive history, whether it has one or more eruptive vents or if it had any sector collapses. It also provides essential information about the physical processes that modify their shapes during periods of quietness, and quite significantly, about the volcanoes' ages. In the case of monogenetic activity, a volcanic field can be characterized by the size and slope distributions, and other cone's morphometric parameter distributions that may provide valuable information about the temporal evolution of the volcanic field. The increasingly available high-resolution digital elevation models and the continuously developing computer tools have allowed a faster development and more detailed morphometric characterization techniques. We present here a methodology to readily obtain diverse volcanic cone shape parameters from the contour curves such as mean slope, slope distribution, dimensions of the cone and crater, crater location within the cone, orientation of the cone's principal axis, eccentricity, and other morphological features using an analysis algorithm that we developed, programmed in Python and ArcPy. Preliminary results from the implementation of this methodology to the Chichinautzin and Michoacán-Guanajuato monogenetic volcanic fields in Mexico have permitted a preliminary estimation of the age distribution of some of the cones with an acceptable correlation with the available radiometric ages. A large part of the Chichinautzin region DEM was obtained from a LIDAR survey by the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI).

  6. Volcanic eruptions observed with infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Aster, Richard C.; Kyle, Philip R.

    2004-07-01

    Infrasonic airwaves produced by active volcanoes provide valuable insight into the eruption dynamics. Because the infrasonic pressure field may be directly associated with the flux rate of gas released at a volcanic vent, infrasound also enhances the efficacy of volcanic hazard monitoring and continuous studies of conduit processes. Here we present new results from Erebus, Fuego, and Villarrica volcanoes highlighting uses of infrasound for constraining quantitative eruption parameters, such as eruption duration, source mechanism, and explosive gas flux.

  7. Los volcanes y los hombres

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Desde las entrañas de la tierra, los volcanes han creado la atmósfera, el agua de los océanos, y esculpido los relieves del planeta: son, pues, los zahoríes de la vida. Existen volcanes que los hombres explotan o cultivan, y otros sobre los cuales se han construido observatorios en los que se llevan a cabo avanzadas investigaciones científicas.

  8. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  9. Volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) with more than twenty eruptions recognised over the past two centuries. The island was formed on the expansion axis of the Central Bransfield Strait and its evolution consists of constructive and destructive phases. A first a shield phase was followed by the construction of a central edifice and formation of the caldera with a final monogenetic volcanism along the caldera rim. The post-caldera magma composition varies from andesitic-basaltic to dacitic. The activity is characterised by monogenetic eruptions of low volume and short duration. The eruptions show a variable degree of explosivity, strombolian or phreatomagmatic, with a VEI 2 to 4, which have generated a wide variety of pyroclastic deposits and lavas. It is remarkable how many phases of phreatic explosive eruptions are associated to the emission of large ballistic blocks. Tephra record preserved in the glacier ice of Livingston Island or in marine sediments show the explosive power of the phreatomagmatic phases and the wide dispersal of its finest products in a great variety of directions of the prevailing winds. Also it is important to highlight the presence of different lahar deposits associated with some of these eruptions. In this contribution we present the guidelines to conduct a short-term and long-term volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island. We apply probabilistic methods to estimate the susceptibility, statistical techniques to determine the eruption recurrence and eruptive scenario, and reproduce the effects of historical eruptions too. Volcanic hazard maps and scenarios are obtained using a Voris-based model tool (Felpeto et al., 2007) in a free Geographical Information System (GIS), a Quantum GIS.

  10. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  11. Explosive mafic volcanism on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1993-01-01

    Deposits within Amazonia Planitia, Mars, have been interpreted as ignimbrite plains on the basis of their erosional characteristics. The western flank of Hecates Tholus appears to be mantled by an airfall deposit, which was produced through magma-water interactions or exsolution of magmatic volatiles. Morphologic studies, along with numerical and analytical modeling of Martian plinian columns and pyroclastic flows, suggest that shield materials of Tyrrhena and Hadriaca paterae are composed of welded pyroclastic flows. Terrestrial pyroclastic flows, ignimbrites, and airfall deposits are typically associated with silicic volcanism. Because it is unlikely that large volumes of silicic lavas have been produced on Mars, we seek terrestrial analogs of explosives, mafic volcanism. Plinian basaltic airfall deposits have been well-documented at Masaya, Nicaragua, and basaltic ignimbrite and surge deposits also have been recognized there. Ambrym and Yasour, both in Vanuatu, are mafic stratovolcanioes with large central calderas, and are composed of interbedded basaltic pyrocalstic deposits and lava flows. Zavaritzki, a mafic stratovolcano in the Kurile Islands, may have also produced pyroclastic deposits, although the exact nature of these deposits in unknown. Masaya, Ambrym and Yasour are known to be located above tensional zones. Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae may also be located above zones of tension, resulting from the formation and evolution of Hellas basin, and, thus, may be directly analogous to these terrestrial mafic, explosive volcanoes.

  12. Inception and propagation of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen: effects of the voltage rise-rate

    CERN Document Server

    Clevis, T T J; Ebert, U

    2012-01-01

    Controlling streamer morphology is important for numerous applications. Up to now, the effect of the voltage rise rate was only studied across a wide range. Here we show that even slight variations in the voltage rise can have significant effects. We have studied positive streamer discharges in a 16 cm point-plane gap in high-purity nitrogen 6.0, created by 25 kV pulses with a duration of 130 ns. The voltage rise varies by a rise rate from 1.9 kV/ns to 2.7 kV/ns and by the first peak voltage of 22 to 28 kV. A structural link is found between smaller discharges with a larger inception cloud caused by a faster rising voltage. This relation is explained by the greater stability of the inception cloud due to a faster voltage rise, causing a delay in the destabilisation. Time-resolved measurements show that the inception cloud propagates slower than an earlier destabilised, more filamentary discharge. This explains that the discharge with a faster rising voltage pulse ends up to be shorter. Furthermore, the effect...

  13. The role of land surface dynamics in glacial inception: a study with the UVic Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, K.J.; Weaver, A.J.; Matthews, H.D. [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria (Canada); Cox, P.M. [Hadley Centre, Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    The first results of the UVic Earth System Model coupled to a land surface scheme and a dynamic global vegetation model are presented in this study. In the first part the present day climate simulation is discussed and compared to observations. We then compare a simulation of an ice age inception (forced with 116 ka BP orbital parameters and an atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 240 ppm) with a preindustrial run (present day orbital parameters, atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] = 280 ppm). Emphasis is placed on the vegetation's response to the combined changes in solar radiation and atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. A southward shift of the northern treeline as well as a global decrease in vegetation carbon is observed in the ice age inception run. In tropical regions, up to 88% of broadleaf trees are replaced by shrubs and C{sub 4} grasses. These changes in vegetation cover have a remarkable effect on the global climate: land related feedbacks double the atmospheric cooling during the ice age inception as well as the reduction of the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic. The introduction of vegetation related feedbacks also increases the surface area with perennial snow significantly. (orig.)

  14. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... Pleistocene times. These basalts mark the end of a period of shallow subduction of the Nazca slab beneath the Payenia province and volcanism in the Nevado volcanic field apparently followed the downwarping slab in a north-northwest direction ending in the Northern Segment. The northern Payenia basalts...... the literature. The Nevado basalts have been modelled by 4-10 % melting of a primitive mantle added 1-5 % upper continental crust. In the southern Payenia province, intraplate basalts dominate. The samples from the Payún Matrú and Río Colorado volcanic fields are apparently unaffected by the subducting slab...

  15. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.

  16. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  17. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates

  18. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD and 200 normal controls and $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors including the National Institutes on Aging, thirteen pharmaceutical companies and two Foundations that provided support through the Foundation for NIH (FNIH). This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February, 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been 1) the development of standardized methods for clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multi-center setting; 2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control, MCI and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β amyloid (Aβ) cascade [1] and tau mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD while brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; 3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities including MRI, FDG-PET, CSF biomarkers and clinical tests; 4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, Aβ42 and tau as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly or even non-symptomatic subjects and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; 5) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most

  19. Geopulsation, Volcanism and Astronomical Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexiang; Chen Dianyou; Yang Xiaoying; Yang Shuchen

    2000-01-01

    Volcanism is mainly controlled by the intermittent release of energy in the earth. As far as the differential rotation of the earth's inner core is concerned, the Galactic Year may change the gravitational constant G, the solar radiative quantity and the moving speed of the solar system and affect the exchange of angular momentum between core and mantle as well as the energy exchange between crust and mantle. As a result, this leads to eruptions of superplumes and magma, and controls the energy flow from core - mantle boundary (CMB) to crust. When the earth' s speed decreases, it will release a huge amount of energy. They are the reason of the correspondence of the volcanic cycles one by one with the astronomical periods one by one. According to the astronomical periods, volcanic eruptions may possibly be predicted in the future.

  20. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  1. Geochemical study for volcanic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichi, C.; La Ruffa, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, International Institute for Geothermal Research Ghezzano, PI (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    For years, geologists have been striving to reconstruct volcanic eruptions from the analysis of pyroclastic deposits and lava flows on the surface of the earth and in the oceans. This effort has produced valuable information on volcanic petrology and magma generation, separation, mixing, crystallisation, and interaction with water in phreatomagmatic and submarine eruptions. The volcanological process are tied to the dynamics of the earth's crust and lithosphere. The mantle, subducted oceanic crust, and continental crust contain different rock types and are sources of different magmas. Magmas consist primarily of completely or partially molten silicates containing volatile materials either dissolved in the melt or as bubbles of gas. The silicate and volatile portions affect the physical properties of magma and, therefore, the nature of a volcanic eruption.

  2. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  3. GIS methods applied to the degradation of monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of the Holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Aulinas, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Gimeno, D.; Guillou, H.; Paris, R.

    2011-11-01

    Modeling of volcanic morphometry provides reliable measurements of parameters that assist in the determination of volcanic landform degradation. Variations of the original morphology enable the understanding of patterns affecting erosion and their development, facilitating the assessment of associated hazards. A total of 24 volcanic Holocene eruptions were identified in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). 87% of these eruptions occurred in a wet environment while the rest happened in a dry environment. 45% of Holocene eruptions are located along short barrancos (S-type, less than 10 km in length), 20% along large barrancos (L-type, 10-17 km in length) and 35% along extra-large barrancos (XL-type, more than 17 km in length). The erosional history of Holocene volcanic edifices is in the first stage of degradation, with a geomorphic signature characterized by a fresh, young cone with a sharp profile and a pristine lava flow. After intensive field work, a careful palaeo-geomorphological reconstruction of the 24 Holocene eruptions of Gran Canaria was conducted in order to obtain the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) of the pre- and post-eruption terrains. From the difference between these DTMs, the degradation volume and the incision rate were obtained. The denudation of volcanic cones and lava flows is relatively independent both their geographical location and the climatic environment. However, local factors, such as pre-eruption topography and ravine type, have the greatest influence on the erosion of Holocene volcanic materials in Gran Canaria. Although age is a key factor to help understand the morphological evolution of monogenetic volcanic fields, the Gran Canaria Holocene volcanism presented in this paper demonstrates that local and regional factors may determine the lack of correlation between morphometric parameters and age. Consequently, the degree of transformation of the volcanic edifices evolves, in many cases, independently of their age.

  4. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Picard, R.; Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km{sup 2} area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1 2}. The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site.

  5. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Z, P

    1998-10-01

    The study of the water quality for human consumption has always been great importance, considering the factors that can affect water quality as aquifers recharge and underground permeability. In this work, the behavior of three water springs related with the Popocatepetl volcano were studied within April 1997 and March 1998. The spring in Paso de Cortes in the municipality of Amecameca, State of Mexico, and the springs of Atlimeyaya and Axocopan in Atlixco, State of Puebla; the water of these last two springs is used for human consumption. The content of radon in water was determined by means of liquid scintillation, and a concentration of 1.22 Bq/l was found in the spring of Atlimeyaya, which represents 2 % of the maximum permissible level established by ICRP. A significant increase was observed in the Paso de Cortes spring in the month of July 1997. The content of radium, was determined by means of gamma spectrophotometry and small quantities of this element (<0.11 Bq/l) were found. Water chemical analysis also included usual physical-chemical parameters determination by means of conventional methods. The spring of Axocopan, was found to have the major level of minerals, followed by Atlimeyaya and finally the Paso de Cortes spring, which is supplied by recent infiltrated water. Fluoride level showed a peak high level in concentration during the months of October and November, time in which infiltration due to rain is low; concentration level found was above the maximum permissible level established by Mexican authorities for this compound. The other chemical species determined were: Ca{sup 2+} , Mg{sup 2+} , K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H C O{sub 3} {sup -} , Cl{sup -} , S O{sub 4} {sup -} {sup 2} , Li, B, Sc, Ti, V, Rb, Sr and Ba, primarily, which did not show any significant variation with the change of seasons. No important variations in the concentration of radon, radium or for other volcanic activity related species were found in the entire study. (Author)

  6. Delimitation of volcanic edifices for landscape characterization and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Maria Teresa; Mundula, Filippo; Dessì, Francesco; Danila Patta, Elisabetta; Funedda, Antonio; Cioni, Raffaello

    2014-05-01

    The European Landscape Convention, recently adopted in Italy, indicates specific landforms to be selected as special protected sites. Active and inactive volcanic edifices, defined as the products of evolution of aggradational (lava effusion, pyroclastic deposition, magma intrusion) and degradational processes (erosion, deformation, gravitative phenomena), are one of the specific landforms to be protected. In order to protect these sites, management and planning measures are to be defined and shared with the local communities. In the framework of the Regional Landscape Management Plan of Sardinia (Italy), a detailed study aimed at identifying and delimiting Cenozoic volcanic edifices was performed. The large geological and morphological variability of the volcanic edifices of Sardinia in terms of type, dimension, age, integrity (a measure of the wholeness and intactnes of the volcanic edifice), geology and paleomorphology of the substrate, does not allow the definition of an automatic procedure for extracting the boundaries to delimit the volcanic edifices. In addition, quantitative geomorphological studies in the field of volcanology are confined to specific volcano types, and landscape literature does not suggest any universal criteria for delimiting volcanic edifices, except for the use of the concave breaks in slope at their base (Euillades et al., Computers and Geosciences, 2013). As this simple criterion can be unequivocally applied only in the ideal case of symmetric cones or domes built up on a planar surface, we developed a multidisciplinary methodology based on the integrated analysis of geological, geomorphological and morphometrical data of each edifice. The process of selection and delimitation of the volcanic edifices is the result of the following steps: i) a literature based delimitation of the volcanic edifice; ii) a preliminary delimitation through photo-interpretation and the use of geological criteria; and iii) a final refinement based on the

  7. Controls on volcanism at intraplate basaltic volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hove, Jackson C.; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2017-02-01

    A broad range of controlling mechanisms is described for intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (IBVFs) in the literature. These correspond with those relating to shallow tectonic processes and to deep mantle plumes. Accurate measurement of the physical parameters of intraplate volcanism is fundamental to gain an understanding of the controlling factors that influence the scale and location of a specific IBVF. Detailed volume and geochronology data are required for this; however, these are not available for many IBVFs. In this study the primary controls on magma genesis and transportation are established for the Pliocene-Recent Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of south-eastern Australia as a case-study for one of such IBVF. The NVP is a large and spatio-temporally complex IBVF that has been described as either being related to a deep mantle plume, or upper mantle and crustal processes. We use innovative high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D modelling analysis, constrained by well-log data, to calculate its dimensions, volume and long-term eruptive flux. Our estimates suggest volcanic deposits cover an area of 23,100 ± 530 km2 and have a preserved dense rock equivalent of erupted volcanics of least 680 km3, and may have been as large as 900 km3. The long-term mean eruptive flux of the NVP is estimated between 0.15 and 0.20 km3/ka, which is relatively high compared with other IBVFs. Our comparison with other IBVFs shows eruptive fluxes vary up to two orders of magnitude within individual fields. Most examples where a range of eruptive flux is available for an IBVF show a correlation between eruptive flux and the rate of local tectonic processes, suggesting tectonic control. Limited age dating of the NVP has been used to suggest there were pulses in its eruptive flux, which are not resolvable using current data. These changes in eruptive flux are not directly relatable to the rate of any interpreted tectonic driver such as edge-driven convection. However, the NVP and other

  8. Multidimensional analysis and probabilistic model of volcanic and seismic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V.

    2009-04-01

    A search for space and time regularities in volcanic and seismic events for the purpose of forecast method development seems to be of current concern, both scientifically and practically. The seismic and volcanic processes take place in the Earth's field of gravity which in turn is closely related to gravitational fields of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets of the Solar System. It is mostly gravity and tidal forces that exercise control over the Earth's configuration and relief. Dynamic gravitational interaction between the Earth and other celestial bodies makes itself evident in tidal phenomena and other effects in the geospheres (including the Earth's crust). Dynamics of the tidal and attractive forces is responsible for periodical changes in gravity force, both in value and direction [Darwin, 1965], in the rate of rotation and orbital speed; that implies related changes in the endogenic activity of the Earth. The Earth's rotation in the alternating gravitational field accounts to a considerable extent for regular pattern of crustal deformations and dislocations; it is among principal factors that control the Earth's form and structure, distribution of oceans and continents and, probably, continental drift [Peive, 1969; Khain, 1973; Kosygin, 1983]. The energy of gravitational interaction is transmitted through the tidal energy to planetary spheres and feeds various processes there, including volcanic and seismic ones. To determine degree, character and special features of tidal force contribution to the volcanic and seismic processes is of primary importance for understanding of genetic and dynamic aspects of volcanism and seismicity. Both volcanic and seismic processes are involved in evolution of celestial bodies; they are operative on the planets of the Earth group and many satellites [Essays…, 1981; Lukashov, 1996]. From this standpoint, studies of those processes are essential with a view to development of scenarios of the Earth's evolution as a celestial

  9. The impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosol on decadal-scale climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Pohlmann, Holger; Illing, Sebastian; Kadow, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of a large future volcanic eruption provides arguably the largest uncertainty concerning the evolution of the climate system on the time scale of a few years; but also the greatest opportunity to learn about the behavior of the climate system, and our models thereof. So the question emerges how large will the uncertainty be for future decadal climate predictions if no volcanic aerosol is taken into account? And how strong has volcanic aerosol affected decadal prediction skill on annual and multi-year seasonal scales over the CMIP5 hindcast period? To understand the impact of volcanic aerosol on multi-year seasonal and decadal climate predictions we performed CMIP5-type hindcasts without volcanic aerosol using the German MiKlip prediction system system baseline 1 from 1961 to 1991 and compared them to the corresponding simulations including aerosols. Our results show that volcanic aerosol significantly affects the prediction skill for global mean surface air temperature in the first five years after strong volcanic eruptions. Also on the regional scale a volcanic imprint on decadal-scale variability is detectable. Neglecting volcanic aerosol leads to a reduced prediction skill over the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indic and West Pacific but to an improvement over the tropical East-Pacific, where the model has in general no skill. Multi-seasonal differences in the skill for seasonal-mean temperatures are evident over Continental Europe with significant skill loss due to neglection of volcanic aerosol in boreal winter over central Europe, Scandinavia and over south-eastern Europe and the East-Mediterranean in boreal summer.

  10. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Analytical Calculation of Stall-inception and Surge Points for an Axial-flow Compresor Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Benavides, Efren; López Juste, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a theoretical criterion to calculate the stability of an axial-flow compressor rotor has been presented in the scientific literature. This theoretical criterion was used for determining the locus of the stability line over the rotor map and for predicting the post-stall evolution of the constant-speed line of a rotor. The main objective of this paper is to improve the predictions of such a model. To do that, the paper proposes a different characterization of the characteristic az...

  12. A quantitative model for volcanic hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marzocchi; Sandri, L.; Furlan, C

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic hazard assessment is a basic ingredient for risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard is defined as the probability of any particular area being affected by a destructive volcanic event within a given period of time (Fournier d’Albe 1979). The probabilistic nature of such an important issue derives from the fact that volcanic activity is a complex process, characterized by several and usually unknown degrees o...

  13. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  14. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  15. Volcanic forcing in decadal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménégoz, Martin; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Guemas, Virginie; Asif, Muhammad; Prodhomme, chloe

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can significantly impact the climate system, by injecting large amounts of particles into the stratosphere. By reflecting backward the solar radiation, these particles cool the troposphere, and by absorbing the longwave radiation, they warm the stratosphere. As a consequence of this radiative forcing, the global mean surface temperature can decrease by several tenths of degrees. However, large eruptions are also associated to a complex dynamical response of the climate system that is particularly tricky do understand regarding the low number of available observations. Observations seem to show an increase of the positive phases of the Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) the two winters following large eruptions, associated to positive temperature anomalies over the Eurasian continent. The summers following large eruptions are generally particularly cold, especially over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. Overall, it is really challenging to forecast the climate response to large eruptions, as it is both modulated by, and superimposed to the climate background conditions, largely driven themselves by internal variability at seasonal to decadal scales. This work describes the additional skill of a forecast system used for seasonal and decadal predictions when it includes observed volcanic forcing over the last decades. An idealized volcanic forcing that could be used for real-time forecasts is also evaluated. This work consists in a base for forecasts that will be performed in the context of the next large volcanic eruption.

  16. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity. Direct measurement of the electric potential at the crater, where the electric activity in the volcanic plume is first observed, is severely impeded, limiting progress in its investigation. We have achieved volcanic lightning in the laboratory during rapid decompression experiments of gas-particle mixtures under controlled conditions. Upon decompression (from ~100 bar argon pressure to atmospheric pressure), loose particles are vertically accelerated and ejected through a nozzle of 2.8 cm diameter into a large tank filled with air at atmospheric conditions. Because of their impulsive character, our experiments most closely represent the conditions encountered in the gas-thrust region of the plume, when ash is first ejected from the crater. We used sieved natural ash with different grain sizes from Popocatépetl (Mexico), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), and Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanoes, as well as micrometric glass beads to constrain the influence of material properties on lightning. We monitored the dynamics of the particle-laden jets with a high-speed camera and the pressure and electric potential at the nozzle using a pressure transducer and two copper ring antennas connected to a high-impedance data acquisition system, respectively. We find that lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the particle-laden jet and by the abundance of fine particles. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) self-electrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. The relative movement of clusters of charged particles within the plume generates the gradient in electrical potential, which is necessary for lightning. In this manner it is the gas-particle dynamics together with the evolving particle-density distribution within different regions of

  17. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  18. Growth, destruction and volcanic facies architecture of three volcanic centres in the Miocene Uşak-Güre basin, western Turkey: Subaqueous-subaerial volcanism in a lacustrine setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Helvacı, Cahit

    2012-11-01

    Early to Mid-Miocene extension in western Anatolia, related to plate tectonic motions, resulted in the development of a number of normal fault-bounded sedimentary basins as well as different styles and compositions of volcanic activity. The Uşak and Güre basins accumulated a thick fluvio-lacustrine fill in which three distinct volcanic edifices (Elmadağ, İtecektepe and Beydağı) and their deposits can overlap with each other and with the sediments produced by the background sedimentation. In addition, complete facies architectures of small-volume (monogenetic) volcanoes have been recognised in association with the three large complex (polygenetic) volcanoes providing a complex mixed siliciclastic and volcaniclastic basin infill in the respective basins where volcanism took place. All three volcanic centres display a complex succession of effusive and explosive volcanisms and their reworked deposits, with abundant evidences of magma-water interaction such as peperites for non-explosive magma-water interaction with the lacustrine water-saturated sediment and standing water body in a large alkaline lake. During the constructive phase, proximal successions of pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic falls, and rarely surge deposits are associated with distally-emplaced debris flow deposits, sometimes of mixed volcanogenic and terrestrial origins, and are interbedded with lacustrine sediments of the Inay Group. All three volcanic centres then experienced a phase of volcano growth and degradation between 17 and 15 Ma ago, most likely related to a combination of tectonic movements on NE-SW-trending basement faults, which triggered multiple flank collapses and volcanic debris avalanches (Elmadağ), and voluminous ignimbrite eruptions that triggered caldera formation (İtecektepe and Beydağı volcanic centres). Lacustrine conditions persisted during the destruction and post-destruction stages of the volcano's evolution, as evidenced by indications of magma-water interactions

  19. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  20. The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. D.; Davies, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; Iaffaldano, G.; Yaxley, G.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.

    2017-05-01

    Mantle plumes are buoyant upwellings of hot rock that transport heat from Earth’s core to its surface, generating anomalous regions of volcanism that are not directly associated with plate tectonic processes. The best-studied example is the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, but the emergence of two sub-parallel volcanic tracks along this chain, Loa and Kea, and the systematic geochemical differences between them have remained unexplained. Here we argue that the emergence of these tracks coincides with the appearance of other double volcanic tracks on the Pacific plate and a recent azimuthal change in the motion of the plate. We propose a three-part model that explains the evolution of Hawaiian double-track volcanism: first, mantle flow beneath the rapidly moving Pacific plate strongly tilts the Hawaiian plume and leads to lateral separation between high- and low-pressure melt source regions; second, the recent azimuthal change in Pacific plate motion exposes high- and low-pressure melt products as geographically distinct volcanoes, explaining the simultaneous emergence of double-track volcanism across the Pacific; and finally, secondary pyroxenite, which is formed as eclogite melt reacts with peridotite, dominates the low-pressure melt region beneath Loa-track volcanism, yielding the systematic geochemical differences observed between Loa- and Kea-type lavas. Our results imply that the formation of double-track volcanism is transitory and can be used to identify and place temporal bounds on plate-motion changes.

  1. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  2. 3D PIC-MCC simulations of discharge inception around a sharp anode in nitrogen/oxygen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2016-08-01

    We investigate how photoionization, electron avalanches and space charge affect the inception of nanosecond pulsed discharges. Simulations are performed with a 3D PIC-MCC (particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo collision) model with adaptive mesh refinement for the field solver. This model, whose source code is available online, is described in the first part of the paper. Then we present simulation results in a needle-to-plane geometry, using different nitrogen/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. In these mixtures non-local photoionization is important for the discharge growth. The typical length scale for this process depends on the oxygen concentration. With 0.2% oxygen the discharges grow quite irregularly, due to the limited supply of free electrons around them. With 2% or more oxygen the development is much smoother. An almost spherical ionized region can form around the electrode tip, which increases in size with the electrode voltage. Eventually this inception cloud destabilizes into streamer channels. In our simulations, discharge velocities are almost independent of the oxygen concentration. We discuss the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and compare our simulations with experimental observations.

  3. Suppression of cavitation inception by gas bubble injection: a numerical study focusing on bubble-bubble interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Masato; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of cavitation and gas bubbles under negative pressure has been studied numerically to evaluate the effect of gas bubble injection into a liquid on the suppression of cavitation inception. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated by direct observation that cavitation occurs in liquid mercury when mechanical impacts are imposed, and this will cause cavitation damage in spallation neutron sources, in which liquid mercury is bombarded by a high-power proton beam. In the present paper, we describe numerical investigations of the dynamics of cavitation bubbles in liquid mercury using a multibubble model that takes into account the interaction of a cavitation bubble with preexisting gas bubbles through bubble-radiated pressure waves. The numerical results suggest that, if the mercury includes gas bubbles whose equilibrium radius is much larger than that of the cavitation bubble, the explosive expansion of the cavitation bubble (i.e., cavitation inception) is suppressed by the positive-pressure wave radiated by the injected bubbles, which decreases the magnitude of the negative pressure in the mercury.

  4. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  5. The Life of Stars The Controversial Inception and Emergence of the Theory of Stellar Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, Giora

    2009-01-01

    This beautifully illustrated book describes the birth and evolution of the theory of stellar structure through the vehement controversy between biology (as presented by Darwin) and physics (as presented by Kelvin) about the age of the Earth, which culminated with Rutherford suggesting radioactive dating. Shaviv analyzes critically many proclaimed scientific results, showing how and why they were wrong, and explains why it took decades to find the now accepted scientific answers - where there are such - and why there remains much more to be done before we can say we fully understand what happens up there in the heavens. The Life of the Stars provides fascinating reading for all those interested in the stars, in the history of astronomy and in what their story tells us about how science progresses. Moreover, it will bring readers up-to-date on current problems in astrophysics.

  6. The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, David T; Davies, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.

    2017-01-01

    Mantle plumes are buoyant upwellings of hot rock that transport heat from Earth's core to its surface, generating anomalous regions of volcanism that are not directly associated with plate tectonic processes. The best-studied example is the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, but the emergence of two sub......-parallel volcanic tracks along this chain, Loa and Kea, and the systematic geochemical differences between them have remained unexplained. Here we argue that the emergence of these tracks coincides with the appearance of other double volcanic tracks on the Pacific plate and a recent azimuthal change in the motion...... of the plate. We propose a three-part model that explains the evolution of Hawaiian double-track volcanism: first, mantle flow beneath the rapidly moving Pacific plate strongly tilts the Hawaiian plume and leads to lateral separation between high- and low-pressure melt source regions; second, the recent...

  7. Imaging trace gases in volcanic plumes with Fabry Perot Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jonas; Platt, Ulrich; Bobrowski, Nicole; Lübcke, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Within the last decades, progress in remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases revealed many important insights into physical and chemical processes in volcanic plumes. In particular, their evolution could be studied in more detail than by traditional in-situ techniques. A major limitation of standard techniques for volcanic trace gas remote sensing (e.g. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, DOAS) is the constraint of the measurement to a single viewing direction since they use dispersive spectroscopy with a high spectral resolution. Imaging DOAS-type approaches can overcome this limitation, but become very time consuming (of the order of minutes to record a single image) and often cannot match the timescales of the processes of interest for volcanic gas measurements (occurring at the order of seconds). Spatially resolved imaging observations with high time resolution for volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions became possible with the introduction of the SO2-Camera. Reducing the spectral resolution to two spectral channels (using interference filters) that are matched to the SO2 absorption spectrum, the SO2-Camera is able to record full frame SO2 slant column density distributions at a temporal resolution on the order of BrO) and chlorine dioxide (OClO) both yield absorption features that allow their detection with the FPI correlation technique. From BrO and OClO data, ClO levels in the plume could be calculated. We present an outline of applications of the FPI technique to imaging a series of trace gases in volcanic plumes. Sample calculations on the sensitivity and selectivity of the technique, first proof of concept studies and proposals for technical implementations are presented.

  8. How Volcanism Controls Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large explosive volcanoes eject megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where it spreads around the world within months and is oxidized slowly to form a sulfuric-acid aerosol with particle sizes that grow large enough to reflect and scatter solar radiation, cooling Earth ~0.5C for up to 3 years. Explosive eruptions also deplete total column ozone ~6% causing up to 3C winter warming at mid-latitudes over continents. Global cooling predominates. Extrusive, basaltic volcanoes deplete ozone ~6% but do not eject much sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, causing net global warming. Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete ozone ~3% for up to a century while each volcanic eruption, even small ones, depletes ozone twice as much but for less than a decade through eruption of halogens and ensuing photochemical processes. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, plus anthropogenic CFCs depleted ozone over Toronto Canada 14% in 2012, causing an unusually warm winter and drought. Total column ozone determines how much solar ultraviolet energy with wavelengths between 290 and 340 nanometers reaches Earth where it is absorbed most efficiently by the ocean. A 25% depletion of ozone increases the amount of this radiation reaching Earth by 1 W m-2 for overhead sun and 0.25 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 70 degrees. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere heated from below by a sun-warmed Earth and the stratosphere heated from above by the Sun through photodissociation primarily of oxygen and ozone. The mean annual height of the tropopause increased ~160 m between 1980 and 2004 at the same time that northern mid-latitude total column ozone was depleted by ~4%, the lower stratosphere cooled ~2C, the upper troposphere warmed ~0.1C, and mean surface temperatures in the northern hemisphere rose ~0.5C. Regional total ozone columns are observed to increase as rapidly as 20% within 5 hours with an associated 5

  9. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  10. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  11. Evolving volcanism at the tip of a propagating arc: The earliest high-Mg andesites in northern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booden, Mathijs A.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Black, Philippa M.

    2010-08-01

    A NNW-striking string of isolated volcanic centers, the Kiwitahi chain, erupted between 15 and 5.5 Ma in northern New Zealand. Prior to 6.2 Ma, the erupted rocks were plagioclase- and hornblende-dominated andesites, which are geochemically comparable to coeval andesites erupted in the nearby, much larger Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ). Compared to CVZ andesites, however, the Kiwitahi andesites show more subdued incompatible element enrichments, and they generally have relatively unradiogenic Sr isotope compositions. These features, and the small eruption volumes involved, suggest that the Kiwitahi centers formed over the edge of a magmatic system that was centered on the CVZ. The Kiwitahi centers progressively become younger towards the SSE representing the migration over the time of the edge of this magmatic system. Between 6.2 and 5.5 Ma, four centers at the southern end of the chain erupted pyroxene-dominated, high-magnesium andesites that are geochemically unlike coeval andesites in the CVZ, but similar to Quaternary high-Mg andesites erupted along the western edge of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. These are the earliest known high-Mg andesites in northern New Zealand; their appearance may mark the inception of the current configuration where high-Mg andesite eruptions precede regular andesitic volcanism at the leading edge of the arc.

  12. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hicks

    2013-12-01

    analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4 evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  13. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  14. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  15. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  16. Quaternary bimodal volcanism in the Niğde Volcanic Complex (Cappadocia, central Anatolia, Turkey): age, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Schmitt, Axel K.; Siebel, Wolfgang; Sönmez, Mustafa; Ersoy, Yalçın; Lermi, Abdurrahman; Dirik, Kadir; Duncan, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The late Neogene to Quaternary Cappadocian Volcanic Province (CVP) in central Anatolia is one of the most impressive volcanic fields of Turkey because of its extent and spectacular erosionally sculptured landscape. The late Neogene evolution of the CVP started with the eruption of extensive andesitic-dacitic lavas and ignimbrites with minor basaltic lavas. This stage was followed by Quaternary bimodal volcanism. Here, we present geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb and δ18O isotopes) and geochronological (U-Pb zircon and Ar-Ar amphibole and whole-rock ages) data for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Niğde Volcanic Complex (NVC) in the western part of the CVP to determine mantle melting dynamics and magmatic processes within the overlying continental crust during the Quaternary. Geochronological data suggest that the bimodal volcanic activity in the study area occurred between ca. 1.1 and ca. 0.2 Ma (Pleistocene) and comprises (1) mafic lavas consisting of basalts, trachybasalts, basaltic andesites and scoria lapilli fallout deposits with mainly basaltic composition, (2) felsic lavas consisting of mostly rhyolites and pumice lapilli fall-out and surge deposits with dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The most mafic sample is basalt from a monogenetic cone, which is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7038, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5128, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.80, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.68, suggesting a moderately depleted signature of the mantle source. Felsic volcanic rocks define a narrow range of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios (0.5126-0.5128) and are homogeneous in Pb isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.84-18.87, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64-15.67 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93-38.99). 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of mafic (0.7038-0.7053) and felsic (0.7040-0.7052) samples are similar, reflecting a common mantle source. The felsic rocks have relatively low zircon δ18O values (5.6 ± 0.6 ‰) overlapping mantle values (5.3 ± 0.3 %), consistent with an origin by fractional crystallization

  17. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Anomalous diffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic seismicity at Mt. Etna is studied. It is found that the associated stochastic process exhibits a subdiffusive phenomenon. The jump probability distribution well obeys an exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distribution follows a power law in a wide range. Although these results would seem to suggest that the phenomenon could be described by temporally-fractional kinetic theory based on the viewpoint of continuous-time random walks, the exponent of the power-law waiting-time distribution actually lies outside of the range allowed in the theory. In addition, there exists the aging phenomenon in the event-time averaged mean squared displacement, in contrast to the picture of fractional Brownian motion. Comments are also made on possible relevances of random walks on fractals as well as nonlinear kinetics. Thus, problems of volcanic seismicity are highly challenging for science of complex systems.

  19. Combining observations and model simulations to reduce the hazard of Etna volcanic ash plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Simona; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world with a recent activity characterized by powerful lava fountains that produce several kilometres high eruption columns and disperse volcanic ash in the atmosphere. It is well known that, to improve the volcanic ash dispersal forecast of an ongoing explosive eruption, input parameters used by volcanic ash dispersal models should be measured during the eruption. In this work, in order to better quantify the volcanic ash dispersal, we use data from the video-surveillance system of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, and from the lidar system together with a volcanic ash dispersal model. In detail, the visible camera installed in Catania, 27 km from the vent is able to evaluate the evolution of column height with time. The Lidar, installed at the "M.G. Fracastoro" astrophysical observatory (14.97° E, 37.69° N) of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Catania, located at a distance of 7 km from the Etna summit craters, uses a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser source operating at a 532-nm wavelength, with a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Backscattering and depolarization values measured by the Lidar system can give, with a certain degree of uncertainty, an estimation of volcanic ash concentration in atmosphere. The 12 August 2011 activity is considered a perfect test case because volcanic plume was retrieved by both camera and Lidar. We evaluated the mass eruption rate from the column height and used best fit procedures comparing simulated volcanic ash concentrations with those extracted by the Lidar data. During this event, powerful lava fountains were well visible at about 08:30 GMT and a sustained eruption column was produced since about 08:55 GMT. Ash emission completely ceased around 11:30 GMT. The proposed approach is an attempt to produce more robust ash dispersal forecasts reducing the hazard to air traffic during Etna volcanic crisis.

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  1. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris

    2013-06-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes of Lupus Nephritis in an International Inception Cohort Using a Multistate Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study bidirectional change and predictors of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria in lupus nephritis (LN) using a multistate modeling approach. METHODS: Patients in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort were classified...... annually into estimated GFR state 1 (>60 ml/minute), state 2 (30-60 ml/minute), or state 3 (proteinuria state 1 (3.0 gm/day), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Using multistate modeling, relative transition rates...... between states indicated improvement and deterioration. RESULTS: Of 1,826 lupus patients, 700 (38.3%) developed LN. During a mean ± SD follow-up of 5.2 ± 3.5 years, the likelihood of improvement in estimated GFR and estimated proteinuria was greater than the likelihood of deterioration. After 5 years, 62...

  3. Serum uric acid as a predictor for development of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes: an inception cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, Peter; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental and clinical studies have suggested that uric acid may contribute to the development of hypertension and kidney disease. Whether uric acid has a causal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy is not known. The objective of the present study is to evaluate uric acid...... level; P = 0.04). Adjustment for confounders did not change the estimate significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Uric acid level soon after onset of type 1 diabetes is independently associated with risk for later development of diabetic nephropathy....... as a predictor of persistent micro- and macroalbuminuria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective observational follow-up study consisted of an inception cohort of 277 patients followed from onset of type 1 diabetes. Of these, 270 patients had blood samples taken at baseline. In seven cases, uric acid...

  4. The Western Arabian intracontinental volcanic fields as a potential UNESCO World Heritage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2017-04-01

    UNESCO promotes conservation of the geological and geomoprhological heritage through promotion of protection of these sites and development of educational programs under the umbrella of geoparks among the most globally significant ones labelled as UNESCO Global Geoparks. UNESCO also maintains a call to list those natural sites that provide universal outstanding values to demonstrate geological features or their relevance to our understanding the evolution of Earth. Volcanoes currently got a surge in nomination to be UNESCO World Heritage sites. Volcanic fields in the contrary fell in a grey area of nominations as they represents the most common manifestation of volcanism on Earth hence they are difficult to view as having outstanding universal values. A nearly 2500-km long 300-km wide region of dispersed volcanoes located in the Western Arabian Penninsula mostly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia form a near-continuous location that carries universal outstanding value as one of the most representative manifestation of dispersed intracontinental volcanism on Earth to be nominated as an UNESCO World Heritage site. The volcanic fields formed in the last 20 Ma along the Red Sea as group of simple basaltic to more mature and long-lived basalt to trachyte-to-rhyolite volcanic fields each carries high geoheritage values. While these volcanic fields are dominated by scoria and spatter cones and transitional lava fields, there are phreatomagmatic volcanoes among them such as maars and tuff rings. Phreatomagmatism is more evident in association with small volcanic edifices that were fed by primitive magmas, while phreatomagmatic influences during the course of a larger volume eruption are also known in association with the silicic eruptive centres in the harrats of Rahat, Kishb and Khaybar. Three of the volcanic fields are clearly bimodal and host small-volume relatively short-lived lava domes and associated block-and-ash fans providing a unique volcanic landscape commonly not

  5. Efficacy of a New Medical Information system, Ubiquitous Healthcare Service with Voice Inception Technique in Elderly Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Park, Kyeong Seon; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yun Hee; Bae, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Joon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2015-12-11

    We have demonstrated previously that an individualized health management system using advanced medical information technology, named ubiquitous (u)-healthcare, was helpful in achieving better glycemic control than routine care. Recently, we generated a new u-healthcare system using a voice inception technique for elderly diabetic patients to communicate information about their glucose control, physical activity, and diet more easily. In a randomized clinical trial, 70 diabetic patients aged 60-85 years were assigned randomly to a standard care group or u-healthcare group for 6 months. The primary end points were the changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose fluctuation assessed by the mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE). Changes in body weight, lifestyle, and knowledge about diabetes were also investigated. After 6 months, the HbA1c levels decreased significantly in the u-healthcare group (from 8.6 ± 1.0% to 7.5 ± 0.6%) compared with the standard care group (from 8.7 ± 0.9% to 8.2 ± 1.1%, P < 0.01). The MAGE decreased more in the u-healthcare group than in the standard care group. Systolic blood pressure and body weight decreased and liver functions improved in the u-healthcare group, but not in the standard care group. The u-healthcare system with voice inception technique was effective in achieving glycemic control without hypoglycemia in elderly diabetic patients (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01891474).

  6. Petrogenesis of meta-volcanic rocks from the Maimón Formation (Dominican Republic): Geochemical record of the nascent Greater Antilles paleo-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torró, Lisard; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Marchesi, Claudio; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Lewis, John F.

    2017-05-01

    Metamorphosed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites and plagiorhyolites of the Early Cretaceous, probably pre-Albian, Maimón Formation, located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, are some of the earliest products of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism. In this article, new whole-rock element and Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope data are used to give new insights into the petrogenesis of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks and constrain the early evolution of the Greater Antilles paleo-arc system. Three different groups of mafic volcanic rocks are recognized on the basis of their immobile element contents. Group 1 comprises basalts with compositions similar to low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT), which are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) and resemble the forearc basalts (FAB) and transitional FAB-boninitic basalts of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc. Group 2 rocks have boninite-like compositions relatively rich in Cr and poor in TiO2. Group 3 comprises low-Ti island arc tholeiitic basalts with near-flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Plagiorhyolites and rare andesites present near-flat to subtly LREE-depleted chondrite normalized patterns typical of tholeiitic affinity. Nd and Pb isotopic ratios of plagiorhyolites, which are similar to those of Groups 1 and 3 basalts, support that these felsic lavas formed by anatexis of the arc lower crust. Geochemical modelling points that the parental basic magmas of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks formed by hydrous melting of a heterogeneous spinel-facies mantle source, similar to depleted MORB mantle (DMM) or depleted DMM (D-DMM), fluxed by fluids from subducted oceanic crust and Atlantic Cretaceous pelagic sediments. Variations of subduction-sensitive element concentrations and ratios from Group 1 to the younger rocks of Groups 2 and 3 generally match the geochemical progression from FAB-like to boninite and IAT lavas described in subduction-initiation ophiolites. Group 1 basalts likely formed at magmatic

  7. Paleosubmarine Volcanism and Mineralization from North Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of tectono-magmatic evolution, the types and backgrounds of mineralization prior to the orogenic period of North Qilian Mountains. It points out that: during the process of Paleozoic ocean basin opening and closing, the large scale marine volcanism and massive sulfide deposits controlled by sea floor hydrothermal circulation systems are the two sharpest features in the geological developing history of the orogenic belt, which are also the most two important aspects related to each other and should be given a special attention in the geological studies in the region.

  8. 玄武岩浆起源和演化的一些基本概念以及对中国东部中-新生代基性火山岩成因的新思路%Generation and Evolution of Basaltic Magmas: Some Basic Concepts and a New View on the Origin of Mesozoic- Cenozoic Basaltic Volcanism in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛耀龄

    2005-01-01

    减压分熔可合理解释具有软流圈地球化学特征(εNd>0)的新生代中国东部基性火山活动及玄武岩的成因.这些对中国东部中-新生代地质过程的解释,将为更加细致的,以岩石学和地球化学为主的讨论所验证.%Some basic concepts of basaltic magma generation and evolution are discussed in the context of global tectonics. These concepts need better understanding before invoking elusive possibihlities in igneous petrogenesis on all scales and in all tectonic environments. A hypothesis for the Mesozoic lithosphere thinning and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in eastern China is presented. This hypothesis is consistent with observations and complies with basic physics. While the eastern China volcanism can bedefined as "intra-plate" volcanism, it is in fact a special consequence of plate tectonics. The Mesozoic lithosphere thinning in eastern China is best explained by a process that “transformed” the deep portion of the lithosphere into convective asthenosphere by hydration. The water that did so may come from dehydration of subducted Pacific (or predecessor) oceanic lithosphere that is presently lying horizontally in the transition zone beneath eastern Chinese continent as detected by seismic tomographic models. The Mesozoic volcanism may be genetically associated with the lithospheric thinning because the basaltic source is ancient isotopically enriched (εNd < 0 ) lithosphere--being converted to the asthenosphere. The NNE-SSW Great Gradient Line (GGL) marked by the sharp altitude, gravity anonaly, crustal thickness, and mantle seismic velocity changes from the plateau west to the hilly plains of eastern China is an expression of variation in lithospheric thickness from probably > 150 ~ 200 km beneath the plateaus in the west to the thin, probably < 80 km, beneath eastern China. The “remote” western Pacific subduction systems induce asthenospheric flow from beneath eastern China towards the

  9. Geochemical characteristics of island-arc volcanic rocks in the Nan-Nam Pat-Phetchabun zone, northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shangyue; FENG Qinglai; YANG Wenqiang; ZHANG Zhibin; Chongpom Chonglakmani

    2010-01-01

    Late Permian-Early Triassic (P2-T1) volcanic rocks distributed on the eastern side of ocean-ridge and oceanic-island basalts in the Nan-Uttaradit zone were analyzed from aspects of petrographic characteristics, rock assemblage, REE, trace elements, geotectonic setting, etc., indicating that those volcanic rocks possess the characteristic features of island-arc volcanic rocks. The volcanic rock assemblage is basalt-basaltic andesite-andesite. The volcanic rocks are sub-alkaline, dominated by calc-alkaline series, with tholeiite series coming next. The chemical composition of the volcanic rocks is characterized by low TiO2 and K2O and high Al2O3 and Na2O. Their REE patterns are of the flat, weak LREE-enrichment right-inclined type. The trace elements are characterized by the enrichment of large cation elements such as K, Rb and Ba, common enrichment of U and Th, and depletion of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The petrochemical plot falls within the field of volcanic rocks, in consistency with the plot of island-arc volcanic rocks in the Jinsha River zone of China. This island-arc volcanic zone, together with the ocean-ridge/oceanic island type volcanic rocks in the Nan-Uttaradit zone, constitutes the ocean-ridge volcanic rock-island-arc magmatic rock zones which are distributed in pairs, indicating that the oceanic crust of the Nan-Uttaradit zone once was of eastward subduction. This work is of great significance in exploring the evolution of paleo-Tethys in the Nan-Uttaradit zone.

  10. Visualising volcanic gas plumes with virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T. E.; Burton, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Caltabiano, T.

    2009-09-01

    The recent availability of small, cheap ultraviolet spectrometers has facilitated the rapid deployment of automated networks of scanning instruments at several volcanoes, measuring volcanic SO 2 gas flux at high frequency. These networks open up a range of other applications, including tomographic reconstruction of the gas distribution which is of potential use for both risk mitigation, particularly to air traffic, and environmental impact modelling. Here we present a methodology for visualising reconstructed plumes using virtual globes, such as Google Earth, which allows animations of the evolution of the gas plume to be displayed and easily shared on a common platform. We detail the process used to convert tomographically reconstructed cross-sections into animated gas plume models, describe how this process is automated and present results from the scanning network around Mt. Etna, Sicily. We achieved an average rate of one frame every 12 min, providing a good visual representation of the plume which can be examined from all angles. In creating these models, an approximation to turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere was required. To this end we derived the value of the turbulent diffusion coefficient for quiescent conditions near Etna to be around 200- 500m2s-1.

  11. Pattern of geochemical variations within the volcanic system of Mt Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.

  12. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes.

  13. Nephelometric Dropsonde for Volcanic Ash Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes could enable unprecedented observations of...

  14. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 4. Inception report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M.; Lemmens, L. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia); Winarno, O.T. [Institute of Technology of Bandung ITB, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2009-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This inception report presents the proposed programmes for addressing the identified training needs, the proposed changes to the monitoring framework and other relevant issues discussed during the inception phase.

  15. Borobudur, a basin under volcanic influence: 361,000 years BP to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C.; Janin, M.; Lavigne, F.; Gertisser, R.; Charbonnier, S.; Lahitte, P.; Hadmoko, S. R.; Fort, M.; Wassmer, P.; Degroot, V.; Murwanto, H.

    2010-10-01

    Borobudur basin is located in Central Java (Indonesia), 30 km to the North of Yogyakarta City. The basin is famous for its UNESCO world heritage temple and for one of the world's most active volcanoes, Merapi, located to the East of Borobudur basin. Merapi is one of the three andesitic volcanoes that surround the basin: Merapi, Merbabu and Sumbing volcanoes. Therefore, volcanic activity has strongly influenced the evolution of Borobudur basin. The object of this contribution is to present the evolution of Borobudur basin over the last 161,000 years in the light of volcanic influence. The methodology and tools developed for this research span over different areas of expertise, from geochemistry, geology and geomorphology to remote sensing, GIS and archeology. Results highlight the following points: Two major volcanic events deposited volcaniclastic materials up to tens of meters thick ~ 119,000 years BP and ~ 31,000 years BP. in the Southern part of the Borobudur basin. The second volcanic event could correspond to the collapse of the older Ancient Merapi ( Camus et al., 2000) or Proto-Merapi Stage ( Newhall et al., 2000). There is no trace in the Borobudur basin of a large debris avalanche debris avalanche inferred in the literature for Merapi Volcano was either too small to reach 20 km from the actual summit of Merapi; or, despite the orientation of the avalanche caldera rim on Merapi Volcano, the debris avalanche was deposited more towards the South, completely eroded or covered by younger deposits. There are several generations of paleolakes in the Borobudur basin. The latest one has shrunk until historical times, corroborating the theory of Newhall et al. (2000) and Murwanto et al. (2004) that Borobudur Temple was standing by a water body. Most of these paleolakes were impounded following volcanic events. Paleolakes most probably originated from the blockage of the hydrographic network by volcanic material. Borobudur temple was never buried under volcanic

  16. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the ‘strength’ of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  17. Water in volcanic glass: From volcanic degassing to secondary hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Angela N.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watkins, James M.; Ross, Abigail M.

    2016-10-01

    Volcanic glass is deposited with trace amounts (0.1-0.6 wt.%) of undegassed magmatic water dissolved in the glass. After deposition, meteoric water penetrates into the glass structure mostly as molecular H2O. Due to the lower δD (‰) values of non-tropical meteoric waters and the ∼30‰ offset between volcanic glass and environmental water during hydration, secondary water imparts lighter hydrogen isotopic values during secondary hydration up to a saturation concentration of 3-4 wt.% H2O. We analyzed compositionally and globally diverse volcanic glass from 0 to 10 ka for their δD and H2Ot across different climatic zones, and thus different δD of precipitation, on a thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TCEA) furnace attached to a mass spectrometer. We find that tephrachronologically coeval rhyolite glass is hydrated faster than basaltic glass, and in the majority of glasses an increase in age and total water content leads to a decrease in δD (‰), while a few equatorial glasses have little change in δD (‰). We compute a magmatic water correction based on our non-hydrated glasses, and calculate an average 103lnαglass-water for our hydrated felsic glasses of -33‰, which is similar to the 103lnαglass-water determined by Friedman et al. (1993a) of -34‰. We also determine a smaller average 103lnαglass-water for all our mafic glasses of -23‰. We compare the δD values of water extracted from our glasses to local meteoric waters following the inclusion of a -33‰ 103lnαglass-water. We find that, following a correction for residual magmatic water based on an average δD and wt.% H2Ot of recently erupted ashes from our study, the δD value of water extracted from hydrated volcanic glass is, on average, within 4‰ of local meteoric water. To better understand the difference in hydration rates of mafic and felsic glasses, we imaged 6 tephra clasts ranging in age and chemical composition with BSE (by FEI SEM) down to a submicron resolution. Mafic tephra

  18. Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenesis of Volcanic Rocks as Exemplified by Volcanic Rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁庚; 叶霖

    1997-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang,occurring in the collision zone between the Siberia Plate and the Junggar Plate,are distributed along the Eritix River Valley in northern Xinjiang.The volcanic rocks were dated at Late Paleozoic and can be divided into the spilite-keratophyre series and the basalt-andesite series.The spilite-keratophyre series volcanic rocks occur in the Altay orogenic belt at the southwest margin of the Siberia Plate.In addition to sodic volcanic rocks.There are also associated potassic-sodic volcanic rocks and potassic volcanic rocks.The potassic-sodic volcanic rocks occur at the bottom of the eruption cycle and control the distribution of Pb and Zn deposits.The potassic volcanic rocks occur at the top of the eruption cycle and are associated with Au and Cu mineralizations.The sodic volcanic rocks occur in the middle stage of eruption cycle and control the occurrence of Cu(Zn) deposits.The basalt-andesite series volcanic rocks distributed in the North Junggar orogenic belt at the north margin of the Junggar-Kazakstan Plate belong to the potassic sodic volcain rocks.The volcanic rocks distributed along the Ulungur fault are relatively rich in sodium and poor in potassium and are predominated by Cu mineralization and associated with Au mineralization.Those volcanic rocks distributed along the Ertix fault are relatively rich in K and poor in Na,with Au mineralization being dominant.

  19. Characterizing Volcanic Eruptions on Venus: Some Realistic (?) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    When Pioneer Venus arrived at Venus in 1978, it detected anomalously high concentrations of SO2 at the top of the troposphere, which subsequently declined over the next five years. This decline in SO2 was linked to some sort of dynamic process, possibly a volcanic eruption. Observations of SO2 variability have persisted since Pioneer Venus. More recently, scientists from the Venus Express mission announced that the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument had measured varying amounts of SO2 in the upper atmosphere; VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) measured no similar variations in the lower atmosphere (ESA, 4 April, 2008). In addition, Fegley and Prinn stated that venusian volcanoes must replenish SO2 to the atmosphere, or it would react with calcite and disappear within 1.9 my. Fegley and Tremain suggested an eruption rate on the order of approx 1 cubic km/year to maintain atmospheric SO2; Bullock and Grinspoon posit that volcanism must have occurred within the last 20-50 my to maintain the sulfuric acid/water clouds on Venus. The abundance of volcanic deposits on Venus and the likely thermal history of the planet suggest that it is still geologically active, although at rates lower than Earth. Current estimates of resurfacing rates range from approx 0.01 cubic km/yr to approx 2 cubic km/yr. Demonstrating definitively that Venus is still volcanically active, and at what rate, would help to constrain models of evolution of the surface and interior, and help to focus future exploration of Venus.

  20. Seismic Tremors and Magma Wagging During Explosive Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, M.; Bercovici, D.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic tremor is a ubiquitous feature of explosive eruptions. This ground oscillation persists for minutes to weeks and is characterized by a remarkably narrow band of frequencies (i.e., ~0.5 - 7 Hz). Prior to major eruptions, tremor can occur in concert with ground deformation probably related to a buildup of magmatic gas. Volcanic tremor is, thus, of particular value for eruption forecasting. Most models for volcanic tremor rely on specific properties of the geometry, structure and constitution of volcanic conduits as well as the gas content of the erupting magma. Because neither the initial structure nor the evolution of the magma-conduit system will be the same from one volcano to the next, it is surprising that tremor characteristics are so consistent among different volcanoes. Indeed, this universality of tremor properties remains a major enigma. Here we employ the contemporary view that silicic magma rises in the conduit as a columnar plug surrounded by a highly vesicular annulus of sheared bubbles. We demonstrate that, for most geologically relevant conditions, the magma column will oscillate or "wag" against the restoring "gas-spring" force of the annulus at observed tremor frequencies. In contrast to previous models, the magma wagging oscillation is relatively insensitive to the conduit structure and geometry, thereby predicting the narrow band of tremor frequencies observed around the world. Moreover, the model predicts that as an eruption proceeds there will be an upward drift in both the maximum frequency and the total signal frequency bandwidth, the nature of which depends on the explosivity of the eruption, as observed.

  1. First observations of volcanic eruption clouds from L1 by DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Taylor, S.; Fisher, B. L.; Li, C.; Hughes, E. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Prata, F.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash have been measured by ultraviolet (UV) sensors on US and European polar-orbiting satellites since the late 1970s. Although successful, the main limitation of these UV observations from low-Earth orbit has been poor temporal resolution. Timeliness can be crucial when detecting hazardous volcanic eruption clouds that threaten aviation, and most operational geostationary satellites cannot detect SO2, a key tracer of volcanic plumes. In 2015, the launch of the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provided the first opportunity to observe volcanic clouds from the L1 Lagrange point. EPIC is a 10-band spectroradiometer spanning UV to near-IR wavelengths with two UV channels sensitive to SO2, and a ground resolution of 25 km. The unique L1 vantage point provides continuous observations of the sunlit Earth disk, potentially offering multiple daily observations of volcanic SO2 and ash clouds in the EPIC field of view. When coupled with complementary retrievals from polar-orbiting UV and infrared (IR) sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the increased observation frequency afforded by DSCOVR/EPIC will permit more timely volcanic eruption detection, improved trajectory modeling, and novel analyses of the temporal evolution of volcanic clouds. We demonstrate the sensitivity of EPIC UV radiances to volcanic clouds using examples from the first year of EPIC observations including the December 2015 paroxysmal eruption of Etna volcano (Italy). When combined with OMI and OMPS measurements, the EPIC SO2 data permit hourly tracking of the Etna eruption cloud as it drifts away from the volcano. We also describe ongoing efforts to adapt existing UV backscatter (BUV) algorithms to produce operational EPIC SO2 and Ash Index (AI) products.

  2. The Temporal and Spatial Association of Faulting and Volcanism in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field - Rio Grande Rift, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Hudson, M. R.; Minor, S. A.; McIntosh, W. C.; Miggins, D. P.; Grauch, V.

    2008-12-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Cerros del Rio volcanic field (CdRVF) in northern New Mexico is one of the largest ( greater than 700 square kilometers) predominantly basaltic and andesitic volcanic centers of the Rio Grande rift; it records the late-stage, volcano-tectonic evolution of the SW part of the Espanola Basin. The CdRVF reflects both regional proclivity toward Pliocene basaltic volcanism following protracted Neogene extensional tectonism and localized eruptive response to migration of basin- bounding faults. Approximately 180 cubic kilometers of flat lying to gently dipping basalt, andesite, and minor dacite lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of the CdRVF were erupted from more than 50 exposed vents between 2.8 Ma and 1.14 Ma. Subsurface interpretations of drill hole data and incised canyon exposures of the Rio Grande show that volcanic deposits are interbedded with Santa Fe Group sediments deposited in actively subsiding sub-basins of the southernmost Espanola Basin. Major basin-bounding faults in this area strike north to northwest, dip basinward, and have mostly dip-slip and subordinate strike-slip displacement. Although major basin-bounding faults were active prior to the onset of volcanism in the CdRVF, protracted extension resulted in a westward migration of graben-bounding faults. Phases of coeval volcanism at 2.8-2.6 Ma, 2.5-2.2 Ma, and 1.5-1.1 Ma, decreased in eruptive volume through time and are delineated on the basis of mapped stratigraphy, argon geochronology, paleomagnetic and aeromagnetic properties, and record a syntectonic westward migration of eruptive centers. The alignment of vent areas with mapped faults strongly suggests deep magmatic sources utilized local structures as conduits (i.e. faults and fractures developed in response to regional stress). However, some near-surface feeder dikes associated with eroded cinder cones record orientations that are not typically correlative with regional fault patterns suggesting near-surface conduits are

  3. Eruption rates and compositional trends at Los Humeros Volcanic Center, Puebla, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriz, H.; Mahood, G. A.

    1984-09-01

    The present investigation has the objective to relate chemical trends in the products of the Los Humeros volcanic center to the center's physical evolution. Eruptive products of this young volcanic system span the range basalt through high-silica rhyolite, but show an overall trend with time toward increasingly mafic compositions. It is pointed out that this pattern is most likely a product of an increasing volumetric rate of eruption which exceeded the rate of regeneration of differentiated magma. Representative analytical and petrographic data in the context of establishing petrological trends are presented.

  4. Psychosocial factors and their predictive value in chiropractic patients with low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Alan C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being able to estimate the likelihood of poor recovery from episodes of back pain is important for care. Studies of psychosocial factors in inception cohorts in general practice and occupational populations have begun to make inroads to these problems. However, no studies have yet investigated this in chiropractic patients. Methods A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP was conducted. Baseline questionnaires asked about age, gender, occupation, work status, duration of current episode, chronicity, aggravating features and bothersomeness using Deyo's 'Core Set'. Psychological factors (fear-avoidance beliefs, inevitability, anxiety/distress and coping, and co-morbidity were also assessed at baseline. Satisfaction with care, number of attendances and pain impact were determined at 6 weeks. Predictors of poor outcome were sought by the calculation of relative risk ratios. Results Most patients presented within 4 weeks of onset. Of 158 eligible and willing patients, 130 completed both baseline and 6-week follow-up questionnaires. Greatest improvements at 6 weeks were in interference with normal work (ES 1.12 and LBP bothersomeness (ES 1.37. Although most patients began with moderate-high back pain bothersomeness scores, few had high psychometric ones. Co-morbidity was a risk for high-moderate interference with normal work at 6 weeks (RR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.15–4.74. An episode duration of >4 weeks was associated with moderate to high bothersomeness at 6 weeks (RR 2.07; 95% C.I. 1.19 – 3.38 and negative outlook (inevitability with moderate to high interference with normal work (RR 2.56; 95% C.I. 1.08 – 5.08. Conclusion Patients attending a private UK chiropractic clinic for new episodes of non-specific LBP exhibited few psychosocial predictors of poor outcome, unlike other patient populations that have been studied. Despite

  5. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  6. Neogene-Quaternary Volcanic forms in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Jaroslav; Seghedi, Ioan; Németh, Karoly; Szakács, Alexandru; Koneĉny, Vlastimil; Pécskay, Zoltan; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Kovacs, Marinel

    2010-09-01

    Neogene to Quaternary volcanic/magmatic activity in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (CPR) occurred between 21 and 0.1 Ma with a distinct migration in time from west to east. It shows a diverse compositional variation in response to a complex interplay of subduction with rollback, back-arc extension, collision, slab break-off, delamination, strike-slip tectonics and microplate rotations, as well as in response to further evolution of magmas in the crustal environment by processes of differentiation, crustal contamination, anatexis and magma mixing. Since most of the primary volcanic forms have been affected by erosion, especially in areas of post-volcanic uplift, based on the level of erosion we distinguish: (1) areas eroded to the basement level, where paleovolcanic reconstruction is not possible; (2) deeply eroded volcanic forms with secondary morphology and possible paleovolcanic reconstruction; (3) eroded volcanic forms with remnants of original morphology preserved; and (4) the least eroded volcanic forms with original morphology quite well preserved. The large variety of volcanic forms present in the area can be grouped in a) monogenetic volcanoes and b) polygenetic volcanoes and their subsurface/intrusive counterparts that belong to various rock series found in the CPR such as calc-alkaline magmatic rock-types (felsic, intermediate and mafic varieties) and alkalic types including K-alkalic, shoshonitic, ultrapotassic and Na-alkalic. The following volcanic/subvolcanic forms have been identified: (i) domes, shield volcanoes, effusive cones, pyroclastic cones, stratovolcanoes and calderas with associated intrusive bodies for intermediate and basic calclkaline volcanism; (ii) domes, calderas and ignimbrite/ash-flow fields for felsic calc-alkaline volcanism and (iii) dome flows, shield volcanoes, maars, tuffcone/tuff-rings, scoria-cones with or without related lava flow/field and their erosional or subsurface forms (necks/ plugs, dykes, shallow intrusions

  7. Relationship between earthquake and volcanic eruption inferred from historical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪洲; 高峰; 吴雪娟; 孟宪森

    2004-01-01

    A large number of seismic records are discovered for the first time in the historical materials about Wudalianchi volcanic group eruption in 1720~1721, which provides us with abundant volcanic earthquake information. Based on the written records, the relationship between earthquake and volcanic eruption is discussed in the paper. Furthermore it is pointed that earthquake swarm is an important indication of volcanic eruption. Therefore, monitoring volcanic earthquakes is of great significance for forecasting volcanic eruption.

  8. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  9. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  10. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  11. Volcanism and associated hazards: The Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  12. Mapping the topography and cone morphology of the Dalinor volcanic swarm in Inner Mongolia with remote sensing and DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liwen; Li, Ni; Fan, Qicheng; Zhao, Yongwei; Zhang, Liuyi; Zhang, Chuanjie

    2016-09-01

    The Dalinor volcanic swarm, located south of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia of China, was a result of multistage eruptions that occurred since the Neogene period. This swarm is mainly composed of volcanic cones and lava tablelands. The objective of this study is to map the topography and morphology of this volcanic swarm. It is based on a variety of data collected from various sources, such as the digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat images, and a 1:50,000 topographic map, in addition to various software platforms, including ArcGIS, Envi4.8, Global Mapper, and Google Earth for data processing and interpretation. The results show that the overall topography of the volcanic swarm is a platform with a central swell having great undulation, sizable gradient variations, a rough surface, and small terrain relief. According to the undulating characteristics of the line profile, the volcanic swarm can be divided into four stairs with heights of 1,280 m, 1,360 m, 1,440 m, and 1,500 m. The analysis of the swath profile characterizes the two clusters of volcanoes with different height ranges and evolution. The lava tablelands and volcanic cones are distributed in nearly EW-trending belts, where tableland coverage was delineated with superposed layers of gradients and degrees of relief. According to the morphology, the volcanic cones were classified into four types: conical, composite, dome, and shield. The formation causes and classification basis for each type of volcanic cone were analyzed and their parameters were extracted. The H/D ratios of all types of volcanic cones were then statistically determined and projected to create a map of volcanic density distribution. Based on the relationship between distribution and time sequence of the formation of different volcanic cones, it can be inferred that the volcanic eruptions migrated from the margins to the center of the lava plateau. The central area was formed through superposition of multi-stage eruptive materials. In addition

  13. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Tengchong Region of Western Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从柏林; 陈秋媛; 张儒瑷; 吴根耀; 徐平

    1994-01-01

    The Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline rock series.They are strongly depleted in high field strength (HFS) elements and enriched in large-ion lithophile(LIL) elements and LREE.The generation of Tengchong volcanic rocks has been considered to be relatedto the evolution of the Neo-Tethys.The Indian Plate was subducted beneath the southeastern Asia conti-nent,which resulted in the formation of Indo-Burman Arc in the Late Cretaeeous-Palaeocene time.Thecollision between the Indian continent and Indo-Burman Arc started in Eocene and lasted to the present.The Andaman Sea and the Inner Burman Tertiary Basin are a back-arc basin that has been extended sincethe Late Miocene.A distinct characteristic of Tengchong volcanics is that they show a chemical affinityrelated to island arc but their generation postdated the subduetion of the ocean plate.

  14. Mercury content in volcanic soils across Europe and its relationship with soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Rodriguez, Susana; Fernandez-Calvino, David; Arias-Estevez, Manuel; Novoa-Munoz, Juan Carlos [Vigo Univ., Ourense (Spain). Area de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Taboada, Teresa; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Garcia-Rodeja, Eduardo [Universidad de Santiago, Coruna (Spain). Dept. Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola

    2012-04-15

    Volcanoes are a natural source of Hg, whose deposition can occur in neighbouring soils. This study examines the role of soil compounds in the geochemical behaviour of total Hg (Hg{sub T}) in volcanic soils. An estimation of Hg from lithological origin is also assessed to ascertain the relevance of other sources in Hg{sub T} accumulated in volcanic soils. Twenty soil profiles developed from volcanic materials and located across European volcanic regions were selected for this study. The general characterisation of soils included total C, N and S content and Al and Fe distribution determined using traditional methods. The total content of major and trace elements was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The total Hg content of soil samples was measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy using a solid sample Hg analyser. Lithogenic Hg was calculated in the uppermost soil considering Al, Ti and Zr as conservative reference elements. Several statistical analyses (Pearson correlations, Mann-Whitney tests, stepwise multiple regressions and analysis of variance) were carried to ascertain the role of soil parameters and characteristics in the Hg accumulation in volcanic soils. The total Hg ranged from 3.0 to 640 ng g{sup -1} and it tended to diminish with soil depth except in some soils where the lithological discontinuities resulted in high values of Hg{sub T} in the Bw horizons. More than 75% of the Hg{sub T} variance could be attributed to distinct contents of organic matter, Al- and Fe-humus complexes and inorganic non-crystalline Al and Fe compounds in ''andic'', ''vitric'' and ''non-andic'' horizons. The degree of pedogenetic soil evolution notably influenced the Hg{sub T} soil content. Lithogenic Hg (1.6-320 ng g{sup -1}) was correlated with Al-humus complexes and clay content, suggesting the relevance of pedogenetic processes, whereas exogenic Hg (1.4-180 ng g{sup -1}) was correlated

  15. The search for active release of volcanic gases on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Alain; Villanueva, Geronimo; Mumma, Michael; Tokunaga, Alan

    2015-11-01

    The study of planetary atmospheres by means of spectroscopy is important for understanding their origin and evolution. The presence of short-lived trace gases in the martian atmosphere would imply recent production, for example, by ongoing geologic activity. On Earth, sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur monoxide (SO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are the main sulfur-bearing gases released during volcanic outgassing. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), also released from some volcanoes on Earth (e.g., Erebus and Nyiragongo), could be formed by reactions involving SO2 or H2S inside magma chambers. We carried out the first ground-based, semi-simultaneous, multi-band and multi-species search for such gases above the Tharsis and Syrtis volcanic regions on Mars. The submillimeter search extended between 23 November 2011 and 13 May 2012 which corresponded to Mars’ mid Northern Spring and early Northern Summer seasons (Ls = 34-110°). The strong submillimeter rotational transitions of SO2, SO and H2S were targeted using the high-resolution heterodyne receiver (aka Barney) on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We reached sensitivities sufficient to detect a volcanic release on Mars that is 4% of the SO2 released continuously from Kilauea volcano in Hawaii, or 5% that of the Masaya volcano in Nicaragua. The infrared search covered OCS in its combination band (ν2+ν3) at 3.42 μm at two successive Mars years, during Mars’ late Northern Spring and mid Northern Summer seasons, spanning Ls= 43º and Ls= 147º. The targeted volcanic districts were observed during the two intervals, 14 Dec. 2011 to 6 Jan. 2012 in the first year, and 30 May 2014 to 16 June 2014 in the second year, using the high resolution infrared spectrometer (CSHELL) on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA/IRTF). We will present our results and discuss their implications for current volcanic outgassing activity on the red planet. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program under NASA

  16. Volcanic Seismicity - The Power of the b-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I. G.; Roberts, N.; Bell, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter `b-value' is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. It is `well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. Subject to suitable calibration the b-value also allows us to quantify and characterise earthquake distributions of both ancient and currently-active populations, as a measure of the frequency-size distribution of source rupture area or length. Using a new iterative sampling method (Roberts et al. 2016), we examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalogue during a period of unrest in 2011-2013, and quantify the resulting uncertainties. The results demonstrate commonly-applied methods of assessing uncertainty in b-value significantly underestimate the total uncertainty, particularly when b is high. They also show clear multi-modal behaviour in the evolution of the b-value. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b-value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity, and some are genuinely higher within the total error. A key benefit of this approach is that it is able to resolve different b-values associated with contemporaneous processes, even in the case where some generate high rates of events for short durations and others low rates for longer durations. These characteristics that are typical for many volcanic processes. Secondly, we use a range field observations from the exhumed extinct magma chamber on the Isle of Rum, NW Scotland, to infer an equivalent a b-value for the `frozen' fracture system that would have been active at the time of volcanism 65Ma ago. Using measurements from millimetre-scale fractures to lineation's on satellite imagery over 100m in length, we estimate b=1.8, significantly greater than

  17. Petrogenesis and tectonic implication of the Late Triassic post-collisional volcanic rocks in Chiang Khong, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Yuejun; Feng, Qinglai; Zi, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yuzhi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic rocks exposed within the Chiang Khong-Lampang-Tak igneous zone in NW Thailand provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. An andesite sample from the Chiang Khong area yields a zircon U-Pb age of 229 ± 4 Ma, significantly younger than the continental-arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks (ca. 238-241 Ma). The Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are characterized by low MgO (1.71-6.72 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.03-17.76 wt.%). They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, and have 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios of 0.7050-0.7065, εNd (t) of - 0.32 to - 1.92, zircon εHf (t) and δ18O values of 3.5 to - 11.7 and 4.30-9.80 ‰, respectively. The geochemical data for the volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin from the enriched lithospheric mantle that had been modified by slab-derived fluid and recycled sediments. Based on available geochronological and geochemical evidences, we propose that the Late Triassic Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are equivalent to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks in the Lancangjiang igneous zone in SW China. The formation of these volcanic rocks was possibly related to the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle during the Late Triassic, shortly after slab detachment, which induced the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge.

  18. New Pliocene-Pleistocene 40Ar/ 39Ar ages fill in temporal gaps in the Nicaraguan volcanic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, Ian; Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Swisher, Carl C., III; Turrin, Brent

    2011-04-01

    The volcanic record of western Nicaragua documents a significant lull in volcanic activity that has persisted from the late Miocene (~ 7 Ma) to the formation of the modern volcanic front around 350 ka. This study fills this gap for the first time with samples collected in Northwest Nicaragua between Cosigüina and San Cristóbal volcanoes and with samples collected from the Nicaraguan Depression. We found two previously unknown volcanic units ranging from 3.6 to 1.3 Ma and the improved volcanic record allows us to reconstruct the geochemical evolution of the Nicaraguan arc. U/Th values increased by nearly threefold since the Miocene following the "carbonate crash" at 10 Ma, when dominantly carbonate sediment deposition shifted toward hemipelagic sediment deposition. This transition was thought to be abrupt, however our new data show that it took place gradually over the last 7 Ma. Northwest Nicaragua is a particularly interesting case study because it contains Middle Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression, the Coyol Formation (25-7 Ma) to the East and the Tamarindo Formation (14.7-11.7 Ma) to the West. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to the hypothesis that the two coeval units, currently separated by ~ 100 km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data suggesting that the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit.

  19. Evolution of the northern tip of Afar triangle: Inferences from the Quaternary succession of the Dandiero - Massawa area (Eritrea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Federico; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Papini, Mauro; Oms, Oriol; Finotello, Alvise

    2017-10-01

    The Afar region is a triangular area located at the triple junction between the African, Somalia, and Arabian plates, which are currently diverging at different rates. Currently, the extension vector is roughly oriented in a NE-SW direction in the Afar, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, in respect to Arabia plate, whereas the Nubian-Somalian divergence, evidenced by the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), is approximately WNW-ESE (N95-100°E). This study focuses on the tectono-sedimentary evolution of a sector from Massawa to the north up to the continental Early-Middle Pleistocene Dandiero Basin to the south. This basin is filled with approximately 500 m thick fluvial-lacustrine deposits and includes six formations. Sedimentation occurred mainly along the basin axis and allowed accumulation of sand and mud deposits with subordinate gravels close to the basin margin. The age of the basin infill succession is well constrained through integration between paleomagnetic and paleontological data and ranges between 1.2 and 0.75 Ma. The Dandiero Basin is controlled by two main roughly NNW-SSE trending, east dipping normal faults. The westernmost fault delimits the basins from the plateau, whereas the easternmost marks the limit between the basin succession and the Late Pleistocene Samoti Plain. We infer that the NNW-trending faults were progressively activated as a consequence of the Danakil Block counter clockwise rotation and were superimposed to the N-S trending faults that delimited the basin at the time of its inception as a marginal graben roughly aligned to the Eritrean-Ethiopian plateau. The timing of deformation (1.2 Ma up to Present) is well constrained by the age of syntectonic sediments of the Dandiero Basin and volcanic products of the Alid Volcano. These relations allowed us to refine the timing and evolution of this sector of Afar and giving some insights on the geodynamics of the area.

  20. A revised subduction inception model to explain the Late Cretaceous, doubly vergent orogen in the pre-collisional western Tethys: evidences from the Northern Apennine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Francesca; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2017-04-01

    orientation of subduction initiation. We have reviewed the ages and characteristics of the tectono-metamorphic events recorded in both the External and Internal Ligurian Units. Deformation and metamorphism in the External Ligurian Units pre-dates the subduction-related metamorphism recorded in the ocean-derived Internal Ligurian Units. We thus propose that closure of the Ligure-Piemontese branch of the western Tethys occurred through a subduction that nucleated inside the OCTZ of Adria, instead of localizing at the boundary between the oceanic basin and the Adria margin, and developed a doubly-vergent prism fed firstly by both continental extensional allochthons and ocean-derived rocks from the OCTZ, and only after by rocks and sediments from the oceanic realm. We believe that this revised location of the inception of subduction, and the subsequent pre-collisional architecture, considered as inherited from the rifting and the oceanic opening phases, allow reconciling most of the controversies on the geodynamic evolution of the Apenninic orogeny, prior to collision.

  1. Tectonic, volcanic and human activity ground deformation signals detected by multitemporal InSAR techniques in the Colima Volcanic Complex (Mexico) rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, C.; Norini, G.; Bignami, C.; Groppelli, G.; Zucca, F.; Stramondo, S.; Capra, L.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of volcanoes is strictly related with their substratum and the regional tectonics. The link among morphology, geology and structure of volcanic edifices and the geological-structural characteristics of the basement is important to understand hazardous phenomena as flank eruptions and lateral collapses of volcanoes. The Colima Rift is an active regional structure, N-S oriented and more than 100 km long and 10 wide. This rift is filled by a ~1 km-thick sequence of quaternary lacustrine sediments, alluvium, and colluvium, mostly underling the about 3000 m thick volcanic pile of the Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC). In addition to the regional structures curved faults, roughly E-W oriented, are observed on the CVC edifice due to the spreading of the volcano moving southward on the weak basement. So in the CVC edifice and surrounding area we can observe the interaction of regional structures and volcanic ones due to the gravitational loading of the volcanic edifice on the weak substratum of the graben. To measure displacements due to magma movement at depth and interaction of regional structures and volcanic ones, SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method; however, andesitic stratovolcanoes like the CVC indeed,remain difficult to survey using this technique. The main causes are their specific geometry (steep topography), which induces strong tropospheric artefacts, environmental conditions (e.g., mainly vegetation, ash and/or snow cover), leading to a loss of coherency. In this work we try to detect deformations phenomena for the wide CVC using a robust multitemporal InSAR approach Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR). We apply the Hooper (2008) DInSAR algorithm (StamPS/MTI) both to ENVISAT ASARr images acquired from 1993 to 2007 and to ALOS PALSAR (datasets from 2006 to 2010) in order to determine the deformation patterns in the CVC.

  2. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  3. Toward Forecasting Volcanic Eruptions using Seismic Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Brenguier, Florent; Campillo, Michel; Ferrazzini, Valerie; Duputel, Zacharie; Coutant, Olivier; Nercessian, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    During inter-eruption periods, magma pressurization yields subtle changes of the elastic properties of volcanic edifices. We use the reproducibility properties of the ambient seismic noise recorded on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano to measure relative seismic velocity variations of less than 0.1 % with a temporal resolution of one day. Our results show that five studied volcanic eruptions were preceded by clearly detectable seismic velocity decreases within the zone of magma injection. These precursors reflect the edifice dilatation induced by magma pressurization and can be useful indicators to improve the forecasting of volcanic eruptions.

  4. Short-Term Outcome of Neuropsychiatric Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus upon Enrollment into an International Inception Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Su, L.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Bae, S.C.; Gordon, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Isenberg, D.; Alarcón, G.S.; Merrill, J. T.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Dooley, M.A.; Fortin, P.R.; Gladman, D.; Steinsson, K.; Petri, M.; Bruce, I. N.; Manzi, S.; Khamashta, M.; Zoma, A.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Aranow, C.; Ginzler, E.; Nived, O.; Sturfelt, G.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Kalunian, K.; Douglas, J.; Qi, K. Qiufen; Farewell, V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the short-term outcome of neuropsychiatric (NP) events upon enrollment into an international, inception cohort of SLE patients. Methods The study was performed by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. Patients were enrolled within 15 months of diagnosis of SLE and NP events were characterized using the ACR case definitions. Decision rules were derived to identify NP events attributable to SLE. Physician outcome scores of NP events and patient derived mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores of the SF-36 were recorded. Results There were 890 patients (88.7% female) with a mean (± SD) age of 33.8 ± 13.4 years and mean disease duration of 5.3 ± 4.2 months. Within the enrollment window 271/890 (33. 5%) patients had at least 1 NP event encompassing 15 NP syndromes. NP events attributed to SLE varied from 16.5% – 33.9% using alternate attribution models and occurred in 6.0% – 11.5% of patients. Outcome scores for NP events attributed to SLE were significantly better than for NP events due to non-SLE causes. Higher global disease activity was associated with worse outcomes. MCS scores were lower in patients with NP events, regardless of attribution, and were also lower in patients with diffuse and central NP events. There was a significant association between physician outcome scores and patient MCS scores only for NP events attributed to SLE. Conclusion In SLE patients the short-term outcome of NP events is determined by both the characteristics and attribution of the events. PMID:18438902

  5. Assessment and validation of prognostic models for poor functional recovery 12 months after whiplash injury: a multicentre inception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin; Kristjansson, Eythor; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Niere, Ken; Cote, Julie; Deserres, Sophie; Rivest, Karine; Jull, Gwendolen

    2012-08-01

    Uncertainty surrounds prognostic factors after whiplash injury. Previously we identified a prognostic model for 6-month pain-related disability in a cohort of 80 participants with acute whiplash. Predictors included initial disability, older age, decreased cold pain thresholds, decreased neck rotation movement, posttraumatic stress symptoms and decreased sympathetic vasoconstriction. The objective of this study was to externally validate this model. In a multicentre inception cohort study, 286 participants with acute whiplash (I, II or III) were assessed at <3 weeks and 12 months after injury. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was the outcome. Observed and predicted NDI scores were generated using the published equation of the original model. Model discrimination between participants with no or mild disability from those with moderate to severe disability was examined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Initial NDI and cold pain threshold predicted current observed 12-month NDI scores (r(2) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.58). There was a significant site effect, and the estimated marginal mean ± SE of 12-month NDI for Iceland (27.6 ± 1.79%) was higher than the other 3 sites (Melbourne 11.2 ± 5.03%, Canada 16.4 ± 2.36%, Brisbane 16.8 ± 1.17%). After adjusting for site, age and Impact of Events Scale scores regained significance (r(2) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.64). The tested model was not precise in predicting NDI as a continuous variable. However, it found good accuracy to discriminate participants with moderate to severe disability at 12 months (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.89 [95% confidence interval 0.84-0.94], P<.001) which is clinically useful.

  6. Scaling multiblast craters: General approach and application to volcanic craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonder, I.; Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most volcanic explosions leave a crater in the surface around the center of the explosions. Such craters differ from products of single events like meteorite impacts or those produced by military testing because they typically result from multiple, rather than single, explosions. Here we analyze the evolution of experimental craters that were created by several detonations of chemical explosives in layered aggregates. An empirical relationship for the scaled crater radius as a function of scaled explosion depth for single blasts in flat test beds is derived from experimental data, which differs from existing relations and has better applicability for deep blasts. A method to calculate an effective explosion depth for nonflat topography (e.g., for explosions below existing craters) is derived, showing how multiblast crater sizes differ from the single-blast case: Sizes of natural caters (radii and volumes) are not characteristic of the number of explosions, nor therefore of the total acting energy, that formed a crater. Also, the crater size is not simply related to the largest explosion in a sequence but depends upon that explosion and the energy of that single blast and on the cumulative energy of all blasts that formed a crater. The two energies can be combined to form an effective number of explosions that is characteristic for the crater evolution. The multiblast crater size evolution has implications on the estimates of volcanic eruption energies, indicating that it is not correct to estimate explosion energy from crater size using previously published relationships that were derived for single-blast cases.

  7. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  8. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  9. Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Mustard, J.; Taylor, L.; McCord, T.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Whitten, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the geological and thermal evolution of the Moon is the nature and history of mantle melting and its relationship to the formation and evolution of lunar multi-ringed basins. Mare volcanic deposits provide evidence for the nature, magnitude and composition of mantle melting as a function of space and time [1]. Many argue that mantle partial melts are derived from depths well below the influence of multiringed basin impact events [1], while others postulate that the formation of these basins can cause mantle perturbations that are more directly linked to the generation ascent and eruption of mare basalts [2,3]. In any case, longer-term basin evolution will considerably influence the state and orientation of stress in the lithosphere, and the location of mare volcanic vents in basins as a function of time [4]. Thus, the location, nature and ages of volcanic vents and deposits in relation to multi-ringed impact basins provides evidence for the role that these basins played in the generation of volcanism or in the influence of the basins on surface volcanic eruption and deposit concentration. Unfortunately, most lunar multi-ringed impact basins have been eroded by impacts or filled with lunar mare deposits [5-8], with estimates of the thickness of mare fill extending up to more than six km in the central part of some basins [9-11]. The interior of most basins (e.g., Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, Humorum) are almost completely covered and obscured. Although much is known about the lava filling of multi-ringed basins, and particularly the most recent deposits [5-8], little is known about initial stages of mare volcanism and its relationship to the impact event. One multi-ringed basin, Orientale, offers substantial clues to the relationships of basin interiors and mare basalt volcanism.

  10. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  11. Palaeoclimate: Volcanism caused ancient global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Katrin J.; Bralower, Timothy J.

    2017-08-01

    A study confirms that volcanism set off one of Earth's fastest global-warming events. But the release of greenhouse gases was slow enough for negative feedbacks to mitigate impacts such as ocean acidification. See Letter p.573

  12. Volcanics in the Gulf Coast [volcanicg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The volcanic provinces are modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The...

  13. The stratigraphic sequence of Scafati (Italy) - An archive of 10,000 years of volcanism, soil formation and land use in the shade of Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Michael; Vogel, Sebastian; Hoelzmann, Phillip; Rellini, Ivano

    2014-05-01

    In this study we carried out a detailed lithostratigraphic, pedological and micromorphological analysis at a stratigraphic sequence close to Scafati, about 3 km east of ancient Pompeii. It consists of a multilayered succession of repeated volcanic deposition and pedogenesis caused by several phases of volcanic activity of Somma-Vesuvius and volcanic quiescence. This comprises, at least, the last 10,000 years of sedimentation history, on one hand, reflecting the entire spectrum of eruption types of Somma-Vesuvius from Plinian, sub-Plinian, rather small eruptions to effusive volcanic events and, on the other hand, soil formations of different durations, intensities and soil-forming environments. Furthermore, the paleosols repeatedly reveal clear evidence of anthropogenic activity by means of agriculture. Hence, a landscape evolution model was developed trying to reconstruct the last 10,000 years of volcanic activity, soil formation and land use in the hinterland of Pompeii.

  14. Volcanic rock properties control sector collapse events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes constructed by superimposed layers of varying volcanic materials are inherently unstable structures. The heterogeneity of weak and strong layers consisting of ash, tephra and lavas, each with varying coherencies, porosities, crystallinities, glass content and ultimately, strength, can promote volcanic flank and sector collapses. These volcanoes often exist in areas with complex regional tectonics adding to instability caused by heterogeneity, flank overburden, magma movement and emplacement in addition to hydrothermal alteration and anomalous geothermal gradients. Recent studies conducted on the faulting properties of volcanic rocks at variable slip rates show the rate-weakening dependence of the friction coefficients (up to 90% reduction)[1], caused by a wide range of factors such as the generation of gouge and frictional melt lubrication [2]. Experimental data from experiments conducted on volcanic products suggests that frictional melt occurs at slip rates similar to those of plug flow in volcanic conduits [1] and the bases of mass material movements such as debris avalanches from volcanic flanks [3]. In volcanic rock, the generation of frictional heat may prompt the remobilisation of interstitial glass below melting temperatures due to passing of the glass transition temperature at ˜650-750 ˚C [4]. In addition, the crushing of pores in high porosity samples can lead to increased comminution and strain localisation along slip surfaces. Here we present the results of friction tests on both high density, glass rich samples from Santaguito (Guatemala) and synthetic glass samples with varying porosities (0-25%) to better understand frictional properties underlying volcanic collapse events. 1. Kendrick, J.E., et al., Extreme frictional processes in the volcanic conduit of Mount St. Helens (USA) during the 2004-2008 eruption. J. Structural Geology, 2012. 2. Di Toro, G., et al., Fault lubrication during earthquakes. Nature, 2011. 471(7339): p. 494-498. 3

  15. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent

  16. About the Mechanism of Volcanic Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to the volcanic eruption theory is proposed. It is based on a simple physical mechanism of the imbalance in the system "magma-crust-fluid". This mechanism helps to explain from unified positions the different types of volcanic eruptions. A criterion of imbalance and magma eruption is derived. Stratovolcano and caldera formation is analyzed. High explosive eruptions of the silicic magma is discussed

  17. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  18. Magma Evolution of the Late Jurassic Volcanic Rocks and Its Genesis of the Lanqi Formation, Beipiao Area, Western Liaoning Province%辽西北票晚侏罗世蓝旗组火山岩的岩浆演化及其岩石成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伍平

    2012-01-01

    % in SiQ2, high Al2O3 (>15%), high MgO (≤4. 22%, 0. 44 to 0. 49 in Mg# )and low K2O (<2. 2%) characterizes by high Sr (<500 μg/g), Cr (>125 μg/g), Ni (>47 μg/g) contents and higher Sr/Y ratio (> 28) and low REE ?112 μ/g), U ?0. 3 μ/g) ,Th ?2 μg/g) and HREE (Y16. 6%) and K2O (>2%), low MgO(≥2. 64%, 0. 08 to 0. 38 in Mg# ) characterizes by high REE (>180 μg/g), U (≥0. 80 μg/g), Th (>4 μg/g) and Sr (>350 μg/g) contents, and low Cr (<28 μg/g), Ni (<19 μg/g) contents and low Sr/Y ratio (≤23) and by strongly fractionated LREE (10. 22 to 16. 28 in (La/Yb)N) and distinct negative Eu and Sr anomalies, which differ from those of the adakitic rock. All the volcanic rocks also show positive Pb and Ba anomalies, and negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and have moderate esr(t) (20. 15 to 23. 34), TDm(1. 45 to 1. 50 Ga) and lowεNd(t) (―7. 69 to ―8. 62), which are similar to the features of the Eml-like component and of the ancient continental lower crust of the North China craton and the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in Yanshan orogen belt. In this paper,author thinks that andesitic magmas of Lanqi Formation are derived partial melting of foundered lower continental basaltic crust near the transition between the crust-mantle and occur the interaction of the mantle and crust, and trachyandesitic magmas from partial melting o'l foundered lower continental basaltic crust. The magma evolution of Lanqi Formation indicates that the process of the crust thinning from the thicken crust, it is an important significance to understand the deep process for the litho-spheric thinning of the North China Craton during the Mesozoic era.

  19. Volcanic loading: The dust veil index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, H.H. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit

    1985-09-01

    Dust ejected into the high atmosphere during explosive volcanic eruptions has been considered as a possible cause for climatic change. Dust veils created by volcanic eruptions can reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth`s surface and can cause reductions in surface temperatures. These climatic effects can be seen for several years following some eruptions and the magnitude and duration of the effects depend largely on the density or amount of tephra (i.e. dust) ejected, the latitude of injection, and atmospheric circulation patterns. Lamb (1970) formulated the Dust Veil Index (DVI) in an attempt to quantify the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact of a particular volcanic eruptions release of dust and aerosols over the years following the event. The DVI for any volcanic eruptions are available and have been used in estimating Lamb`s dust veil indices.

  20. A multidisciplinary approach to quantify the permeability of the Whakaari/White Island volcanic hydrothermal system (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Ashworth, James; Mayer, Klaus; Letham-Brake, Mark; Reuschlé, Thierry; Gilg, H. Albert; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Siratovich, Paul; Cole, Jim; Jolly, Arthur D.; Baud, Patrick; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-02-01

    Our multidisciplinary study aims to better understand the permeability of active volcanic hydrothermal systems, a vital prerequisite for modelling and understanding their behaviour and evolution. Whakaari/White Island volcano (an active stratovolcano at the north-eastern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand) hosts a highly reactive hydrothermal system and represents an ideal natural laboratory to undertake such a study. We first gained an appreciation of the different lithologies at Whakaari and (where possible) their lateral and vertical extent through reconnaissance by land, sea, and air. The main crater, filled with tephra deposits, is shielded by a volcanic amphitheatre comprising interbedded lavas, lava breccias, and tuffs. We deployed field techniques to measure the permeability and density/porosity of (1) > 100 hand-sized sample blocks and (2) layered unlithified deposits in eight purpose-dug trenches. Our field measurements were then groundtruthed using traditional laboratory techniques on almost 150 samples. Our measurements highlight that the porosity of the materials at Whakaari varies from ∼ 0.01 to ∼ 0.7 and permeability varies by eight orders of magnitude (from ∼ 10-19 to ∼ 10-11 m2). The wide range in physical and hydraulic properties is the result of the numerous lithologies and their varied microstructures and alteration intensities, as exposed by a combination of macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) observations, quantitative mineralogical studies (X-ray powder diffraction), and mercury porosimetry. An understanding of the spatial distribution of lithology and alteration style/intensity is therefore important to decipher fluid flow within the Whakaari volcanic hydrothermal system. We align our field observations and porosity/permeability measurements to construct a schematic cross section of Whakaari that highlights the salient findings of our study. Taken together, the alteration typical of a volcanic

  1. Abrupt onset and intensification of the Little Ice Age in Arctic Canada linked to explosive volcanism and sea-ice/ocean feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.; Zhong, Y.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Southon, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    At high northern latitudes the most reliable monitors of summer temperature are glaciers and ice caps. Small ice caps are multi-decadal integrators of climate. Precise 14C dates on rooted vegetation exposed by recent recession of more than 70 different ice caps that have remained perpetually frozen to their beds since their inception date ice-cap inception at that site. Unlike valley glacier moraines that are not formed until long after the initial climate shift, entombed plants date the moment of a persistent summer cooling. The composite probability density function of the 138 calibrated 14C ages indicates that ice caps expanded in four discrete intervals within the past 2 ka, with the most abrupt ice-cap growth ~1250 AD following three centuries of relative warmth, and intensified ice expansion ~1450 AD, with maximum ice cover ~1850 AD. These intervals of sudden and sustained ice expansion coincide with the three most volcanically perturbed half centuries of the past millennium. Separating the impacts of solar and volcanic forcings in the late Holocene has been vexing because decades of low solar irradiance largely coincide with decades of frequent explosive volcanism. Transient simulations with a fully coupled climate model show that the main features of our proxy data can be matched by decadally paced explosive volcanism alone, perpetuated by feedbacks related to consequent sea-ice expansion and export into the northern North Atlantic. Exported sea ice cools and freshens surface waters there, leading to a reduction in the AMOC and consequently perpetuation of an expanded sea ice state. The coincidence of low decadal solar irradiance with decades of explosive volcanism suggests that volcanic impacts may have been amplified by solar variability, but scaling the proxies of past solar irradiance remains uncertain. The persistence in the Eastern Canadian Arctic of some ice caps that formed 5000 years ago and remained intact until melting in the past decade

  2. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF A SCALING EXPONENT FOR TIP VORTEX CAVITATION VIA ITS INCEPTION TEST IN FULL-AND MODEL-SHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Jeung-Hoon; JUNG Jae-Kwon; LEE Kyung-Jun; HAN Jae-Moon; PARK Hyung-Gil; SEO Jong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Tip vortex cavitation noise of marine propeller became primary concerns to reduce hazardous environmental impacts from commercial ship or to keep the underwater surveillance of naval ships.The investigations of the tip vortex and its induced noise are normally conducted through the model test in a water cavitation tunnel.However the Reynolds number of model-test is much smaller than that of the full-scale,which subsequently results in the difference of tip vortex cavitation inception.Hence,the scaling law between model- and full-scales needs to be identified prior to the prediction and assessment of propeller noise in full scale.From previous researches,it is generally known that the incipient caivtation number of tip vortex can be represented as a power of the Reynolds number.However,the power exponent for scaling,which is the main focus of this research,has not been clearly studied yet.This paper deals with the estimation of scaling exponent based on tip vortex cavitation inception test in both full- and model-scale ships.Acoustical measurements as well as several kind of signal processing technique for an inception criterion suggest the scaling exponent as 0.30.The scaling value proposed in this study shows slight difference to the one of most recent research.Besides,extrapolation of model-ship noise measurement using the proposed one predicts the full-scale noise measurement with an acceptable discrepancy.

  3. Computational Cavitation Flows at Inception and Light Stages on an Axial-Flow Pump Blade and in a Cage-Guided Control Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumio SAITO; Masahiro SHIBATA; Hideo FUKAE; Eisuke OUTA

    2007-01-01

    Cavitation flows induced around an axial-flow pump blade and inside a high pressure cage-type valve are simulated by a two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis with the simplest treatment of bubble dynamics. The fluid is assumed as a continuum of homogeneous dispersed mixture of water and vapor nuclei. The analysis is aimed to capture transient stages with high amplitude pressure change during the birth and collapse of the bubble especially at the stage of cavitation inception. By the pump blade analysis, in which the field pressure is moderate,cavitation number of the inception and locations of developed cavitation are found to agree with experimental results in a wide flow range between high incidence and negative incidence. In the valve flow analysis, in which the water pressure of 5MPa is reduced to 2MPa, pressure change responding to the bubble collapse between the vapor pressure lower than 1 KPa and the extreme pressure of higher than 104 KPa is captured through a stable computation. Location of the inception bubble and pressure force to the valve plug is found agree well with the respective experimental features.

  4. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  5. Numerical modeling of volcanic arc development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Gorczyk, W.; Nikolaeva, K.

    2007-05-01

    We have created a new coupled geochemical-petrological-thermomechanical numerical model of subduction associated with volcanic arc development. The model includes spontaneous slab bending, subducted crust dehydration, aqueous fluid transport, mantle wedge melting and melt extraction resulting in crustal growth. Two major volcanic arc settings are modeled so far: active continental margins, and intraoceanic subduction. In case of Pacific-type continental margin two fundamentally different regimes of melt productivity are observed in numerical experiments which are in line with natural observations: (1) During continuous convergence with coupled plates highest amounts of melts are formed immediately after the initiation of subduction and then decrease rapidly with time due to the steepening of the slab inclination angle precluding formation of partially molten mantle wedge plumes; (2) During subduction associated with slab delamination and trench retreat resulting in the formation of a pronounced back arc basin with a spreading center in the middle melt production increases with time due to shallowing/stabilization of slab inclination associated with upward asthenospheric mantle flow toward the extension region facilitating propagation of hydrous partially molten plumes from the slab. In case of spontaneous nucleation of retreating oceanic subduction two scenarios of tecono-magmatic evolution are distinguished: (1) decay and, ultimately, the cessation of subduction and related magmatic activity, (2) increase in subduction rate (to up to ~12 cm/yr) and stabilization of subduction and magmatic arc growth. In the first case the duration of subduction correlates positively with the intensity of melt extraction: the period of continued subduction increases from 15,4 Myrs to 47,6 Myrs with the increase of melt extraction threshold from 1% to 9%. In scenario (1) the magmatic arc crust includes large amounts of rocks formed by melting of subducted crust atop the thermally

  6. Regional hydroclimate changes in Southern Europe during the inception and termination of the penultimate glacial (MIS 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graham; Frogley, Michael; Jones, Tim; Leng, Melanie; Hughes, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Glacial and interglacial transitions offer valuable insights into the Earth system response to both abrupt and gradual change and differ in timing and magnitude in response to varying orbital configurations and internal system dynamics. Here we focus on the inception and termination of the relatively underexplored penultimate glacial (MIS 6) in order to assess lacustrine responses to climate changes under differing boundary conditions. We apply a combined diatom and stable isotope approach to investigate changes in regional hydroclimate as recorded in the sediments of Lake Ioannina (NW Greece). Diatom and isotope-inferred changes in lake conditions coincided with the MIS 7/6 transition. The δ18O record suggests higher precipitation / evaporation (P/E) ratios between c. 178 and 164 ka, associated with peak insolation during MIS 6e, with episodes of planktonic diatom expansion likely reflecting the interstadials of the 6e complex. Furthermore, the close correspondence between planktonic diatom frequencies, arboreal pollen and regional sea-surface temperatures together provide strong evidence for millennial-scale oscillations in regional precipitation at times during the early-mid MIS 6. Although the isotope data suggest overall cooler and drier conditions during the mid-late MIS 6, consistent with approaching glacial maxima, variability in P/E and oscillations in planktonic and facultative planktonic diatom frequencies nevertheless show that marked changes in lake conditions persisted into late MIS 6. The diatom data suggest a complex penultimate deglaciation driven primarily by multiple oscillations in lake level. There is diachroneity in lake and terrestrial ecosystem response to warming at the onset of the last interglacial, with an abrupt increase in lake level occurring c. 2.7 ka prior to sustained forest expansion with peak precipitation. This is likely a result of direct input of snow melt and glacial meltwater transfer to the subterranean karst system in

  7. Predictors of health care drop-out in an inception cohort of patients with early onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Yáñez, Irazú; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia

    2017-07-28

    RA patients who eventually dropped out of treatment and out of the health care system had potentially disastrous consequences for their health-related quality-of-life outcomes. Objectives of the study were to identify predictors of health care drop out (HDO) in an inception and ongoing cohort of patients with recent onset RA. Charts from patients attending an early arthritis clinic from February 2004 to December 2015, and standardized follow-up evaluations were reviewed. Patients with HDO (cases) were defined when they did not return back to the clinic for a schedule visit for at least one year. Persistence with therapy was defined as length of time patients complied with RA-treatment. A case-control nested within a cohort design was used to compare baseline and cumulative (up to HDO or equivalent follow-up) variables between cases and paired controls (patients compliant with scheduled visits). Cox regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of HDO. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and patients gave written informed consent to have their data published. Data from 170 patients (89.4% female, [mean±SD] age: 38.2±12.6 years) with ≥1 year of follow-up were analyzed; up to December 2015, (median, interquartile rage) follow-up was 86.6 months (43.2-123) during which 35 (20.6%) patients had HDO after 41.1 months (12.1-58.7). Baseline and cumulative variables related to disease activity, treatment and persistence with therapy entered regression models; cumulative number of flares, number of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs /patient and persistence drop out time of 3.8 years (2.3-5.8); they exhibited higher disability and poorer function than paired controls and outcomes were sustained up to their last follow-up. In a real clinical setting of an EAC, failure to control disease activity, intensive treatment and poor persistence with therapy predicted HDO. Abandonment of health care had a negative impact on patient outcomes and was

  8. Eruptive Productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro Volcanic Field, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    andesites to dacite domes, totaling about 14 km3, were dated from 0.4 to 0.6 Ma. The eruptive productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field over the past 1 Myr is 43 m3 per km2 per year, which corresponds to a lava accumulation rate of 43 m/Myr. This rate is less than 1/6 of the lava accumulation rate of 268 +/- 71 m/Myr at the Mt. Adams volcanic field in the Cascade arc (Hildreth and Lanphere, 1994). However, if only the last 100 kyrs are considered (which includes the Ceboruco cone-building episode), the resulting eruptive rate of 323 m/kyr is comparable to the 160-500 m/kyr cited for cone-building episodes at Mt. Adams. The non-focal or peripheral magmatism in the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field is predominantly comprised of phenocryst-poor andesites and dacites that erupted in a 200 kyr interval. This is in marked contrast to the Mt. Adams volcanic field, in which non-focal eruptions are dominantly basaltic. Given that the continental crust is 30-35 km thick beneath Ceboruco and 40-45 km thick beneath Mt. Adams, there is not a positive correlation between crustal thickness and more evolved magma types. These results underscore the importance of studying multiple volcanic fields to better understand the interaction of arc volcanoes and peripheral lavas and their evolution through time.

  9. Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex, San Luis, Argentina: An explosive event in a regional transpressive - local transtensive setting in the pampean flat slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañes, Oscar Damián; Sruoga, Patricia; Japas, María Silvia; Urbina, y. Nilda Esther

    2017-07-01

    The Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex (TVC) is located in the Sierras Pampeanas of San Luis, Argentina, at the southeast of the Pampean flat-slab segment. Based on the comprehensive study of lithofacies and structures, the reconstruction of the volcanic architecture has been carried out. The TVC has been modeled in three subsequent stages: 1) initial updoming, 2) ignimbritic eruptive activity and 3) lava dome emplacement. Interplay of magma injection and transtensional tectonic deformation has been invoked to reproduce TVC evolution.

  10. Anoxic atmospheres on Mars driven by volcanism: Implications for past environments and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholes, Steven F.; Smith, Megan L.; Claire, Mark W.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, David C.

    2017-07-01

    Mars today has no active volcanism and its atmosphere is oxidizing, dominated by the photochemistry of CO2 and H2O. Mars experienced widespread volcanism in the past and volcanic emissions should have included reducing gases, such as H2 and CO, as well as sulfur-bearing gases. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model, we consider whether plausible volcanic gas fluxes could have switched the redox-state of the past martian atmosphere to reducing conditions. In our model, the total quantity and proportions of volcanic gases depend on the water content, outgassing pressure, and oxygen fugacity of the source melt. We find that, with reasonable melt parameters, the past martian atmosphere (∼3.5 Gyr to present) could have easily reached reducing and anoxic conditions with modest levels of volcanism, >0.14 km3 yr-1, which are well within the range of estimates from thermal evolution models or photogeological studies. Counter-intuitively we also find that more reducing melts with lower oxygen fugacity require greater amounts of volcanism to switch a paleo-atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. The reason is that sulfur is more stable in such melts and lower absolute fluxes of sulfur-bearing gases more than compensate for increases in the proportions of H2 and CO. These results imply that ancient Mars should have experienced periods with anoxic and reducing atmospheres even through the mid-Amazonian whenever volcanic outgassing was sustained at sufficient levels. Reducing anoxic conditions are potentially conducive to the synthesis of prebiotic organic compounds, such as amino acids, and are therefore relevant to the possibility of life on Mars. Also, anoxic reducing conditions should have influenced the type of minerals that were formed on the surface or deposited from the atmosphere. We suggest looking for elemental polysulfur (S8) as a signature of past reducing atmospheres. Finally, our models allow us to estimate the amount of volcanically sourced atmospheric

  11. Numerical modeling of the inception, morphology and radio signals of sprites produced by lightning discharges with positive and negative polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi

    Sprites are large-scale mesospheric gas discharges produced by intense cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in the underlying thunderstorms. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate sprite halos and sprite streamers using a previously introduced plasma fluid model and some newly developed models and simulation techniques. The first outstanding issue that is addressed by this dissertation is the inception mechanism of sprite streamers. Although the streamer nature of sprites has been explained theoretically and confirmed experimentally, how these filamentary plasmas are initiated in the lower ionosphere has not yet been well understood, as many spatial and temporal features of sprites in their initial stage cannot be explained by the modeling studies in the existing literature. To better understand the initiation of sprite streamers, a plasma fluid model, an improved avalanche-to-streamer transition criterion, and a 'two-step' technique are used to numerically simulate the initiation of sprite streamers from electron density inhomogeneities during the development of a sprite halo. The reported modeling results suggest an original mechanism for the inception of sprite streamers. The origin of different sprite morphologies is the second outstanding issue that is addressed by this dissertation. In order to find out the physical conditions that lead to the production of carrot sprites and column sprites, we study the dependence of sprite morphology on lightning characteristics and upper atmospheric ambient conditions. It is demonstrated that the morphology of sprites is mainly determined by the characteristics of their causative lightning discharges, namely the polarity, the total charge moment change, the impulsiveness of the return stroke, and the strength of the continuing current. A detailed relation between the above-mentioned lightning characteristics and the sprite morphology is established. We also quantify the impact of lower ionospheric ambient

  12. Cooling-dominated cracking in thermally stressed volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Meredith, Philip; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-08-01

    Most studies of thermally induced cracking in rocks have focused on the generation of cracks formed during heating and thermal expansion. Both the nature and the mechanism of crack formation during cooling are hypothesized to be different from those formed during heating. We present in situ acoustic emission data recorded as a proxy for crack damage evolution in a series of heating and cooling experiments on samples of basalt and dacite. Results show that both the rate and the energy of acoustic emission are consistently much higher during cooling than during heating. Seismic velocity comparisons and crack morphology analysis of our heated and cooled samples support the contemporaneous acoustic emission data and also indicate that thermal cracking is largely isotropic. These new data are important for assessing the contribution of cooling-induced damage within volcanic structures and layers such as dikes, sills, and lava flows.

  13. Venus volcanism - Classification of volcanic features and structures, associations, and global distribution from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, Jayne C.; Guest, John E.; Saunders, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    A classification and documentation of the range of morphologic features and structures of volcanic origin on Venus, their size distribution, and their global distribution and associations are presented based on a preliminary analysis of Magellan data. Some of the major questions about volcanism on Venus are addressed.

  14. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  15. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  16. Gravitational removal of volcanic arc roots in Cordilleran orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C. A.; Ducea, M. N.; DeCelles, P. G.; Beaumont, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cordilleran orogens, such as the central Andes, form above subduction zones and their evolution depends on processes associated with oceanic plate subduction and continental plate shortening. Such orogens are characterized by abundant arc volcanism and the formation of thick (>30 km) granitoid batholiths. The magma composition is consistent with a multi-stage model, in which parental mantle-derived basaltic magmas stagnate within the continental lithosphere and then undergo differentiation. Felsic partial melts rise through the crust, leaving a high-density garnet pyroxenite root in the deep lithosphere. Here, we study the dynamics of gravitational removal of this root using regional two-dimensional thermal-mechanical models of subduction below a continent. In the models, the volcanic arc location is determined dynamically based on subduction zone thermal structure, and formation of the batholith-root complex is simulated by changing the density of the volcanic arc lithosphere over time. For the lithosphere structure used in our models, arc roots that undergo even a small density increase are readily removed through gravitational foundering for a wide range of root strengths and subduction rates. The dynamics of removal depend on the relative rates of downward gravitational growth and horizontal shearing by subduction-induced mantle flow. Gravitational growth dominates for high root densification rates, high root viscosities and low subduction rates, leading to drip-like removal of the root as a single downwelling over 1-3 Myr. At lower growth rates, the root is removed over ~6 Myr through shear entrainment, as it is carried sideways by mantle flow and then subducted on top of the oceanic plate. In all models, >80% of the root is removed, making this an effective way to thin mantle lithosphere in the volcanic arc region. This can help resolve the mass problem in the central Andes, where observations indicate a thin mantle lithosphere, despite significant crustal

  17. Western Alborz Volcanic Rocks, a new Geochemical Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M.

    2001-12-01

    Volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age comprise vast outcrops of Alborz Mountain Range, a fold-thrusted structural unit extending across northern Iran for 2000 km in a curvilinear pattern. In his account of structural evolution of Iranian plateau, Berberian (1983; p. 55) ascribed these rocks to a subduction-type magmatism. Based on a tectonostratigraphic study, these rocks are attributed to an arc-type magmatism (Alavi; 1996, p. 29). Recently a new data set of major and trace element (including REE) analyses of volcanic rocks from western Alborz, some 50 km west of city of Qazvin, has been made available (Asiabanha, 2001). Careful examination of the data (i.e., those of basic-intermediate rocks) in present study revealed, for the first time, some geochemical characteristics which have important implications on the geodynamic synthesis of this structural unit. The rocks contain 50-60 wt% SiO2. They lie in the midalkaline-to-subalkaline domain of TAS diagram (Middlemost, 1997; p.216) and fall in the calcalkaline field of AFM diagram. The volcanic rocks display two distinct chondrite-normalized REE patterns, one is MREE-depleted while the other is a rather smooth uniform M-HREE pattern. These are called MREE-depleted and smooth M-HREE series. Basic rocks from the latter contain higher silica than the former (>53 vs. >50 wt%), yet they show lower incompatible elements (e.g., K and Rb) and HFSE contents. These features can not be explained by differentiation and might be interpreted as implying the involvement of two source regions. Chondrite-normalized trace element patterns of the MREE-depleted series is more akin to the island arc calcalkaline (IACA) basic rocks than the basic rocks from any other tectonic settings. However, island arc products, known for being depleted in HFSE relative to other incompatible elements, differ from the MREE-depleted series which is rich in both HFSE and incompatible elements. One may advocate the role of OIB-type mantle

  18. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  19. Evidence for the development of permeability anisotropy in lava domes and volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Jamie I.; Heap, Michael J.; Lavallée, Yan; Varley, Nick R.; Baud, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    The ease at which exsolving volatiles can migrate though magma and outgas influences the explosivity of a volcanic eruption. Volcanic rocks often contain discrete discontinuities, providing snapshots of strain localisation processes that occur during magma ascent and extrusion. Whether these features comprise pathways for or barriers to fluid flow is thus of relevance for volcanic eruption and gas emission modelling. We report here on nine discontinuity-bearing andesite blocks collected from Volcán de Colima, Mexico. We present a systematic porosity and permeability study of fifty cores obtained from the blocks collected, and interpret the genetic processes of the discontinuities through detailed microstructural examination. Bands in pumiceous blocks were inferred to be relicts of inhomogeneous bubble expansion which, despite significantly increasing porosity, do not markedly affect permeability. Other discontinuities in our blocks are interpreted to be shear strain-induced flow banding, cavitation porosity, and/or variably healed fractures. In each of these cases, an increase in permeability (up to around three orders of magnitude) was measured relative to the host material. A final sample contained a band of lower porosity than the host rock, characterised by variably infilled pores. In this case, the band was an order of magnitude less permeable than the host rock, highlighting the complex interplay between dilatant and densifying processes in magma. We therefore present evidence for significant permeability anisotropy within the conduit and/or dome of a volcanic system. We suggest that the abundance and distribution of strain localisation features will influence the escape or entrapment of volatiles and therefore the evolution of pore pressure within active volcanic systems. Using a simple upscaling model, we illustrate the relative importance of permeable structures over different lengthscales. Strain localisation processes resulting in permeability

  20. Evidence for a deep crustal hot zone beneath the Diamante Caldera-Maipo volcanic complex, Southern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, D.; Murray, T.; Sruoga, P.; Feineman, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction zones at convergent continental margins are dynamic environments that control the long-term evolution and interaction of the crust and residual mantle. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Andes formed as a result of volcanic activity and uplift due to the eastern subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. Maipo and neighboring volcanoes in the northern SVZ are unique in that the continental crust is exceptionally thick (~50 km), causing the mantle-derived magma to stall and interact with the crust at multiple levels prior to eruption. Maipo is an andesite/dacite stratovolcano that lies within the Diamante Caldera, which formed approximately 450 Ka during an explosive eruption that produced 350 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite. Following post-caldera reactivation Maipo has undergone a complex evolution, first erupting 86 Ka and experiencing seven eruptive events extending to historic times. The Maipo lavas represent a unique geochemical evolution resulting from fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing in the lower and upper crust. By analyzing trace element compositions, major element compositions, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in sixteen samples, we have begun to constrain the complex geochemical processes that formed this volcano and contribute to the differentiation of Andean continental crust. The major element analysis of the samples reflects the extent of differentiation resulting in dacite to andesite volcanic rock, and was used to distinguish between the seven eruptive events. The trace elements and Sr isotope ratios reflect the composition of the source rock, the extent of crustal assimilation, and the crystallization of minerals from the resulting mantle derived magma. The SiO2 weight percent (ranging from 54.3 to 68.5%) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048 to 0.7057) show a linear correlation nearly identical to that reported by Hildreth and Moorbath (1988, CMP 98, 455-489) for nearby Cerro Marmolejo, suggesting a

  1. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi

  2. Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODP Expedition 340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Friant, A.; Ishizuka, O.; Boudon, G.; Palmer, M. R.; Talling, P. J.; Villemant, B.; Adachi, T.; Aljahdali, M.; Breitkreuz, C.; Brunet, M.; Caron, B.; Coussens, M.; Deplus, C.; Endo, D.; Feuillet, N.; Fraas, A. J.; Fujinawa, A.; Hart, M. B.; Hatfield, R. G.; Hornbach, M.; Jutzeler, M.; Kataoka, K. S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Lebas, E.; Lafuerza, S.; Maeno, F.; Manga, M.; Martínez-Colón, M.; McCanta, M.; Morgan, S.; Saito, T.; Slagle, A.; Sparks, S.; Stinton, A.; Stroncik, N.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Y.; Trofimovs, J.; Voight, B.; Wall-Palmer, D.; Wang, F.; Watt, S. F. L.

    2015-02-01

    IODP Expedition 340 successfully drilled a series of sites offshore Montserrat, Martinique and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles from March to April 2012. These are among the few drill sites gathered around volcanic islands, and the first scientific drilling of large and likely tsunamigenic volcanic island-arc landslide deposits. These cores provide evidence and tests of previous hypotheses for the composition and origin of those deposits. Sites U1394, U1399, and U1400 that penetrated landslide deposits recovered exclusively seafloor sediment, comprising mainly turbidites and hemipelagic deposits, and lacked debris avalanche deposits. This supports the concepts that i/ volcanic debris avalanches tend to stop at the slope break, and ii/ widespread and voluminous failures of preexisting low-gradient seafloor sediment can be triggered by initial emplacement of material from the volcano. Offshore Martinique (U1399 and 1400), the landslide deposits comprised blocks of parallel strata that were tilted or microfaulted, sometimes separated by intervals of homogenized sediment (intense shearing), while Site U1394 offshore Montserrat penetrated a flat-lying block of intact strata. The most likely mechanism for generating these large-scale seafloor sediment failures appears to be propagation of a decollement from proximal areas loaded and incised by a volcanic debris avalanche. These results have implications for the magnitude of tsunami generation. Under some conditions, volcanic island landslide deposits composed of mainly seafloor sediment will tend to form smaller magnitude tsunamis than equivalent volumes of subaerial block-rich mass flows rapidly entering water. Expedition 340 also successfully drilled sites to access the undisturbed record of eruption fallout layers intercalated with marine sediment which provide an outstanding high-resolution data set to analyze eruption and landslides cycles, improve understanding of magmatic evolution as well as offshore sedimentation

  3. Volcanic activity: a review for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, C G; Fruchter, J S

    1986-03-01

    Volcanoes erupt magma (molten rock containing variable amounts of solid crystals, dissolved volatiles, and gas bubbles) along with pulverized pre-existing rock (ripped from the walls of the vent and conduit). The resulting volcanic rocks vary in their physical and chemical characteristics, e.g., degree of fragmentation, sizes and shapes of fragments, minerals present, ratio of crystals to glass, and major and trace elements composition. Variability in the properties of magma, and in the relative roles of magmatic volatiles and groundwater in driving an eruption, determine to a great extent the type of an eruption; variability in the type of an eruption in turn influences the physical characteristics and distribution of the eruption products. The principal volcanic hazards are: ash and larger fragments that rain down from an explosion cloud (airfall tephra and ballistic fragments); flows of hot ash, blocks, and gases down the slopes of a volcano (pyroclastic flows); "mudflows" (debris flows); lava flows; and concentrations of volcanic gases in topographic depressions. Progress in volcanology is bringing improved long- and short-range forecasts of volcanic activity, and thus more options for mitigation of hazards. Collaboration between health professionals and volcanologists helps to mitigate health hazards of volcanic activity.

  4. Dynamics of the North American Ice Sheet Complex during its inception and build-up to the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.

    2012-09-01

    The North American Ice Sheet Complex played a major role in global sea level fluctuations during the Late Quaternary but our knowledge of its dynamics is based mostly on its demise from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a period characterised by non-linear behaviour in the form of punctuated ice margin recession, episodic ice streaming and major shifts in the location of ice divides. In comparison, knowledge of the pre-LGM ice complex is poorly constrained, largely because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence relating to ice sheet build-up. In this paper, we explore the inception and growth of ice (120-20 ka) using a glacial systems model which has been calibrated against a large and diverse set of data relating to the deglacial interval. We make use of calibration data prior to the LGM but its scarcity introduces greater uncertainty, which is partly alleviated by our large ensemble analysis. Results suggest that, following the last interglaciation (Oxygen Isotope Stage: OIS 5e), the ice complex initiated over the north-eastern Canadian Arctic and in the Cordillera within a few thousand years. It then underwent rapid growth to an OIS 5 maximum at ˜110 ka (5d) and covered ˜70% of the area occupied by the LGM ice cover (although only 30% by volume). An OIS 5 minimum is modelled at ˜80 ka (5a), before a second phase of rapid growth at the start of OIS 4, which culminated in a large ice complex at ˜65 ka (almost as large as at the LGM). Subsequent deglaciation was rapid (maximum modelled sea level contribution of >16 cm per century) and resulted in an OIS 3 minimum between ca 55-60 ka. Thereafter, the ice complex grew towards its LGM configuration, interrupted by several phases of successively less significant mass loss. Our results support and extend previous inferences based on geological evidence and reinforce the notion of a highly dynamic pre-LGM ice complex (e.g. with episodes of ±10 s m of eustatic sea level equivalent in ice increases towards the LGM

  5. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  6. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  7. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  8. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

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    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  9. Reflections: Evolution of PBL in the International Medical University

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    Hla-Yee-Yee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution of PBL inthe International Medical University over a periodof twenty years; since its inception in 1992 till 2012.It is a record of the reasons for the evolution, the peopleinvolved and the strategies adopted. The PBL in IMUhas metamorphosed over the years from a paper-basedcomplete case history into its present form of staggeredrelease of information, paper-based or otherwise (videos,web-based, newspaper cuttings, debates. Strategies toimprove student and facilitator buy-in, strengtheningof facilitator training, adoption of PBL templates,innovations to improve student participation arediscussed.

  10. Constraining the onset of flood volcanism in Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkasa, Syahreza; Jerram, Dougal. A.; Svensen, Henrik; Millet, John M.; Taylor, Ross; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    In order to constrain eruption styles at the onset of flood volcanism, field observations were undertaken on basal sections of the Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province. This study investigates three specific sections; Camus Ban, Neist Point and Soay Sound which sample a large area about 1500 km2 and can be used to help explain the variability in palaeo-environments at the onset of flood volcanism. Petrological analysis is coupled with petrophysical lab data and photogrammetry data to create detailed facies models for the different styles of initiating flood basalt volcanism. Photogrammetry is used to create Ortho-rectified 3D models which, along with photomontage images, allow detailed geological observations to be mapped spatially. Petrographic analyses are combined with petrophysical lab data to identify key textural variation, mineral compositions and physical properties of the volcanic rocks emplaced during the initial eruptions. Volcanism initiated with effusive eruptions in either subaerial or subaqueous environments resulting in tuff/hyaloclastite materials or lava flow facies lying directly on the older Mesozoic strata. Volcanic facies indicative of lava-water interactions vary significantly in thickness between different sections suggesting a strong accommodation space control on the style of volcanism. Camus Ban shows hyaloclastite deposits with a thickness of 25m, whereas the Soay Sound area has tuffaceous sediments of under 0.1m in thickness. Subaerial lavas overly these variable deposits in all studied areas. The flood basalt eruptions took place in mixed wet and dry environments with some significant locally developed water bodies (e.g. Camus Ban). More explosive eruptions were promoted in some cases by interaction of lavas with these water bodies and possibly by local interaction with water - saturated sediments. We record key examples of how palaeotopography imparts a primary control on the style of volcanism during the

  11. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

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    Vladimir K. Karzhavin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  13. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  14. Emplacement Scenarios for Volcanic Domes on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    2012-01-01

    One key to understanding the history of resurfacing on Venus is better constraints on the emplacement timescales for the range of volcanic features visible on the surface. A figure shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative lava dome on Venus. 175 such domes have been identified with diameters ranging from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin and to have formed by the flow of viscous fluid (i.e., lava) on the surface.

  15. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  16. Comparative analyses of glass fragments from brittle fracture experiments and volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, Tobias; Mele, Daniela; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are characterized by the rapid fragmentation of a magmatic melt into ash particles. In order to describe the energy dissipation during fragmentation it is important to understand the mechanism of material failure. A quantitative description of fragmentation is only possible under controlled laboratory conditions. Industrial silicate glasses have a high structural affinity with magmatic melts and have the advantage of being transparent, which allows the study of the evolution of fractures by optical methods on a time scale relevant for explosive volcanism. With this aim, a series of low speed edge-on hammer impact experiments on silicate glass targets has been conducted, leading to the generation of fragments in the grain-size spectra of volcanic ash. In order to verify the general transferability of the experimentally generated fragmentation dynamics to volcanic processes, the resulting products were compared, by means of statistical particle-shape analyses, to particles produced by standardized magma fragmentation experiments and to natural ash particles coming from deposits of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions from the 2004 Grimsvötn and the Quaternary Tepexitl tuff-ring eruptions, respectively. Natural ash particles from both Grimsvötn and Tepexitl show significant similarities with experimental fragments of thermally pre-stressed float glasses, indicating a dominant influence of preexisting stresses on particle shape and suggesting analogous fragmentation processes within the studied materials.

  17. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  18. Volcano-tectonics of the Al Haruj Volcanic Province, Central Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    The Al Haruj intra-continental Volcanic Province (AHVP), located at the south-western margin of the Sirt Basin, hosts the most extensive and recent volcanic activity in Libya - which is considered typical for plate interiors. From north to south the AHVP is divided into two subprovinces, namely Al Haruj al Aswad and Al Haruj al Abiyad. The total area of the AHVP is around 42,000 km2. Despite the great size of the AHVP, its volcano-tectonic evolution and activity have received very little attention and are poorly documented and understood. Here we present new field data, and analytical and numerical results, on the volcano-tectonics of the AHVP. The length/thickness ratio of 47 dykes and volcanic fissures were measured to estimate magmatic overpressure at the time of eruption. The average dyke (length/thickness) ratio of 421 indicates magmatic overpressures during the associate fissure eruptions of 8-19 MPa (depending on host-rock elastic properties). Spatial distributions of 432 monogenetic eruptions sites/points (lava shields, pyroclastic cones) in the AHVP reveal two main clusters, one in the south and another in the north. Aligned eruptive vents show the dominating strike of volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes as WNW-ESE to NW-SE, coinciding with the orientation of one of main fracture/fault zones. Numerical modelling and field observations suggest that some feeder-dykes may have used steeply dipping normal-fault zones as part of their paths to the surface.

  19. Cretaceous alkaline volcanism in south Marzanabad, northern central Alborz, Iran: Geochemistry and petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Doroozi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkali-basalt and basaltic trachy-andesites volcanic rocks of south Marzanabad were erupted during Cretaceous in central Alborz, which is regarded as the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on petrography and geochemistry, en route fractional crystallization of ascending magma was an important process in the evolution of the volcanic rocks. Geochemical characteristics imply that the south Marzanabad alkaline basaltic magma was originated from the asthenospheric mantle source, whereas the high ratios of (La/YbN and (Dy/YbN are related to the low degree of partial melting from the garnet bearing mantle source. Enrichment pattern of Nb and depletion of Rb, K and Y, are similar to the OIB pattern and intraplate alkaline magmatic rocks. The K/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios of volcanic rocks range from 62 to 588 and from 4.27 to 9 respectively, that are some higher in more evolved samples which may reflect minor crustal contamination. The isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd respectively vary from 0.70370 to 0.704387 and from 0.51266 to 0.51281 that suggest the depleted mantle as a magma source. The development of south Marzanabad volcanic rocks could be related to the presence of extensional phase, upwelling and decompressional melting of asthenospheric mantle in the rift basin which made the alkaline magmatism in Cretaceous, in northern central Alborz of Iran.

  20. Formation of the Yandangshan volcanic-plutonic complex (SE China) by melt extraction and crystal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Li; He, Zhen-Yu; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-12-01

    The association of volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in caldera may provide important clues to the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems. The Yandangshan caldera is a typical example of late Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic complex in SE China. It is composed of a series of rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites. In this work, we conducted petrological and geochemical studies, as well as zircon dating, on the coexisting volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Yandangshan caldera. The results of SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating revealed that the crystallization of the rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions was contemporaneous within analytical errors and in a short period (104-98 Ma). Geochemically, the volcanic rocks are characterized by high Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti, while the shallow plutons show high K, Ba, Al, Fe and low Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios with insignificant negative Eu anomalies. The volcanic and plutonic rocks have a similar range of zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = - 10.0 to + 1.5) and TDM2 model ages of 2.10-1.23 Ga. They also have comparable whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7084-0.7090; εNd(t) = - 7.8 to - 6.5) and zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O mainly = 4.5 to 6.0‰). We argue that the volcanic-plutonic complex of the Yandangshan caldera was formed by reworking of Paleoproterozoic lower crusts in the eastern Cathaysia block, and that the complex could be linked by fractional crystallization and crystal accumulation in a shallow magma chamber. The volcanic rocks represent the highly fractionated end-member, whereas the subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites could be the residual crystal mushes. This case study could have a general implication for the genetic relationship between volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in calderas.

  1. Geomagnetic imprint of the Persani volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Seghedi, Ioan; Zlagnean, Luminita; Atanasiu, Ligia; Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Pomeran, Mihai; Visan, Madalina

    2016-04-01

    The Persani small volume volcanism is located in the SE corner of the Transylvanian Depression, at the north-western edge of the intra-mountainous Brasov basin. It represents the south-easternmost segment of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic chain of the East Carpathians. The alkaline basalt monogenetic volcanic field is partly coeval with the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism south of Harghita Mountains (1-1.6 Ma). Its eruptions post-dated the calc-alkaline volcanism in the Harghita Mountains (5.3-1.6 Ma), but pre-dated the high-K calc-alkaline emissions of Ciomadul volcano (1.0-0.03 Ma). The major volcanic forms have been mapped in previous geological surveys. Still, due to the small size of the volcanoes and large extent of tephra deposits and recent sediments, the location of some vents or other volcanic structures has been incompletely revealed. To overcome this problem, the area was subject to several near-surface geophysical investigations, including paleomagnetic research. However, due to their large-scale features, the previous geophysical surveys proved to be an inappropriate approach to the volcanological issues. Therefore, during the summers of 2014 and 2015, based on the high magnetic contrast between the volcanic rocks and the hosting sedimentary formations, a detailed ground geomagnetic survey has been designed and conducted, within central Persani volcanism area, in order to outline the presence of volcanic structures hidden beneath the overlying deposits. Additionally, information on the rock magnetic properties was also targeted by sampling and analysing several outcrops in the area. Based on the acquired data, a detailed total intensity scalar geomagnetic anomaly map was constructed by using the recent IGRF12 model. The revealed pattern of the geomagnetic field proved to be fully consistent with the direction of magnetisation previously determined on rock samples. In order to enhance the signal/noise ratio, the results were further processed by

  2. Geodynamics and Rate of Volcanism on Massive Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kite, Edwin S; Gaidos, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We provide estimates of volcanism versus time for planets with Earth-like composition and masses from 0.25 to 25 times Earth, as a step toward predicting atmospheric mass on extrasolar rocky planets. Volcanism requires melting of the silicate mantle. We use a thermal evolution model, calibrated against Earth, in combination with standard melting models, to explore the dependence of convection-driven decompression mantle melting on planet mass. Here we show that (1) volcanism is likely to proceed on massive planets with plate tectonics over the main-sequence lifetime of the parent star; (2) crustal thickness (and melting rate normalized to planet mass) is weakly dependent on planet mass; (3) stagnant lid planets can have higher rates of melting than their plate tectonic counterparts early in their thermal evolution, but melting shuts down after a few Gyr; (4) plate tectonics may not operate on high mass planets because of the production of buoyant crust which is difficult to subduct; and (5) melting is necessa...

  3. Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Niemeier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions emit huge amounts of sulfur and fine ash into the stratosphere. These products cause an impact on radiative processes, temperature and wind patterns. In simulations with a General Circulation Model including detailed aerosol microphysics, the relation between the impact of sulfur and fine ash is determined for different eruption strengths and locations, one in the tropics and one in high Northern latitudes. Fine ash with effective radii between 1 μm and 15 μm has a lifetime of several days only. Nevertheless, the strong absorption of shortwave and longwave radiation causes additional heating and cooling of ±20 K/day and impacts the evolution of the volcanic cloud. Depending on the location of the volcanic eruption, transport direction changes due to the presence of fine ash, vortices develop and temperature anomalies at ground increase. The results show substantial impact on the local scale but only minor impact on the evolution of sulfate in the stratosphere in the month after the simulated eruptions.

  4. Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Self

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions emit huge amounts of sulfur and fine ash into the stratosphere. These products cause an impact on radiative processes, temperature and wind patterns. In simulations with a General Circulation Model including detailed aerosol microphysics, the relation between the impact of sulfur and fine ash is determined for different eruption strengths and locations, one in the tropics and one in high Northern latitudes. Fine ash with effective radii between 1 μm and 15 μm has a lifetime of several days only. Nevertheless, the strong absorption of shortwave and long-wave radiation causes additional heating and cooling of ±20 K/day and impacts the evolution of the volcanic cloud. Depending on the location of the volcanic eruption, transport direction changes due to the presence of fine ash, vortices develop and temperature anomalies at ground increase. The results show substantial impact on the local scale but only minor impact on the evolution of sulfate in the stratosphere in the month after the simulated eruptions.

  5. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  6. Monogenetic volcanism: personal views and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, K.; Kereszturi, G.

    2015-11-01

    Monogenetic volcanism produces small-volume volcanoes with a wide range of eruptive styles, lithological features and geomorphic architectures. They are classified as spatter cones, scoria (or cinder) cones, tuff rings, maars (maar-diatremes) and tuff cones based on the magma/water ratio, dominant eruption styles and their typical surface morphotypes. The common interplay between internal, such as the physical-chemical characteristics of magma, and external parameters, such as groundwater flow, substrate characteristics or topography, plays an important role in creating small-volume volcanoes with diverse architectures, which can give the impression of complexity and of similarities to large-volume polygenetic volcanoes. In spite of this volcanic facies complexity, we defend the term "monogenetic volcano" and highlight the term's value, especially to express volcano morphotypes. This study defines a monogenetic volcano, a volcanic edifice with a small cumulative volume (typically ≤1 km3) that has been built up by one continuous, or many discontinuous, small eruptions fed from one or multiple magma batches. This definition provides a reasonable explanation of the recently recognized chemical diversities of this type of volcanism.

  7. Is volcanic phenomena of fractal nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, R.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Alparone, S.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sagiya, T.; Barrancos, J.; Rodriguez-Santana, A. A.; Ramos, A.; Calvari, S.; Perez, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    A particular resonance waveform pattern has been detected beneath different physical volcano manifestations from recent 2011-2012 period of volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, and also from other worldwide volcanoes with different volcanic typology. This mentioned pattern appears to be a fractal time dependent waveform repeated in different time scales (periods of time). This time dependent feature suggests this resonance as a new approach to volcano phenomena for predicting such interesting matters as earthquakes, gas emission, deformation etc. as this fractal signal has been discovered hidden in a wide typical volcanic parameters measurements. It is known that the resonance phenomenon occurring in nature usually denote a structure, symmetry or a subjacent law (Fermi et al., 1952; and later -about enhanced cross-sections symmetry in protons collisions), which, in this particular case, may be indicative of some physical interactions showing a sequence not completely chaotic but cyclic provided with symmetries. The resonance and fractal model mentioned allowed the authors to make predictions in cycles from a few weeks to months. In this work an equation for this waveform has been described and also correlations with volcanic parameters and fractal behavior demonstration have been performed, including also some suggestive possible explanations of this signal origin.

  8. Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very q