Sample records for volcanic structural geophysical

  1. Geophysical characterization of circular structures in Chubut and Mendoza (Argentina): Impact vs. Volcanism (United States)

    Prezzi, C.; Orgeira, M. J.; Risso, C.; Acevedo, R.; Ponce, F.; Nullo, F.; Martinez, O.; Rabassa, J.; Margonari, L.; Corbella, H.


    This work focuses on two main objectives. One of them is to provide information to discern the genesis of the circular structures present in Bajada del Diablo (Chubut, Argentina) considered as impact craters, and the other one is to contribute to a better knowledge of the circular structures located in the volcanic fields of Llancanelo and Payunia (Mendoza, Argentina). Chubut circular structures have been attributed to the collision of an extraterrestrial body, possibly an asteroid. However, doubts persist about their genesis because of the lack of direct geological evidences. Since detailed geomorphological studies have ruled out an origin by wind deflation, the prevailing alternative hypothesis attributes these circular structures to a volcanic process. On the other hand, the study of the volcanic fields of Payunia and Llancanelo (Mendoza) will contribute to the knowledge of the mechanics of hydromagmatic processes in the area, and the origin of circular structures morphologically similar to those located in Chubut. In the Payunia volcanic field at least 27 cones with evidences of hydromagmatism, in a field of more than 800 pure magmatic cones, have been recognized. This study tries to determine if a relationship between the observed volcanic circular structures and participation of water during the eruption exists. Magnetic and gravity field surveys of the circular volcanic structures in Llancanelo and Payunia volcanic fields were performed in order to determine their relationship with the type of eruption. Electromagnetic, magnetic and gravity field surveys were also carried out in Chubut circular structures. The comparative analysis of geological and geophysical results obtained in the circular structures of Chubut and those obtained in the circular structures in the volcanic areas of Llancanelo and Payunia suggest an impact origin for the circular structures of Chubut.

  2. Geophysical imaging of subsurface structures in volcanic area by seismic attenuation profiling (United States)

    Tsuru, Tetsuro; No, Tetsuo; Fujie, Gou


    Geophysical imaging by using attenuation property of multichannel seismic reflection data was tested to map spatial variation of physical properties of rocks in a volcanic area. The study area is located around Miyakejima volcanic island, where an intensive earthquake swarm was observed associated with 2000 Miyakejima eruption. Seismic reflection survey was conducted five months after the swarm initiation in order to clarify crustal structure around the hypocenters of the swarm activity. However, the resulting seismic reflection profiles were unable to provide significant information of deep structures around the hypocenters. The authors newly applied a seismic attribute method that focused seismic attenuation instead of reflectivity to the volcanic area, and designed this paper to assess the applicability of this method to subsurface structural studies in poorly reflective volcanic areas. Resulting seismic attenuation profiles successfully figured out attenuation structures around the Miyakejima volcanic island. Interestingly, a remarkable high-attenuation zone was detected between Miyakejima and Kozushima islands, being well correlated with the hypocenter distribution of the earthquake swarm in 2000. The high-attenuation zone is interpreted as a fractured area that was developed by magma activity responsible for the earthquake swarms that have been repeatedly occurring there. The present study can be one example showing the applicability of seismic attenuation profiling in a volcanic area. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .

  3. Geophysical imaging of buried volcanic structures within a continental back-arc basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Stern, T.A.


    Hidden beneath the ~2 km thick low-velocity volcaniclastics on the western margin of the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand, are two structures that represent the early history of volcanic activity in a continental back-arc. These ~20×20 km structures, at Tokoroa and Mangakino, fo...

  4. The structural setting of the Ischia Island (Phlegrean Volcanic District, Southern Italy): Inferences from geophysics and geochemistry (United States)

    Paoletti, Valeria; D'Antonio, Massimo; Rapolla, Antonio


    In this paper we give an overview of the recent geophysical, geochemical and volcanological studies concerning the island of Ischia within the geological and tectonic framework of Southern Italy. Ischia is an active volcanic field that had a complex volcanic history resulting from dominant explosive and minor effusive activity, several caldera collapses, and renewed volcanism from vents located inside the collapsed area. The island is morphologically dominated by Mt. Epomeo, the result of a prominent resurgence phenomenon taking place since ca. 33 ka BP, and responsible for ca. 900 m of total uplift, one of the largest known compared to the relatively small size of the caldera. The uplift was accompanied by activation of faults, seismic activity and renewal of volcanism, and may be considered a main factor for inducing slope instability. For Ischia, volcanological, petrological and geophysical studies are, at present, limited compared to the other active volcanoes of the Neapolitan Area. Furthermore, the island is characterized by high volcanic, seismic and hydrogeological risks. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting aspects of the knowledge on Ischia that need more investigations, in order to better assess some characteristics of its structural setting. Features such as the precise location of the caldera boundaries and the depth of the magma chamber representing the drive for the resurgence still need to be well defined. A critical analysis of all lines of evidence relevant to the current theories about the island resurgence (resurgent block vs. resurgent dome) has been carried out. Our analysis reveals that the resurgent block model, differently from the resurgent dome model, is consistent with the most significant features, such as tilting of the resurgent block, faults type, dip and distribution at the edges of the block, and occurrence of most of the past 10 ka eruption vents on the eastern sector of the island. However, as both model require an input of

  5. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.


    This paper is a review of seismic, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques to detect and delineate magma chambers of a few cubic kilometres to several thousand cubic kilometres volume. A dramatic decrease in density and seismic velocity, and an increase in seismic attenuation and electrical conductivity occurs at the onset of partial melting in rocks. The geophysical techniques are based on detecting these differences in physical properties between solid and partially molten rock. Although seismic refraction techniques, with sophisticated instrumentation and analytical procedures, are routinely used for detailed studies of crustal structure in volcanic regions, their application for magma detection has been quite limited. In one study, in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., fan-shooting and time-term techniques have been used to detect an upper-crustal magma chamber. Attenuation and velocity changes in seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes diffracted around magma chambers are observed near some volcanoes in Kamchatka. Strong attenuation of shear waves from regional earthquakes, interpreted as a diffraction effect, has been used to model magma chambers in Alaska, Kamchatka, Iceland, and New Zealand. One of the most powerful techniques in modern seismology, the seismic reflection technique with vibrators, was used to confirm the existence of a strong reflector in the crust near Socorro, New Mexico, in the Rio Grande Rift. This reflector, discovered earlier from data from local earthquakes, is interpreted as a sill-like magma body. In the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, mapping seismicity patterns in the upper crust has enabled the modelling of the complex magma conduits in the crust and upper mantle. On the other hand, in the Usu volcano, Japan, the magma conduits are delineated by zones of seismic quiescence. Three-dimensional modelling of laterally varying structures using teleseismic residuals is proving to be a very promising technique for detecting and

  6. Integrated Geophysical Techniques for Exploring Deep Volcanic Rock Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXuejun; UDechun; ZhangChangjiang; RanXuefeng


    The Carboniferous and Pre-Carboniferous formations in Ludong, Zhungar basin, contain favorable oil/gas reservoirs. The Carboniferous formations, however, are complex in structure and exhibit lateral variations in lithology. Seismic reflections from Pre-Triassic formations are poor and the volcanic reservoirs are very difficult to identify. The analysis of physical properties concluded that the major targets in this region, i.e., the top of the Jurassic and Carboniferous formations, provide distinct density interfaces. The basic, intermediate and acid volcanic rocks were also different in density,resulting in distinguishable gravity anomalies. The differences in magnetism in this region existed not only between the volcanic rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks but also among volcanic rocks with different compositions. All formations and volcanic rocks of different lithologies presented high and low resistance interbeds, which are characterized by regional trends.The modeling study demonstrated that non-seismic integrated geophysical techniques should be feasible in this region, especiaUy the high-precision gravity/magnetic methods combined with long offset transient electromagnetic sounding.

  7. Learning about hydrothermal volcanic activity by modeling induced geophysical changes (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda M.; Napoli, Rosalba


    Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical), which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e. deformation, gravity and magnetic field) to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g. distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock). A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i) the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii) the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii) the Poisson’s equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that are, however, above the accuracies of the modern

  8. Geophysics of Volcanic Landslide Hazards: The Inside Story (United States)

    Finn, C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bedrosian, P. A.


    Flank collapses of volcanoes pose significant potential hazards, including triggering lahars, eruptions, and tsunamis. Significant controls on the stability of volcanoes are the distribution of hydrothermal alteration and the location of groundwater. Groundwater position, abundance, and flow rates within a volcano affect the transmission of fluid pressure and the transport of mass and heat. Interaction of groundwater with acid magmatic gases can lead to hydrothermal alteration that mechanically weakens rocks and makes them prone to failure and flank collapse. Therefore, detecting the presence and volume of hydrothermally altered rocks and shallow ground water is critical for evaluating landslide hazards. High-resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data collected over the rugged, ice-covered Mount Adams, Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens (Washington) and Mount Iliamna (Alaska) volcanoes, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping, other geophysical data and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Water-saturated alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (glaciers on Mount Iliamna. Removal of ice and snow during eruptions and landslide can result in lahars and floods. Ice thickness measurements critical for flood and mudflow hazards studies are very sparse on most volcanoes. The HEM data are used to estimate ice thickness over portions of Mount Baker and Mount Adams volcanoes. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<600 ohm-m) ground for the main ice cap on Mount Adams and over most of the summit of Mount Baker. The modeled distribution of

  9. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del


    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  10. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.


    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  11. Probabilistic estimation of long-term volcanic hazard with assimilation of geophysics and tectonic data (United States)

    Jaquet, O.; Lantuéjoul, C.; Goto, J.


    Risk assessments in relation to the siting of potential geological repositories require the estimation of long-term volcanic hazard. Owing to their tectonic situation, many industrial regions around the world are concerned by such evaluation. For sites near volcanically active regions, the prevailing source of uncertainty is long-term volcanic hazard. The complexity and non-linearity of volcanic processes, the space-time variability in terms of distribution and intensity for volcanic events and the limited amount of information make probabilistic estimation of volcanic hazard ineluctable. The needs for reliable methodologies for volcanic and tectonic hazard assessments in Japan have stimulated the development of specific stochastic models for improving uncertainty characterization. A conditional Cox process with a multivariate potential was developed for the assimilation of geophysics and tectonic data (gravity data, GPS strain rate data and active faults). The theoretical basis and concepts of the proposed model are given and a methodological illustration is provided using data from the island of Kyushu.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20122208 Chen Shi ( Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China );Wang Qianshen Thermal Isostasy of North China and Its Gravity Isostasy and Deep Structure ( Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074 / P,54 ( 11 ), 2011,p.2864-2875,8illus.,1 table,37refs. ) Key words:gravity field,Bouguer anomaly,isostasy theory,North China In this paper,based on the up to date global free-air gravity anomaly dataset ( TopexV18.1 ),

  13. Marine geophysical methods for archaeological investigation of volcanic and bradyseismic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giordano


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test several geophysical methods for the identification and study of submerged prehistorical coastlines and archaeological sites. This research program was carried out in collaboration with the <> in the Gulf of Pozzuoli and dealt in particular with the bathymetric strips extending from - 5 m to - 50 m Within these strips we identified the coastline dating from the Rornan period. former beach boundaries associated with the vertical movements of the earth's surface caused by seismic-volcanic activity, and the variations in sea level following the climactic changes throughout the last 15000 years. The UNIBOOM system was used for this part of the programme, perinittiilg the identification of several coastlines and submerged beaches lying at different levels. The use of a modern Side Scan Sonar - for the morphological invesdgation of the sea bed - in a zone which had been the object of numerous archaeological surveys in the past, permitted previously unknown structures near the Lacuus Baianus to be identified. Other features worth pointing out include the operating speed of the system (15000 m'lfirst minute approx and its observation capacity in cloudy waters compared to visible radiation, as well as its ability to penetrate thin layers of mud which generally impede direct underwater observation.

  14. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.


    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20140634 Cao Lingmin(Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Xu Yi Finite Difference Tomography of the Crustal Velocity Structure in Tengchong,Yunnan Province(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,56(4),2013,p.1159-1167,6illus.,35refs.,with English abstract)

  16. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results (United States)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.


    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde Archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards as well as the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression of eruptive activity as widely separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological timescales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo Island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions, including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that on Fogo, the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium-frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  17. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert


    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q 8000 Ω.m) that can be

  18. High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). (United States)

    Aiello, Gemma; Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Marsella, Ennio; Passaro, Salvatore


    New high resolution seismic data (Subbottom Chirp) coupled to high resolution Multibeam bathymetry collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment aimed at recording active seismic data and tomography of the Stromboli Island are here presented. The Stromboli geophysical experiment has been already carried out based on onshore and offshore data acquisition in order to investigate the deep structure and the location of the magma chambers of the Stromboli volcano. A new detailed swath bathymetry of Stromboli Island is here shown and discussed to reconstruct an up-to-date morpho-bathymetry and marine geology of the area compared to the volcanologic setting of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex. Due to its high resolution the new Digital Terrain Model of the Stromboli Island gives interesting information about the submerged structure of the volcano, particularly about the volcano-tectonic and gravitational processes involving the submarine flanks of the edifice. Several seismic units have been identified based on the geologic interpretation of Subbottom Chirp profiles recorded around the volcanic edifice and interpreted as volcanic acoustic basement pertaining to the volcano and overlying slide chaotic bodies emplaced during its complex volcano-tectonic evolution. They are related to the eruptive activity of Stromboli, mainly poliphasic and to regional geological processes involving the intriguing geology of the Aeolian Arc, a volcanic area still in activity and needing improved research interest.

  19. Deep structure of the Pyatigorsk volcanic center (Northern Caucasus) (United States)

    Zhostkow, R. A.; Masurenkov, Yu. P.; Dudarov, Z. I.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Dolov, S. M.; Danilov, K. B.


    Pyatigorsk laccoliths show a perceptible circular arrangement of tectonic and petro-geochemical features that also manifested in specific properties of a hydrothermal system of the Caucasian Mineral Waters and can be described as direct and natural elements of a higher order system, namely, the fluid-magmatic system of the Pyatigorsk volcanic center. It has been shown that mentioned arrangement may be approximated by a system of concentric isolines forming an isometric shape with the center located approximately 10 km west from the top of the Mount Beshtau positioned over the crust-mantle boundary inflection zone, and concentration of hydro-carbonates in the center of the anomalous area is six times more than this concentration at the periphery. On the basis of petro-geochemical and geological studies the hydrothermal system with obvious features of juvenile origin has been outlined. An average lifespan of this system is estimated to be at least several millions of years. The results of geophysical studies at the Beshtau laccolith (Pyatigorsk volcanic center) which were carried out in 2011 using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding are presented. Vertical geophysical profile down to a depth of 30 km using a modified algorithm for processing the original data that improved the results of the transcripts and outlines the deep geological structure in more detail in the subsequent interpretation are presented and discussed. Thus, relationship of hydro-chemical properties of the Caucasian Mineral Waters with respect to structural and petro-geochemical features of Pyatigorsk volcanic center and its fluid-magmatic system structure has been discovered. Affiliation of the Caucasian Mineral Waters with a hydrothermal element of this system has been proved to be correct. New data on the deep structure of the Beshtau laccolith were obtained, and their combined interpretation with previous results obtained in geological, geophysical and petro-geochemical studies


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20091452 Cai Xuelin(School of Earth Science,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiaming Lithospheric and Asthenospheric Structures of the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan Geoscience Transect(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,35(3),2008,p.375-391,8 illus.,2 tables,64 refs.)Key words:lithosphere,asthenosphere,Xinjiang,SichuanBy using the theory and method of modern structural analysis,this paper analyzes the explosion seismic sounding profiling and natural seismic surface wave tomographic imaging in the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan geoscience transect and integrates the results of research on geology,geochemistry,structural petrology of deep-seated xenoliths and geophysical signs.The studies indicate that the geometric structure pattern of high-speed blocks or mantle block tectonics is one of the basic conditions for controlling the lithospheric tectonic pattern and tectonic deformation of the lithospheric surface.

  1. Geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and enivronmental data for rock samples collected in a mineralized volcanic environment, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado (United States)

    McCafferty, A.E.; Horton, R.J.; Stanton, M.R.; McDougal, R.R.; Fey, D.L.


    This report provides analyses of 90 rock samples collected in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., from 2001 to 2007. The samples are analyzed for geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental rock properties of acid neutralizing capacity and net acid production. The database is derived from both published (n=68) and unpublished (n=32) data. New for all samples are geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity, density, and porosity. Rock samples were acquired from 12 geologic units that include key Tertiary volcanic and plutonic lithologies, all with varying degrees of alteration.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20152233 An Zhenchang(Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China);Peng Fenglin Inspection and Study on the Geomagnetic Survey,Charts and Models during 1683~1949in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(11),2014,p.3795-3803,60refs.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20080091 Cheng Luying(Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430077,China);Xu Houze Rotation of the Gravity Potential on the Earth’s Gravity Field Recovery(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,49(1),2006,p.93-98,3 illus.,24 refs.,with English abstract)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20111476 Chen Bin(Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China);Gu Zuowen Study of Geomagnetic Secular Variation in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,53(9),2010,p.2144-2154,6 illus.,4 tables,38 refs.)Key words:secular variations of geomagnetic field,China

  5. Interpreting subsurface volcanic structures using geologically constrained 3-D gravity inversions: Examples of maar-diatremes, Newer Volcanics Province, southeastern Australia (United States)

    Blaikie, T. N.; Ailleres, L.; Betts, P. G.; Cas, R. A. F.


    We present results and a method to geophysically image the subsurface structures of maar volcanoes to better understand eruption mechanisms and risks associated with maar-forming eruptions. High-resolution ground gravity and magnetic data were acquired across several maar volcanoes within the Newer Volcanics Province of southeastern Australia, including the Ecklin maar, Red Rock Volcanic Complex, and Mount Leura Volcanic Complex. The depth and geometry of subsurface volcanic structures were determined by interpretation of gridded geophysical data and constrained 2.5-D forward and 3-D inverse modeling techniques. Bouguer gravity lows identified across the volcanic craters reflect lower density lake sediments and pyroclastic debris infilling the underlying maar-diatremes. These anomalies were reproduced during modeling by shallow coalesced diatremes. Short-wavelength positive gravity and magnetic anomalies identified within the center of the craters suggest complex internal structures. Modeling identified feeder vents, consisting of higher proportions of volcanic debris, intrusive dikes, and ponded magma. Because potential field models are nonunique, sensitivity analyses were undertaken to understand where uncertainty lies in the interpretations, and how the models may vary between the bounds of the constraints. Rather than producing a single "ideal" model, multiple models consistent with available geologic information are created using different inversion techniques. The modeling technique we present focuses on maar volcanoes, but there are wider implications for imaging the subsurface of other volcanic systems such as kimberlite pipes, scoria cones, tuff rings, and calderas.

  6. Credible occurrence probabilities for extreme geophysical events: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.


    Statistical analysis is made of rare, extreme geophysical events recorded in historical data -- counting the number of events $k$ with sizes that exceed chosen thresholds during specific durations of time $\\tau$. Under transformations that stabilize data and model-parameter variances, the most likely Poisson-event occurrence rate, $k/\\tau$, applies for frequentist inference and, also, for Bayesian inference with a Jeffreys prior that ensures posterior invariance under changes of variables. Frequentist confidence intervals and Bayesian (Jeffreys) credibility intervals are approximately the same and easy to calculate: $(1/\\tau)[(\\sqrt{k} - z/2)^{2},(\\sqrt{k} + z/2)^{2}]$, where $z$ is a parameter that specifies the width, $z=1$ ($z=2$) corresponding to $1\\sigma$, $68.3\\%$ ($2\\sigma$, $95.4\\%$). If only a few events have been observed, as is usually the case for extreme events, then these "error-bar" intervals might be considered to be relatively wide. From historical records, we estimate most likely long-term occurrence rates, 10-yr occurrence probabilities, and intervals of frequentist confidence and Bayesian credibility for large earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, and magnetic storms.

  7. Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Bruce


    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 13: Geophysics is a 10-chapter text that focuses with the theoretical solid-earth geophysics. This volume specifically covers the general topics of terrestrial magnetism and electricity, the Earth's gravity field, tidal deformations, dynamics of global spin, spin processing, and convective models for the deep interior. This volume surveys first the construction of mathematical models, such as the representation of the geomagnetic field by assuming arrangements of multipole sources in the core and the fast computer evaluation of two- and three-dimensiona


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20150056 Gao Yanguang(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100087,China);Li Yonghua Crustal Thickness and Vp/Vsin the Northeast China-North China Region and Its Geological Implication(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(3),2014,p.847-857,7illus.,58 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:crust,Poisson’s ration,Northeast China,North China20150057 He Lijuan(State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-

  9. Geophysics (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.


    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  10. Backscattering and geophysical features of volcanic ridges offshore Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Gulf of California, Mexico (United States)

    Fabriol, Hubert; Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Córdoba, Diego; González, Antonio; García-Abdeslem, Juan; Bartolomé, Rafael; Martín-Atienza, Beatriz; Frias-Camacho, Víctor


    Volcanic ridges formed by series of volcanic edifices are identified in the central part of the Gulf of California, between Isla Tortuga and La Reforma Caldera-Santa Rosalı´a region. Isla Tortuga is part of the 40-km-long Tortuga Volcanic Ridge (TVR) that trends almost perpendicular to the spreading center of the Guaymas Basin. The Rosalı´a Volcanic Ridge (RVR), older than TVR, is characterized by volcanic structures oriented towards 310°, following a fracture zone extension and the peninsular slope. It is interpreted that most of the aligned submarine volcanic edifices are developed on continental crust while Isla Tortuga lies on oceanic-like crust of the Guaymas Basin. From a complete Bouguer anomaly map, it is observed that the alignments of gravity highs trending 310° and 290° support the volcanic and subvolcanic origin of the bathymetric highs. Volcanic curvilinear structures, lava flows and mounds were identified from backscattering images around Isla Tortuga and over a 400-m high (Vı´rgenes High), where the TVR and the RVR intersect. A refraction/wide-angle seismic profile crossing perpendicular to the Vı´rgenes High, together with gravity and magnetic data indicate the presence of shallow intrusive bodies presumably of basaltic or andesitic composition. It is inferred that most volcanic edifices along the ridges have similar internal structures. We suggest that the growth of different segments of the ridges have a volcano-tectonic origin. The older RVR lies along the extension of a fracture zone and it probably is associated with Pliocene NE-SW extension.

  11. Venus volcanism - Classification of volcanic features and structures, associations, and global distribution from Magellan data (United States)

    Head, James W.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, Jayne C.; Guest, John E.; Saunders, R. S.


    A classification and documentation of the range of morphologic features and structures of volcanic origin on Venus, their size distribution, and their global distribution and associations are presented based on a preliminary analysis of Magellan data. Some of the major questions about volcanism on Venus are addressed.

  12. Structural significance of the south Tyrrhenian volcanism (United States)

    Gaudiosi, G.; Musacchio, G.; Ventura, G.; de Astis, G.


    The southern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea represents a transition from ocenic- (the Tyrrhenian Sea) to continental-domain (the Calabrian Arc) and is affected by active calkalkaline to potassic volcanism (the Eolian Islands). Active extensional tectonics, coupled with the general upwelling of northern Sicily and Calabria continental crust, coexists with active subduction of the Ionian Plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. This has been interpreted as the result of the detachment of the slab beneath the Calbrian Arc. Present-day tectonics is characterized by NE-SW normal faults and NNW- SSE dextral oblique-slip faults. The normal faults form the major peri- Tyrrhenian basins. Refraction and high resolution onshore-offshore wide-angle-reflection profiles, as well as potential field modeling, provide a 3D image of the Moho. Short wave-length undulations characterize the Moho beneath the Aeolian Arch. The major upraise is about 6 km, beneath the Aeolian active volcanic area, and affects all the crustal boundaries. Another sharp crustal thinning is observed beneath the gulf of Patti at the south-eastern edge of the Tyrrhenian basin. We suggest that the graben-like structure, occurring along the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano islands and oriented at high angles to the trench, is lithospheric and can be followed down to Moho depths. NNW-SSE dextral oblique-slip faults, like the Tindari Letojanni fault system, control the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano portion of the Aeolian volcanism and connect the oceanic crust of the Marsili Basin to the Malta Escarpment, through the Etna volcano. Across this lineament seismicity changes from mostly shallow to the west, to deep intra- slab to the east.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20132231 Chen Li(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Xue Mei Group Velocity Tomography of Rayleigh Waves in South China Sea and Its Geodynamic Implications(Acta Seismologica Sinica,ISSN0253-3782,CN11-2021/P,34(6),2012,p.754-772,9illus.,46refs.,with English abstract)Key words:Rayleigh waves,velocity structure,South China Sea

  14. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.A.; Burton, B.L.; Powers, M.H.; Minsley, B.J.; Phillips, J.D.; Hunter, L.E.


    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the

  15. Assessment of correlation between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters of volcanic deposits at Bandama Caldera (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Casas, Albert; Himi, Mahjoub; Estévez, Esmeralda; Lovera, Raúl; Sendrós, Alexandre; Palacios-Díaz, M. Pino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Cabrera, M. Carmen


    The characterization of the preferential areas of water infiltration through the vadose zone is of paramount importance to assess the pollution vulnerability of the underlying aquifers. Nevertheless, geometry and the hydraulic conductivity of each geological unit which constitute the unsaturated zone are difficult to study from traditional techniques (samples from trenches) and normally do not go beyond a meter depth from of the surface. On the other hand, boreholes are expensive and provide only local information not always representative of the whole unsaturated zone. For this reason, geophysical techniques and among them the electrical resistivity tomography method can be applicable in volcanic areas, where basaltic rocks, pyroclastic and volcanic ash-fall deposits have a wide range of values. In order to characterize the subsurface geology below the golf course of Bandama (Gran Canaria Island), irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, a detailed electrical resistivity tomography survey has been carried out. This technique has allowed to define the geometry of the existing geological formations by their high electrical resistivity contrast. Subsequently, in representative outcrops the value of resistivity of each of these lithologies has been measured and simultaneously undisturbed samples have been taken measuring the hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. Finally a statistical correlation between both variables has been established for evaluating the vulnerability to groundwater pollution at different zones of the golf course.

  16. Geophysical surveys of the Joya Honda maar (México) and surroundings; volcanic implications (United States)

    López Loera, Héctor; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Arzate, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto Stanley


    Joya Honda (JH) is a Quaternary maar excavated in Mesozoic limestone. It is located in central Mexico and belongs to the Ventura volcanic field (VVF), which is composed by cinder cones and maars made of intraplate-type mafic alkalic rocks. Volcanoes in the region form ˜ N20W lineaments, roughly parallel to a regional set of normal faults, but there is no obvious relation between these faults and vent distribution in the exposed geology around the maar. The volcanic rock volume is small in the VVF, and most volcanoes and their products are scattered in a region where outcrops are dominated by limestone. The near-vent tephra associated to the JH maar lies north of the crater. This relation suggests that the crater was formed by directed hydromagmatic explosions and may indicate an inclined volcanic conduit near the surface. The tephra stratigraphy suggests that the initial explosions were relatively dry and the amount of water increased during the maar forming eruption. Therefore, the existing model of the maar-diatreme formation may not be applicable to Joya Honda as it requires the formation of a cone of depression in the aquifer and deepening of the focii of the explosions as the crater and underlying diatreme grew. Thus, it is unlikely that there is a diatreme below Joya Honda. Aeromagnetic data shows a boundary between two regional magnetic domains near the elongated volcanic cluster of the VVF. The boundary is straight, with a distinct kink, from NE- to NW-trend, near JH. The limit between the domains is interpreted as fault contacts between mid-Tertiary volcanic rocks and marine Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Hence, magma ascent in the area may have been facilitated by fractures near the surface. Magnetic and gravimetric ground surveys show that the anomalies associated with the maar are not centered in the crater, which could be consistent with an inclined volcanic conduit. A magnetic profile measured on exposed limestone across the volcanic lineament failed to

  17. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico (United States)

    Ander, M. E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A. W.; Huestis, S.


    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body.

  18. Structure-coupled multiphysics imaging in geophysical sciences (United States)

    Gallardo, Luis A.; Meju, Max A.


    Multiphysics imaging or data inversion is of growing importance in many branches of science and engineering. In geophysical sciences, there is a need for combining information from multiple images acquired using different imaging devices and/or modalities because of the potential for accurate predictions. The major challenges are how to combine disparate data from unrelated physical phenomena, taking into account the different spatial scales of the measurement devices, model complexities, and how to quantify the associated uncertainties. This review paper summarizes the role played by the structural gradients-based approach for coupling fundamentally different physical fields in (mainly) geophysical inversion, develops further understanding of this approach to guide newcomers to the field, and defines the main challenges and directions for future research that may be useful in other fields of science and engineering.

  19. Structural Architecture of the Hydrothermal System from Geophysical Data in Hammam Bouhadjar Area (Northwest of Algeria) (United States)

    Bouyahiaoui, Boualem; Abtout, Abdeslam; Hamai, Lamine; Boukerbout, Hassina; Djellit, Hamou; Bougchiche, Said Sofiane; Bendali, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Hamza


    We determine the structural architecture of the hydrothermal system of Hammam Bouhadjar area (Northwest of Algeria) by the use of geophysical data. New gravity and electrical surveys covered an area of about 48 km2 in 2009. There were 350 gravity measurements made with a sampling of 500 m and 45 electrical soundings (Schlumberger type, AB = 1000 m). The Bouguer anomaly map shows a regression of gravity field towards the NW and SE. All of the observed anomalies are elongated in NE-SW direction. The results obtained from different processing methods (gradients, upward continuation, Euler deconvolution, wavelet transform and modelling) of gravity data were used to generate structural map of the studied area. The vertical and horizontal variations of resistivity confirm the presence of superficial and deeper faults system. Following the geophysical (gravity and electrical) analysis and modelling, we propose a model to explain the origin of the Hammam Bouhadjar thermal waters. We suggest that the hot spring water comes from an aquifer located in sandstones lenses in the Senono-Oligocene Tellian unit. Following the gravity modelling the aquifer is identified at about 800 m, the same depth where the geothermal gradient is insufficient to heat the water. In these circumstances, the aquifer is probably heated by volcanic processes connected with a hot compartment by faults and contacts affecting structures identified in depth. The presence of a conductor along of the horseshoe area suggests that the water percolates into this area and then is drained by the different accidents to invade the whole area.

  20. Geological and geophysical methods for monitoring of heritage structures (United States)

    Kulynych, Anna


    Using the analysis of geological and geophysical survey of the soil conditions of the site where the architectural landmarks of Kyiv are concentrated the research proposes to develop an optimal set of geological and geophysical studies aimed at monitoring and evaluating the impact of underflooding, risk of landslide and increase of seismic magnitude on the upper portion of geological cross-section. The research offers suggestions concerning the establishment of a monitoring system for the principal sites where the architectural heritage is located. As the earthquake origins are not scattered randomly but located within the relatively narrow zones of active faults, that is, the places most exposed to rapid geodynamic shifts, active faults and blocks they form are one of the main signs for identifying potential seismogenic areas. From the point of view of the present geodynamic instability the morphostructural neotectonic points characterized by the high degree of tectonic fragmentation, including within the upper portion of the sedimentary cover, the high values of relief energy and activation of exogenous processes deserve special attention. The research develops the comparison of areas with increased seismic impacts allocated according to geophysical data with neotectonic structural plan, allows to conclude about their suitability for morphostructural neotectonic points and some sections of active faults exactly that is important to consider when constructing new buildings and protecting the existing ones.

  1. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures (United States)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.


    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  2. Structure of the Pliocene Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, NE Spain) (United States)

    Oms, O.; Bolós, X.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Martí, J.; Casas, A.; Lovera, R.; Himi, M.; Gómez de Soler, B.; Campeny Vall-Llosera, G.; Pedrazzi, D.; Agustí, J.


    Maar volcanoes expose shallower or deeper levels of their internal structure as a function of the degree of erosion. In El Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, Spain), the tephra ring has been largely eroded, and the remaining volcanic deposits infilling the diatreme are hidden under a lacustrine sedimentary infill of the crater. The volcano shows hardly any exposure, so its study needs the application of direct (e.g., boreholes) and indirect (shallow geophysics) subsurface exploration techniques. Additionally, this maar-diatreme was built astride two different substrates (i.e., mixed setting) as a result of its location in a normal fault separating Neogene sediments from Paleozoic granites. In order to characterize the internal structure and post-eruption stratigraphy of the maar-diatreme, we did geological studies (mapping, continuous core logging, and description of the tephra ring outcrops) and near-surface geophysics, including nine transects of electric resistivity tomography and a gravity survey. Results show that the deeper part of the diatreme is excavated into granites and is relatively steep and symmetrical. The uppermost diatreme is asymmetrical because of mechanical contrast between granites and Pliocene sands. The maar crater contained a lake permanently isolated from the surrounding relief and was deep enough to host anoxic bottom waters while its margins had shallower waters. These lake conditions preserved the remarkable Pliocene fossil record found in the lacustrine sediments.

  3. Comprehensive geophysics and lithosphenc structure in the western Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥儒; 王谦身; 熊绍柏


    Comprehensive investigations along the Gyirong-Lugu-Sangehu geophysical profile in the western Xizang Plateau are presented. Analysis and interpretation of the lithospheric structure resulted in setting up of the geophysical methods and marks for the division of tectonic units in the lithospheric structure. Comprehensive geophysical survey in the remote west of Xizang is reported and some reliable geophysical evidence for deep structure division in the study region is provided. These lay a solid basis for probing into the mechanism of the Xizang Plateau uplift and geodynamics.

  4. On structure-based priors in Bayesian geophysical inversion (United States)

    de Pasquale, G.; Linde, N.


    Bayesian methods are extensively used to analyse geophysical data sets. A critical and somewhat overlooked component of high-dimensional Bayesian inversion is the definition of the prior probability density function that describes the joint probability of model parameters before considering available data sets. If insufficient prior information is available about model parameter correlations, then it is tempting to assume that model parameters are uncorrelated. When working with a spatially gridded model representation, this overparametrization leads to posterior realizations with far too much variability to be deemed realistic from a geological perspective. In this study, we introduce a new approach for structure-based prior sampling with Markov chain Monte Carlo that is suitable when only limited prior information is available. We evaluate our method using model structure measures related to standard roughness and damping metrics for l1- and l2-norms. We show that our structure-based prior approach is able to adequately sample the chosen prior distribution of model structure. The usefulness and applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on synthetic and field-based crosshole ground penetrating radar data. We find that our method provides posterior model realizations and statistics that are significantly more satisfactory than those based on underlying assumptions of uncorrelated model parameters or on explicit penalties on model structure within an empirical Bayes framework.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of the submarine flanks of La Réunion inferred from geophysical data (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie-Sarah; LéNat, Jean-FrançOis


    La Réunion (Indian Ocean) constitutes a huge volcanic oceanic system of which most of the volume is submerged. We present a study of its submarine part based on the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data compiled from old and recent surveys. A model of the submarine internal structure is derived from 3-D and 2-D models using constraints from previous geological and geophysical studies. Two large-scale, previously unknown, buried volcanic construction zones are discovered in continuation of the island's construction. To the east, the Alizés submarine zone is interpreted as the remnants of Les Alizés volcano eastward flank whose center is marked by a large hypovolcanic intrusion complex. To the southwest, the Etang Salé submarine zone is interpreted as an extension of Piton des Neiges, probably fed by a volcanic rift zone over a large extent. They were predominantly built during the Matuyama period and thus probably belong to early volcanism. A correlation exists between their top and seismic horizons recognized in previous studies and interpreted as the base of the volcanic edifice. Their morphology suggested a lithospheric bulging beneath La Réunion, not required to explain our data, since the seismic interfaces match the top of our volcanic constructions. The coastal shelf coincides with a negative Bouguer anomaly belt, often associated with magnetic anomalies, suggesting a shelf built by hyaloclastites. A detailed analysis of the offshore continuation of La Montagne Massif to the north confirms this hypothesis. The gravity analysis confirms that the bathymetric bulges, forming the northern, eastern, southern, and western submarine flanks, are predominantly built by debris avalanche deposits at the surface.

  6. Pore Structure of Cement Pastes Blended with Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lehua; ZHOU Shuangxi; LI Liling


    The pore parameters of cement pastes blended with volcanic rock at the curing age of 1, 28 and 90 d were de-termined by a mercury intrusion porosimetry. The pore structure of the pastes was characterized through the analysis of porosity, average pore diameter, the most probable pore aperture, pore size distribution, as well as total pore volume. For the improvement of mechanical property and durability of cement-based material, the correlation of the formed pore structure with hydration time and replacement level of volcanic rock for cement was revealed. The results indicate that volcanic rock can diminish porosity and reduce pore size in cement paste when curing time prolongs, which is particu-larly prominent with replacement level of less than 20% in late period. The more harmful pores (i.e., capillary pore) are gradually transformed into harmless pore (i.e., gel pores or micropore), even fully filled and disappeared when hydration products increase. The pore structure of the cement paste is thus refined. The beneficial effect of volcanic rock on the pore structure of cement paste could enhance the mechanical property and durability of cement-based material.

  7. Post-rift volcanic structures of the Pernambuco Plateau, northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Buarque, Bruno V.; Barbosa, José A.; Magalhães, José R. G.; Cruz Oliveira, Jefferson T.; Filho, Osvaldo J. Correia


    The Pernambuco marginal basin is located on the eastern continental margin of northeastern Brazil, covers an area of 20,800 km2, and represents one of the most prominent frontiers for deep water oil and gas exploration off the Brazilian coast. The onshore region of this basin was highly affected by extrusive and intrusive magmatism during the Upper Albian, and the relation of that event with the volcanic structures observed in the offshore sector has not been thoroughly characterized to date. This study aims to characterize the major extrusive and intrusive volcanic structures of the offshore portion of this basin, which is dominated by the Pernambuco Plateau, and its stratigraphic relations. A set of 143 2D multichannel seismic sections that cover the Pernambuco Plateau region are used to interpret the major tectono-stratigraphic sequences and describe the distribution of volcanoes, sills, vent complexes and related volcaniclastic sequences. The interpretations are supported by aeromagnetic and gravimetric geophysical surveys. Volcanoes are classified into two groups that differ in terms of their morphology: shield-like structures and cone-shaped volcanic structures. Sill intrusions are mainly identified beneath the volcanic structures and are characterized by high-amplitude reflectors with short extensions and abrupt terminations. Volcaniclastic sequences are found adjacent to the volcanoes and are characterized by high-amplitude, disrupted reflections with local chaotic configurations. Vent complexes are classified on the basis of their morphologies as either eye-shaped or crater-shaped. The volcanic features identified within the available seismic dataset are concentrated in two main areas: in the centre of the plateau and near its northeastern border. These two regions are host basement outer highs and are surrounded by hyper-extended continental crust, which forms the plateau itself. The extrusive and intrusive features described in the offshore region were

  8. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone


    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  9. The structure of the Amazonian craton: Available geophysical evidence (United States)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.


    The Amazonian craton, which covers a large area of South America, and is thought to have been stable since the end of the Mesoproterozoic, has recently benefited from a series of regional geophysical surveys. The Amazonian craton comprises the northern Guyana shield and the southern Central Brazil shield. It has become the main subject of seismological studies aiming to determine crustal thickness. Moho thickness maps that cover a large part of the South American continent summarize these studies. Receiver function studies, aided by surface wave dispersion tomography, were also useful tools applied in the region over the past decade. These have been improved by the addition of temporary and permanent regional seismological arrays and stations. An interesting NNW-SSE Moho depth anomaly, pointing to crustal thickening of up to 60 km in the central Guyana shield and a 50 km thick anomaly of the southern Central Brazil shield were recently identified. Areas with crustal thickening correspond to Paleoproterozoic magmatic arcs. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in part of the region has been determined from SKS splitting studies. The currently available seismic anisotropy information shows that the orientation of the determined anisotropic axis is related to the frozen in anisotropy hypothesis for the Amazonian craton. The orientation of the anisotropic axis shows no relation to the current South American plate motion in the Amazonian craton. Most recently, detailed information for the two shields has benefited from a series of high-resolution, regional aerogeophysical surveys, made available by CPRM, the Brazilian Geological Survey. In addition to the mentioned contribution from seismology for imaging deeper crustal structures, regional gravity surveys have been expanded, adding to previous Bouguer anomaly maps, and deep drilling information from early exploration efforts have been compiled for the Amazon basin, which covers the Amazonian craton separating the Guyana

  10. Results from a geophysical investigation of Lake Superior's ring structures (United States)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Gustafson, D.


    Ring shaped depressions are widely developed on the lake floor of Lake Superior. They have not been widely reported elsewhere. The rings are typically between 200 and 300 m across and up to 5 m deep. The width of the depression ranges between 10 to 30 m. They often occur in closely spaced groups or networks but can also occur as isolated features. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the formation of these features; they include syneresis of the fine-grained lake floor sediments, polygonal faulting and dewatering of the lake floor sediments. High resolution bathymetric surveying with a multibeam sonar has revealed that they are comprised of pockmarks arranged in irregular polygonal patterns. Sidescan sonar images of the pockmarks often exhibit increased backscatter about the pock which could be interpreted as evidence of a lag-surface. High-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom profiling across the pocks occasionally reveal chimney-like structures below the lake floor pock. This evidence suggests that the rings were produced by the expulsion of fluid from the lake floor. This appears to have been a basin-wide event. The timing, duration and origin of this are not well known. Neither is the structure of the subsurface plumbing below these features. Here we present results from a geophysical survey conducted in northwestern Lake Superior off the western coast of Isle Royale where both isolated and grouped lake floor rings are well developed. The objectives of the survey were to define the geometry of the sub-surface plumbing below the rings and to possibly gain some insight into how these systems develop. The data collected included two high-resolution pseudo-3D single-channel seismic reflection datasets, one acquired with a small airgun and a second acquired with a CHIRP profiler. Multibeam and sidescan sonar data were also acquired as part of the survey. A 9 m piston core was collected in close proximity to a ring feature. This is used to determine the physical

  11. Internal structure and volcanic hazard potential of Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from 3D gravity and magnetic models (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn


    A new 3D geophysical model of the Mt Tongariro Volcanic Massif (TgVM), New Zealand, provides a high resolution view of the volcano's internal structure and hydrothermal system, from which we derive implications for volcanic hazards. Geologically constrained 3D inversions of potential field data provides a greater level of insight into the volcanic structure than is possible from unconstrained models. A complex region of gravity highs and lows (± 6 mGal) is set within a broader, ~ 20 mGal gravity low. A magnetic high (1300 nT) is associated with Mt Ngauruhoe, while a substantial, thick, demagnetised area occurs to the north, coincident with a gravity low and interpreted as representing the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal system is constrained to the west by major faults, interpreted as an impermeable barrier to fluid migration and extends to basement depth. These faults are considered low probability areas for future eruption sites, as there is little to indicate they have acted as magmatic pathways. Where the hydrothermal system coincides with steep topographic slopes, an increased likelihood of landslides is present and the newly delineated hydrothermal system maps the area most likely to have phreatic eruptions. Such eruptions, while small on a global scale, are important hazards at the TgVM as it is a popular hiking area with hundreds of visitors per day in close proximity to eruption sites. The model shows that the volume of volcanic material erupted over the lifespan of the TgVM is five to six times greater than previous estimates, suggesting a higher rate of magma supply, in line with global rates of andesite production. We suggest that our model of physical property distribution can be used to provide constraints for other models of dynamic geophysical processes occurring at the TgVM.

  12. Mass movement processes associated with volcanic structures in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Valerio


    Full Text Available Mexico City, one of the most populated areas of the world, has been affected by various hazards of natural origin, such as subsidence and cracking of the soil, seismicity, floods and mass movement processes (MMPs. Owing to the lack of space on the plain, in recent years urban growth has been concentrated particularly on the slopes of the surrounding mountain ranges, and this has significantly modified the dynamics of the relief as well as the hydrogeological conditions. The specific character of natural susceptibility to mass movements is strongly dependent on the geological–structural and morphological characteristics of the volcanic bodies that form the mountainous relief. This natural susceptibility, combined with the characteristics of vulnerability of the society, creates risk conditions that can generate severe consequences for the population and the economy. Hence, based on an inventory of mass movement processes comprising 95 data points, the present study aimed to achieve a zoning of the areas susceptible to these processes, as well as to characterize the mechanisms of instability in the volcanic structures that form the relief of the area in question. The results of this work clearly show the role of the lithology, the mode of emplacement and the morpho–structural characteristics of the volcanic structures, in the types of mass movement processes. In addition, it identifies the diverse activities of anthropogenic origin that favour slope instability in the zone: deforestation and burning of rubbish, felling of timber on the slopes for building infrastructure and dwellings, leakages of water, vibrations of vehicles, rotating machinery and the use of explosives in mining works, overloading the heads of the slopes, disturbance of the geohydrological regime, generation of rubbish tips, terracing of the slopes for cultivation, inadequate building regulations, and the use of counterproductive or ineffectual stabilization measures.

  13. The cause and source of melting for the most recent volcanism in Tibet: A combined geochemical and geophysical perspective (United States)

    Wei, Feixiang; Prytulak, Julie; Xu, Jiandong; Wei, Wei; Hammond, James O. S.; Zhao, Bo


    We investigate the youngest volcanic activity on the Tibetan Plateau by combining observations from petrologic, geochemical and seismic tomography studies. Recent (from 2.80 Ma to present) post-collisional potassium-rich lavas from the Ashikule Volcanic Basin (AVB) in northwestern Tibet are characterised by remarkably enriched light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and enriched large ion lithophile element (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE). Strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions are surprisingly restricted, and show little evidence for mixing or crustal contamination, despite the thick crust upon which they are erupted. Geochemical characteristics indicate a homogeneous source, highly enriched in trace elements, which is most consistent with derivation from long-lived subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). P-wave anisotropy tomography documents a gap between the north-subducting Indian slab and south-subducting Tarim slab directly beneath the AVB. We propose that volcanism in northwestern Tibet is associated with the progressive closure of this gap, during which shear heating of the SCLM can generate localised melting, with deep-seated faults providing a mechanism for erupted lavas to escape large-scale crustal contamination and fractionation in magma reservoirs. Thus, shear heating may provide an explanation for the restricted range of radiogenic isotope compositions from a SCLM source that should be, by its nature, heterogeneous on a large scale.

  14. Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited) (United States)

    gurioli, L.


    Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical

  15. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Owens, Lara [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kennedy, Burton M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  16. Evaluation of coal structure and permeability with the aid of geophysical logging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuehai Fu; Yong Qin; Geoff G.X. Wang; Victor Rudolph [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)


    Coal structures and the associated permeability were studied by a combined investigation of geophysical logging data and well tests from coal reservoirs of Huainan and Huaibei coalfields in China. A large amount of the site observations on coal sections of mining faces and the macroscopic investigations on textures of drilling coal cores were carried out, providing experimental information for classification of coal structures. Geophysical log was implemented in 600 boreholes for exploration of coal and coalbed methane (CBM) resources, including 10 CBM wells which were used for permeability tests. The permeability tests were conducted by using injection/fall-off method. The results, together with the log data obtained from geophysical log technologies, have been analysed by using geological statistics, permitting correlation of the permeability of coal seams to the log responses. The correlation developed in this study provides better evaluation of coal reservoir permeability, resulting in an improved CBM exploration in the given coalfields. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Subsurface architecture of Las Bombas volcano circular structure (Southern Mendoza, Argentina) from geophysical studies (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia; Risso, Corina; Orgeira, María Julia; Nullo, Francisco; Sigismondi, Mario E.; Margonari, Liliana


    The Plio-Pleistocene Llancanelo volcanic field is located in the south-eastern region of the province of Mendoza, Argentina. This wide back-arc lava plateau, with hundreds of monogenetic pyroclastic cones, covers a large area behind the active Andean volcanic arc. Here we focus on the northern Llancanelo volcanic field, particularly in Las Bombas volcano. Las Bombas volcano is an eroded, but still recognizable, scoria cone located in a circular depression surrounded by a basaltic lava flow, suggesting that Las Bombas volcano was there when the lava flow field formed and, therefore, the lava flow engulfed it completely. While this explanation seems reasonable, the common presence of similar landforms in this part of the field justifies the need to establish correctly the stratigraphic relationship between lava flow fields and these circular depressions. The main purpose of this research is to investigate Las Bombas volcano 3D subsurface architecture by means of geophysical methods. We carried out a paleomagnetic study and detailed topographic, magnetic and gravimetric land surveys. Magnetic anomalies of normal and reverse polarity and paleomagnetic results point to the occurrence of two different volcanic episodes. A circular low Bouguer anomaly was detected beneath Las Bombas scoria cone indicating the existence of a mass deficit. A 3D forward gravity model was constructed, which suggests that the mass deficit would be related to the presence of fracture zones below Las Bombas volcano cone, due to sudden degassing of younger magma beneath it, or to a single phreatomagmatic explosion. Our results provide new and detailed information about Las Bombas volcano subsurface architecture.

  18. Intraplate volcanism controlled by back-arc and continental structures in NE Asia inferred from transdimensional Bayesian ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Rhie, Junkee; Chen, Youlin


    Intraplate volcanism adjacent to active continental margins is not simply explained by plate tectonics or plume interaction. Recent volcanoes in northeast (NE) Asia, including NE China and the Korean Peninsula, are characterized by heterogeneous tectonic structures and geochemical compositions. Here we apply a transdimensional Bayesian tomography to estimate high-resolution images of group and phase velocity variations (with periods between 8 and 70 s). The method provides robust estimations of velocity maps, and the reliability of results is tested through carefully designed synthetic recovery experiments. Our maps reveal two sublithospheric low-velocity anomalies that connect back-arc regions (in Japan and Ryukyu Trench) with current margins of continental lithosphere where the volcanoes are distributed. Combined with evidences from previous geochemical and geophysical studies, we argue that the volcanoes are related to the low-velocity structures associated with back-arc processes and preexisting continental lithosphere.

  19. Addressing Current Challenges on Groundwater Model Structure through Effective Use of Geophysical Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, Nikolaj;

    We wish to present a method for effective generation of structural models for groundwater flow simulations. The methodology is presented for two cases. A regional scale test, where geophysical data and borehole data is used for generating the regional scale hydrostratigraphy, and a local detailed...

  20. Magnetic Anomaly Modeling of Volcanic Structure and Stratigraphy - Socorro Island, Eastern Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Escorza-Reyes, Marisol; Pavon-Moreno, Julio; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Sanchez-Zamora, Osvaldo


    Results of a magnetic survey of the volcanic structure of Socorro Island in the Revillagigedo Archipielago are presented. Socorro is part of a group of seamounts and oceanic islands built by volcanic activity at the northern end of the Mathematician ridge and intersection with the Clarion and Rivera fracture zones. Subaerial volcanic activity is characterized by alkaline and peralkaline compositions, marked by pre-, syn- and post-caldera phases of the Evermann volcano, and the Holocene mafic activity of the Lomas Coloradas. The magnetic survey conducted in the central-southern sector of the island permits to investigate the volcanic structure and subsurface stratigraphy. Regional fields for second- and third-degree polynomials show a magnetic low over the caldera, positive anomalies above the pre-caldera deposits and intermediate amplitude anomalies over Lomas Coloradas. Residual fields delineate the structural rim of the caldera, anomaly trends for the pre- and post-caldera deposits and a broad anomaly over Lomas Coloradas. Regional-residual anomalies, first vertical derivative, analytical upward and downward continuations, and forward four-layer modeling are used to construct the geophysical models. Rock magnetic properties were analyzed on samples collected at 24 different sites. Magnetic susceptibility showed wide range of variation from ~10 to ~500 10-3 SI, corresponding to the different lithologies from trachytes and glass-rich tuffs to alkali basalts. Data have been divided into groups with low, intermediate and high values. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that magnetite and titanomagnetites are the main magnetization carriers. Magnetic hysteresis loops indicate low coercivity minerals, with high saturation and remanent magnetizations and PSD domain states. Magnetic susceptibility versus temperature curves show irreversible behavior with Curie temperatures around 560-575 C, suggesting magnetite and Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Paleomagnetic directions

  1. Geophysical mapping of complex glaciogenic large-scale structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie


    is required to understand the structures. In practice, however, also the applicability and costs of the methods are crucial. The SkyTEM method is very cost-effective in providing dense data sets, and it is therefore recommendable to use this method initially in mapping campaigns. For more detailed structural...... by periglacial and postglacial erosion that formed the present-day terrain. Paleoglaciological calculations based on the observed thrust structures show that the deformation was caused by a very thick ice sheet with a steep ice profile, resting on permafrost....

  2. Muon tomography of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): Comparison with other geophysical imaging methods and assessment of volcanic risks (United States)

    Gibert, D.; Lesparre, N.; Marteau, J.; Taisne, B.; Nicollin, F.; Coutant, O.


    Density tomography of rock with muons of cosmic origin measures the attenuation of the flux of particles crossing the object of interest to derive its opacity, i.e. the quantity of matter encountered by the particles along their trajectories. Recent progress in micro-electronics and particle detectors make field measurement possible and muon density tomography is gaining a growing interest (e.g. Tanaka et al., 2010; Gibert et al., 2010). We have constructed field telescopes based on the detectors of the OPERA experiment devoted to study neutrino oscillation (Lesparre et al., 2011a). Each telescope may be equipped with a variable number of detection matrices with 256 pixels. The spatial resolution is adaptable and is typically of about 20 meters (Lesparre et al., 2010). The telescopes are portable autonomous devices able to operate in harsh field conditions encountered on tropical volcanoes. The total power consumption is less than 40W, and an Ethernet link allows data downloading and remote control of the electronic devices and on-board computers. Larger high-resolution telescopes are under construction. The instruments have been successfully tested on the Etna and Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcanoes were a telescope is operating continuously since Summer 2010. Muon radiographies of the Soufrière lava dome reveal its very heterogeneous density structure produced by an intense hydrothermal circulation of acid fluids which alters its mechanical integrity leading to a high risk level of destabilisation. Small-size features are visible on the images and provide precious informations on the structure of the upper hydrothermal systems. Joined interpretation with other geophysical data available on the Soufrière - seismic tomography, electrical resistivity tomography, gravity data - is presented and discussed. Density muon tomography of the internal structure of volcanoes like the Soufrière brings important informations for the hazard evaluation an is particularly

  3. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.


    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  4. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  5. Magnetic structure of volcanic neck; Kazangankei no jiki kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, M.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper describes the summary and result of magnetic exploration on the Kabutoyama volcano in the city of Nishinomiya, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. It also states the interpretation and discussion on magnetic anomaly in the volcanic conduit of the mountain by using a three-dimensional magnetic structure model. Terrain surface magnetic exploration for the Kabutoyama volcano was performed by using six traverse lines each in different azimuths with the triangulation point at the summit as the basic point and by using a proton magnetometer. The exploration results of the six traverse lines around the Kabutoyama volcano may be generalized as follows: magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the summit is moderate with little change, but it increases to 500 nT to 2,500 nT in the vicinity of the distances of 150 m to 200 m; a peak is formed with a width of a few tens of meters; and the magnetic anomaly showed a trend of rapidly decreasing at outer sides of the peak. The results of the magnetic exploration and the magnetization intensity measurement leads to a belief that such a magnetic anomalous band of an annular form would exist corresponding to the boundary or its vicinity of andesite and granite, and the Rokko granite having magnetization intensity as small as can be neglected would be distributed at outer sides of the boundary. The result of the three-dimensional magnetic structure model calculation, which assumes the internal structure of the magnetic structure to be non-uniformly magnetized, reproduced the magnetic anomaly patterns well as compared with the observation results. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. An Integrated Geophysical and Tectonic Study of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust in the Snake River Plain Region, Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Keller, G. R.; Khatiwada, M.


    The Snake River Plain region in the Pacific Northwest of North America has been the target of a number of recent studies that have revealed further complexities in its structure and tectonic evolution. Based on surface morphology and Late Cenozoic volcanic activity, the Snake River Plain consists of an eastern and western arm (ESRP and WSRP) that are similar in many respects but also quite different in other respects. Thus, its origin, evolution, structural complexities, the role of extension and magmatism in its formation, and the tectonic drivers are still subjects of debate. Numerous seismic studies have specifically focused on the structure of the ESRP and Yellowstone area. However, crustal-scale studies of the WSRP are limited. We added new gravity data to the existing coverage in the WSRP region and undertook a regional, integrated analysis approach that included magnetic, seismic reflection and refraction profiling, receiver function results, geological and geospatial data, and interpreted well logs. Our integrated geophysical modeling focused on the structure of the WSRP. We generated two crustal models across it at locations where the most existing geophysical and geological constraints were available. We observed both differences and similarities in the structure of the WSRP and ESRP. Although, the shallow crustal structures are different, a mid-crustal mafic intrusion is a major source of the high gravity anomaly values. Within the context of recent studies in the surrounding region, the intersection of the two arms of the Snake River Plain emerges as a major element of a complex tectonic intersection that includes the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, the Northern Nevada Rift, a southwestern extension of the ESRP into northern Nevada, as well as, faulting and volcanism extending northwestward to connect with the Columbia River Basalts region.

  7. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo


    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  8. The Role of Magmatic and Volcanic Loads in Generating Seaward Dipping Reflector Structures on Volcanic Rifted Margins (United States)

    Tian, X.; Buck, W. R.


    The largest volcanic constructs on Earth are the seismically imaged seaward dipping reflector (SDR) units found offshore of many rifted continental margins, including a large portion that border the Atlantic Ocean. There is considerable controversy over whether their formation requires large offset (i.e. 10s of km) normal faults or not. Although there is some evidence for faulting in association with SDRs, we here show that a wide range of SDRs structures can be produced solely by volcanic loading. To do this we first derive a simple analytic description of a particular type of volcanic construct. We assume that the increase in density when fluid magma in a dike solidifies provides load at the rift center onto the end of a lithospheric plate. Extrusives are assumed to form flat-topped layers that fill in the flexural depression produced by the load of the solidified dike. The thin-plate flexure approximation is used to calculate the deflections due to the vertical load. This simple model produces structures similar to the observed SDRs. Expressions for the maximum thickness of the volcanic pile and the dip of an individual SDR are derived in terms of the flexure parameter and material densities. Asymmetry of SDR units seen across some conjugate margins can be explained with this model if periodic offsets, or jumps of the center of magmatism are included. In addition, we developed a numerical model of lithospheric extension, magma intrusion and volcanism with a temperature dependent elasto-viscous and brittle-plastic rheology. Results of these 2D cross-sectional models with fixed thermal structure confirm the qualitative predictions of the analytic model without the simplified uniform plate assumption. Preliminary results suggest that the rapid subsidence of SDRs, inferred for some rifted margins, can occur if magma is supplied only to the brittle upper layer and the hot weak lower crust is thinned by stretching. This numerical approach may also allow us to test

  9. Contribution of 3D inversion of Electrical Resistivity Tomography data applied to volcanic structures (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe


    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for geological structures imaging. Such structures can present complex characteristics that conventional 2D inversion processes cannot perfectly integrate. Here we present a new 3D inversion algorithm named EResI, firstly developed for levee investigation, and presently applied to the study of a complex lava dome (the Puy de Dôme volcano, France). EResI algorithm is based on a conventional regularized Gauss-Newton inversion scheme and a 3D non-structured discretization of the model (double grid method based on tetrahedrons). This discretization allows to accurately model the topography of investigated structure (without a mesh deformation procedure) and also permits a precise location of the electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that a complete 3D unstructured discretization limits the number of inversion cells and is better adapted to the resolution capacity of tomography than a structured discretization. This study shows that a 3D inversion with a non-structured parametrization has some advantages compared to classical 2D inversions. The first advantage comes from the fact that a 2D inversion leads to artefacts due to 3D effects (3D topography, 3D internal resistivity). The second advantage comes from the fact that the capacity to experimentally align electrodes along an axis (for 2D surveys) depends on the constrains on the field (topography...). In this case, a 2D assumption induced by 2.5D inversion software prevents its capacity to model electrodes outside this axis leading to artefacts in the inversion result. The last limitation comes from the use of mesh deformation techniques used to accurately model the topography in 2D softwares. This technique used for structured discretization (Res2dinv) is prohibed for strong topography (>60 %) and leads to a small computational errors. A wide geophysical survey was carried out

  10. Multiple geophysical methods examining neotectonic blind structures in the Maradona valley, Central Precordillera (Argentina) (United States)

    Lara, Gabriela; Klinger, Federico Lince; Perucca, Laura; Rojo, Guillermo; Vargas, Nicolás; Leiva, Flavia


    A high-resolution superficial geophysical study was carried out in an area of the retroarc region of the Andes mountains, located in the southwest of San Juan Province (31°45‧ S, 68°50‧ W), Central Precordillera of Argentina. The main objectives of this study were to confirm the presence of blind neotectonic structures and characterize them by observing variations in magnetic susceptibility, density and p-wave velocities. Geological evidence demonstrates the existence of a neotectonic fault scarps affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits in eastern piedmont of de Las Osamentas range, in addition to direct observation of the cinematic of this feature in several natural exposures. The Maradona valley is characterized by the imbricated eastern-vergence Maradona Fault System that uplifts Neogene sedimentary rocks (Albarracín Formation) over Quaternary (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) alluvial deposits. The combined application of different geophysical methods has allowed the characterization of a blind fault geometry also identified on a natural exposure. The magnetic data added to the gravimetric model, and its integration with a seismic profile clearly shows the existence of an anomalous zone, interpreted as uplifted blocks of Miocene sedimentary rocks of Formation Albarracín displaced over Quaternary deposits. The application and development of different geophysical methods, together with geological studies allow to significantly improving the knowledge of an area affected by Quaternary tectonic activity. Finally, this multidisciplinary study, applied in active blind structures is very relevant for future seismic hazard analysis on areas located very close to populated centers.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20151907 Bai Yang(Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology a nd Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-ences,Beijing100029,China);Song Haibin Structural Characteristics and Genesis of Pockmarks in the Northwest of the South China Sea Derived from Reflective Seismic and Multibeam

  12. Video Analysis of Eddy Structures from Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Fisher, M. A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.


    We present a method of analyzing turbulent eddy structures in explosive volcanic eruptions using high definition video. Film from the eruption of Sakurajima on 25 September 2011 was analyzed using a modified version of FlowJ, a Java-based toolbox released by National Institute of Health. Using the Lucas and Kanade algorithm with a Gaussian derivative gradient, it tracks the change in pixel position over a 23 image buffer to determine the optical flow. This technique assumes that the optical flow, which is the apparent motion of the pixels, is equivalent to the actual flow field. We calculated three flow fields per second for the duration of the video. FlowJ outputs flow fields in pixels per frame that were then converted to meters per second in Matlab using a known distance and video rate. We constructed a low pass filter using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and critical point analysis to identify the underlying eddy structure with boundaries determined by tracing the flow lines. We calculated the area of each eddy and noted its position over a series of velocity fields. The changes in shape and position were tracked to determine the eddy growth rate and overall eddy rising velocity. The eddies grow in size 1.5 times quicker than they rise vertically. Presently, this method is most successful in high contrast videos when there is little to no effect of wind on the plumes. Additionally, the pixel movement from the video images represents a 2D flow with no depth, while the actual flow is three dimensional; we are continuing to develop an algorithm that will allow 3D reprojection of the 2D data. Flow in the y-direction lessens the overall velocity magnitude as the true flow motion has larger y-direction component. POD, which only uses the pattern of the flow, and analysis of the critical points (points where flow is zero) is used to determine the shape of the eddies. The method allows for video recorded at remote distances to be used to study eruption dynamics

  13. Internal structure of the 85°E ridge, Bay of Bengal: Evidence for multiphase volcanism

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Srinivas, K.; Mishra, J.; Saha, D.

    generalized six-stage evolutionary model is proposed for the formation of the 85E Ridge (Figure 6). During the initial phase, the volcanic vent ejected magmatic material, thereby the material has spread for long distance (~40 km away from the vent) on top... of the oceanic basement, and then the deposited 10 material gave a shape of a structural high (stage 1, Figure 6). We refer this stage of volcanism as "basal volcanism" and indicative of high effusion rate and low viscosity eruption following the reports...

  14. The microbial community structure in petroleum-contaminated sediments corresponds to geophysical signatures (United States)

    Allen, J.P.; Atekwana, E.A.; Duris, J.W.; Werkema, D.D.; Rossbach, S.


    The interdependence between geoelectrical signatures at underground petroleum plumes and the structures of subsurface microbial communities was investigated. For sediments contaminated with light non-aqueousphase liquids, anomalous high conductivity values have been observed. Vertical changes in the geoelectrical properties of the sediments were concomitant with significant changes in the microbial community structures as determined by the construction and evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries. DNA sequencing of clones from four 16S rRNA gene libraries from different depths of a contaminated field site and two libraries from an uncontaminated background site revealed spatial heterogeneity in the microbial community structures. Correspondence analysis showed that the presence of distinct microbial populations, including the various hydrocarbon-degrading, syntrophic, sulfate-reducing, and dissimilatory-iron-reducing populations, was a contributing factor to the elevated geoelectrical measurements. Thus, through their growth and metabolic activities, microbial populations that have adapted to the use of petroleum as a carbon source can strongly influence their geophysical surroundings. Since changes in the geophysical properties of contaminated sediments parallel changes in the microbial community compositions, it is suggested that geoelectrical measurements can be a cost-efficient tool to guide microbiological sampling for microbial ecology studies during the monitoring of natural or engineered bioremediation processes. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen


    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  16. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data (United States)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.


    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  17. Study on shallow structural features in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ji-shun; GU Meng-lin; ZHAO Cheng-bin; PAN Su-zhen


    A seismic survey by 10 shallow profiles and 6 ultra-shallow profiles was performed in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region in 2002. The result shows that there are three (in some areas as many as seven) stable interfaces in the survey region, but no reflection phases are found in depths greater than 500 m. The number of interfaces in the southwestern part is obviously greater than in the northwestern part of Tianchi volcano, which suggests that the faults in the southwest have a stronger controlling power over the flow direction of volcano-spewed lava as compared with those in the northwest. Six shallow faults exist in the survey region. The shallow faults are nearly vertical graben-like faults and are mostly distributed on the southwest of Tianchi crater, indicating that volcanic activities in the southwest are stronger than in the northwest. On this ground, it could be further deduced that the NE-trending major fault of Tianchi volcano ( the Liudaogou-Tianchi-Zengfengshan fault) is more active than the NW-trending Baishanzhen-Tianchi-Jince fault.

  18. Submarine Hydrothermal Sites in Arc Volcanic-Back Arc Environment: Insight from Recent Marine Geophysical Investigations in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. (United States)

    Cocchi, L.; Ligi, M.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Petersen, S.; Plunkett, S.; Muccini, F.; Canese, S.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Carmisciano, C.


    Hydrothermal alteration processes involve mineralogical and chemical changes, which are reflected in a major modification of potential field patterns observed over hydrothermal areas. Basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites exhibit characteristic responses with magnetic lows and minima of the gravity field. Near bottom AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) based potential field surveys have become a very effective technique in deep sea exploration. Here we present results of recent ship-borne and near seafloor magnetic and gravity investigations at deep (Marsili and Palinuro seamounts) and shallow (Panarea, Basiluzzo and Secca del Capo) hydrothermal sites in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea including multibeam bathymetry, seafloor reflectivity and seismic profiles. At Marsili seamount, a large Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides-rich chimney field is located at the summit (500 m depth). This site is correlated with pronounced magnetic and gravity lows (0 A/m and 2.0 g/cm3). Deep tow magnetic survey (Cruise MAVA11) revealed strong association between the complicated magnetization pattern and the main volcano-tectonic features of the ridge. Hydrothermal manifestations at Palinuro seamount occur mainly on the western sector within the rim of a caldera structure at depth of 600m. Recent AUV based magnetic surveys (Cruise POS442, 2012 using AUV "Abyss") detailed a magnetization low interpreted to represent the local distribution of subseafloor hydrothermal alteration (potentially massive sulfide deposits), and also mapped previously undiscovered inactive chimney fields. Hydrothermal sites observed at the arc-related volcanic islands (Panarea, Basiluzzo, Eolo and Secca del Capo) are confined to shallow depths (less then 300m) and associated with large ochreaceous mounds, vents and chimney fields such as those observed E of Basiluzzo Island. At this site a recent magnetic survey (Cruise PANA13_ASTREA) combined with Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) investigations revealed that the submarine geothermal

  19. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota (United States)

    Redden, Jack A.; DeWitt, Ed


    This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map details the complex Early Proterozoic granitic rocks, Early Proterozoic supracrustal metamorphic rocks, and Archean crystalline basement of the Black Hills. The granitic rocks host pegmatite deposits renowned for their feldspar, mica, spodumene, and beryl. The supracrustal rocks host the Homestake gold mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold over a 125-year lifetime. The map documents the Laramide deformation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks; and shows the distribution of Laramide plutonic rocks associated with precious-metals deposits. Four 1:300,000-scale maps summarize Laramide structures; Early Proterozoic structures; aeromagnetic anomalies; and gravity anomalies. Three 1:500,000-scale maps show geophysical interpretations of buried Early Proterozoic to Archean rocks in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming.

  20. Faults and volcanoes: Main volcanic structures in the Acambay Graben, Mexico (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Suñe-Puchol, I.; Lacan, P.


    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) province is best known by the major stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatepetl and Colima, but most of the province is formed by modest size stratovolcanoes and monogenetic cones. Regional fault systems were developed together with the building of the volcanic province; the most notorious one is Chapala-Tula Fault System (CTFS), which runs parallel to the central sector of the MVB, and thus it is also referred to as the Intra-Arc fault system. Acambay graben (AG) is part of this central system. It is a 20 x 70 km depression located 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, at the easternmost end of the E-W trending CTFS, and was formed as the result of NS to NE oriented extension. Seismically active normal faults, such as the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault, with a mB =7 earthquake in 1912, delimit the AG. The graben includes several volcanic structures and associated deposits ranging in age from Miocene to 3 ka. The main structures are two stratovolcanoes, Altamirano (900 m high) and Temascalcingo (800 m high). There are also several Miocene-Pliocene lava domes, and Quaternary small cinder cones and shield volcanoes. Faulting of the Acambay graben affects all these volcanic forms, but depending on their ages, the volcanoes are cut by several faults or by a few. That is the case of Altamirano and Temascalcingo volcanoes, where the former is almost unaffected whereas the latter is highly dissected by faults. Altamirano is younger than Temascalcingo; youngest pyroclastic deposits from Altamirano are dated at 12-3 ka, and those from Temascalcingo at 40-25 ka (radiocarbon ages). The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally marked as an inactive volcanic zone, but activity could restart at any time. Supported by DGAPA-PAPIIT-UNAM grant IN-104615.

  1. S-wave velocity structure inferred from receiver function inversion in Tengchong volcanic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺传松; 王椿镛; 吴建平


    Tengchong volcanic area is located near the impinging and underthrust margin of India and Eurasia plates. The volcanic activity is closely related to the tectonic environment. The deep structure characteristics are inferred from the receiver function inversion with the teleseismic records in the paper. The results show that the low velocity zone is influenced by the NE-trending Dayingjiang fault. The S-wave low velocity structure occurs obviously in the southern part of the fault, but unobviously in its northern part. There are low velocity zones in the shallow position, which coincides with the seismicity. It also demonstrates that the low velocity zone is directly related to the thermal activity in the volcanic area. Therefore, we consider that the volcano may be alive again.

  2. Separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation at Asama volcano (Japan): Evidence of high volcanic structural contrasts (United States)

    Prudencio, Janire; Aoki, Yosuke; Takeo, Minoru; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Song, WenZhan


    In this study we show 2D intrinsic- and scattering-Q images of Asama volcano obtained by analyzing 2320 waveforms from active data. Observed energy envelopes were fitted to the diffusion model and separate intrinsic- and scattering-Q images were produced using a back-projection method based on a Gaussian-type weighting function. Synthetic tests indicate robustness and reliability of the results. Areas of high scattering attenuation coincide with the volcanic edifice and the summit at which recent eruptions took place. The intrinsic dissipation pattern shows a strong contrast between the east and west side of the volcanic structure with the low values observed in the west interpreted as solidified magma bodies. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between structural heterogeneities and attenuation processes in volcanic areas and confirm the effectiveness of the present technique, which can be used as an imaging tool complementary to conventional techniques.

  3. Seismological study on the crustal structure of Tengchong volcanic-geothermal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王椿镛; 楼海; 吴建平; 白志明; 皇甫岗; 秦嘉政


    Based upon the deep seismic sounding profile conducted in the Tengchong volcanic-geothermal area, a two-dimensional crustal P velocity structure is obtained by use of the finite-difference inversion and the forward travel-time fitting method. The crustal model shows that there is a low velocity zone in upper crust in the Tengchong area, which may be related to the volcanic-geothermal activities, and two intracrustal faults (the Longling-Ruili fault and Tengchong fault) exist on the profile, where the Tengchong fault may extend to the Moho discontinuity. Meanwhile, based on teleseismic data recorded by a temporary seismic network, we obtained the S-wave velocity structures beneath the Rehai-Retian region in the Tengchong area, which show the low S-wave velocity anomaly in upper crust. The authors discuss the causes of Tengchong volcanic eruption based on the deep crustal structure. The crustal structure in the Tengchong volcanic-geothermal area is characterized by low P-wave and S-wave velocity, low resistivity, high heat-flow value and low Q value. The P-wave velocity in the upper mantle is also low. For this information, it can be induced that the magma in the crust is derived from the upper mantle, and the low velocity anomaly in upper crust in the Tengchong area may be related to the differentiation of magma. The Tengchong volcanoes are close to an active plate boundary and belong to "plate boundary" volcanoes.

  4. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio


    frequencies, the electromagnetic profiles show lower apparent electrical conductivities in the circular structures' base, while the rims present notably higher values. Curvature attributes, analytic signal, horizontal gradient and Euler solutions were calculated for the magnetic data. 2.5D magnetic models were developed across the studied circular structures. Our results suggest that in the circular structures' bases up to 12 m of Pampa Sastre conglomerate would have been removed. On the contrary, the circular structures' rims exhibit high-amplitude, localized magnetic anomalies and higher apparent electrical conductivities, which would be related to the anomalous accumulation of basalt boulders and blocks remanently magnetized. Such high-amplitude anomalies are not present outside the surveyed circular structures. The geomorphological, geological and geophysical features of the studied circular structures can only be explained by means of an extra-terrestrial projectile impact. We conclude that, considering the results obtained to date, Bajada del Diablo should be envisaged as a focus of further research, which could provide novel information about impact events, associated processes and their evidences. Particularly, the data produced in this study could represent one of the first documented geophysical signatures of the impact of a comet nucleus on Earth.

  5. Volcanic structure and composition of Old Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka (United States)

    Gorbach, Natalia; Portnyagin, Maxim; Tembrel, Igor


    This paper reports results of a new comprehensive geological mapping of the Late Pleistocene Old Shiveluch volcano. The mapping results and geochemical data on major and trace element composition of the volcanic rocks are used to characterize spatial distribution, eruptive sequence and volumetric relationships between different rock types of the volcano. Old Shiveluch volcano had been constructed during two main stages: initial explosive and subsequent effusive ones. Pyroclastic deposits of the initial stage are represented by agglomerate and psephytic tuffs with very few lava flows and form at least 60% of volume of the Old Shiveluch edifice. The deposits of the second stage are dominantly lava flows erupted from four vents: Central, Western, Baidarny and Southern, reconstructed from the field relationships of their lava flows. About 75% of the Old Shiveluch edifice, both pyroclastic deposits and lava, are composed of magnesian andesites (SiO2 = 57.3-63.8 wt.%, Mg# = 0.53-0.57). The most abundant andesitic lavas were coevally erupted from the Central and Western vents in the central part of the edifice. Less voluminous high-Al basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 53.5-55.7 wt.%, Mg# = 0.52-0.56) were produced by the Western, Baidarny and Southern vents situated in the south-western sector. Small volume high-Mg basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 53.9-55.0 wt.%, Mg# = 0.59-0.64) occur in the upper part of the pyroclastic deposits. Andesites of Old and Young Shiveluch Volcanoes have similar compositions, whereas Old Shiveluch basaltic andesites are compositionally distinctive from those of the Young Shiveluch by having lower Mg#, SiO2, Cr and Ni, and higher Al2O3, FeOT, CaO, TiO2, and V contents at given MgO. Geochemical modeling suggests that the compositions of the intermediate Old Shiveluch magmas can be reasonably explained by simple fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite (± hornblende) from water-bearing (~ 3 wt.% H2O) high-Mg# basaltic

  6. Geological and geophysical interpretation of the Espirito Santo Basin and the Abrolhos region: petrography, radiometric dating and seismic visualization of volcanic rocks; Interpretacao geologica e geofisica da Bacia do Espirito Santo e da regiao de Abrolhos: petrografia, datacao radiometrica e visualizacao sismica das rochas vulcanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P. Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios Sul-Sudeste], E-mail:


    Geologic and geophysical interpretation of structural, magmatic and sedimentological features outcropping in the Abrolhos Archipelago (offshore of the Espirito Santo - Mucuri basins along the eastern Brazilian margin), and petrographic and geochronologic studies of igneous rocks, characterized a sequence of volcanic (basalts, diabase, breccia, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (fine grained to coarse grained sandstones and conglomerates in channels, sandstones with concordant stratification and locally discordant with the volcanic rocks, siltites, silty shales, etc.) which were uplifted after their original deposition between the Late Cretaceous and the Paleogene. The geochronological dating, based on the Ar-Ar method, suggests an interval of magmatism between 40 and 60 Ma. The field works suggest that siliciclastic rocks outcropping in the islands constitute a unique example of Paleogene Tertiary turbidity sedimentation in the Brazilian continental margin. Thick layers of massive sandstones with an external lobate geometry, overlying silty rhythmites, particularly in the eastern portion of the Santar Barbara Island, are probable deposits of dense flows (hyperpycnal) deposited in mid platform to upper bathyal environments. The tectonic and seismic stratigraphic interpretation suggests that these rocks were uplifted in a compressional event, probably associated with salt tectonics, affecting the sedimentary layers and creating angular unconformities that reach up to the Neogene. (author)

  7. Regional Geophysical Surveys and Crustal Structure of the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chavez, F.; Fucugauchi, J. U.


    Results of processing and modeling of anomaly data from regional geophysical surveys in the southern sector of the Gulf of Mexico are presented. The Gulf of Mexico has been intensively studied for several years, mainly because of the economic potential of the oil and gas resources. The basin may have formed by sea-floor spreading, rifting and lateral translation/rotation of continental slivers ssociated with major break-up and drifting apart of North and South America continental plates in the mid Mesozoic. Major structural features and crustal structure, including the continent-ocean transition and Gulf coastal passive margin are relatively poorly understood. Aerogeophysical gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted and data are processed and modeled to investigate on the Gulf crustal structure. Spectral statistical estimates of regional basement depths derived from aeromagnetics give mean depths of 8000 m. Estimates derived from gravity anomalies are in the order of 10000 m. Depths derived from 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys conducted for oil exploration purposes in selected areas indicate average depths to basement from 6000 m to values grater than those derived from potential field data.

  8. Composition, structure, origin, and evolution of off-axis linear volcanic structures of the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.


    The paper considers the conditions and mechanisms of the formation of linear volcanic structures in the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic. Among these objects, those related to the ascent of deep mantle plumes predominate. It is shown that the ascent of melts from plume sources leads to the formation of (a) hot spot tracks in the form of linear volcanic ridges and (b) active hot lines in the form of submarine mountain chains with trends differing from those of hot spot tracks and with a more variable character of the age distribution of volcanic rocks. Fault tectonics affects the character of plume activity. In addition, plume material from a hot spot area is dragged by a moving plate as a flow or a sublithospheric lens, which leads to the long-term existence of particular independent segments of linear structures and sometimes to late volcanism reactivation within their limits. Decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle in zones where thin lithosphere undergoes tension causes the formation of passive hot lines. The main mantle source for the considered volcanic rocks was a mixture of DMM and HIMU mantle components, with the latter abruptly dominating. In marginal oceanic regions, the EM1 component is also present (the EM2 component is found more rarely) within fragments of tectonically delaminated continental mantle that was trapped by the oceanic mantle during the breakup of Gondwana.

  9. Geophysical and petrological modelling of the structure and composition of the crust and upper mantle in complex geodynamic settings: The Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings (United States)

    Panza, G. F.; Peccerillo, A.; Aoudia, A.; Farina, B.


    Information on the physical and chemical properties of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (LAS) can be obtained by geophysical investigation and by studies of petrology-geochemistry of magmatic rocks and entrained xenoliths. Integration of petrological and geophysical studies is particularly useful in geodynamically complex areas characterised by abundant and compositionally variable young magmatism, such as in the Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings. A thin crust, less than 10 km, overlying a soft mantle (where partial melting can reach about 10%) is observed for Magnaghi, Vavilov and Marsili, which belong to the Central Tyrrhenian Sea backarc volcanism where subalkaline rocks dominate. Similar characteristics are seen for the uppermost crust of Ischia. A crust about 20 km thick is observed for the majority of the continental volcanoes, including Amiata-Vulsini, Roccamonfina, Phlegraean Fields-Vesuvius, Vulture, Stromboli, Vulcano-Lipari, Etna and Ustica. A thicker crust is present at Albani - about 25 km - and at Cimino-Vico-Sabatini — about 30 km. The structure of the upper mantle, in contrast, shows striking differences among various volcanic provinces. Volcanoes of the Roman region (Vulsini-Sabatini-Alban Hills) sit over an upper mantle characterised by Vs mostly ranging from about 4.2 to 4.4 km/s. At the Alban Hills, however, slightly lower Vs values of about 4.1 km/s are detected between 60 and 120 km of depth. This parallels the similar and rather homogeneous compositional features of the Roman volcanoes, whereas the lower Vs values detected at the Alban Hills may reflect the occurrence of small amounts of melts within the mantle, in agreement with the younger age of this volcano. The axial zone of the Apennines, where ultrapotassic kamafugitic volcanoes are present, has a mantle structure with high-velocity lid ( Vs ˜ 4.5 km/s) occurring at the base of a 40-km-thick crust. Beneath the Campanian volcanoes of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields, the mantle

  10. Modelling of the thermal structure of the Mexican Volcanic Belt for geothermal energy (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; María Prol-Ledesma, Rosa; Smit, Jeroen; Limberger, Jon; van Wees, Jan-Diederik


    Mexico is a major geothermal energy player in the world with an installed capacity of over 900 MW for electricity production, positioning Mexico at the 6th position. The installed capacity is supported by 4 geothermal location: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Las Tres Virgenes. Two of these sites are in Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) a volcanic arc structure that is the result of the subduction of the Cocos Plate underneath the North American plate. The interesting feature of this onshore volcanic arc is the combination of magmatism with the extentional stress field within the arc with a shear component as a result of the oblique subduction. As a result of this combination, is a very favourable regional setup for the development of geothermal energy. The core of the work is the establishment of a thermal model at present day at the scale of TMVB. The elements considered in the thermal-tectonic model are the composition of the lithosphere, the volcanic evidences, and temperature measurements available. The newly developed b3t software at Utrecht University and TNO will perform the modelling, which allow the identification of thermal variation in the lithosphere at present-day with the data integration. The result of the thermal-tectonic modelling is a thermal model of the TMVB lithosphere that is considered according to the general geological and geodynamical context. The variation of temperature are intricately related to the magmatic centres and the lithological composition of the TMVB.

  11. Shear velocity structure of the Tyrrhenian region in relation to volcanism and tectonics (United States)

    Paulssen, H.; Greve, S.


    We present a detailed 3D shear velocity model of the Tyrrhenian Sea and surrounding onshore areas down to about 160 km depth. The high resolution of the model is achieved through the measurement of interstation Rayleigh wave dispersion curves in a small regional setting with dense station coverage. The most noticeable structure is a pronounced, nearly ringshaped low velocity region at about 80 km depth surrounding the Tyrrhenian Sea: from Corsica to the western part of the Italian mainland, continuing to the western part of Sicily and Sardinia. The thickness of this low velocity region is constrained to a maximum of 40 km, and it is independent of the chosen inversion parameters or the background model. The low values of the shear velocity suggest the presence of fluids or melt. The lateral extent of the low velocity region beneath the Italian mainland is well correlated with the locations of subduction-related volcanism, but there is also a striking continuation of the anomalous low-velocity region along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea towards (and beneath) the island of Corsica. The recent (volcanism along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Our seismic results now suggest that the anomalous mantle is still present beneath Corsica and the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, although it does not produce any active volcanism anymore. The picture for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is different. Intriguingly, the sublithospheric low velocity anomaly does not continue to southeasternmost part of the Tyrrhenian Sea where the volcanism of the Aeolian arc is related to subduction of the steep, active Ionian slab. Instead, the seismic anomaly crosses the Tyrrhenian Sea from Vesuvius on the Italian mainland to the western part of Sicily, continuing to the southeast of Sardinia: a pattern which correlates with the locations of past subduction-related volcanism. It is striking that the Vavilov Basin in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, characterized by MORB-type volcanism, is a region of relatively normal

  12. Chlordecone retention in the fractal structure of volcanic clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woignier, Thierry, E-mail: [IRD, UMR 237, IMBE, PRAM B.P. 214 Petit Morne, 97232, Le Lamentin, Martinique (France); CNRS, UMR 7263, IMBE, PRAM B.P. 214 Petit Morne, 97232, Le Lamentin, Martinique (France); Aix Marseille Universite, IMBE, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Saint Jerome, avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Clostre, Florence [Cirad/PRAM, UPR fonctionnement agroecologique et performances des systemes de culture horticoles, B.P. 214 Petit Morne, 97232, Le Lamentin, Martinique (France); Macarie, Herve [IRD, UMR 237, IMBE, PRAM B.P. 214 Petit Morne, 97232, Le Lamentin, Martinique (France); Cirad UR HortSys, TA B-103/PS4, Boulevard de la Lironde, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Jannoyer, Magalie [Cirad/PRAM, UPR fonctionnement agroecologique et performances des systemes de culture horticoles, B.P. 214 Petit Morne, 97232, Le Lamentin, Martinique (France); Cirad UR HortSys, TA B-103/PS4, Boulevard de la Lironde, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allophanic soils are highly polluted but less contaminant for cultivated vegetables. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAXS and TEM show the fractal structure of allophane aggregates at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allophane aggregates play the role of a labyrinth which fixes and traps chlordecone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allophane physical properties contribute to chlordecone retention in andosols. - Abstract: Chlordecone (CHLD), a soil and foodstuff pollutant, as well as an environmentally persistent organochlorine insecticide, was used intensively in banana fields. The chlordecone uptake of three crops was measured for two types of polluted soils: allophanic and non-allophanic. The uptake is lower for allophanic soils even if their chlordecone content is higher than with non-allophanic soils. The fractal structure of the allophane aggregates was characterized at the nanoscale by small angle X-rays scattering, pore size distribution and transmission electron microscopy. We showed that clay microstructures should be an important physico-chemical factor governing the fate of chlordecone in the environment. Allophanic clays result in two counterintuitive findings: higher contaminant trappings yet lower contaminant availability. We propose that this specific, tortuous structure, along with its associated low accessibility, partly explains the low availability of chlordecone confined in allophanic soils. Capsule The fractal and tortuous microstructure of allophane clay favours the chlordecone retention in soils and disfavours the crop uptake.

  13. The Effect of Plate Structure on Intraplate Volcanism, Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain, Gulf of Alaska (United States)

    Reece, R. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Gulick, S. S.; Barth, G. A.; Van Avendonk, H. J.


    Newly acquired ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data in the vicinity of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain and Aja Fracture Zone reveal the character and structure of the Pacific Plate, overlying sediment, and seamounts in the Gulf of Alaska. Our data include two marine wide-angle OBS profiles, two coincident MCS profiles, and several nearby MCS profiles, including lines parallel to and crossing the Seamount Chain and Fracture Zone. This new data may help to reveal the character of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain and associated intraplate volcanism, much of which is concealed by the Surveyor and Baranof sedimentary fan systems. The Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain stretches over 1000 km across the Gulf of Alaska, from the Aleutian Trench in the northwest to offshore Queen Charlotte Islands in the southeast. The ages of the seamounts range from 24 Ma at Kodiak Seamount in the northwest to ≥0.7 Ma at Bowie Seamount in the southeast. Although the seamounts are largely age-progressive, some members of the chain are dated significantly out of sequence. Previous studies suggest the possibility that the majority of seamounts in the chain could be products of the Bowie plume. The Gulf-wide Aja Fracture Zone intersects the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain in the central Gulf at the location of the seismic lines. Preliminary tomographic inversions of the seismic data reveal significant changes in crustal thickness across the Aja Fracture Zone, including at least a 3 km step up in the moho from south to north. Additionally, the region north of the Fracture Zone exhibits a 3 km thick low velocity zone in the upper crust, which is double the thickness of the same feature south of the fracture zone. This low velocity zone in the upper crust may be representative of intraplate volcanism associated with the Kodiak-Bowie Chain; several higher velocity perturbations within this zone are coincident with the locations of major seamounts. We will further refine

  14. Geophysical Features - STRUCTURAL_FEATURES_IN: Structural Features of Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Line Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — STRUCTURAL_FEATURES_IN is a line shapefile that shows the location of known structural features in Indiana; source data scales range from 1:12,000 to 1:500,000 (only...

  15. Geophysical lineaments of Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepley, L.K.


    Photolineaments seen on satellite images are usually expressions of deep crustal ruptures. However, photolineaments are omnipresent and an independent expression of regional discontinuities is needed to help rank the photolineaments. Published gravity and magnetic contour maps of Arizona were analyzed to produce a single geophysical lineament map to indicate trends of regional basement structures. This map shows that the southwestern quarter of Arizona is dominated by a NNW-ENE orthogonal system whereas the remainder of the state is gridded by a NW-NE system. North-south systems are present throughout the state, as are EW lineaments. Arizona is transected by the WNW Texas Strand, but other shorter systems trending in the Texas direction are found throughout the state south of the Strand. The major lineament systems as seen on Landsat, gravity, and magnetic maps correlate reasonably well with known geothermal manifestations. Many other systems are Precambrian, Paleozoic, and/or Mesozoic in age but appear to control the location of Quaternary volcanic systems.

  16. Geophysical prospecting for the deep geothermal structure of the Zhangzhou basin, Southeast China (United States)

    Wu, Chaofeng; Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Guiling; Lin, Wenjing


    Zhangzhou basin located at the Southeast margins of Asian plate is one of the largest geothermal fields in Fujian province, Southeast China. High-temperature natural springs and granite rocks are widely distributed in this region and the causes of geothermal are speculated to be involved the large number of magmatic activities from Jurassic to Cretaceous periods. To investigate the deep structure of Zhangzhou basin, magnetotelluric and gravity measurements were carried out and the joint inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data delineated the faults and the granites distributions. The inversion results also indicated the backgrounds of heat reservoirs, heat fluid paths and whole geothermal system of the Zhangzhou basin. Combining with the surface geological investigation, the geophysical inversion results revealed that the faults activities and magma intrusions are the main reasons for the formation of geothermal resources of the Zhangzhou basin. Upwelling mantle provides enormous heats to the lower crust leading to metamorphic rocks to be partially melt generating voluminous magmas. Then the magmas migration and thermal convection along the faults warm up the upper crust. So finally, the cap rocks, basements and major faults are the three favorable conditions for the formation of geothermal fields of the Zhangzhou basin.

  17. Terracentric Nuclear Fission Reactor: Background, Basis, Feasibility, Structure, Evidence, and Geophysical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin


    The background, basis, feasibility, structure, evidence, and geophysical implications of a naturally occurring Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor are reviewed. For a nuclear fission reactor to exist at the center of the Earth, all of the following conditions must be met: (1) There must originally have been a substantial quantity of uranium within Earth's core; (2) There must be a natural mechanism for concentrating the uranium; (3) The isotopic composition of the uranium at the onset of fission must be appropriate to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction; (4) The reactor must be able to breed a sufficient quantity of fissile nuclides to permit operation over the lifetime of Earth to the present; (5) There must be a natural mechanism for the removal of fission products; (6) There must be a natural mechanism for removing heat from the reactor; (7) There must be a natural mechanism to regulate reactor power level, and; (8) The location of the reactor or must be such as to provide containment and prevent ...

  18. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy). (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe


    Geophysics is considered a powerful tool both for modeling the structure and controlling the dynamics of active volcanoes. In particular, the application of the electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods is a topic of great interest, given the strong dependence of the electrical resistivity on the shallow and deep physical characteristics of a volcanic apparatus. Among the EM methods, the magnetotellurics (MT), reaching investigation depth ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of km, is the optimal tool to characterize the volcanic environments leading often to remarkable imaging of the buried structures. However, its dependence from a natural source make its application often difficult due to the presence of high noise levels. Moreover, MT curves are subjected to the so-called static shift effect, an anomalous displacement of the curves that cannot be modeled without some external constrain. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), on other hands, using an artificial source, ends in a more controlled imaging that is, however, often limited to the very shallow parts of the structures. The realization of a deeper ERT imaging is complicated by both physical and logistic reasons. The resolved depths depend from the intensity of the source, an electrical current injected into the ground, whereas the displacement of the measurements array often implies hard problems due to the nature of the volcanic environments. The actual progresses of the technologies offer some way to bypass the main limitation of the ERT technique. The use of new kind of measurement stations permits the realization of a sort of wireless electrodic arrays. The easiness of use of the actual power generators represents a further notable element. In conclusion, the ERT imaging could now represents an optimal tool also in the imaging of structures buried at intermediate depths (up to a few km). In such a way, also its interaction with the MT methods could results notably enhanced, due to the

  19. Geophysical and structural criteria for the identification of buried impact structures, with reference to Australia (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew; Uysal, I. Tonguç


    The discovery of large asteroid impact structures, likely and possible impact structures, onshore and offshore the Australian continent (Woodleigh [120 km; ~ 360 Ma], Gnargoo [75 km; Lower Permian — upper Cretaceous], Tookoonooka [55-65 km; ~ 125 Ma], Talundilly [~ 84 km; ~ 125 Ma], Mount Ashmore [> 100 km; end-Eocene] and Warburton twin structures [> 400 km; pre-end Carboniferous]) requires re-examination of the diagnostic criteria used for their identification. Bouguer anomalies of established impact structures (Chicxulub [170 km; 64.98 ± 0.05 Ma], Woodleigh impact structure and Gnargoo probable impact structure display a unique structural architecture where pre-impact structural ridges are intersected and truncated by the outer ring of the circular structure. Seismic reflection data outline circular central uplift domes, basement plugs and rim synclines. Sharp circular seismic tomography anomalies indicate low velocity columns under both the Woodleigh impact structure and Warburton probable impact, hinting at deep crustal fracturing. Deformed, curved and clouded intra-crystalline planar deformation features in quartz (Qz/PDFs), displaying Miller indices ({10-11}, {10-12}, {10-13}) diagnostic of shock metamorphism, abound around exposed established impact structures (Vredefort [298 km; 2023 ± 4 Ma], Sudbury [~ 250 km; 1850 ± 3 Ma], Charlevoix [54 km; 342 ± 15 Ma], Manicouagan [100 km; 214 ± 1 Ma]), Tookoonooka and Talundilly). Deformed Qz/PDFs allow recognition of shock metamorphism in buried impact structures, where original Qz/PDFs were bent, recrystallized and/or clouded during formation of the central uplift and hydrothermal activity triggered by the impact. Planar deformation in quartz can also occur in explosive pyroclastic units but are limited to Boehm lamella (Brazil twins) with single lamella sets {0001}. It has been suggested that a class of microstructures in quartz, referred to as metamorphic deformation lamella (Qz/MDL), occur in endogenic

  20. The Geophysics of Mercury: Shape, Interior Structure and Thermal Evolution from MESSENGER (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Hauck, S. A.; Head, J. W.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Peale, S. J.; Margot, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Oberst, J.; Purucker, M. E.; Mazarico, E.; Perry, M. E.; Barnouin, O. S.; McNutt, R. L.


    The surface and interior of Mercury preserve collectively the record of processes that contributed to the planet's thermal evolution: accretion, differentiation, orbital, rotational and internal dynamics, impact cratering, tectonics and volcanism. Reconstructing Mercury's evolution requires relating internal structure and planetary dynamics to topography, chemistry and surface geology. Observations from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and Radio Science (RS) experiments from the flyby and orbital phases of the MESSENGER mission are being analyzed in support of that goal. The MLA obtains returns from the surface at slant ranges fit of low-latitude topography confirms the ellipsoidal shape and orientation of the equator and a 0.015o downward to east slope indicative of an offset between the center of mass and center of figure in the equatorial plane. This distinctive feature of the planetary shape reflects an east-west hemispheric difference in internal structure that could potentially arise from crustal thickness or crustal density variations, large-scale mantle density variations, or topography along the Mercury's core-mantle boundary. The floor of the major impact basin Caloris has been significantly modified, with the northern sections rising above the basin rim. The north polar region shows an irregular topographic depression of 2-4 km depth centered on the north pole. The feature may have migrated to the pole due to reorientation of the planet's inertia axes. The depression could represent a non-hydrostatic contribution to the planetary flattening that must be isolated and removed prior to interpreting the flattening in the context of the radial distribution of interior mass. Analysis of X-band Doppler tracking of MESSENGER has resulted in a 20th degree and order global gravity field, with high degree and order coefficients resolved only in the north. Present are mass anomalies that correlate with some impact basins that hold the promise of modeling to

  1. Growth and collapse of a deeply eroded orogen: Insights from structural, geophysical, and geochronological constraints on the Pan-African evolution of NE Mozambique (United States)

    Viola, G.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Bingen, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Smethurst, M. A.; de Azavedo, S.


    This paper presents results of a large multidiciplinary geological mapping project in NE Mozambique, with a focus on the structural evolution of this part of the East African Orogen (EAO). It integrates field structural studies with geophysical interpretations and presents new geochronological data. The tectonic architecture of NE Mozambique can be subdivided into five megatectonic units on the basis of lithology, structure and geochronology: unit 1, Paleoproterozoic Ponta Messuli Complex in the extreme NW corner of NE Mozambique, which represents the local NW foreland to the EAO; unit 2, a collage of Mesoproterozoic metamorphic complexes, which forms the basement to unit 3, a stack of Neoproterozoic, NW directed imbricate thrust nappes named here the "Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex" (CDNC); unit 4, restricted Neoproterozoic metasedimentary basins; and unit 5, two exotic Neoproterozoic granulite mélange complexes. The units were assembled during a long and complex history of NW directed shortening, which commenced with nappe stacking and emplacement of the CDNC over the Mesoproterozoic basement terranes toward the NW foreland. It is proposed that the CDNC and the Eastern Granulites farther north in Tanzania are remnants of Neoproterozoic volcanic arcs and microcontinents formed "outboard" of the Mesoproterozoic continent after 596 ± 11 Ma. Field and potential field geophysical data show that the nappes were folded by regional-scale NE-SW trending folds that formed in response to a later stage of the same shortening episode and this episode gave rise to the Lurio Belt, a prominent structural feature of northern Mozambique and a key element (often as suture zone) in many Gondwana reconstructions. The Lurio Belt is here interpreted as a structure generated during folding of the CDNC during later stages of the progressive shortening event. It is, however, a repeatedly reactivated shear zone, probably at the site of an older (Mesoproterozoic?) discontinuity, with an

  2. Structural analysis and thermal remote sensing of the Los Humeros Volcanic Complex: Implications for volcano structure and geothermal exploration (United States)

    Norini, G.; Groppelli, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Dávila-Harris, P.; Pellicioli, C.; Zucca, F.; De Franco, R.


    The Los Humeros Volcanic Complex (LHVC) is an important geothermal target in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Understanding the structure of the LHVC and its influence on the occurrence of thermal anomalies and hydrothermal fluids is important to get insights into the interplay between the volcano-tectonic setting and the characteristics of the geothermal resources in the area. In this study, we present a structural analysis of the LHVC, focused on Quaternary tectonic and volcano-tectonic features, including the areal distribution of monogenetic volcanic centers. Morphostructural analysis and structural field mapping revealed the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the structural features in the study area. Also, thermal infrared remote sensing analysis has been applied to the LHVC for the first time, to map the main endogenous thermal anomalies. These data are integrated with newly proposed Unconformity Bounded Stratigraphic Units, to evaluate the implications for the structural behavior of the caldera complex and geothermal field. The LHVC is characterized by a multistage formation, with at least two major episodes of caldera collapse: Los Humeros Caldera (460 ka) and Los Potreros Caldera (100 ka). The study suggests that the geometry of the first collapse recalls a trap-door structure and impinges on a thick volcanic succession (10.5-1.55 Ma), now hosting the geothermal reservoir. The main ring-faults of the two calderas are buried and sealed by the widespread post-calderas volcanic products, and for this reason they probably do not have enough permeability to be the main conveyers of the hydrothermal fluid circulation. An active, previously unrecognized fault system of volcano-tectonic origin has been identified inside the Los Potreros Caldera. This fault system is the main geothermal target, probably originated by active resurgence of the caldera floor. The active fault system defines three distinct structural sectors in the caldera floor, where the

  3. Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province (United States)

    Borrego, D.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Tepp, G.


    Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province David Borrego, Marsella Kachingwe, Andrew Nyblade, Donna Shillington, James Gaherty, Cynthia Ebinger, Natalie Accardo, J.P. O'Donnell, Gabriel Mbogoni, Gabriel Mulibo, Richard Ferdinand, Patrick Chindandali, Felix Mphepo, Gabrielle Tepp, Godson Kamihanda We investigate crustal structure around the northern end of Lake Malawi and in the Rungwe Volcanic Province using teleseismic receiver functions from the SEGMeNT broadband seismic network. The SEGMeNT network includes 55 broadband stations deployed in northern Malawi and southern Tanzania, with station spacing of 20-50 km. Fourteen stations were deployed in August 2013, and an additional of 41 stations were added to the study region beginning June/July 2014. Fifteen stations are located in Malawi and 40 stations in Tanzania. Data from teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude 5.5 or greater in the 30 to 90 degrees distance range have been used to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Estimates of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratios have been obtained by using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Preliminary results show an average Moho depth of 40 km and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72. Little evidence is found for magmatic underplating beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province.

  4. Structural model of the Northern Latium volcanic area constrained by MT, gravity and aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gasparini


    Full Text Available The results of about 120 magnetotelluric soundings carried out in the Vulsini, Vico and Sabatini volcanic areas were modeled along with Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomalies to reconstruct a model of the structure of the shallow (less than 5 km of depth crust. The interpretations were constrained by the information gathered from the deep boreholes drilled for geothermal exploration. MT and aeromagnetic anomalies allow the depth to the top of the sedimentary basement and the thickness of the volcanic layer to be inferred. Gravity anomalies are strongly affected by the variations of morphology of the top of the sedimentary basement, consisting of a Tertiary flysch, and of the interface with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates. Gravity data have also been used to extrapolate the thickness of the neogenic unit indicated by some boreholes. There is no evidence for other important density and susceptibility heterogeneities and deeper sources of magnetic and/or gravity anomalies in all the surveyed area.

  5. Shallow lithological structure across the Dead Sea Transform derived from geophysical experiments (United States)

    Stankiewicz, J.; Munoz, G.; Ritter, O.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Ryberg, T.; Weckmann, U.; Weber, M.


    In the framework of the DEad SEa Rift Transect (DESERT) project a 150 km magnetotelluric profile consisting of 154 sites was carried out across the Dead Sea Transform. The resistivity model presented shows conductive structures in the western section of the study area terminating abruptly at the Arava Fault. For a more detailed analysis we performed a joint interpretation of the resistivity model with a P wave velocity model from a partially coincident seismic experiment. The technique used is a statistical correlation of resistivity and velocity values in parameter space. Regions of high probability of a coexisting pair of values for the two parameters are mapped back into the spatial domain, illustrating the geographical location of lithological classes. In this study, four regions of enhanced probability have been identified, and are remapped as four lithological classes. This technique confirms the Arava Fault marks the boundary of a highly conductive lithological class down to a depth of ???3 km. That the fault acts as an impermeable barrier to fluid flow is unusual for large fault zone, which often exhibit a fault zone characterized by high conductivity and low seismic velocity. At greater depths it is possible to resolve the Precambrian basement into two classes characterized by vastly different resistivity values but similar seismic velocities. The boundary between these classes is approximately coincident with the Al Quweira Fault, with higher resistivities observed east of the fault. This is interpreted as evidence for the original deformation along the DST originally taking place at the Al Quweira Fault, before being shifted to the Arava Fault. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Insights from geophysical monitoring into the volcano structure and magma supply systems at three very different oceanic islands in the Cape Verde archipelago (United States)

    Faria, B. V.; Day, S.; Fonseca, J. F.


    Three oceanic volcano islands in the west of the Cape Verde archipelago are considered to have the highest levels of volcanic hazard in the archipelago: Fogo, Brava, and Santo Antao. Fogo has had frequent mainly effusive eruptions in historic time, the most recent in 1995, whilst Brava and Santo Antao have ongoing geothermal activity and felt earthquakes, and have experienced geologically recent violent explosive eruptions. Therefore, these three islands have been the focus of recent efforts to set up seismic networks to monitor their activity. Here we present the first results from these networks, and propose interpretations of the monitored seismic activity in terms of subsurface volcano structures, near-surface intrusive activity and seasonal controls on geothermal activity. In Fogo, most recorded seismic events are hydrothermal events. These show a strong seasonal variation, increasing during the summer rain season and decreasing afterwards. Rare volcano-tectonic (VT) events (0.1scar. They are interpreted as shear failures between unconsolidated material at the base of the collapse scar fill and underlying more rigid pre-collapse rocks with abundant dikes, occuring as a result of long-term gravitational re-adjustment of the collapse scar fill after inflation of the island due to the 1995 eruption. Brava experiences frequent swarms of VT events. These are located mostly offshore, with a small proportion of on-shore events. The positions of offshore events are strongly correlated with seamounts and hence are interpreted as due to submarine volcanic processes. Onshore events (0.7

  7. Geophysical Prospection of Archaeological Structures in a Noisy Area in Shayzar, Syria (United States)

    Seren, S.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Bayirli, E.


    Site The roman town "Caesarea", which was named "Sezer" and used as a citadel in middle ages, is located within the modern town "Shayzar" in the north-west of Syria. The modern buildings, power lines and the streets with a lot of cars cause a very noisy environment for geophysical prospection. A football ground of about 50x90 m was chosen for testing both methods, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to detect archaeological structures. Instruments and survey area The magnetic survey was carried out using a fluxgate magnetic acquisition system with 4 sensors in gradient array from the manufacturer FÖRSTER® mounted on a one wheel cart. The cart was developed in our institute and allows to record high quality data in areas with difficult field conditions. An optical distance measurement system on the wheel ensures an exact positioning of the magnetic data. The measurement grid was 50x10 cm. GPR survey was carried out using a NOGGIN system with 250 MHz antenna from the manufacturer Sensors & Software. A new base plate was mounted on the antenna for the easy moving at rough surface conditions. The measurement grid was 50x5 cm. Data processing The magnetic data are processed using the self developed software ApMag. The main steps of the processing are filtering, removing of the line pattern, interpolation to a grid of 10x10 cm, geo-referencing and producing of a grey scale magnetogramm for visualizing in a geographical information system (GIS). The GPR data are automatically processed using the self developed software package ApRadar. Several pre-processing steps were carried out including removing of constant shifts, automatic detection of the starting point (time zero), frequency dependent high-pass filtering and a background removal filter to get the best results for each measurement. There is no gain control algorithm applied to the traces of a section but a statistical correction of each depth-slice for each section. This is equal to an automatic gain

  8. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks (United States)

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth


    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20131193 Bing Pingping (Key Lab.of Geophysical Exploration of CNPC , China University of Petroleum , Beijing 102249 , China); Cao Siyuan Non-Linear AVO Inversion Based on Support Vector Machine (Chinese Journal of Geophysics , ISSN0001-5733 , CN11-2074/P , 55 (3), 2012 , p.1025-1032 , 4illus. , 26 tables , 2refs.)

  10. Geophysics in INSPIRE (United States)

    Sőrés, László


    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  11. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada); Smith, Nicole [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada)


    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20160511An Yulin(School of Geophysics and Information Technology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Guo Lianghui High Precision Computation and Numerical Value Characteristics of Gravity Emendation Values Arising from Mass of the Earth

  13. Exploration Geophysics (United States)

    Savit, Carl H.


    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  14. Agricultural Geophysics (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20072109 An Yong(Key Lab of Geophysics Exploration under CNPC,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wei Lichun Most Homogeneous Dip-Scanning Method Using Edge Preserving Smoothing for Seismic Noise Attenuation(Applied Geophysics,ISSN1672-7975,CN11-5212/O,3(4),2006,p.210-217,17 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration,denoising

  16. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong


    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  17. Geophysical experiments to image the shallow internal structure and the moisture distribution of a mine waste rock pile (United States)

    Poisson, Jérôme; Chouteau, Michel; Aubertin, Michel; Campos, Daniel


    Several field surveys of a waste rock pile were carried out during the summers of 2002 and 2003 using ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic conductivity and DC resistivity imaging. The waste rock deposit is prone to generate acid mine drainage (AMD) due to the oxidation of sulphidic minerals. One of the most critical factors that lead to the production of AMD is unsaturated water flow and the ensuing moisture distribution in the waste rock. This geophysical characterization study, performed over a 30 m × 30 m test zone, was designed to image the internal structure controlling the water flux at shallow depth. The subsurface was found to consist of three zones for the first 6 m of the pile, mainly based on electrical resistivities: a thin superficial conductive material, an intermediate 2 to 3 m thick highly resistive zone, and a lower, more conductive medium. With the help of hydrogeological tests, chemical analyses and two 2.5 m-deep trenches, it is shown that the two conductive zones are correlated with fine-grained waste rock and the resistive zone correlates with a coarser material. In the two deeper zones, the contact between the two types of waste rock is typically highlighted by a sharp resistive/conductive boundary. An increase of conductance in the relatively thin upper layer towards the edge of the pile appears to be caused by an increase in thickness of the fine-grained material. Additional geophysical surveys carried out on a profile along the flank of the upper bench of the pile show that the main features of the internal structure are sub-parallel to the slope, at least for the first 3 m in depth. The data also show an increase in resistivity from the top to bottom of the slope, in accordance with expected particle segregation, from fine-grained material at the top to coarser material at the bottom. Wide-angle reflection GPR monitoring during large scale infiltration tests seems to indicate preferential flow paths towards the direction of coarser

  18. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S


    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  19. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms (United States)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira


    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  20. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng


    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  1. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin


    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  2. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leucci


    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and ground-penetrating radar (GPR methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity and the detection of discontinuities (fractures in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  3. Bathymetric highs in the mid-slope region of the western continental margin of India - Structure and mode of origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    brought into focus the presence of mantle based volcanic plugs. Their geomorphological and geophysical expressions and structural pattern and associated deep-seated faults led to suggest continental crust. These features are inferred as rifted fragments...

  4. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy) (United States)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo


    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital

  5. Volcanic Catastrophes (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  6. Réunion (Indian Ocean) Oceanic Island Volcanism: Seismic Structure and Heterogeneity of the Upper Lithosphere (United States)

    Hirn, A.


    Réunion island in the Indian Ocean is commonly considered as the recent and active expression of the hotspot that formed the Deccan traps, although both the hypothesis of recent small hotspots for both Reunion and Mauritius, or of relation with the plate heterogeneity have been proposed. Structural studies by seismic methods, from the scale of the upper cone of the active Fournaise volcano to that of the crust 100 km around, have been carried out. At this scale significant departures appear from the Hawaiian case to which it is traditionally compared, with the seismic signature of active volcanism showing differences too. Refraction-reflection seismics do not see a geometry of the top of the underlying plate towards the island, expected in plate flexure modelling by analogy with other hotspot island. Where it is sampled, doming is suggested instead. There appears to be less magmatic products than if there was a large amount buried in a flexural depression. The velocity structure resolved for the volcanic island, apart from high velocity cores under the volcanoes leads to smaller overall density than usually considered in flexure modelling. The same appears to hold for the material of the cone of about 120 km radius rising above the regional sea-bottom level to the 30 km radius island, from coincident reflection and refraction seismics on several lines radial to the southeastern half of the island. At the crust-mantle level, there is evidence from reflection-refraction line extending 150 km either side of the island for a layer of velocity intermediate between normal crust and mantle values. Two radial reflection line to the SSW, close to each other detect a differences in depth of the oceanic basement. This may coincide with a fracture zone suggested from the reconstruction of the sea-floor spreading history from the magnetic anomaly pattern. The latter has been interpreted previously to indicate that the western part of Réunion developed atop a Paleogene fossil

  7. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin


    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  8. Contribution of geophysical methods in the study of the floodplain structure (the Litavka River, the Czech Republic) (United States)

    Kotková, Kristýna; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Tůmová, Štěpánka; Elznicová, Jitka


    Mining and processing of polymetallic ores near the city of Příbram (the Czech Republic) have strongly impacted the fluvial system of the Litavka River. Beside of polymetallic mining during several hundred years with a peak between 1850 and 1950, the Litavka River was also influenced by uranium ore mining between 1948 and 1989. Severe contamination of the Litavka River system is known, but the alluvial architecture and specific distribution of contamination has not yet been satisfactorily described. However, such pieces of information are necessary for the predictions of the future behaviour of contaminants in the river system. We used geophysical methods for visualisation of subsurface layers of sediments and we have proved them very useful for the survey of the floodplain structure. It is especially advantageous when the surface topography of the floodplain does not reveal its internal structure, e.g. due to floodplain levelling by aggradation. Specifically, dipole electromagnetic profiling, also denoted electromagnetic induction sensing (DEMP) was used for quick detection of major heterogeneities in the floodplain structure. In addition, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used for the exploration of lines across the heterogeneities shown by DEMP. This approach allows to choose the appropriate plan for the subsequent sampling in the floodplain to include all its structural (lithogenetic) units. Such rational strategy allows for reducing total amount of sampled sites without the risk of losing important information and production of false images. Both used geophysical tools and manual drill coring and the elemental analysis by handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry produced clear images of floodplain architecture and pollutant distribution. The internal structure of the Litavka River floodplain shows that lateral deposition and reworking of sediments played the main roles in the floodplain building. In the next centuries the lateral channel movement

  9. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  10. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas (United States)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon


    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  11. Epikarstic storage and doline structural characterization with time-lapse geophysics (seismic refraction & electrical resistivity) (United States)

    Valois, R.; Galibert, P.; Guérin, R.; Mendes, M.; Plagnes, V.


    Karst formations are one of the most challenging environments in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information in karst regions concerning groundwater vulnerability assessment, exploitation or hazard estimation. First, dolines are studied as preferential pathways for the protection of karstic aquifer in south France. Geophysics helps to characterize lateral and underground morphologies of such objects and is able to detect doline hidden by the soil cover too. Electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomographies provide information about dolines filling and could help to propose a genesis scenario. Time-lapse resistivity measurements show that the studied doline is more vulnerable to infiltration on its sides than at its centre. The epikarst could be defined as a perched aquifer above the massive carbonate rocks; it constitutes a highly fractured zone, which water stock capacities. So, the epikarst was investigated with 3D seismic refraction and results show an important velocity anisotropy linked to the fracturing and weathering of the dolostone. The 3D model presents also some large heterogeneities: a corridor with highly weathered dolostone and an unweathered pinnacle. The corridor is probably situated on vertical joints, which have conducted aggressive water. The associated weathering with residual weathered-rock keeping its initial volume could create a "ghost-rock" corridor. So, the epikarst in the dolostones of the Causse du Larzac (France) seems to be composed by "ghost-rock" developed around a specific direction of fractures. Time-lapse electrical resistivity and seismic refraction velocity were carried out on this epikarst to observe the influence of water saturation on the measurements. The results show important variations for both seismic and electrical methods and are localized in the first 6 m: in the weathered zone. So, time-lapse measurements could more easily identify

  12. Modelling of karst structures by geophysical methods. An example: the doline of S. Pietro dei Monti (Western Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gambetta


    Full Text Available Integrated geophysical investigations of karst structures were carried out in Liguria and Piedmont (NW Italy; this paper refers to the S. Pietro dei Monti doline, in the karst area of Mt. Carmo (Savona. The techniques used in the integrated study were magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction. The target was to identify, without drilling, the nature of the doline, for example if it is of dissolution or collapse type. A preliminary susceptibility sampling of the outcrop and topsoil and the diffuse fractures with a probable water seepage suggested magnetics and VLF electromagnetics. Such methods applied in an area with an extremely low cultural noise allowed modelling of the buried structure of the doline.

  13. Geomorphological evidence of the influence of pre-volcanic basement structure on emplacement and deformation of volcanic edifices at the Cofre de Perote Pico de Orizaba chain and implications for avalanche generation (United States)

    Concha-Dimas, Aline; Cerca, Mariano; Rodríguez, Sergio R.; Watters, Robert J.


    Pre-volcanic structure of the basement influences volcanism distribution and avalanche generation in volcanic edifices. Therefore, systematic studies of basement structure below volcanic chains are necessary to understand the deformation effects observed in the surface and vice versa. Based on a compilation of pre-existing data, interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images, and a collection of structural data we analyzed morphological and structural features of the Cofre de Perote-Pico de Orizaba (CP-PO) volcanic chain and its basement. We have identified three sets of regional lineaments that are related to basement trends. (1) NW 55° SE fractures are parallel to anticline folds observed in Cretaceous rocks that originated during Laramide shortening. These folds present an abrupt morphology observed only in the eastern flank but that is likely to continue below the volcanic chain. (2) NE 55° SW fractures are parallel to normal faults at the basement. We infer that these basement faults confine the CP-PO chain within a stepped graben with a total normal displacement of about 400 m. These faults have been active through time since they have affected volcanic deposits and induced the emplacement of monogenetic vents. Notably, lineaments of monogenetic vents concentrate where the basement is relatively shallow. (3) Another set of faults, oriented N-S, has been observed affecting the scarce basement outcrops at the western flank of the chain covered by lacustrine deposits. Lineaments measured in the volcanic edifice of Pico de Orizaba correlate with the regional trends. In particular, the NE 55° SW alignment of monogenetic vents and fractures at Pico de Orizaba suggest that the same dike trend exists within the volcanic edifice. A normal fault with similar orientation was documented at the NE continuation of an alignment crossing the volcanic edifice along the Jamapa canyon. In the absence of magmatic activity related to collapses, the displacement of

  14. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina) (United States)

    Giordano, Guido


    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous thermal springs. This study presents new stratigraphic, structural, volcanological, geochemical and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20161263Ao Ruide(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Dong Liangguo Source-Independent Envelope-Based FWI to Build an Initial Model(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,58(6),2015,p.1998-2010,15illus.,18refs.,

  16. Fluid-magmatic systems and volcanic centers in Northern Caucasus (United States)

    Sobisevich, Alexey L.; Masurenkov, Yuri P.; Pouzich, Irina N.; Laverova, Ninel I.


    The central segment of Alpine mobile folded system and the Greater Caucasus is considered with respect to fluid-magmatic activity within modern and Holocene volcanic centers. A volcanic center is a combination of volcanoes, intrusions, and hydrothermal features supported by endogenous flow of matter and energy localised in space and steady in time; responsible for magma generation and characterized by structural representation in the form of circular dome and caldera associations. Results of complimentary geological and geophysical studies carried out in the Elbrus volcanic area and the Pyatogorsk volcanic center are presented. The deep magmatic source and the peripheral magmatic chamber of the Elbrus volcano are outlined via comparative analysis of geological and experimental geophysical data (microgravity studies, magneto-telluric profiling, temperature of carbonaceous mineral waters). It has been determined that the peripheral magmatic chamber and the deep magmatic source of the volcano are located at depths of 0-7 and 20-30 km below sea level, respectively, and the geothermal gradient beneath the volcano is 100°C/km. In this study, analysis of processes of modern heat outflux produced by carbonaceous springs in the Elbrus volcanic center is carried out with respect to updated information about spatial configuration of deep fluid-magmatic structures of the Elbrus volcano. It has been shown, that degradation of the Elbrus glaciers throughout the historical time is related both to climatic variations and endogenic heat. The stable fast rate of melting for the glaciers on the volcano's eastern slope is of theoretical and practical interest as factors of eruption prognosis. The system approach to studying volcanism implies that events that seem to be outside the studied process should not be ignored. This concerns glaciers located in the vicinity of volcanoes. The crustal rocks contacting with the volcanism products exchange matter and energy between each other

  17. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius


    Pommier, Anne; Tarits, Pascal; Hautot, Sophie; Pichavant, Michel; Scaillet, Bruno; Gaillard, Fabrice


    Article in Press; International audience; A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the s...

  18. Supracrustal rocks in the Kuovila area, Southern Finland: structural evolution, geochemical characteristics and the age of volcanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietari Skyttä


    Full Text Available The supracrustal rocks of the Kuovila area in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, southern Finland, consist mainly of volcaniclastic rocks associated with banded iron formations (BIFs and marbles. Small ZnS and PbS mineralizations are occasionally located within the marbles. Some primary features are well preserved in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks, including lamination in tuffites and banded iron formations. Geochemical results show that the volcanism was bimodal and it mainly had volcanic arc affinity. Specific geochemical indicators suggesting a volcanic arc origin for the Kuovila volcanic rocks include: 1 Enrichment of LILE over the HFSE elements and 2 Distinctly low Nb and Ta contents in relation to Th, Ce and LREE. Geochemistry of the Kuovila area volcanic rocks is very similar to those of the Orijärvi and Kisko formations, located ~15 km NE of Kuovila. Felsic tuff in the Kuovila area was dated at 1891±4 Ma by the U-Pb system on zircons. Consequently volcanism was contemporaneous with magmatism in the adjacent Orijärvi area, thus representing the earliest identified volcanic stage in the southern Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt. Early deformation structures within the Kuovila area are suggested to relate to low-metamorphic or localized low-angle thrusting during D1. F1 folds were recumbent and the S1 cleavages are generally weak. Thrusting was followed by approximately N–S contraction with upright, peak-metamorphic F2 folding overprinting D1 structures and defining the Kuovila synform. Two separate intrusive phases include a synvolcanic granodiorite-diorite-gabbro association and a weakly S2-foliated syn-D2 granodiorite. Anatectic granites and associated migmatizing veins are absent, therefore suggesting that D2 pre-dates the ~1.84–1.82 Ga metamorphic event in the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC. D2 structuresin the Kuovila area are suggested to correlate with the early structures with associated axial planar

  19. The structure of volcanic cristobalite in relation to its toxicity; relevance for the variable crystalline silica hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horwell Claire J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respirable crystalline silica (RCS continues to pose a risk to human health worldwide. Its variable toxicity depends on inherent characteristics and external factors which influence surface chemistry. Significant population exposure to RCS occurs during volcanic eruptions, where ashfall may cover hundreds of square km and exposure may last years. Occupational exposure also occurs through mining of volcanic deposits. The primary source of RCS from volcanoes is through collapse and fragmentation of lava domes within which cristobalite is mass produced. After 30 years of research, it is still not clear if volcanic ash is a chronic respiratory health hazard. Toxicological assays have shown that cristobalite-rich ash is less toxic than expected. We investigate the reasons for this by determining the physicochemical/structural characteristics which may modify the pathogenicity of volcanic RCS. Four theories are considered: 1 the reactivity of particle surfaces is reduced due to co-substitutions of Al and Na for Si in the cristobalite structure; 2 particles consist of aggregates of cristobalite and other phases, restricting the surface area of cristobalite available for reactions in the lung; 3 the cristobalite surface is occluded by an annealed rim; 4 dissolution of other volcanic particles affects the surfaces of RCS in the lung. Methods The composition of volcanic cristobalite crystals was quantified by electron microprobe and differences in composition assessed by Welch’s two sample t-test. Sections of dome-rock and ash particles were imaged by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and elemental compositions of rims determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results Volcanic cristobalite contains up to 4 wt. % combined Al2O3 and Na2O. Most cristobalite-bearing ash particles contain adhered materials such as feldspar and glass. No annealed rims were observed. Conclusions The composition of volcanic

  20. Geomagnetic imprint of the Persani volcanism (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Seghedi, Ioan; Zlagnean, Luminita; Atanasiu, Ligia; Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Pomeran, Mihai; Visan, Madalina


    The Persani small volume volcanism is located in the SE corner of the Transylvanian Depression, at the north-western edge of the intra-mountainous Brasov basin. It represents the south-easternmost segment of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic chain of the East Carpathians. The alkaline basalt monogenetic volcanic field is partly coeval with the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism south of Harghita Mountains (1-1.6 Ma). Its eruptions post-dated the calc-alkaline volcanism in the Harghita Mountains (5.3-1.6 Ma), but pre-dated the high-K calc-alkaline emissions of Ciomadul volcano (1.0-0.03 Ma). The major volcanic forms have been mapped in previous geological surveys. Still, due to the small size of the volcanoes and large extent of tephra deposits and recent sediments, the location of some vents or other volcanic structures has been incompletely revealed. To overcome this problem, the area was subject to several near-surface geophysical investigations, including paleomagnetic research. However, due to their large-scale features, the previous geophysical surveys proved to be an inappropriate approach to the volcanological issues. Therefore, during the summers of 2014 and 2015, based on the high magnetic contrast between the volcanic rocks and the hosting sedimentary formations, a detailed ground geomagnetic survey has been designed and conducted, within central Persani volcanism area, in order to outline the presence of volcanic structures hidden beneath the overlying deposits. Additionally, information on the rock magnetic properties was also targeted by sampling and analysing several outcrops in the area. Based on the acquired data, a detailed total intensity scalar geomagnetic anomaly map was constructed by using the recent IGRF12 model. The revealed pattern of the geomagnetic field proved to be fully consistent with the direction of magnetisation previously determined on rock samples. In order to enhance the signal/noise ratio, the results were further processed by

  1. Geophysical Imaging of Fault Structures Over the Qadimah Fault, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    AlTawash, Feras


    The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.

  2. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Peng


    Full Text Available Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on land, ocean, and space. Based on this work, a new discipline of geophysics, geophysical informatics, has been gradually developing over the past 20 years. The recent advances of geophysical informatics in China are introduced and reviewed in this paper.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20132654Bi Xiaojia(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Miao Fang Lithology Identification and Mapping by Hyperion Hyperspectral Remote Sensing(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,34(5),2012,p.599-603,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,hyperspectral remote sensing,Qinghai Province


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20072798 Chen Fengyun(China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Hang Yuan Algorithm and Application of the Coherency/Variance Cube Technique(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.250-253,257,7 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration The coherency/variance cube technique has been developed in recent years as a new technique of seismic data interpretation.

  5. Tracking the source of mineralisation in the Tampere Basin (southern Finland), insights from structure, sedimentology and geophysics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Torvela, Taija; Kalliomäki, Henrik


    The ancient basins are of a wide interest to geoscientists as they archive the early development of plate tectonics, life, and ore-bearing systems. Several basins, especially those involving volcanic-derived materials, contain ore and mineral deposits. The formation of these ores is often related...... marginal basin, and the mechanics of and strain distribution during its subsequent closure. In order to investigate the deposition, the tectonic deformation and the fluid migration, geological mapping of a key area of the basin has been performed. In addition, georadar reflection profiles have been...... covered. This study highlighted several sulphide-rich horizon within the basal succession of the basin infill. The sulphides are either in relation with tectonic structures or with genuinely clay-rich deposits. The studied succession shows a progressive deepening of the basin through time with facies...

  6. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.


    Volcanic rocks in the Sonoma volcanic field in the northern California Coast Ranges contain heterogeneous assemblages of a variety of compositionally diverse volcanic rocks. We have used field mapping, new and existing age determinations, and 343 new major and trace element analyses of whole-rock samples from lavas and tuff to define for the first time volcanic source areas for many parts of the Sonoma volcanic field. Geophysical data and models have helped to define the thickness of the volcanic pile and the location of caldera structures. Volcanic rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field show a broad range in eruptive style that is spatially variable and specific to an individual eruptive center. Major, minor, and trace-element geochemical data for intracaldera and outflow tuffs and their distal fall equivalents suggest caldera-related sources for the Pinole and Lawlor Tuffs in southern Napa Valley and for the tuff of Franz Valley in northern Napa Valley. Stratigraphic correlations based on similarity in eruptive sequence and style coupled with geochemical data allow an estimate of 30 km of right-lateral offset across the West Napa-Carneros fault zones since ~5 Ma.

  7. A new volcano-structural map of the Virunga Volcanic Province, D.R.Congo and Rwanda (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Smets, Benoît; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu


    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) is situated within the Western branch of the East African Rift system at the boundary of D.R.Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. The Western VVP comprises two active volcanoes, Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo. Six supposedly historically inactive volcanoes are present in the Central and Eastern VVP. Nyamulagira is recently the most active volcano on the African continent, with 30 eruptions since 1900, while Nyiragongo hosts a semi-permanent lava lake in its crater and fed a catastrophic lava flow in 2002. Additionally, numerous volcanic vents, fissures and cones are scattered on and around the main edifices. Except for geological maps from the colonial times and limited studies of historical eruptions, little is known about the volcano-tectonic structure and long term volcanic history of the VVP. A new Digital Elevation Model (TanDEM-X) with a resolution of 5 m, combined with SPOT and SAR images served as a base for the development of a new volcano-structural map for the entire VVP. A GIS data base was developed including the location of eruptive cones and fissures and the distribution of lava flows. The boundaries of historic and pre-historic lava flows and pyroclastic cones were traced from from interpretation of topographic and multispectral remote sensing data and re-analysis of ancient geological maps.Larger-scale lineaments interpreted as potential volcano-tectonic structures were also systematically mapped. All previously geochemically analyzed samples were localized. This GIS-based volcano-structural map will serve as a base for the quantitative characterization of recent and historic volcanic eruption products, such as pyroclastic cones and lava flows, of Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo, as well as for the assessment of potential Holocene activity in the Central and Eastern VVP. The orientation of feeder dykes inferred from cone alignments and morphology is used to identify the main volcanic structures and infer the locally dominant stress

  8. Intumescence and pore structure of alkali-activated volcanic glasses upon exposure to high temperatures (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.


    Structures formed with ground perlite, a natural volcanic glass, activated with NaOH solutions, are shown to possess the ability to expand up to ~225 % of their original volumes upon exposure to temperatures in the 200-600 °C range. Porous solid with 3-7 MPa compressive strength and ˜450 kg/m3 or higher density are obtained. The observed expansion is believed to occur due to a loss of silanol condensation water, as vapor and is accompanied by an up to ~20 % loss in mass. A drop in pH to near-neutral values supports this idea. The size and total amount of pores in the final solid are controlled by concentration of the NaOH solution and thermal processing conditions. The pores formed are observed to be ~1-10 μm to mm-sized. The ability of perlite-based solids to intumesce over specific temperature ranges could be beneficial in applications where absorption of thermal energy is necessary, such as passive fire protection.

  9. Crustal velocity structure of the Deccan Volcanic Province, Indian Peninsula, from observed surface wave dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddale Suresh


    Full Text Available Through inversion of fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves, we study the crustal and subcrustal structure across the central Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP, which is one of the world’s largest terrestrial flood basalts. Our analysis is based on broadband seismograms recorded at seismological station Bhopal (BHPL in the central India from earthquakes located near west coast of India, with an average epicentral distance about 768 km. The recording station and epicentral zone are situated respectively on the northern and southern edges of DVP with wave paths across central DVP. The period of group velocity data ranges from 5 to 60 s for Rayleigh waves and 5 to 45 s for Love waves. Using the genetic algorithm, the observed data have been inverted to obtain the crust and subcrustal velocity structure along the wavepaths. Using this procedure, a similar velocity structure was also obtained earlier for the northwestern DVP, which is in the west of the present study region. Comparison of results show that the crustal thickness decreases westward from central DVP (39.6 km to northwestern DVP (37.8 km along with the decrease of thickness of upper crust; while the thickness of lower crust remains nearly same. From east to west S-wave velocity in the upper crust decreases by 2 to 3 per cent, while P-wave velocity in the whole crust and subcrust decreases by 3 to 6 per cent. The P- and S-wave velocities are positively correlated with crustal thickness and negatively correlated with earth’s heat flow. It appears that the elevated crustal and subcrustal temperature in the western side is the main factor for low velocities on this side.

  10. Structure and petrology of newly discovered volcanic centers in the northern Kermadec-southern Tofua arc, South Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Graham, Ian J.; Reyes, Agnes G.; Wright, Ian C.; Peckett, Kimberley M.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Arculus, Richard J.


    The NZAPLUME III expedition of September-October 2004 to the northern Kermadec-southern Tofua (NKST) arc, between 28°52'S and 25°07'S, resulted in the discovery of at least seven new submarine volcanic centers and a substantial caldera complex adjacent to the previously known Monowai Seamount. The volcanic centers form a sublinear chain that coincides with the Kermadec Ridge crest in the south (Hinetapeka) and diverges ˜45 km westward of the ridge crest in the north ("V") just to the south of where the Louisville Ridge intersects with the arc. All of the centers contain calderas or caldera-like structures, as well as multiple cones, domes, fissure ridges, and vent fields. All show signs of recent eruptive and current hydrothermal activity. There are strong structural controls on edifice location, with cones and fissure ridges typically associated with faulting parallel to the regional ˜12° strike of the arc front. Several of the calderas are ellipsoidal, orientated northwest-southeast in the general direction of least compressive stress. Sampled volcanic rocks, representing the most recently erupted lavas, are all low-K tholeiites. Two of the centers, Gamble and Rakahore, yielded only high-silica dacite to rhyolite (69-74 wt% silica), whereas two others, Monowai and "V," yielded only basalt to andesite (48-63 wt% silica). Mineral assemblages are plagioclase-pyroxene dominated, with accessory Fe-Ti oxides, apatite, olivine, and quartz/tridymite/cristobalite, typical of dry volcanic arc systems. Hornblende occurs only in a felsitic rhyolite from Hinepuia volcanic center, and zircon is absent. Glass contents range to 57% in basalts-andesites (mean 20%), and 97% in andesites-rhyolites (mean 59%) and other quench textures, including swallow-tailed, plumose, or dendritic crystal forms and crystallites, are common. Most lavas are highly vesicular (≤63%; mean 28%) and have low volatile contents (mostly cristobalite, indicates explosive eruption and rapid cooling

  11. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics


    Peng, Fenglin; Peng, Le; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Guoqiang; Ma, Maining; Zhang, Yunfei


    Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on...

  12. Geophysical Modeling of Tectonostratigraphic Terrane Boundaries and Crustal Structure Across a Pacific Ocean-Gulf of Mexico Transect, Southern Mexico (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Flores-Ruiz, J. H.; Spranger, M.


    Geophysical models of terrane boundaries and lithospheric structure beneath southern Mexico derived from gravity and aeromagnetic surveys are presented. The transect crosses southern Mexico from the active Pacific margin to the passive Gulf of Mexico margin, across four distinct terranes (Xolapa, Oaxaca, Juarez and Maya) with Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic basements and contrasting tectonostratigraphic records. The crust/mantle boundary displays a smooth large amplitude variation along the transect from Puerto Escondido at the Pacific margin to Los Tuxtlas-Alvarado at the Gulf of Mexico, roughly between 28 km and 44 km deep. Crustal thickness variations correspond well with inferred terrane distribution and major surface discontinuities. Suture zones are complex as a result of the kinematics of terrane accretion, contrasting crustal rheological properties, shallow level detachments, post-accretion deformation, thermal conditions and characteristics of relative terrane/plate motions. Pre-suturing characteristics of terranes including crustal structure are difficult to document because of deformation resulting from suturing and any subsequent post-accretion processes. In a simplified way, gravity anomalies from the Pacific margin to the Gulf of Mexico show: large positive 50 mgal anomaly above the continental slope units and the intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Xolapa complex, then anomalies increasingly negative (with minimum values of -180 mgal over the Acatlan and Oaxaca metamorphics. The Juchatengo mylonitic zone is characterized by a gradient change, while minimum gravity values approximately coincide with the wide mylonitic zone north of Oaxaca city. The Juarez terrane and the region over the Sierra de Juarez is characterized by positive gradient. Finally, the Gulf coastal plain is marked by a positive anomaly in the order of -40 mgal. Geophysical models are combined with the seismic models of the Geolimex profile and used to evaluate the crustal

  13. Lithospheric structure of the Eastern Iranian plateau from integrated geophysical modeling: A transect from Makran to the Turan platform (United States)

    Entezar-Saadat, Vahid; Motavalli-Anbaran, Seyed-Hani; Zeyen, Hermann


    We present a 2D profile of density and temperature distribution in the lithosphere across Iran along a more than 1600 km long profile extending from the Oman Gulf in the South to the Kopeh-Dagh and the Turan platform in the North. Gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data were used for modeling, assuming local isostatic equilibrium. As much as possible, crustal structure has been constrained by seismic data. Crustal thickening is found under the Taftan-Bazman volcanic-arc (up to 47 km), under the Binalud foreland (∼54 km) and beneath the Kopeh-Dagh mountains (up to 50 km) whereas thin crust has been obtained under the Oman Gulf (20 km). Moho depth under the Lut block and the Turan platform is about 40 km. The lithospheric thickness is ∼90 km under the Oman Gulf and increases slightly until the Jazmourian depression. Then the lithospheric-asthenospheric boundary (LAB) bends significantly and sinks to ∼260 km under the Taftan-Bazman volcanic-arc. The LAB depth is about 190 km beneath the Lut block. A slight increase of LAB depth under the Binalud foreland towards the North may indicate a suture zone. Under the Turan platform, the LAB depth reaches ∼210 km. We also modeled two possible positions of the deep suture zone in NE Iran (along the main Kopeh-Dagh fault or along the Atrak River) and concluded that, when the suture zone is along the Atrak River, we obtained the better fit between calculated and measured data.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20110471 Cai Shaokun(Mechatronics and Automation College,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China);Wu Meiping A Comparison of Digital Lowpass FIR-Filters in Airborne Gravimetry(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(1),2010,p.74-78,8 illus.,3 tables,14 refs.)Key words:aerogravity surveys,filtersThere is a lot of noise in the data observed by airborne gravimeter.Digital lowpass FIR-filter i

  15. Upper mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath northern Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province, East Africa (United States)

    Grijalva, A. N.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand, R.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.


    A recent deployment of 55 broadband seismic stations around the northern Lake Malawi rift as part of the SEGMeNT project have provided a new dataset for imaging crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the Rungwe volcanic center and northern most segment of the Lake Malawi Rift. The goal of our study is to characterize the upper mantle velocity structure and determine to what extent the rifting has been influenced by magmatism. P relative arrival time residuals have been obtained for 115 teleseismic events with magnitudes > 5 in the 30 - 90 degree distance range. They are being tomographically inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments for a 3-D velocity model of the upper mantle. Preliminary results indicate a low wave speed anomaly in the uppermost mantle beneath the Rungwe volcanics. Future results will determine if this anomaly exists under the northern Lake Malawi rift.

  16. A Geophysical Overview of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust of the Mid-Continent Region of North America (United States)

    Keller, G. R., Jr.


    A variety of geophysical data, including newly released 3-D seismic reflection data, show us that the crustal structure of the Mid-Continent region of North America is very complex. The dimensions of many of the crustal structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually create the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The crust of the Mid-Continent region formed during a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 0.9 Ga. The impressive Mid-Continent rift system (MCRS) tried to interrupt this period of continental growth at about 1.1 Ga but it its western arm failed even though it modified the crust massively. However, the supercontinent resulting from this growth did not survive long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-Continent region, subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (SOA) is an impressive example of this rifting event. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains resulted in massive inversion of SOA rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic whose origin is under debate. There has been increased emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic, seismic, drilling, and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-Continent region. For example, the MCRS is traditionally viewed as ending in central Kansas and the SOA can be interpreted as ending in the Texas panhandle. However, we used enhancement of gravity and magnetic data, seismic data, geologic mapping, and deep-drilling data to study its southern extent, and it appears that the MCRS could extend further southward beneath the much younger Anadarko basin of Oklahoma to abut the SOA.

  17. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities (United States)

    Connor, Charles


    Worldwide, tremendous progress has been made in recent decades in forecasting volcanic events, such as episodes of volcanic unrest, eruptions, and the potential impacts of eruptions. Generally these forecasts are divided into two categories. Short-term forecasts are prepared in response to unrest at volcanoes, rely on geophysical monitoring and related observations, and have the goal of forecasting events on timescales of hours to weeks to provide time for evacuation of people, shutdown of facilities, and implementation of related safety measures. Long-term forecasts are prepared to better understand the potential impacts of volcanism in the future and to plan for potential volcanic activity. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful to better understand and communicate the potential consequences of volcanic events for populated areas around volcanoes and for siting critical infrastructure, such as nuclear facilities. Recent work by an international team, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has focused on developing guidelines for long-term volcanic hazard assessments. These guidelines have now been implemented for hazard assessment for nuclear facilities in nations including Indonesia, the Philippines, Armenia, Chile, and the United States. One any time scale, all volcanic hazard assessments rely on a geologically reasonable conceptual model of volcanism. Such conceptual models are usually built upon years or decades of geological studies of specific volcanic systems, analogous systems, and development of a process-level understanding of volcanic activity. Conceptual models are used to bound potential rates of volcanic activity, potential magnitudes of eruptions, and to understand temporal and spatial trends in volcanic activity. It is these conceptual models that provide essential justification for assumptions made in statistical model development and the application of numerical models to generate quantitative forecasts. It is a

  18. The impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey


    imply that reproducing the polar vortex responses to past eruptions, or predicting the response to future eruptions, depends on accurate representation of the space-time structure of the volcanic aerosol forcing.

  19. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources (United States)



    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  20. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia (United States)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter


    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  1. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)


    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  2. Firn structure of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, from in-situ geophysical surveys (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Brisbourne, A.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Bevan, S. L.; Luckman, A. J.; Hubbard, B. P.; Ashmore, D.; Holland, P.; Jansen, D.; King, E. C.; O'Leary, M.; McGrath, D.


    Rising surface temperatures have been causing firn layers on Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves to compact, a process that is strongly implicated in ice shelf disintegration. Firn compaction is expected to warm the ice column and given sufficiently wet and compacted firn layers, to allow meltwater to penetrate into surface crevasses and thus enhance the potential for hydrofracture. On Larsen C Ice Shelf a compacting firn layer has previously been inferred from airborne radar and satellite data, with strongly reduced air contents in Larsen C's north and north-west. The hydrological processes governing firn compaction, and the detailed firn structures they produce, have so far remained uncertain however. Using integrated seismic refraction, MASW (Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves), seismoelectric and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, we reveal vertical and horizontal changes in firn structure across Larsen C Ice Shelf. Particular attention is paid to the spatial prevalence of refrozen meltwaters within firn, such as the massive subsurface ice layer discovered recently by the NERC-funded MIDAS project in Cabinet Inlet in Larsen C's extreme northwest. Such ice layers or lenses are particularly dramatic manifestations of increased ice shelf densities and temperatures, and contrast sharply with the relatively uncompacted firn layers present in the ice shelf's southeast. We consider our observations in the context of a one-dimensional firn model for Larsen C Ice Shelf that includes melt percolation and refreezing, and discuss temporal changes in firn layer structures due to surface melt and ponding.

  3. Inner structure of the Puy de Dôme volcano: cross-comparison of geophysical models (ERT, Gravimetry, Muonic Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Portal


    Full Text Available Muon imagery of volcanoes and geological structures are presently and actively developed by several groups in the world. It has the potential to provide a 2-D or 3-D density distribution with an accuracy of a few percent. However, at this stage of the development of the method, comparisons with the results from established geophysical methods are necessary to validate its results. An experiment is currently carried out at the Puy de Dôme volcano involving the concurrent acquisition of muon imagery, electrical resistivity (2-D tomography and gravity survey. Here, we present the preliminary results for the last two methods. North-south and east-west resistivity sections have been obtained in June 2011 and May 2012. These electric data allow to model of the distribution of the resistivity values down to the base of the dome. The dome and its surroundings are now mapped with more than 300 gravity stations measured during a detailed gravity survey carried out in March and May 2012. The computed Bouguer anomaly can be interpreted by models of the density distribution within the dome. This will be directly comparable with the results from the muon imagery. Our ultimate goal is to derive a model of the dome using the joint interpretation of all the sets of data.

  4. Inner structure of the Puy de Dôme volcano: cross-comparison of geophysical models (ERT, gravimetry, muon imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Portal


    Full Text Available Muon imaging of volcanoes and of geological structures in general is actively being developed by several groups in the world. It has the potential to provide 3-D density distributions with an accuracy of a few percent. At this stage of development, comparisons with established geophysical methods are useful to validate the method. An experiment has been carried out in 2011 and 2012 on a large trachytic dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano, to perform such a comparison of muon imaging with gravimetric tomography and 2-D electrical resistivity tomography. Here, we present the preliminary results for the last two methods. North–south and east–west resistivity profiles allow us to model the resistivity distribution down to the base of the dome. The modelling of the Bouguer anomaly provides models for the density distribution within the dome that are directly comparable with the results from the muon imaging. Our ultimate goal is to derive a model of the dome using the joint interpretation of all sets of data.

  5. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  6. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.


    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  7. High-resolution geophysical data for the South Range, Sudbury Structure (Canada) (United States)

    Milkereit, B.; Nicholson, S.; Eyles, N.; Doughty, M.


    Lakes Vermilion and Fairbank lie directly above Sudbury nickel mines amid gently rolling topography typical of the Canadian Shield composed of c. 1.8 Ga rocks of the Sudbury Basin. A suite of digital elevation models, seismological and potential field data were compiled for the study area in the SE corner of the Sudbury structure and new high-resolution seismic data were acquired in the large lakes to better define young deformation structures. The area was last glaciated during the Wisconsin glaciation when ice cover was thickest (about 2km) at c. 20,000 ybp. Some 25 km of high-resolution seismic track lines were collected using an EdgeTech X-STAR digital high resolution seismic profiling system with a SB 216S tow vehicle (';fish'). The system transmits an FM sonar ';chirp' pulse created by linear sweeping over the frequency range of 2-12 kHz for 20 ms. Sediment thicknesses and water depths displayed on seismic stratigraphic profiles assume a constant water column velocity of 1550 m/s and an average sub-bottom velocity in glaciolacustrine sediments of 1650 m/s. Sub bottom seismic data clearly images the undulating bedrock floors of the lakes and captures the entire thickness of sediment fill. This comprises two seismic-stratigraphic successions. Parallel high-frequency reflectors characterize a thick (> 10m) older succession resting on an irregular bedrock surface that is typical of varved glacial lake silty clays deposited during regional Late Wisconsin deglaciation at about 10,000ybp. These are overlain by a thin (< 5m) largely transparent, reflector-free Holocene (postglacial) succession. Deformation structures produced by downslope slumping are evident in lake sediments and are being evaluated in terms of their neotectonic significance.

  8. SAHKE geophysical transect reveals crustal and subduction zone structure at the southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand (United States)

    Henrys, S.; Wech, A.; Sutherland, R.; Stern, T.; Savage, M.; Sato, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Okaya, D.; Seward, A.; Tozer, B.; Townend, J.; Kurashimo, E.; Iidaka, T.; Ishiyama, T.


    The Seismic Array Hikurangi Experiment (SAHKE) investigated the structure of the forearc and subduction plate boundary beneath the southern North Island along a 350 km transect. Tomographic inversion of first-arrival travel times was used to derive a well-resolved 15-20 km deep P wave image of the crust. The refracted phases and migrated reflection events image subducting slab geometry and crustal structure. In the west, Australian Plate Moho depth decreases westward across the Taranaki Fault system from 35 to ˜28-30 km. In the east, subducted Pacific Plate oceanic crust is recognized to have a positive velocity gradient, but becomes less distinct beneath the Tararua Ranges, where the interface increases in dip at about 15 km depth from 15°. This bend in the subducted plate is associated with vertical clusters in seismicity, splay fault branching, and low-velocity high-attenuation material that we interpret to be an underplated subduction sedimentary channel. We infer that a step down in the decollément transfers slip on the plate interface at the top of a subduction channel to the oceanic crust and drives local uplift of the Tararua Ranges. Reflections from the Wairarapa Fault show that it is listric and soles into the top of underplated sediments, which in turn abut the Moho of the overriding plate at ˜32 km depth, near the downdip end of the strongly locked zone. The change in dip of the Hikurangi subduction interface is spatially correlated with the transition from geodetically determined locked to unlocked areas of the plate interface.

  9. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.


    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  10. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy (United States)

    Di, Filippo M.; Lombardi, S.; Nappi, G.; Reimer, G.M.; Renzulli, A.; Toro, B.


    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.

  11. The Chesapeake Bay crater: geology and geophysics of a Late Eocene submarine impact structure (United States)

    Poag, C. Wylie; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    The list of impact craters documented on Earth is short. Only about 165 genuine impact structures have been identified to date (Table 1.1). Even so, the number is steadily increasing at the rate of ∼3–5 per year (Grieve et al. 1995; Earth Impact Database at In stark contrast, most other rocky planets and satellites of our solar system are pockmarked by thousands to hundreds of thousands of impact features (Beatty et al. 1999). Nevertheless, impact specialists acknowledge that Earth, too, has undergone billions of years of bolide bombardment (Melosh 1989; Schoenberg et al. 2002). The most intense bombardment, however, took place during Earth’s earliest history (∼3.8–4 Ga; Ryder 1990; Cohen et al. 2000; Ryder et al. 2000). Traces of most terrestrial impacts have been completely erased or strongly altered by the dynamic processes of a thick atmosphere, deep ocean, and mobile crust, a combination unique to our planet. Planetary geologists now recognize that processes associated with bolide impacts are fundamental to planetary accretion and surface modification (Melosh 1989; Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Schmitz 2001). Incoming meteorites may have been primary sources for Earth’s water, and, perhaps, even organic life as we know it (Thomas et al. 1997; Kring 2000). There is little doubt that impacts played a major role in the evolution of Earth’s biota (Ryder et al. 1996; Hart 1996).

  12. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics (United States)


    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  13. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees


    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  14. Late Cenozoic tectonics and volcanism along the North Anatolian Fault: new structural and geochemical data (United States)

    Adiyaman, Özlem; Chorowicz, Jean; Arnaud, O. Nicolas; Gündogdu, M. Niyazi; Gourgaud, Alain


    Different types of volcanic activity have developed along the North Anatolian Fault zone (NAF) in Turkey. Detailed analysis of satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), and field observations have been made in order to understand the tectonics and the distribution of volcanic vents. In the Anatolian block, some faults are oblique to the NAF, and delimit extensional escape wedges. Vents rooted on open tension fractures show that emplacement of the volcanism is related to tensional fracturing of the Anatolian continental block, which we attribute to the onset of free borders in the south and west. Along the NAF, earliest extension ( ϑ1) is directed S to SSW and the latest ( ϑ2) towards W to WSW, parallel to the sinistral slip along the NAF. Major and trace element geochemical data indicate that the dominant calc-alkaline rocks are associated with various alkaline lavas. K-Ar ages of the volcanics range from 22 to 8.5 Ma in Galatia Massif, 900 to 100 ka in Niksar and 3 to 12 ka in Erzincan. Isotopic and trace element data are interpreted as reflecting a dominantly lithospheric mantle source, slightly mixed with asthenospheric liquids. Most magmas were fractionated and contaminated by continental crust during their ascent. ϑ1 and ϑ2 tectono-volcanic events have propagated through time and space from west to east. The ϑ1 extension is late Oligocene in the Galatia Massif, late Miocene in Niksar and late Pliocene in Erzincan. The ϑ2 extension and strike-slip event along the NAF began in the late Miocene in the Galatia Massif, early Pliocene in Niksar and Quaternary in Erzincan. Signature from an asthenospheric source in the second event in the three regions suggests that an ancient suture zone (Galatia Massif) and/or the lithospheric NAF transform (Niksar and Erzincan) have served to channel small quantities of asthenospheric melts existing at the base of the lithosphere.

  15. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker


    defined and described as one of many alternative models of the structural controls of the distribution of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers in the YMR. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented for post-Miocene basalts of the Yucca Mountain region. Alternative petrogenetic models are assessed for the formation of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Based on geochemical data, basaltic ash in fault trenches near Yucca Mountain is shown to have originated from the Lathrop Wells center. Chapter 5 synthesizes eruptive and subsurface effects of basaltic volcanism on a potential repository and summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 synthesizes current knowledge of the probability of disruption of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 1996, an Expert Elicitation panel was convened by DOE that independently conducted PVHA for the Yucca Mountain site. Chapter 6 does not attempt to revise this PVHA; instead, it further examines the sensitivity of variables in PVHA. The approaches and results of PVHA by the expert judgment panel are evaluated and incorporated throughout this chapter. The disruption ratio (E2) is completely re-evaluated using simulation modeling that describes volcanic events based on the geometry of basaltic feeder dikes. New estimates of probability bounds are developed. These comparisons show that it is physically implausible for the probability of magmatic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site to be > than about 7 x 10{sup {minus}8} events yr{sup {minus}1} . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption

  16. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker


    defined and described as one of many alternative models of the structural controls of the distribution of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers in the YMR. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented for post-Miocene basalts of the Yucca Mountain region. Alternative petrogenetic models are assessed for the formation of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Based on geochemical data, basaltic ash in fault trenches near Yucca Mountain is shown to have originated from the Lathrop Wells center. Chapter 5 synthesizes eruptive and subsurface effects of basaltic volcanism on a potential repository and summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 synthesizes current knowledge of the probability of disruption of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 1996, an Expert Elicitation panel was convened by DOE that independently conducted PVHA for the Yucca Mountain site. Chapter 6 does not attempt to revise this PVHA; instead, it further examines the sensitivity of variables in PVHA. The approaches and results of PVHA by the expert judgment panel are evaluated and incorporated throughout this chapter. The disruption ratio (E2) is completely re-evaluated using simulation modeling that describes volcanic events based on the geometry of basaltic feeder dikes. New estimates of probability bounds are developed. These comparisons show that it is physically implausible for the probability of magmatic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site to be > than about 7 x 10{sup {minus}8} events yr{sup {minus}1} . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption

  17. Catastrophic volcanism (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.


    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  18. Geophysical evidence for wedging in the San Gorgonio Pass structural knot, southern San Andreas fault zone, southern California (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Matti, J.C.; Hauksson, E.; Morton, D.M.; Christensen, A.


    Geophysical data and surface geology define intertonguing thrust wedges that form the upper crust in the San Gorgonio Pass region. This picture serves as the basis for inferring past fault movements within the San Andreas system, which are fundamental to understanding the tectonic evolution of the San Gorgonio Pass region. Interpretation of gravity data indicates that sedimentary rocks have been thrust at least 5 km in the central part of San Gorgonio Pass beneath basement rocks of the southeast San Bernardino Mountains. Subtle, long-wavelength magnetic anomalies indicate that a magnetic body extends in the subsurface north of San Gorgonio Pass and south under Peninsular Ranges basement, and has a southern edge that is roughly parallel to, but 5-6 km south of, the surface trace of the Banning fault. This deep magnetic body is composed either of upper-plate rocks of San Gabriel Mountains basement or rocks of San Bernardino Mountains basement or both. We suggest that transpression across the San Gorgonio Pass region drove a wedge of Peninsular Ranges basement and its overlying sedimentary cover northward into the San Bernardino Mountains during the Neogene, offsetting the Banning fault at shallow depth. Average rates of convergence implied by this offset are broadly consistent with estimates of convergence from other geologic and geodetic data. Seismicity suggests a deeper detachment surface beneath the deep magnetic body. This interpretation suggests that the fault mapped at the surface evolved not only in map but also in cross-sectional view. Given the multilayered nature of deformation, it is unlikely that the San Andreas fault will rupture cleanly through the complex structures in San Gorgonio Pass. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  19. Subsurface Structure and Fluid Flow Analysis Using Geophysical Methods in the Geothermal Manifestation Area of Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Seyawan


    Full Text Available The indication of an active geothermal system is shown by the presence of surface manifestations such as the hot spring in Kedungoleng, Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java. The temperature of the largest hot spring reaches 74o C and there is an assumption that this is an outflow of Mount Slamet geothermal system. DC-resistivity, Spontaneous Potential (SP and Shallow Surface Temperature surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface structure as well as its correlation with the distribution of thermal fluid flow and shallow surface temperature. The subsurface resistivity has been investigated using 5 points of the Schlumberger configuration with 400 m separation for each point. For the fluid and temperature pattern, a measurement using 15 m interval in 3 lines of conducting fixed electrode configuration has been carried out, along with a 75 cm of depth of temperature measurement around the manifestation area. The thermal fluid is assumed by the low resistivity of 0.756 to 6.91Ωm and this indicates sandstone that has permeable characteristic. The fluid flows in two layers of Sandstone at more than 10 meter from surface of the first layer. Accordingly, the SP values have a range between -11- 11 mV and a depth interval of 13.42- 28.75 m and the distribution of temperature is between 24o-70oC at a tilting range of 46.06o-12.60o. Hence it can be inferred that the thermal fluid moves in the Northwest direction and is controlled by a fault structure stretching from Northwest to Southeast. Article History: Received Feb 3, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted August 13, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Setyawan, A., Triahadini, A., Yuliananto, Y., Aribowo, Y., and Widiarso, D.A. (2016 Subsurface Structure and Fluid Flow Analyses Using Geophysical Methods in Geothermal Manifestation Area of Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 171-177.

  20. Dynamics and internal structure of an Alaskan debris-covered glacier from repeat airborne photogrammetry and surface geophysics (United States)

    Holt, John; Levy, Joseph; Petersen, Eric; Larsen, Chris; Fahnestock, Mark


    Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers encompass a range of compositions and activity, and can be useful paleoclimate indicators. They also respond differently to ongoing climate change than glaciers without a protective cover. Their flow dynamics are not well understood, and their unique surface morphologies, including lobate fronts and arcuate ridges, likely result from viscous flow influenced by a combination of composition, structure, and climatic factors. However, basic connections between flow kinematics and surface morphology have not yet been established, limiting our ability to understand these features. In order to begin to address this problem we have undertaken airborne and surface studies of multiple debris-covered glaciers in Alaska and the western U.S. Sourdough Rock Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, is completely debris-covered and exhibits numerous transverse compressional ridges. Its trunk also exhibits highly regular bumps and swales with a wavelength of ~175 m and amplitudes up to 12 m. In the middle trunk, lineations (boulder trains and furrows) bend around a point roughly 200m from the eastern edge. We acquired five high-resolution airborne surveys of Sourdough Rock Glacier between late 2013 and late 2015 using lidar and photogrammetry to assess annual and seasonal change at the sub-meter level. Differencing the DTMs provides vertical change while feature tracking in orthophotos provide horizontal velocities that indicate meters of annual motion. The flow field is highly correlated with surface features; in particular, compressional ridges in the lower lobe. Stranded, formerly active lobes are also apparent. Surface geophysical studies were undertaken to constrain internal structure and composition using a combination of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at 50 and 100 MHz in six transects, and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements at 47 locations, primarily in an along-flow transect and two cross-flow transects. We infer

  1. The velocity structure of a post-spreading volcanic seamount in the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Jiabiao; Ruan, Aiguo; Yu, Zhiteng; Niu, Xiongwei


    Post-spreading magmatism is extremely strong in the South China Sea and it is common feature for the pacific area (e.g. Castillo et al., 2010). Such seamounts formed by the post-spreading magmatism may provide key insights into a unique mechanism of strong magmatism without mantle convection as well as the crustal emplacement (e.g. Baloga et al., 1995; Kipf et al., 2013). We conducted a seismic refraction survey over an axial seamount (Longnan Seamount) in the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea in 2010. Results show that the post-spreading axial seamount is mainly formed by an extrusive process. Low upper-crustal velocities observed under the seamount are attributed to volcaniclastic rocks and high-porosity basalts. Velocity models reveal the lack of a large root and a relative high-velocity layer 3 underlying the seamount. The origin of axial seamounts is supposed to be buoyant decompression melting mechanism (Castillo et al., 2010; Meng and Zhang, 2014). This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028006, 91228205), the Scientific Research Fund of the Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA (JG1602) and the National Programme on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction, SOA (GASI-GEOGE-01). References Castillo, P. R., Clague, D. A., Davis, A. S., et al., 2010. Petrogenesis of Davidson Seamount lavas and its implications for fossil spreading center and intraplate magmatism in the eastern Pacific. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 11, Q02005, doi:10.1029/2009GC002992 Baloga, S., Spudis, P. D. and Guest, J. E., 1995. The dynamics of rapidly emplaced terrestrial lava flows and implications for planetary volcanism. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (B12), 24509-24519. Kipf, A, Hauff, F., Werner, R., et al., 2014. Seamounts off the West Antarctic margin: A case for non-hotspot driven intraplate volcanism. Gondwana Res., 25 (4), 1660-1679. Meng, L., Zhang, J., 2014. The magmatic activity mechanism of the fossil spreading center in the Southwest sub

  2. Characterization of the Hydrothermal System of the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex, Central Chile, using Structural Geology and Passive Seismic Tomography (United States)

    Pavez Orrego, Claudia; Tapia, Felipe; Comte, Diana; Gutierrez, Francisco; Lira, Elías; Charrier, Reynaldo; Benavente, Oscar


    A structural characterization of the hydrothermal-volcanic field associated with the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex had been performed by combining passive seismic tomography and structural geology. This complex corresponds to a 20 km long succession of N25°E oriented of eruptive centers, currently showing several thermal manifestations distributed throughout the area. The structural behavior of this zone is controlled by the El Fierro - El Diablo fault system, corresponding to a high angle reverse faults of Oligocene - Miocene age. In this area, a temporary seismic network with 16 short-period stations was setup from January to April of 2010, in the context of the MSc thesis of Lira- Energía Andina (2010), covering an area of 200 km2 that corresponds with the hydrothermal field of Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex (TVC), Central Chile, Southern Central Andes. Using P- and S- wave arrival times, a 3D seismic velocity tomography was performed. High Vp/Vs ratios are interpreted as zones with high hot fluid content and high fracturing. Meanwhile, low Vp/Vs anomalies could represent the magmatic reservoir and the conduit network associated to the fluid mobility. Based on structural information and thermal manifestations, these anomalies have been interpreted. In order to visualize the relation between local geology and the velocity model, the volume associated with the magma reservoir and the fluid circulation network has been delimited using an iso-value contour of Vp/Vs equal to 1.70. The most prominent observed feature in the obtained model is a large "V" shaped low - velocity anomaly extending along the entire study region and having the same vergency and orientation as the existing high-angle inverse faults, which corroborates that El Fierro - El Diablo fault system represents the local control for fluid mobility. This geometry coincides with surface hydrothermal manifestations and with available geochemical information of the area, which allowed us to generate a

  3. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics (United States)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  4. Subsurface structure of a maar-diatreme and associated tuff ring from a high-resolution geophysical survey, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona (United States)

    Marshall, Anita; Connor, Charles; Kruse, Sarah; Malservisi, Rocco; Richardson, Jacob; Courtland, Leah; Connor, Laura; Wilson, James; Karegar, Makan A.


    Geophysical survey techniques including gravity, magnetics, and ground penetrating radar were utilized to study the diatreme and tuff ring at Rattlesnake Crater, a maar in the San Francisco Volcanic Field of northern Arizona. Significant magnetic anomalies (+ 1600 nT) and a positive gravity anomaly (+ 1.4 mGal) are associated with the maar. Joint modeling of magnetic and gravity data indicate that the diatreme that underlies Rattlesnake Crater has volume of 0.8-1 km3, and extends to at least 800 m depth. The modeled diatreme comprises at least two zones of variable density and magnetization, including a low density, highly magnetized unit near the center of the diatreme, interpreted to be a pyroclastic unit emplaced at sufficiently high temperature and containing sufficient juvenile fraction to acquire thermal remanent magnetization. Magnetic anomalies and ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging demonstrate that the bedded pyroclastic deposits of the tuff ring also carry high magnetization, likely produced by energetic emplacement of hot pyroclastic density currents. GPR profiles on the tuff ring reveal long ( 100 m) wavelength undulations in bedding planes. Elsewhere, comparable bedforms have been interpreted as base surge deposits inflated by air entrainment from eruption column collapse. Interpretation of these geophysical data suggests that Rattlesnake Crater produced highly energetic phreatomagmatic activity that gave way to less explosive activity as the eruption progressed. The positive gravity anomaly associated with the maar crater is interpreted to be caused by coherent bodies within the diatreme and possibly lava ponding on the crater floor. These dense magnetized bodies have excess mass of 2-4 × 1010 kg, and occupy approximately 5% of the diatreme by volume. Magnetic anomalies on the crater floor are elongate NW-SE, suggesting that the eruption may have been triggered by the interaction of ascending magma with water in fractures of this orientation. GPR

  5. Geophysical and magneto-structural study of the Maâdna structure (Talemzane, Algeria): Insights on its age and origin (United States)

    Lamali, A.; Rochette, P.; Merabet, N.; Abtout, A.; Maouche, S.; Gattacceca, J.; Ferrière, L.; Hamoudi, M.; Meziane, E. H.; Ayache, M.


    The Maâdna structure is located approximately 400 km south of Algiers (33°19' N, 4°19' E) and emplaced in Upper-Cretaceous to Eocene limestones. Although accepted as an impact crater on the basis of alleged observations of shock-diagnostic features such as planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz grains, previous works were limited and further studies are desirable to ascertain the structure formation process and its age. For this purpose, the crater was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach including field observations, detailed cartography of the different geological and structural units, geophysical surveys, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, paleomagnetism, and petrography of the collected samples. We found that the magnetic and gravimetric profiles highlight a succession of positive and negative anomalies, ones that might indicate the occurrence of a causative material which is at least in part identical. Geophysical analysis and modeling suggest the presence of this material within the crater at a depth of about 100 m below the surface. Using soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, the shallowest magnetized zone in the central part of the crater is identified as a recently deposited material. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic experiments combined with petrographic observations show that detrital hematite is the main magnetic carrier although often associated with magnetite. A primary magnetization is inferred from a stable remanence with both normal and reverse directions, carried by these two minerals. Although this is supposed to be a chemical remagnetization, its normal polarity nature is considered to be a Pliocene component, subsequent to the crater formation. The pole falls onto the Miocene-Pliocene part of the African Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP). Consequently, we estimate the formation of the Maâdna crater to have occurred during the time period extending from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene. Unfortunately, our field

  6. Soft-sediment deformation structures related to volcanic earthquakes of the Lower Cretaceous Qingshan Group in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Qi Zhou


    The SSDS types in the Qingshan Group includes load and flame structure, ball and pillow structure, water-escape structure, hydroplastic deformation structure, plastic sandstone breccia structure, volcanic drop stone and V-shaped ground fissure mainly caused by volcanic earthquakes of three types: (1 seismic waves, (2 gravity and inertia effect of pyroclastic flows, (3 instant differential air pressure; which is different from slumping and tectonic earthquakes occurred in the Laiyang Group. In addition, with the lithofacies association analysis between pyroclastic flow and SSDS beds, a distribution model of SSDS related to volcanic earthquakes can be established: SSDS types changed gradually with their distance further away from the volcanic activity core. Brittle deformation which was common in the proximal zone disappeared gradually; liquefied and plastic SSDS continued to dominate in the medial zone; and slightly liquefied SSDS were developed in the distal zone. Meanwhile, the scale and size of SSDS is negatively correlated with the distance of SSDS depositional locations from the volcanic vent.

  7. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Lombardi, Salvatore; Toro, Beniamino [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Roma (Italy); Nappi, Giovanni; Renzulli, Alberto [Universita di Urbino, Ist. di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Urbino (Italy); Reimer, G. Michael [U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Denver, CO (United States)


    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of 100degC/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralisation, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth. (Author)

  8. Volcanic tremor and plume height hysteresis from Pavlof Volcano, Alaska. (United States)

    Fee, David; Haney, Matthew M; Matoza, Robin S; Eaton, Alexa R; Cervelli, Peter; Schneider, David J; Iezzi, Alexandra M


    The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes and plume height changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data. We propose that the time-varying relationship at Pavlof arose from changes in the tremor source related to volcanic vent erosion. This relationship may improve estimates of volcanic emissions and characterization of eruption size and intensity.

  9. Crustal structure of the Newer Volcanics Province, SE Australia, from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Jiang, Chengxin; Yang, Yingjie; Rawlinson, Nicholas; Griffin, William L.


    Intraplate volcanism is a widespread phenomenon, and is generally regarded to be independent of plate tectonics. The Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of SE Australia represents the most recent (and arguably still active) intraplate volcanism on the Australian continent, and has been postulated to originate from the combined effect of localized shear flow and edge-driven convection. In this study, we adopt ambient noise tomography and Monte-Carlo inversion methods to construct the first local-scale 3D crustal Vs model of the NVP region with a resolution of 35 km. The model displays distinct crustal velocity features near the eastern and western margins of the NVP, which may point to the existence of a lithosphere-scale plumbing system for the migration of melt associated with the boundary between the Delamerian Orogen and the Lachlan Orogen, which underlies the NVP. In particular, exceptionally high velocities are observed in the middle crust of the Delamerian Orogen, and are best explained by buried magmatic arcs. This interpretation is consistent with a subduction-accretion origin for the Delamerian Orogen. Trans-lithospheric faults might have developed during the accretion processes, providing possible pathways for the migration of NVP magmas to the crust and surface. Our 3D model also images small localized velocity reductions in the lower crust at the region where the two distinct lithospheric units meet. The low velocity zone is spatially correlated with the top of a prominent lithosphere-scale low-resistivity zone (10-30 Ωm), which we interpret to represent intruded magmatic sills with small proportions of melt remaining.

  10. Constraining the Geometry and Tectonic Evolution of the Maneadero Basin Through Combined Geophysical and Structural Data Sets (United States)

    Callihan, S.; Wetmore, P.; Connor, C.; Fletcher, J.; Springer, A.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.


    Maneadero basin, located 5 km south of Ensenada, Mexico, is bound to the south by the dextral Agua Blanca Fault (ABF). The ABF is the southwestern-most in a network of faults transferring plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the bend in the San Andreas in southern California. The basin is about 60km2 with an axis that trends WNW, subparallel to the ABF. The WNW-trending, western ABF juxtaposes the basin and the Bahia Todos Santos to the northwest, with the 1000m high Punta Banda Ridge. The goals of this study were to constrain the geometry of the Maneadero basin and the distribution of faults bounding and within the basin, as well as to provide constraints on the kinematic evolution of the basin. A combined geophysical (gravity and magnetic) and structural study were employed to address these issues. Gravity data define an anomaly of about 60 mGal across the basin and onto the adjacent up-thrown block, and can clearly identify two gravity highs separated by an intervening gravity low. The highs, irrespective of elevation, are offset by approximately 7km of dextral strike slip. This is consistent with the results of field mapping conducted during the summer 2008 that identifies a Cretaceous intrusion, located just beyond the southeast corner of the Maneadero Basin which is cut by the ABF, which is also displaced by approximately 7km of slip on the ABF. Gravity data also allow for the estimation of a dip-slip component of displacement across the ABF. As expected, the gravity low appears in the middle of the basin, which is shown to have sediment thicknesses of approximately 1km near the ABF and gradually shallowing northward. There is also a slight gradient that decreases in magnitude from southeast to northwest along the axis of the basin. A density contrast of 0.37 g/cm3 between the basin fill and outcropping Punta Banda Ridge, as described by Florez et al (2004), was used to generate this model. A normal slip component is also documented

  11. The tectonic evolution of the Arctic since Pangea breakup: Integrating constraints from surface geology and geophysics with mantle structure (United States)

    Shephard, Grace E.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria


    The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic, including the northern Pacific, Siberian and North American margins, since the Jurassic has been punctuated by the opening and closing of ocean basins, the accretion of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes and associated deformation. This complexity is expressed in the uncertainty of plate tectonic models of the region, with the time-dependent configurations and kinematic history remaining poorly understood. The age, location, geometry and convergence rates of the subduction zones associated with these ancient ocean basins have implications for mantle structure, which can be used as an additional constraint for refining and evaluating plate boundary models. Here we integrate surface geology and geophysics with mantle tomography models to generate a digital set of tectonic blocks and plates as well as topologically closed plate boundaries with time-dependent rotational histories for the circum-Arctic. We find that subducted slabs inferred from seismic velocity anomalies from global P and S wave tomography models can be linked to various episodes of Arctic subduction since the Jurassic, in particular to the destruction of the South Anuyi Ocean. We present a refined model for the opening of the Amerasia Basin incorporating seafloor spreading between at least 142.5 and 120 Ma, a "windshield" rotation for the Canada Basin, and opening orthogonal to the Lomonosov Ridge for the northern Makarov and Podvodnikov basins. We also present a refined pre-accretionary model for the Wrangellia Superterrane, imposing a subduction polarity reversal in the early Jurassic before accretion to North America at 140 Ma. Our model accounts for the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic opening and closure of the Cache Creek Ocean, reconstructed between the Wrangellia Superterrane and Yukon-Tanana Terrane. We suggest that a triple junction may also explain the Mid-Palaeozoic opening of the Slide Mountain, Oimyakon and South Anuyi oceans. Our

  12. Requirements and Implementation Feasibility for a CubeSat Thermal Infrared Imaging System to Monitor the Structure of Volcanic Ash Clouds (United States)

    Thorsen, D.; Carroll, R.; Webley, P.; Hawkins, J.


    The 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland caused the cancellation of approximately 108,000 flights over an 8-day period, disrupted air traffic worldwide, and cost the airline industry more than $400 million per day. The inconvenience and economic impact of this and similar events, such as Puyehue-Cordon-Caulle in 2011, have heightened the interest in developing improved satellite remote sensing techniques for monitoring volcanic plumes and drifting clouds. For aviation safety, the operational/research community has started to move towards classifying the concentrations within volcanic plumes and clouds. Additionally, volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are often used for forecasting ash cloud locations and they require knowledge of the structure of the erupting column to improve their ash simulations and also downwind 3-D maps of the ash cloud to calibrate/validate their modeling output. Existing remote sensing satellites utilize a brightness temperature method with thermal infrared (TIR) measurements from 10 - 12 μm to determine mass loading of volcanic ash along a single line of sight, but they have infrequent revisit times and they cannot resolve the three-dimensional structure of the ash clouds. A cluster of CubeSats dedicated to the monitoring of volcanic ash and plumes could provide both more frequent updates and the multi-aspect images needed to resolve the density structure of volcanic ash clouds and plumes. In this presentation, we discuss the feasibility and requirements for a CubeSat TIR imaging system and the associated on-board image processing that would be required to monitor the structure of volcanic ash clouds from Low Earth Orbit.

  13. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggieri


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  14. Monitoring of low-energy seismic activity in Elbrus volcanic area with the use of underground seismic array (United States)

    Kovalevsky, V.; Sobisevitch, A.


    Results of experiment with underground seismic array for studying low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area are presented. Linear seismic array of 2.5 km aperture is created in the tunnel of Baksan neutrino observatory. Horizontal tunnel of 4.3 km length is drilled in the mount Andyrchi at a distance of 20 km from Elbrus volcano. Array includes 6 three-component seismic sensors with 24-byte recorders installed with 500 m interval one from another along the tunnel. Underground seismic array is the new instrument of geophysical observatory organized for studies of geophysical processes in the Elbrus volcanic area. The observatory equipped with modern geophysical instruments including broadband tri-axial seismometers, quartz tilt-meters, magnetic variometers, geo-acoustic sensors, hi-precision distributed thermal sensors and gravimeters. The initial analysis of seismic signals recorded by seismic array allows us to detect low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area beginning from the distance of 3-5 km (the faults in a vicinity of mount Andyrchi) up to 15-25 km (area of Elbrus volcano). The regional micro-earthquakes with magnitude 1-2 at the distances 50-100 km was also recorded. 2.5 km aperture of the underground linear seismic array make it possible to determine with high accuracy hypocenters of local seismic events associated with geodynamic of volcanic magmatic structures and to realize seismo-emission tomography of the active zones of Elbrus volcano.

  15. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol


    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  16. New airborne geophysical data from the Waterberg Coalfield

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS


    Full Text Available in 1920, but little exploration has been done since. Coaltech Research Association commissioned an Airborne Geophysical Survey of the area to enhance the structural understanding of the basin. The airborne geophysical survey was a major contribution...

  17. Hydrocarbon- Generating Model of the Area Covered With Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhanqian; Zhang Yuwei


    The distribution of Oil & gas fields shows their close relationship with the most active tectonic regions. This is not a coincidence but having a scientific reasons. The crustal active regions, refer to the places where the active natural earthquake, volcanic activities, underground water happened, and the areas of the leaking off of natural gas to the surface of the crust. The magma of volcanic activities brings the organic "kitchen range body" hydrocarbon- generating model and inorganic genetic hydrocarbon to the regions covered by volcanic rock. Underground water brings a catalytic hydrocarbongenerating model for organic matter, and the leaking- off of H2 and CO2 contributes a synthetic hydrocarbon - generating model. Volcanic activities bring the assemblage of Source, Reservoir and Seal formed by the sediments and magma the sedimentary basins, and the hydrocarbon - generating system with a "water - volcano" binary structure is formed. All these conditions are favorable and excellent for the formation of oil & gas fields. The distribution of American oil & gas fields have very close relationship with the mines of Fe, Mn, Ct, Mo, W and V, deposits of Zn, Cu, V, Pb, Al and Hg, and the deposits of fluorite, sulfur, potassium salt, phosphate and halite, and the distribution of sulfate- chloride of river water. The reason why few oil & gas fields discovered in the regions covered by volcanic rock in western America maybe because of the view of "inconsistency between petroleum and volcano". Further more, It's very difficult to carry out a geophysical exploration in such kinds of regions.This paper examined a few hydrocarbon-generating models (systems) mentioned above and came up with some fresh ideas on the exploration in the areas covered with volcanic rocks.

  18. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  19. Possible structural control on the 2011 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (southern Chile) determined by InSAR, GPS and seismicity (United States)

    Wendt, Anja; Tassara, Andrés; Báez, Juan Carlos; Basualto, Daniel; Lara, Luis E.; García, Francisco


    The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (PCCVC) is one of the best examples of tectonic control on volcanism at the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (southern Chile). The PCCVC comprises several volcanic centres that erupted dominantly SiO2-rich magmas at the intersection of the trench-parallel Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) and an inherited NW-SE basement structure. The PCCVC began an explosive and later effusive eruption on 2011 June 4 causing decimetre- to metre-scale surface deformation that was observed by a series of Envisat ASAR satellite scenes. We modelled this data and complemented it with time-series of two continuous GPS stations and seismicity recorded by a local network. Deformation during the first 3 days of the eruption can be modelled either by two point sources aligned with the NW-SE Cordón Caulle graben or by a closing dyke with a significant component of left-lateral motion along the graben. These models are discussed with respect to their implications on the estimated rheology and the eruption mechanism. GPS observations near the volcanic complex reveal an additional, more localised effect related to the LOFZ in the south of the complex. Coeruptive deformation at the main geological structures of the PCCVC is further supported by relocated seismicity, which is concentrated along the Cordón Caulle graben and to the western side of the LOFZ.

  20. The anatomy of a cinder cone: preliminary paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, structural, and petrologic data from the La Cienega volcano, Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico (United States)

    Petronis, M. S.; Foucher, M.; Lineline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.


    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field is one of several middle Pliocene to Pleistocene basaltic volcanic fields of the axial Rio Grande Rift in central and northern New Mexico. It is a monogenetic volcanic field that comprises about 60 cinder-spatter cones, occupies ~ 700 km2, and ranges in age from 2.7 Ma to 1.1 Ma. Eruptive centers are typically central vent volcanoes, ranging from low-relief shields to steep-sided, breached cinder and spatter cone remnants. They represent short eruptive events that likely were derived from rapidly evolving reservoir-conduit systems. Mining activity has exposed the volcanic plumbing system of the Cienega Mine cinder cone, just west of Santa Fe, NM. Here, geologists from France and USA have been investigating the exposed roots of this eviscerated Pliocene volcano to investigate magma conduit geometry, magma flow structures, and eruption patterns. We are testing models for magma transport and volcano construction using a variety of field and laboratory tools. Common models of volcanic construction envision the magma feeder as a dike or pipe-like conduit transporting molten rock from a deep reservoir to the eruptive vent. We posit that small volcanic pluming systems are inherently more complex and actually involve numerous feeder geometries throughout the volcano lifespan. Our preliminary work suggests that the simple exteriors of some cinder cones hide a long life and complex history, both of which would change the appreciation of the related volcanic hazards in active systems. The Cienega Mine cinder cone consists of several meter- to decimeter-wide intrusions that connect to eruptive centers. These intrusions show a continuity of brittle to ductile structures from their margins to interiors. We have collected samples across each intrusion as well as along strike for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and petrographic analysis in order to establish magma flow patterns. AMS results yield a remarkably consistent dataset that


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20091853 An Jinzhen(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhou Pinggen Experiments on Exploring and Monitoring Landslip-Mass Using Geoelectric Resistivity Observations(Acta Seismologica Sinica,ISSN0253-3782,CN11-2021/P,30(3),2008,p.254-261,6 illus.,1 table,19 refs.)Key words:resistivity methods,landslidesIn the experiments,a high-density resistivity method is used to explore the electric structure of landslip mass,and a resistivity-changing anisotropy method is used to monitor the orientation and speed of main fracture extending of landslip mass.The results are as follows:1)the exploring experiments have verified a part of creep deformation borderline,the depth and thickness of groundwater horizon,and the property of super strata in the landslip mass investigated formerly,which have proved that the landslip belts contain rich groundwater

  2. Le Pico de Orizaba (Mexique): Structure et evolution d'un grand volcan andesitique complexe (United States)

    Robin, C.; Cantagrel, J. M.


    Volcan Pico de Orizaba, which marks the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is one of the largest andesitic composite volcanoes in America. It is located above a series of crustal distensive faults making the boundary of the Coast Plains of the Gulf of Mexico from the Altiplano. For this reason, the volcano shows an asymmetry: from the west, its elevation is about 3,000 m whereas on the eastern side it reaches 4,000 to 4,500 m from its base. The Pico de Orizaba is composed of a primitive stratovolcano raised by a recent summit cone. It has been built by three very distinct volcanic and magmatic phases. 1. The first one, probably discontinuous effusive activity, lasted more than one million years. It is mainly composed of two pyroxenes-andesites with scarce associated basaltic and dacitic lava-flows. Amphibole is an accessory mineral in most differentiated lavas. On the eastern flank, numerous massive and autobrecciated lava-flows pass outward into thick conglomeratic formations. This effusive phase has built a primitive central volcano and a parasitic cone: the Sierra Negra. 2. The second phase is of short duration — about 100,000 years or less — in comparison with the first period. It seems that this period began with the formation of a caldera followed by the extrusion of amphibole dacite domes and the overflow of viscous silica-rich (andesite to dacite) lava flows on the northern flank. An intense explosive activity develops: pelean nuées ardentes are associated with extrusion of the domes; numerous plinian eruptions leading to widespread dacitic pumiceous air-falls are produced by both the central and the adventive volcanoes. This sequence of events is interpreted as the progressive emptying of a superficial chamber containing differenciated magma. A rhyolite flow erupted during this phase. 3. The age of the recent phase is better defined. It started 13,000 years B.P. with the eruption of a dacitic ash-flow containing pumice and scoria

  3. Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey


    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins...... on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent margins....... A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger when...

  4. Geophysical imaging of shallow degassing in a Yellowstone hydrothermal system (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B. J.; Sims, K. W. W.


    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, which hosts over 10,000 thermal features, is the world's largest active continental hydrothermal system, yet very little is known about the shallow "plumbing" system connecting hydrothermal reservoirs to surface features. Here we present the results of geophysical investigations of shallow hydrothermal degassing in Yellowstone. We measured electrical resistivity, compressional-wave velocity from refraction data, and shear wave velocity from surface-wave analysis to image shallow hydrothermal degassing to depths of 15-30 m. We find that resistivity helps identify fluid pathways and that Poisson's ratio shows good sensitivity to saturation variations, highlighting gas-saturated areas and the local water table. Porosity and saturation predicted from rock physics modeling provide critical insight to estimate the fluid phase separation depth and understand the structure of hydrothermal systems. Finally, our results show that Poisson's ratio can effectively discriminate gas- from water-saturated zones in hydrothermal systems.

  5. Fiber Optic Geophysics Sensor Array (United States)

    Grochowski, Lucjan


    The distributed optical sensor arrays are analysed in view of specific needs of 3-D seismic explorations methods. There are compared advantages and disadventages of arrays supported by the sensors which are modulated in intensity and phase. In these systems all-fiber optic structures and their compabilities with digital geophysic formats are discussed. It was shown that the arrays based on TDM systems with the intensity modulated sensors are economically and technically the best matched for geophysic systems supported by a large number of the sensors.

  6. Geophysical constraints on Rio Grande rift structure and stratigraphy from magnetotelluric models and borehole resistivity logs, northern New Mexico (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sawyer, David A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.


    Two- and three-dimensional electrical resistivity models derived from the magnetotelluric method were interpreted to provide more accurate hydrogeologic parameters for the Albuquerque and Española Basins. Analysis and interpretation of the resistivity models are aided by regional borehole resistivity data. Examination of the magnetotelluric response of hypothetical stratigraphic cases using resistivity characterizations from the borehole data elucidates two scenarios where the magnetotelluric method provides the strongest constraints. In the first scenario, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of extensive volcanic cover, the underlying thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments, and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. In the second scenario, in the absence of volcanic cover, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. Magnetotelluric surveys provide additional constraints on the relative positions of basement rocks and the thicknesses of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the region of the Albuquerque and Española Basins. The northern extent of a basement high beneath the Cerros del Rio volcanic field is delineated. Our results also reveal that the largest offset of the Hubbell Spring fault zone is located 5 km west of the exposed scarp. By correlating our resistivity models with surface geology and the deeper stratigraphic horizons using deep well log data, we are able to identify which of the resistivity variations in the upper 2 km belong to the upper Santa Fe Group sediment

  7. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity. (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter


    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  8. Nature, Source and Composition of Volcanic Ash in Surficial Sediments Around the Zhongsha Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; WANG Xinyu


    Volcanic detrital sediments are a unique indicator for reconstructing the petrogenetie evolution of submarine volcanic terrains. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments around the Zhongsha Islands includes three kinds of volcanogenic detritus, i.e., brown volcanic glass, colorless volcanic glass and volcanic scoria. The major element characteristics show that bimodal volcanic activity may have taken place in the northern margin of the South China Sea, with brown volcanic glass and colorless volcanic glass repre-senting the maric end-member and felsie end-member, respectively. Fractional crystallization is the main process for magma evolu-tion. The nature of the volcanic activity implies that the origin of volcanic activity was related to extensional tectonic settings, which is corresponding to an extensional geodynamie setting in the Xisha Trench, and supports the notion, which is based on geophysical data and petrology, that there may exist a mantle plume around the Hainan Island.

  9. A Description of Sub-Equatorial Volcanic Structures Consistent with Sub-Ice Magmatism East of Nepenthes Mensae, Mars. (United States)

    Caprarelli, G.; de Pablo Hernandez, M. A.


    The Martian region located immediately north of the dichotomy scarp, between latitudes 120°E and 135°E, is covered by fretted terrains, characterised by the presence of knobs and mesas formed by eroded and reworked material of highlands provenance, and the smoother terrains between them [1]. Topographic depressions of oblong shape, generally parallel to the scarp, of rough and chaotic appearance, are also observed. The high resolution (~ 6 m/pixel, [2]) Context Camera (CTX) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) makes it possible to examine the morphologies of these topographic depressions in great detail, unveiling their complex geological histories. Here we expand on our earlier work in the adjacent Nepenthes Mensae region [3] and present the results of our observations of morphologies of likely igneous origin. We identified a variety of shapes consistent with magmatic structures and constructs: dikes, collapsed lava tubes, and lava flows are observable in the smoother terrains. Most of the elevated structures in the areas are strongly eroded knobs and mesas covered by dust and debris. In some cases however, the morphological characteristics of 2-10 km-size structures are clear and sharp, which allowed us to identify features consistent with sub-ice volcanic constructs, such as tuyas and tindars [4]. Geological reconstructions involving magma-ice interaction are supported by the presence of lobate aprons around knobs and mesas, and of scalloped ejecta surrounding complex impact craters, suggesting the existence of ice both underground and on the surface of these low elevation areas at the time of formation of these constructs. [1] Tanaka et al. (2005) Geologic Map of the Northern Plains of Mars. USGS SIM 2888. [2] Malin et al. (2007) Context Camera investigation on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. JGR 112, E05S04, 10.1029/2006JE002808. [3] dePablo and Caprarelli (2010) Possible subglacial volcanoes in Nepenthes Mensae, eastern hemisphere, Mars. LPSC

  10. Magnetic, structural and geochronologic evidence bearing on volcanic sources and Oligocene Deformation of Ash Flow Tuffs, northeast Nevada (United States)

    Palmer, H. C.; MacDonald, W. D.; Hayatsu, A.


    Magnetic properties of mid-Tertiary volcanic rocks west of Jiggs in northeast Nevada were investigated for the purposes of interpreting igneous, structural, and tectonic processes in this part of the Basin and Range province. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) patterns reflect flow fabrics and suggest previously unknown sources for these ash flow tuffs. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence suggest counterclockwise relative rotation of the southern part of the area with respect to the north. New stratigraphic, chemical and K-Ar isotopic data support these interpretations. Dacite to rhyolite ash flow tuffs of the Indian Well Formation were subdivided into two main units: the lower and predominant tuff of Jiggs (35.8-37.0 Ma) and the unconformably overlying but areally restricted tuff of Hackwood (30.8 Ma). The Jiggs unit has two polarities whereas the Hackwood has only a reversed polarity remanence. Together these units with tilt correction define a pole (92°E, 87°N, dp = 6°, dm = 8°) for approximately 30-37 Ma. This pole is concordant with coeval North American reference poles, indicating that this zone of approximately 30 km NS extent has not undergone significant vertical axis rotation relative to the North American reference. Andesite lavas of normal magnetic polarity and of 32.5-Ma age characterize the Diamond Hills immediately to the south. We interpret this region, from both structural evidence and discordant paleomagnetic direction, to have rotated approximately 25° counterclockwise relative to the Indian Well volcanic units to the north. The apparent rotation of the Diamond Hills is possibly the result of drag on the left-lateral Garcia fault which limits the Diamond Hills on the southwest. Analysis of AMS data suggests, by patterns of the K1 axes, two distinct sources for the Jiggs unit: a northern buried source and a central partially buried source. Lithologic evidence consistent with proximal vent facies is found near the latter source. An

  11. Thermal regimes of major volcanic centers: Magnetotelluric constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermance, J.F.


    The interpretation of geophysical/electromagnetic field data has been used to study dynamical processes in the crust beneath three of the major tectono-volcanic features in North America: the Long Valley/Mono Craters Volcanic Complex in eastern California, the Cascades Volcanic Belt in Oregon, and the Rio Grande Rift in the area of Socorro, New Mexico. Primary accomplishments have been in the area of creating and implementing a variety of 2-D generalized inverse computer codes, and the application of these codes to fields studies on the basin structures and he deep thermal regimes of the above areas. In order to more fully explore the space of allowable models (i.e. those inverse solutions that fit the data equally well), several distinctly different approaches to the 2-D inverse problem have been developed: (1) an overdetermined block inversion; (2) an overdetermined spline inverstion; (3) a generalized underdetermined total inverse which allows one to tradeoff certain attributes of their model, such as minimum structure (flat models), roughness (smooth models), or length (small models). Moreover, we are exploring various approaches for evaluating the resolution model parameters for the above algorithms. 33 refs.

  12. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo


    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 54th volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  13. Fiber optic geophysical sensors (United States)

    Homuth, Emil F.


    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  14. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo


    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 52nd volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  15. Waterberg coalfield airborne geophysics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S


    Full Text Available Airborne Geophysics Project Number: 1.5.5 Sub Committee: Geology and Geophysics Presenter: Dr. Stoffel Fourie Co-Workers: Dr. George Henry & Me. Leonie Marè Collaborators: Coaltech & CSIR Project Objectives Major Objectives: circle5 Initiate Semi...-Regional Exploration of the Waterberg Coalfield to the benefit of the Industry. circle5 Generate a good quality Airborne Geophysical Dataset. circle5 Generate a basic lineament and surface geology interpretation of the Ellisras Basin. circle5 Generate a basic...

  16. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo


    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  17. Soil microbial structure and function post-volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island and regional controls on microbial heterogeneity (United States)

    Zeglin, L. H.; Rainey, F.; Wang, B.; Waythomas, C.; Talbot, S. L.


    Microorganisms are abundant and diverse in soil and their integrated activity drives nutrient cycling on the ecosystem scale. Organic matter (OM) inputs from plant production support microbial heterotrophic life, and soil geochemistry constrains microbial activity and diversity. As vegetation and soil develops over time, these factors change, modifying the controls on microbial heterogeneity. Following a volcanic eruption, ash deposition creates new surfaces where both organismal growth and weathering processes are effectively reset. The trajectory of microbial community development following this disturbance depends on both organic matter accumulation and geochemical constraints. Also, dispersal of microbial cells to the sterile ash surface may determine microbial community succession. The Aleutian Islands (Alaska, USA) are a dynamic volcanic region, with active and dormant volcanoes distributed across the volcanic arc. One of these volcanoes, Kasatochi, erupted violently in August 2008, burying a small lush island in pryoclastic flows and fine ash. Since, plants and birds are beginning to re-establish on developing surfaces, including legacy soils exposed by rapid erosion of pyroclastic deposits, suggesting that recovery of microbial life is also proceeding. However, soil microbial diversity and function has not been examined on Kasatochi Island or across the greater Aleutian region. The project goal is to address these questions: How is soil microbial community structure and function developing following the Kasatochi eruption? What is the relative importance of dispersal, soil OM and geochemistry to microbial community heterogeneity across the Aleutians? Surface mineral soil (20-cm depth) samples were collected from Kasatochi Island in summer 2013, five years after the 2008 eruption, and from eight additional Aleutian islands. On Kasatochi, pryoclastic deposits, exposed legacy soils supporting regrowth of remnant dune wild-rye (Leymus mollis) and mesic meadow

  18. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey (United States)

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.


    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  19. Structural mapping of Chikotra River basin in the Deccan Volcanic Province of Maharashtra, India from ground magnetic data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Anand; Vinit C Erram; J D Patil; N J Pawar; Gautam Gupta; R A Suryavanshi


    Ground magnetic data collected over Chikotra River in the peripheral region of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Maharashtra located in Kolhapur district was analysed to throw light on the structural pattern and distribution of magnetic sources within the basin. In order to isolate the magnetic anomalies showing varying trend and amplitude, several transformation operations including wavelength filtering, and upward continuation has been carried out on the reduced to pole anomaly map. Qualitative interpretation of these products help identify the distribution of magnetic sources, viz., the Deccan basalts, dolerite intrusives and older greenstone and schist belts in the subsurface. Present study suggests that the Chikotra basin is composed of three structural units; a NE–SW unit superposed on deeper NW–SE unit with randomly distributed trap flows on the surface. One of the major outcome of the present study is the delineation of almost 900-m thick Proterozoic Kaladgi sediments below the Deccan trap flows. The NE–SW magnetic sources may probably represent intrusives into the Kaladgi sediments, while the deeper NW–SE trends are interpreted as the northward extension of the Dharwars, underneath theDeccan lava flows, that forms the basement for the deposition of Kaladgi sediments.

  20. Geophysical Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long qaodmasdkwaspemas5ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 22 ft wide qaodmasdkwaspemas4ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 7 ft deep concrete...

  1. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina) (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca


    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  2. Geophysically inferred structural and lithologic map of the precambrian basement in the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Cordell, Lindrith E.


    This report is an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data that was carried out as part of a Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) study of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri. It is one in a series of reports representing a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas Geological Survey, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey. The work presented here is part of a larger project whose goal is to assess the mineral resource potential of the Paleozoic sedimentary section and crystalline basement within the quadrangle. Reports discussing geochemical, geological, and various other aspects of the study area are included in this Miscellaneous Field Studies Map series as MF-2125-A through MF-2125-E. Geophysical interpretation of Precambrian crystalline basement lithology and structure is the focus of this report. The study of the crystalline basement is complicated by the lack of exposures due to the presence of a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary cover. In areas where there are no outcrops, the geologist must turn to other indirect methods to assist in an understanding of the basement. Previous investigations of the buried basement in this region used available drill hole data, isotope age information, and regional geophysical data (Sims, 1990; Denison and others, 1984; Bickford and others, 1986). These studies were regional in scope and were presented at state and multistate scales. The work documented here used recently collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data to enhance the regional geologic knowledge of the area. Terrace-density and terrace-magnetization maps were calculated from the gravity and aeromagnetic data, leading directly to inferred physical-property (density and magnetization) maps. Once these maps were produced, the known geology and drill-hole data were reconciled with the physical-property maps to form a refined structural and

  3. Structure and temporal variations of a magmatic CO2 degassing site in the Bohemian Massif (Europe): an integrated geophysical-geochemical-sedimentological study (United States)

    Flechsig, C.; Nickschick, T.; Kaempf, H. W.; Mrlina, J.; Bussert, R.


    The Bohemian Massif, as a part of the Variscan orogenic belt, is one of the largest stable intracontinental zone of pre-Permian rocks in Central and Western Europe. Its geodynamically most active western part, the West Bohemia/Vogtland region, shows persistent seismic activity of recurring earthquake swarms (up to M 4.5) and intense CO2 degassing at the surface (mofettes) with mantle-derived He-isotope signatures. To understand the fluid migration in the subsurface and its control by tectonics is one research issue which must be addressed to clarify the possible link to the earthquake generation. We present results of an interdisciplinary study of near-surface sediments in a mofette field. The study comprises geophysical (gravimetry and geoelectrics), geochemical (CO2 soil gas and gas flux measurements), and sedimentological investigations. The investigations reveal a positive correlation between areas of high soil gas (CO2) concentration and flux with geophysical anomalies (negative self potential, positive structures of low electrical resistivity, decreased density) as well as with specific sediment properties (content of pyrite and organic material, occurrence of dispersed pebbles, uplifted clay layer). These features are thought to be directly or indirectly related to the magmatic caused fluid flow. Soil gas (CO2) flux and concentration anomalies spread out with a linear trend, suggesting the fault control on gas ascent. Negative self potential anomalies at the degassing spots were interpreted considering as having been caused by a downward movement of the meteoric water balancing the upward CO2 gas flux. The model of the active mofettes has to consider its bonding to deep-seated faults and can be tracked. The results fit into a tectonic model in which the mofette fields are in the centers of two independent pull-apart basin-like structures.

  4. Structure and evolution of an active resurgent dome evidenced by geophysical investigations: The Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano system (Siwi caldera, Vanuatu) (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Chaput, M.; Gailler, L.; Finizola, A.; Dumont, S.; Peltier, A.; Bachèlery, P.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Byrdina, S.; Menny, P.; Colonge, J.; Douillet, G. A.; Letort, J.; Letourneur, L.; Merle, O.; Di Gangi, F.; Nakedau, D.; Garaebiti, E.


    In this contribution, we focus on one of the most active resurgences on Earth, that of the Yenkahe dome in the Siwi caldera (Tanna Island, Vanuatu), which is associated with the persistently active Yasur volcano. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been carried out over the past few years in the area, as well as electrical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain electro-magnetics (TDEM) and self-potential (SP). These investigations were completed by thermometry, CO2 soil gas measurements, field observations and sampling. This multi-method approach allows geological structures within the caldera to be identified, as well as associated hydrothermal features. The global structure of the caldera is deduced from gravity data, which shows the caldera rim as a high density structure. Large lava fields, emplaced before and after the onset of resurgence, are evidenced by combined gravity, magnetic and resistivity signals. In the middle of the caldera, the Yenkahe dome apparently results from a combination of volcanic and tectonic events, showing that lava extrusion and resurgence have been operating simultaneously or alternately during the Siwi caldera post-collapse history. There is a clear distinction between the western and eastern parts of the dome. The western part is older and records the growth of an initial volcanic cone and the formation of a small caldera. This small caldera (paleo-Yasur caldera), partially filled with lava flows, is the present-day focus of volcanic activity and associated fluid circulation and alteration. The eastern part of the dome is presumably younger, and is characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration and activity. Its northern part is covered by lava flow piles and exhibits a shallow hydrothermal zone in ERT. The southern part has hydrothermal alteration and activity extending at least down to the base of the resurgent dome. This part of the dome is built up of low cohesion rock and is thus

  5. Discovery of an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc: volcanic structure and potential hazards of Oomurodashi Volcano (Invited) (United States)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Nichols, A. R.; Hirahara, Y.; Carey, R.; McIntosh, I. M.; Masaki, Y.; Kondo, R.; Miyairi, Y.


    Oomurodashi is a bathymetric high located ~20 km south of Izu-Oshima, an active volcanic island of the northern Izu-Bonin Arc. Using the 200 m bathymetric contour to define its summit dimensions, the diameter of Oomurodashi is ~20 km. Oomurodashi has been regarded as inactive, largely because it has a vast flat-topped summit at 100 - 150 meters below sea level (mbsl). During cruise NT07-15 of R/V Natsushima in 2007, we conducted a dive survey in a small crater, Oomuro Hole, located in the center of the flat-topped summit, using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin. The only heat flow measurement conducted on the floor of Oomuro Hole during the dive recorded an extremely high value of 4,200 mW/m2. Furthermore, ROV observations revealed that the southwestern wall of Oomuro Hole consists of fresh rhyolitic lavas. These findings suggest that Oomurodashi is in fact an active silicic submarine volcano. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted detailed geological and geophysical ROV Hyper-Dolphin (cruise NT12-19). In addition to further ROV surveys, we carried out single-channel seismic (SCS) surveys across Oomurodashi in order to examine the shallow structures beneath the current edifice. The ROV surveys revealed numerous active hydrothermal vents on the floor of Oomuro Hole, at ~200 mbsl, with maximum water temperature measured at the hydrothermal vents reaching 194°C. We also conducted a much more detailed set of heat flow measurements across the floor of Oomuro Hole, detecting very high heat flows of up to 29,000 mW/m2. ROV observations revealed that the area surrounding Oomuro Hole on the flat-topped summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with minimum biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s). These findings strongly indicate that Oomurodashi is an active silicic submarine volcano, with recent eruption(s) occurring from Oomuro Hole. Since the summit of Oomurodashi is in shallow water, it

  6. Serious games for Geophysics (United States)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana


    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  7. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.


    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  8. Distinct bacterial community structure of 3 tropical volcanic soils from banana plantations contaminated with chlordecone in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). (United States)

    Mercier, Anne; Dictor, Marie-Christine; Harris-Hellal, Jennifer; Breeze, Dominique; Mouvet, Christophe


    In the French West Indies (FWI), the soil, andosols, ferralsols and nitisols, is highly polluted by chlordecone, although this organochlorine insecticide extensively applied to banana crops has been banned for 20years. This contamination has led to a major human health concern inducing the need for remediation of the contaminated soils. Work was conducted to help to evaluate the impact of remediation processes on the microbial communities from these soils. Microbial biomass was estimated after direct DNA extraction from three chlordecone-contaminated soils (an andosol, a ferralsol and a nitisol) and the bacterial community analyzed using t-RFLP. The FWI volcanic andosol was particularly recalcitrant to usual direct DNA extraction protocols hampering analysis of soil microbial communities until now, in contrast with the 2 other soils. For the first time, DNA was directly extracted from a FWI andosol based on yeast RNA addition at the lysis step. Differences in microbial biomass were thus observed between the 3 FWI soils. Moreover, the bacterial community structure was significantly distinct from each other's and related to soil physico-chemical characteristics. Interestingly, differences in bacterial diversity could not be exclusively attributed to the level of chlordecone contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supracrustal rocks in the Kuovila area, Southern Finland: structural evolution, geochemical characteristics and the age of volcanism


    Pietari Skyttä; Asko Käpyaho; Irmeli Mänttäri


    The supracrustal rocks of the Kuovila area in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, southern Finland, consist mainly of volcaniclastic rocks associated with banded iron formations (BIFs) and marbles. Small ZnS and PbS mineralizations are occasionally located within the marbles. Some primary features are well preserved in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks, including lamination in tuffites and banded iron formations. Geochemical results show that the volcanism was bimodal and it mai...

  10. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific) (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.


    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  11. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)


    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  12. The VORISA Project: An Integrated Approach to Assessing Volcanic Hazard and Risk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.


    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as 'Harrat'. The largest of these, Harrat Rahat, produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 AD with lava flows travelling within 20 km of the Islamic holy city Al-Madinah. With over 900 visible basaltic and trachytic vents and periodic seismic swarms indicating stalled eruptions, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital. To systematically address this need we developed the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (VORISA) Project, a 3-year, multi-disciplinary international research collaboration that integrates geological, geophysical, hazard and risk studies. Detailed mapping and geochemical studies are being combined with new and existing age determinations to determine the style and sequence of events during past basaltic and trachytic eruptions. Data from gravity and magnetotelluric surveys are being integrated with microearthquake data from an 8-station borehole seismic research array to geophysically characterise the structure and nature of the crust, and thus constrain possible physical controls on magma propagation. All available data are being synthesised in hazard models to determine patterns in eruption frequency, magnitude, and style of past activity, as well as the probable location and style of a future event. Combined with geospatial vulnerability data, these hazard models, which include a reconstruction of the 1256 AD eruption, enable us to calculate and communicate volcanic risk to the city of Al-Madinah.

  13. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.


    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  14. Volcanic gas (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.


    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  15. Preliminary Seismic Velocity Structure Results from Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Tomography: Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile (United States)

    Wespestad, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Zeng, X.; Bennington, N. L.; Cardona, C.; Singer, B. S.


    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field is a large, restless, rhyolitic system in the Southern Andes that is being heavily studied through several methods, including seismology, by a collaborative team of research institutions. A temporary array of 52 seismometers from OVDAS (the Southern Andean Volcano Observatory), PASSCAL (Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison was used to collect the 1.3 years worth of data for this preliminary study. Ambient noise tomography uses surface wave dispersion data obtained from noise correlation functions (NCFs) between pairs of seismic stations, with one of each pair acting as a virtual source, in order to image the velocity structure in 3-D. NCFs were computed for hour-long time windows, and the final NCFs were obtained with phase-weighted stacking. The Frequency-Time Analysis technique was then utilized to measure group velocity between station pairs. NCFs were also analyzed to detect temporal changes in seismic velocity related to magmatic activity at the volcano. With the surface wave data from ambient noise, our small array aperture limits our modeling to the upper crust, so we employed teleseismic tomography to study deeper structures. For picking teleseismic arrivals, we tested two different correlation and stacking programs, which utilize adaptive stacking and multi-channel cross-correlation, to get relative arrival time data for a set of high quality events. Selected earthquakes were larger than magnitude 5 and between 30 and 95 degrees away from the center of the array. Stations that consistently show late arrivals may have a low velocity body beneath them, more clearly visualized via a 3-D tomographic model. Initial results from the two tomography methods indicate the presence of low-velocity zones at several depths. Better resolved velocity models will be developed as more data are acquired.

  16. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GV Last; DG Horton


    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  17. Overview of electromagnetic methods applied in active volcanic areas of western United States (United States)

    Skokan, Catherine K.


    A better understanding of active volcanic areas in the United States through electromagnetic geophysical studies received foundation from the many surveys done for geothermal exploration in the 1970's. Investigations by governmental, industrial, and academic agencies include (but are not limited to) mapping of the Cascades. Long Valley/Mono area, the Jemez volcanic field, Yellowstone Park, and an area in Colorado. For one example — Mt. Konocti in the Mayacamas Mountains, California — gravity, magnetic, and seismic, as well as electromagnetic methods have all been used in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the subsurface structure. In each of these volcanic regions, anomalous zones were mapped. When conductive, these anomalies were interpreted to be correlated with hydrothermal activity and not to represent a magma chamber. Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can offer valuable information in the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in prediction of eruptions.

  18. Exploring Geothermal Energy Potential in Ireland through 3-D Geophysical-Petrological Modelling of Surface Heat-Flow and Crustal and Upper-Mantle Structure (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.


    Little is known of Ireland's deep, low-enthalpy geothermal resources and the potential for space heating and/or electricity generation based on geothermal energy to displace Ireland's significant reliance on carbon-based fuels. IRETHERM ( is a four-and-a-half year, all-island, academic-government-industry collaborative project, initiated in 2011, with the overarching objective of developing a strategic and holistic understanding of Ireland's geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One of the challenges in searching for deep geothermal resources in the relatively unexplored setting of Ireland lies in identifying those areas most likely to support significantly elevated temperatures at depth. Available borehole data, although sparse and clustered around areas of mineral and hydrocarbon interest, suggest a marked regional increase in surface heat-flow across Ireland, from ~40 mW/m2 in the south to >80 mW/m2 in the north. The origins of both the observed regional heat-flow trend and local temperature anomalies have not been investigated and are not currently understood. Although variations in the structure of the crust and lithosphere have been revealed by a number of active-source seismic and teleseismic experiments, their effects on surface heat-flow have not been modelled. Bulk 3-D variation in crustal heat-production across Ireland, which may contribute significantly to the observed regional and local temperature variations, has also not been determined. We investigate the origins of Ireland's regional heat-flow trend and regional and local temperature variations using the software package LitMod. This software combines petrological and geophysical modelling of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework, where all relevant properties are functions of temperature, pressure and chemical composition. The major

  19. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.


    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  2. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L


    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  3. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics (United States)

    Zuber, Maria


    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  4. Geophysical Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  5. Persistent volcanic signature observed around Barren Island, Andaman Sea, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sabu, P.S.; Panampunnayil, U.

    2005). Sea surface temperatures of > 28?C are generally considered favourable for the development of tropical cyclones (Whitney and Hobgood 1997; Saunders and Harris 1997; Shapiro and Goldenberg 1998) and in the Bay of Bengal; the surface... (2000) Volcanic eruptions and climate. Reviews of Geophysics 38(2): 191-219. Saunders M A, and Harris A R (1997) Statistical evidence links exceptional 1995 Atlantic hurricane season to record sea warming. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 1255...

  6. 3-D multiobservable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. I: a priori petrological information and geophysical observables (United States)

    Afonso, J. C.; Fullea, J.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, Y.; Jones, A. G.; D. Connolly, J. A.; O'Reilly, S. Y.


    Traditional inversion techniques applied to the problem of characterizing the thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle are not well suited to deal with the nonlinearity of the problem, the trade-off between temperature and compositional effects on wave velocities, the nonuniqueness of the compositional space, and the dissimilar sensitivities of physical parameters to temperature and composition. Probabilistic inversions, on the other hand, offer a powerful formalism to cope with all these difficulties, while allowing for an adequate treatment of the intrinsic uncertainties associated with both data and physical theories. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the two most important elements controlling the outputs of probabilistic (Bayesian) inversions for temperature and composition of the Earth's mantle, namely the a priori information on model parameters, ρ(m), and the likelihood function, L(m). The former is mainly controlled by our current understanding of lithosphere and mantle composition, while the latter conveys information on the observed data, their uncertainties, and the physical theories used to relate model parameters to observed data. The benefits of combining specific geophysical datasets (Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves, body wave tomography, magnetotelluric, geothermal, petrological, gravity, elevation, and geoid), and their effects on L(m), are demonstrated by analyzing their individual and combined sensitivities to composition and temperature as well as their observational uncertainties. The dependence of bulk density, electrical conductivity, and seismic velocities to major-element composition is systematically explored using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the dominant source of uncertainty in the identification of compositional anomalies within the lithosphere is the intrinsic nonuniqueness in compositional space. A general strategy for defining ρ(m) is proposed based on statistical analyses of a large database

  7. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.


    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  8. The structure of a hydrothermal system from an integrated geochemical, geophysical, and geological approach: The Ischia Island case study (United States)

    di Napoli, R.; Martorana, R.; Orsi, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Camarda, M.; de Gregorio, S.; Gagliano Candela, E.; Luzio, D.; Messina, N.; Pecoraino, G.; Bitetto, M.; de Vita, S.; Valenza, M.


    The complexity of volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems is such that thorough characterization requires extensive and interdisciplinary work. We use here an integrated multidisciplinary approach, combining geological investigations with hydrogeochemical and soil degassing prospecting, and resistivity surveys, to provide a comprehensive characterization of the shallow structure of the southwestern Ischia's hydrothermal system. We show that the investigated area is characterized by a structural setting that, although very complex, can be schematized in three sectors, namely, the extra caldera sector (ECS), caldera floor sector (CFS), and resurgent caldera sector (RCS). This contrasted structural setting governs fluid circulation. Geochemical prospecting shows, in fact, that the caldera floor sector, a structural and topographic low, is the area where CO2-rich (>40 cm3/l) hydrothermally mature (log Mg/Na ratios 150 g m-2 d-1), is clearly captured by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys as a highly conductive (resistivity 10,000 mg/l) and poorly conductive meteoric-derived (TDS Ischia's hydrothermal system.

  9. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone (United States)

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.


    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  10. 4D Arctic: A Glimpse into the Structure and Evolution of the Arctic in the Light of New Geophysical Maps, Plate Tectonics and Tomographic Models. (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Medvedev, Sergei; Torsvik, Trond H; Koulakov, Ivan; Werner, Stephanie C

    Knowledge about the Arctic tectonic structure has changed in the last decade as a large number of new datasets have been collected and systematized. Here, we review the most updated, publicly available Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic and gravity data together with new models of the Arctic's crust. Available tomographic models have also been scrutinized and evaluated for their potential to reveal the deeper structure of the Arctic region. Although the age and opening mechanisms of the Amerasia Basin are still difficult to establish in detail, interpreted subducted slabs that reside in the High Arctic's lower mantle point to one or two episodes of subduction that consumed crust of possibly Late Cretaceous-Jurassic age. The origin of major igneous activity during the Cretaceous in the central Arctic (the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge) and in the proximity of rifted margins (the so-called High Arctic Large Igneous Province-HALIP) is still debated. Models of global plate circuits and the connection with the deep mantle are used here to re-evaluate a possible link between Arctic volcanism and mantle plumes.

  11. Crust and mantle lithospheric structure of the South China Sea and adjacent regions deduced from geophysical potential data (United States)

    Fang, J.


    In order to investigate the lithospheric structure of the South China Sea and adjacent regions and it's lateral crustal density variations, we using a two-step approach. First the crustal and lithospheric mantle structure is calculated from the geoid height and elevation data combined with thermal analysis further constrained by seismic data. We then compute the 3D gravity effect of the resulting lithospheric structure to separate the measured Bouguer anomaly into its regional and local components. Our results show that for the majority of the study area the crustal thickness does correlate with the regional topography pattern. Moho depth varies from ˜10 km at the Central basin to ˜35 km at the continental shelf and slope zones. The lithosphere is thinner beneath the Central basin (˜70 km) and thicker underneath the continental shelf and slope zones (˜100 km). The residual gravity anomaly, obtained by subtraction of the regional components to the measured field, is analyzed in terms of the dominating upper crustal structures. Central basins and areas with high velocity layer are characterized by positive values (20 100 mGal), whereas the negative values are related to the Trough and Trench, such as Nansha Trough and Manila Trench and shallow basement depths(-100 -20 mGal). The transform boundary of continental-oceanic is consistent with the residual gravity anomaly gradient zone and is proposed accordingly. The variation of Moho and the residual gravity anomaly exists between the conjugate margins which demonstrated the asymmetric crustal extension of the South China Sea margin.

  12. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely


    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  13. An appraisal of the geologic structure beneath the Ikogosi warm spring in south-western Nigeria using integrated surface geophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S Ojo


    Full Text Available An integrated surface geophysical investigation involving resistivity and magnetic methods was carried out in the immediate vicinity of the Ikogosi warm spring situated in south-western Nigeria with a view to delineating its subsurface geological sequence and evaluating the structural setting beneath the warmspring. Total field magnetic measurements and vertical electrical sounding (VES data were acquired along five N-S traverses. Magnetic and VES data interpretation
    involved inverse modelling. The inverse magnetic models delineated fractured quartzite/faulted areas within fresh massive quartzite at varying depths and beneath all traverses. The geoelectrical sections developed from VESinterpretation results also delineated a subsurface sequence consisting of a topsoil/weathered layer, fresh quartzite, fractured/faulted quartzite and fresh quartzite bedrock. It was deduced that the fractured/faulted quartzite may have acted as conduit for the
    movement of warm groundwater from profound depths to the surface while the spring outlet was located on a geological interface  (lineament.

  14. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy) (United States)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria


    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  15. Marine geophysics. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure. (United States)

    Sandwell, David T; Müller, R Dietmar; Smith, Walter H F; Garcia, Emmanuel; Francis, Richard


    Gravity models are powerful tools for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. We combined new radar altimeter measurements from satellites CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 with existing data to construct a global marine gravity model that is two times more accurate than previous models. We found an extinct spreading ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, a major propagating rift in the South Atlantic Ocean, abyssal hill fabric on slow-spreading ridges, and thousands of previously uncharted seamounts. These discoveries allow us to understand regional tectonic processes and highlight the importance of satellite-derived gravity models as one of the primary tools for the investigation of remote ocean basins.

  16. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    CERN Document Server

    Smerd, S F


    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  17. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics (United States)

    Tang, R.


    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  18. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig


    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  19. Shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre, New Zealand: Fast Rayleigh and slow Love waves indicate strong shallow anisotropy (United States)

    Godfrey, Holly J.; Fry, Bill; Savage, Martha K.


    Models of the velocity structure of volcanoes can help define possible magma pathways and contribute to calculating more accurate earthquake locations, which can help with monitoring volcanic activity. However, shear-wave velocity of volcanoes is difficult to determine from traditional seismic techniques, such as local earthquake tomography (LET) or refraction/reflection surveys. Here we use the recently developed technique of noise cross correlation of continuous seismic data to investigate the subsurface shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TgVC) of New Zealand, focusing on the active Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. We observe both the fundamental and first higher-order modes of Rayleigh and Love waves within our noise dataset, made from stacks of 15 min cross-correlation functions. We manually pick group velocity dispersion curves from over 1900 correlation functions, of which we consider 1373 to be high quality. We subsequently invert a subset of the fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves both independently and jointly for one dimensional shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles at Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. Vs increases very slowly at a rate of approximately 0.2 km/s per km depth beneath Ruapehu, suggesting that progressive hydrothermal alteration mitigates the effects of compaction driven velocity increases. At Tongariro, we observe larger Vs increases with depth, which we interpret as different layers within Tongariro's volcanic system above altered basement greywacke. Slow Vs, on the order of 1-2 km/s, are compatible with P-wave velocities (using a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.7) from existing velocity profiles of areas within the TgVC, and the observations of worldwide studies of shallow volcanic systems that used ambient noise cross-correlation methods. Most of the measured group velocities of fundamental mode Love-waves across the TgVC are 0.1-0.4 km/s slower than those of fundamental mode Rayleigh-waves in the

  20. A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring, and Carter W. Roberts


    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  1. Garnet Signatures in Geophysical and Geochemical Observations: Insights into the Thermo-Petrological Structure of Oceanic Upper Mantle (United States)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.


    We have developed new physically comprehensive thermal plate models of the oceanic lithosphere which incorporate temperature- and pressure-dependent heat transport properties and thermal expansivity, melting beneath ridges, hydrothermal circulation near ridge axes, and insulating oceanic crust. These models provide good fits to global databases of seafloor topography and heat flow, and seismic evidence of thermal structure near ridge axes. We couple these thermal plate models with thermodynamic models to predict the petrology of oceanic lithosphere. Geoid height predictions from our models suggest that there is a strong anomaly in geoid slope (over age) above ~25 Ma lithosphere due to the topography of garnet-field mantle. A similar anomaly is also present in geoid data over fracture zones. In addition, we show that a new assessment of a large database of ocean island basalt Sm/Yb systematics indicates that there is an unmistakable step-like increase in Sm/Yb values around 15-20 Ma, indicating the presence of garnet. To explain this feature, we have attempted to couple our thermo-petrological models of oceanic upper mantle with an open system, non-modal, dynamic melting model with diffusion kinetics to investigate trace element partitioning in an ascending mantle column.

  2. Geophysical Methods: an Overview (United States)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.


    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  3. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki


    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  4. Deep seismic sounding investigation into the deep structure of the magma system in Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先康; 张成科; 赵金仁; 杨卓欣; 李松林; 张建狮; 刘宝峰; 成双喜; 孙国伟; 潘素珍


    The magma system of Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcanic region is studied with three-dimensional deep seismic sounding (DSS) technique. The results show that the magma system of Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region, mainly characterized by low velocity of P wave, can be divided into three parts in terms of depth. At the depth range of 9(15 km, the distribution of the magma system is characterized by extensiveness, large scale and near-SN orientation. This layer is the major place for magma storage. From the depth of 15 km down to the lower crust, it is characterized by small lateral scale, which indicates the (trace( of magma intrusion from the upper mantle into the crust and also implies that the magma system most probably extends to the upper mantle, or even deeper.(less than 8(9 km deep), the range of magma distribution is even smaller, centering on an SN-oriented area just north of the Tianchi crater. If low velocity of P wave is related to the magma system, it then reflects that the magma here is still in a state of relatively high temperature. In this sense, the magma system of Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region is at least not (remains(, in other words, it is in an (active( state.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sichuan Geophysical Company (abbreviated as SCGC below), originally named Sichuan Geophysical Company of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum, was founded in 1956 and is a subsidiary of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited. With more than 50 years' development, SCGC now owns almost 3800 employees and has become a big oil & gas seismic exploration engineering service enterprise with the characteristic mountain seismic exploration techniques, and its annual business turnover reaches nearly 2 billion RMB. It can provide the integrated seismic exploration engineering service including seismic data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and geological comprehensive evaluation in various complex regions for clients at home and abroad.

  6. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  7. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc (United States)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris


    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  8. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Internal architecture of the Tuxtla volcanic field, Veracruz, Mexico, inferred from gravity and magnetic data (United States)

    Espindola, Juan Manuel; Lopez-Loera, Hector; Mena, Manuel; Zamora-Camacho, Araceli


    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic field emerging from the plains of the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican State of Veracruz. Separated by hundreds of kilometers from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the NW and the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc to the SE, it stands detached not only in location but also in the composition of its rocks, which are predominantly alkaline. These characteristics make its origin somewhat puzzling. Furthermore, one of the large volcanoes of the field, San Martin Tuxtla, underwent an eruptive period in historical times (CE 1793). Such volcanic activity conveys particular importance to the study of the TVF from the perspective of volcanology and hazard assessment. Despite the above circumstances, few investigations about its internal structure have been reported. In this work, we present analyses of gravity and aeromagnetic data obtained from different sources. We present the complete Bouguer anomaly of the area and its separation into regional and residual components. The aeromagnetic data were processed to yield the reduction to the pole, the analytic signal, and the upward continuation to complete the interpretation of the gravity analyses. Three-dimensional density models of the regional and residual anomalies were obtained by inversion of the gravity signal adding the response of rectangular prisms at the nodes of a regular grid. We obtained a body with a somewhat flattened top at 16 km below sea level from the inversion of the regional. Three separate slender bodies with tops 6 km deep were obtained from the inversion of the residual. The gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as the inferred source bodies that produce those geophysical anomalies, lie between the Sontecomapan and Catemaco faults, which are proposed as flower structures associated with an inferred deep-seated fault termed the Veracruz Fault. These fault systems along with magma intrusion at the lower crust are necessary features to

  10. The inner structure of landslides and landslide-prone slopes in south German cuesta landscapes assessed by geophysical, geomorphological and sedimentological approaches (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Sandmeier, Christine; Büdel, Christian; Jäger, Daniel; Wilde, Martina; Terhorst, Birgit


    Investigations on landslide activity in the cuesta landscape of Germany, usually characterized by an interbedding of morphologically hard (e.g. sand-/limestones) and soft (clay) sedimentary rocks are relatively sparse. However, spring 2013 has once again revealed a high susceptibility of the slopes in the Franconian and Swabian Alb to mass movements, when enduring rainfalls initiated numerous landslides causing considerable damage to settlements and infrastructure. Many aspects like the spatial distribution of landslides, triggering factors, and process dynamics - especially with view on the reactivation of landslides - require intensive investigations to allow for assessment of the landslide vulnerability and the development of reliable early-warning systems. Aim of the study is to achieve a deeper insight into the triggering factors and the process dynamics of landslides in the cuesta landscape with special regard on landslide proneness of slopes and the potential reactivation of old landslides. A multi-methodological approach was conducted based on geophysical investigations (seismic refraction tomography - SRT, electrical resistivity tomography - ERT), geomorphological mapping, morphometric GIS-based analysis, core soundings and substrate mapping. Study sites are located in the Swabian Alb (southwestern Germany) in the Jurassic escarpment where where Oxfordian marls and limestones superimpose Callovian clays, as well as in the northeastern Franconian Alb, within the escarpment of the so called Rhätolias with with red claystones of the late Norian (Feuerletten formation) below interbedding layers of sand- and claystones of the Rhaetian (Upper Triassic) and Hettangian ( Lower Jurassic). The investigated landslides strongly differ with respect to their age, from young landslides originated in spring 2013 to ancient landslides. Investigations reveal a distinct diversity of landslide types composed of a complex combination of processes. The applied methods allow

  11. Arizona Geophysical Data Base


    McLeod, Ronald G.


    A series of digital data sets were compiled for input into a geophysical data base for a one degree quadrangle in Arizona. Using a Landsat digital mosaic as a base, information on topography, geology, gravity as well as Seasat radar imagery were registered. Example overlays and tabulations are performed.

  12. Impact of the geological structures on the groundwater potential using geophysical techniques in West Bani Mazar area, El Minia - Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Kotb, Adel Diab Mohammed


    water bearing layers increase with depth as a result of decreasing fracture density; and these values decreased towards the northwestern direction due to their proximity from the fault zone. The groundwater potential of these layers depends mainly on the lithologic composition and the geological structures affecting these layers. The secondary porosity of these limestone layers depends mainly on the degree of fracturing and fissuring. The proper sites to drill new productive wells were recommended, and the obtained data from drilling new well in the southeastern part of the study area coincide with the interpreted data of the different geophysical techniques.

  13. Structure and evolution of the volcanic rift zone at Ponta de São Lourenço, eastern Madeira (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Schwarz, Stefanie; van den Bogaard, Paul; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Köster, Jana J.


    Ponta de São Lourenço is the deeply eroded eastern end of Madeira’s east-west trending rift zone, located near the geometric intersection of the Madeira rift axis with that of the Desertas Islands to the southeast. It dominantly consists of basaltic pyroclastic deposits from Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions, lava flows, and a dike swarm. Main differences compared to highly productive rift zones such as in Hawai’i are a lower dike intensity (50-60 dikes/km) and the lack of a shallow magma reservoir or summit caldera. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that volcanic activity at Ponta de São Lourenço lasted from >5.2 to 4 Ma (early Madeira rift phase) and from 2.4 to 0.9 Ma (late Madeira rift phase), with a hiatus dividing the stratigraphy into lower and upper units. Toward the east, the distribution of eruptive centers becomes diffuse, and the rift axis bends to parallel the Desertas ridge. The bending may have resulted from mutual gravitational influence of the Madeira and Desertas volcanic edifices. We propose that Ponta de São Lourenço represents a type example for the interior of a fading rift arm on oceanic volcanoes, with modern analogues being the terminations of the rift zones at La Palma and El Hierro (Canary Islands). There is no evidence for Ponta de São Lourenço representing a former central volcano that interconnected and fed the Madeira and Desertas rifts. Our results suggest a subdivision of volcanic rift zones into (1) a highly productive endmember characterized by a central volcano with a shallow magma chamber feeding one or more rift arms, and (2) a less productive endmember characterized by rifts fed from deep-seated magma reservoirs rather than from a central volcano, as is the case for Ponta de São Lourenço.

  14. Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Entre Rios mining district produces a large volume of amethyst geodes in underground mines and is part of the world class deposits in the Paraná volcanic province of South America. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. At the base of the stratigraphy, beginning at the Chapecó river bed, two basalt flows are Esmeralda, low-Ti type. The third flow in the sequence is a rhyodacite, Chapecó type, Guarapuava subtype. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties. The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault-block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. This important structural characterization of the mining district will have significant consequences in the search for new amethyst geode deposits and in the understanding of the evolution of the Paraná volcanic province.

  15. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows around Narsingpur–Harrai–Amarwara, central India: Implications for cooling history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyali Sengupta; Arijit Ray


    Field investigations of the Deccan Trap lava sequence along a 70 km traverse in the Narsingpur–Harrai–Amarwara area of central India indicate twenty lava flows comprising a total thickness of around 480m. Primary volcanic structures like vesicles and cooling joints are conspicuous in this volcanic succession and are used to divide individual flows into three well-defined zones namely the lower colonnade zone, entablature zone, and the upper colonnade zone. The variable nature of these structural zones is used for identification and correlation of lava flows in the field. For twenty lava flows, the thicknesses of upper colonnade zones of eight flows are ∼5m while those of eight other flows are ∼8m each. The thicknesses of upper colonnade zones of remaining four flows could not be measured in the field. Using the thicknesses of these upper colonnade zones and standard temperature-flow thickness-cooling time profiles for lava pile, the total cooling time of these sixteen Deccan Trap lava flows has been estimated at 12 to 15 years.

  16. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  17. The crustal structure of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform based on seismic, regional geophysic and geological data (United States)

    Mints, M. V.; Berzin, R. G.; Babayants, P. S.; Konilov, A. N.; Suleimanov, A. K.; Zamozhniaya, N. G.; Zlobin, V. L.


    The 1-EU and 4B CDP transects worked out during 1998-2002 years by "Spetsgeophyzica", together with previously developed CDP profiles, have crossed most of the main tectonic units of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform. They provide seismic images of the Early Precambrian crust and upper mantle from the surface to about 80 km depth (25 s). The Neoarchaean granite-greenstone complexes of the Karelia craton along the 4B profile form a series of the tectonic slices descending eastward, some of which can be traced to the Moho. The Palaeoproterozoic structures presented by two main types: (1) volcano-sedimentary (VS) and (2) granulite-gneiss (GN) belts. The Pechenga-Varzuga VS belt has been identified as overthrust-underthrust southward-dipping package. Tectonic slices formed by the Palaeoproterozoic VS belts alternating with slices of the Neoarchaean granite-gneisses form the imbricated crustal unit that extends along the eastern margin of the Neoarchaean Karelia craton. The slices dip steeply northeastward flattening and partially juxtaposing at 20 km depth at the 1-EU cross-section. This level, which can be understood as the surface of main detachment, ascends westward. An imbrication and related thickening of the crust was caused by displacement of crustal slices in western and southwestern directions because of the Palaeoproterozoic collision event. The Palaeoproterozoic Onega unit comprising VS assemblages originated in a setting of the rifted passive margin forms the northwestward displaced thrust nappe complex. It is considered initially belonging to the southern edge of the Svecofennian passive margin. The Lapland GN belt has been transected by the Polar and EGGI profiles. Both cross-sections demonstrated that it constitutes thick composite crustal-scale tectonic slice. According to geophysical data, the continuation of the Lapland GN belt beneath the platform cover of the East European Craton forms an extended arch

  18. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields


    Bartolini, Stefania


    [eng] One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology, which represents a significant socio-economic implication, is to conduct hazard assessment in active volcanic systems. These volcanological studies are aimed at hazard that allows to constructing hazard maps and simulating different eruptive scenarios, and are mainly addressed to contribute to territorial planning, definition of emergency plans or managing volcanic crisis. The impact of a natural event, as a volcanic eruption, can s...

  19. Tectonic geomorphology of the Ryukyu Trench-Arc-Backarc System:geological-geophysical exploration and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Mingzuo; LIU Lejun; ZHENG Yanpeng; LIU Baohua; WU Jinlong; XU Xiaowei


    Based on an analysis of full-cover multi-beam bathymetric data, seismic and sub-bottom profiling data, and other geological-geophysical data sets, the geomorphologic features of the Ryukyu trench-arc-backarc (T-A-BA) system are delineated, and a geomorphologic map of the system is compiled. The results show that the evolution and spatial distribution patterns of the geomorphologic types of the Ryukyu T-A-BA system are controlled mainly by tectonic movements. The tectonic geomorphologic characteristics of the Ryukyu Arc (RA) differ distinctly from those of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf and slope. In term of geological structures, RA consists of the Tokara volcanic ridge,the Ryukyu folded ridge, the fore-arc accretion-wedge ridge and the Amami Depression and the fore-arc depressions between the ridges, which is composed of a complex of alternating island-slope ridges and fault basins. The slope of the ECS is a passive continental margin with stepwise faults. The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a backarc rift in which tectonic movements are intensive, with active volcanic and hydrothermal eruptions and sea floor spreading. The development of geomorphic features of the OT is controlled by the central en echelon spreading axes, the faults along the ECS slope and the marginal faults to the west of the Tokara volcanic ridge.The geomorphic complex of the OT is arranged in the following pattern: the en echelon grabens and volcanic chains formed by rifting and spreading lie in the central part of the trough, the turbidite plains inclining eastwards-southeastwards from the slope foot of the ECS lie in the western-northwestern parts of the OT, and the volcaniclastic deposit plains inclining westward-northwestwards from the western slope foot of the RA lie in the eastern-southeastern parts of the OT. In term of tectonic geomorphology, the OT forms a natural division between the shelf of the ECS and the RA.

  20. Integrated geophysical imaging of the Aluto-Langano geothermal field (Ethiopia). (United States)

    Rizzello, Daniele; Armadillo, Egidio; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesh; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede; Meqbel, Naser


    The Aluto-Langano geothermal system is located in the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, one of the world's most tectonically active areas, where continental rifting has been occurring since several Ma and has yielded widespread volcanism and enhanced geothermal gradient. The geothermal system is associated to the Mt Aluto Volcanic Complex, located along the eastern margin of the rift and related to the Wonji Fault Belt, constituted by Quaternary NNE-SSW en-echelon faults. These structures are younger than the NE-SW border faults of the central Main Ethiopian Rift and were originated by a stress field oblique to the rift direction. This peculiar tectonism yielded local intense rock fracturing that may favour the development of geothermal reservoirs. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey carried out in 2015 over an area of about 200 km2 covering the Mt Aluto Volcanic Complex. The geophysical campaign included 162 coincident magnetotelluric and time domain electromagnetic soundings, and 207 gravity stations, partially located in the sedimentary plain surrounding the volcanic complex. Three-dimensional inversion of the full MT static-corrected tensor and geomagnetic tipper was performed in the 338-0.001 Hz band. Gravity data processing comprised digital enhancement of the residual Bouguer anomaly and 2D-3D inverse modelling. The geophysical results were compared to direct observations of stratigraphy, rock alteration and temperature available from the several deep wells drilled in the area. The magnetotelluric results imaged a low-resistivity layer which appears well correlated with the mixed alteration layer found in the wells and can be interpreted as a low-temperature clay cap. The clay-cap bottom depth is well corresponds to a change of thermal gradient. The clay cap is discontinuous, and in the central area of the volcanic complex is characterised by a dome-shape structure likely related to isotherm rising. The propilitic

  1. Delimitation of the Paranapanema Proterozoic block: A geophysical contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mantovani,M.S.M; Quintas,M.C.L.; Shukowsky,W; BritoNeves,B.B.


    This study focuses on the basement structure of the Paraná Basin in South America, based on geological and geophysical data. It is a large intracratonic basin formed from the Late Ordovician until the Cretaceous,when a sequence of continentalflood basalts eruptions covered the entire basin, preceding the break-up of Western Gondwana. Isostatic modeling was applied to large gravity surveys comprising more than 12,000 gravity stations. The residual Bouguer anomaly pattern,representing the crustal contribution of the crystalline basement, as well as the sedimentary and volcanic layers of the basin, reveals similarities between the basement gravity signature and the exposed rock. The stress patterns of the Late Ordovician and Cretaceous tectonic events present a geographically coincident maximum,and the correlation between gravity highs and the main attenuation (beta factor) suggests the presence of some preexistent suture zones. The resultant mosaic of gravity blocks and the location of major faults give support to the presence of an important Proterozoic cratonic feature, here referred to as Paranapanema block.

  2. Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics (United States)

    Goulty, N. R.


    Several types of sensitive strainmeters and tiltmeters have been developed, and it is now becoming clear which geophysical applications are most suitable for these instruments. In general, strainmeters and tiltmeters are used for observing ground deformation at periods of minutes to days. Small-scale lateral inhomogeneities at the instrument sites distort signals by a few percent, although the effects of large structures can be calculated. In earth tide work these lateral inhomogeneities and unknown ocean loading signals prevent accurate values of the regional tide from being obtained. This limits tidal investigations to looking for temporal variations, possibly associated with pre-earthquake dilatancy, and spatial variations caused by gross elasticity contrasts in the local geological structure. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are well suited for observing long-period seismic waves, seismic slip events on faults and volcano tumescence, where small site-induced distortions in the measured signals are seldom important.

  3. Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.


    This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

  4. GIPP: Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haberland


    Full Text Available The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP consists of field instruments, sensors and equipment for temporary seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology as well as for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic experiments. These instruments are mainly mobile digital recorders, broadband seis­mometers and short period sensors, and they are used to reveal the subsurface structure and to investigate earth­quakes. Sensors for magnetotellurics include induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing silver / silver-chloride electrodes. It is operated by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instru­ment facility is open to all academic applicants, both national and international. Instrument applications are evalu­ated and ranked by an external steering board. Currently, for seismological applications >850 geophysical recorders, >170 broadband seis­mo­meters and >1300 short period geophones are available (among others. Available for magnetotelluric experiments are > 50 real-time data-loggers, >150 induction coils, and >500 electrodes. User guidelines and data policy are in force and data archives are provided (standard exchange formats.

  5. 3D geophysical insights into the Ciomadu volcano (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita


    RATIONALE Located at the south easternmost end of the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain of East Carpathians, the Ciomadu volcano (last erupted approx 30 ka ago) seems to represent the latest volcanic manifestation within the Carpatho-Pannonian region. Based on the interpretation of some large-scale electromagnetic and seismological surveys, the hypothesis of the in depth (8 -15 km) existence of a magma reservoir raises the volcanic hazard in the region. The close neighbourhood of the Vrancea active geodynamic zone, where intermediate-depth seismicity occurs within full intra-continental environment makes the study of the Ciomadu volcano of higher interest. METHOD During the time numerous geological investigations have been conducted in the area, but except for the previously mentioned large-scale electromagnetic and seismological approaches geophysical tools have been less employed. Relatively recent, within the frame of the INSTEC project, funded through a CNCS-UEFISCDI (Romanian Science Foundation) grant, the area has been subject to an integrated gravity and geomagnetic survey accompanied by outcrops sampling and lab determinations on rock physics. Field data have been highly processed and models of their sources have been constructed through 3D inversion techniques. RESULTS Overall, the potential fields have revealed a large gravity low covering the whole volcano area associating a residual geomagnetic anomaly with local effects mainly bordering the gravity anomaly. 3D inversion of the gravity data provided an intriguing image on the mass distribution within the volcanic structure, with underground densities much bellow the figures provided by the lab determinations on rock samples collected at the surface. The geometry of the revealed gravity source clearly suggests an andesitic/dacitic intrusion acceding to the surface along a deep fault that seems to belong to the alpine overthrust system of East Carpathians. Attempts to interpret the low value densities

  6. 3D Subsoil Model of the San Biagio `Salinelle' Mud Volcanoes (Belpasso, Sicily) derived from Geophysical Surveys (United States)

    Imposa, S.; Grassi, S.; De Guidi, G.; Battaglia, F.; Lanaia, G.; Scudero, S.


    Mud volcanoes are common in active mountain fronts. At Mt. Etna, located just between the Apennine front in Sicily and its foredeep, there are some manifestations of mud volcanism in the lower border of the volcanic edifice. The activity of these mud volcanoes is characterized by persistent emission of muddy water mixed with salts, which rises to the surface due to the gas pressure in the subsoil. The San Biagio Salinelle is one of the three mud volcano fields located around the Paternò eruptive monogenic apparatus; this old volcanic structure was one of the first subaerial volcanic manifestations that formed in the pre-Etnean phase. It is not fully clear whether and how the activity of the mud fields is connected with the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna. Noninvasive geophysical surveys were carried out in the area of the active cone of the San Biagio Salinelle, in order to identify the probable ascent path of the emitted products. Seismic ambient noise records were collected at the nodes of a specially designed grid and, subsequently, the V s values were obtained from an active seismic survey. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was obtained by a topographic survey, carried out with the GNSS technique (global navigation satellite system), in real-time kinematic mode. The DEM and the topographic benchmark installed will represent the reference surface for future periodic monitoring of the ongoing deformation in the area. Our results provide an accurate and detailed 3D subsurface model showing the shallower feeding system of the investigated mud volcano.

  7. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation within alternating deep-sea clays and volcanic ashes (Miura Peninsula, Japan) (United States)

    Mazumder, Rajat; van Loon, A. J. (Tom); Malviya, Vivek P.; Arima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yujuro


    The Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation of the Miura Group (Miura Peninsula, Japan) shows an extremely wide variety of soft-sediment deformation structures. The most common deformation structures are load casts and associated flame structures, dish-and-pillar structures, synsedimentary faults, multilobated convolutions, chaotic deformation structures, sedimentary veins and dykes, and large-scale slides and slump scars. The formation, which accumulated in a deep-sea environment (2000-3000 m), is well exposed in and around Jogashima; it consists of relative thin (commonly dm-scale) alternations of deep-marine fine-grained sediments and volcanic ejecta that are, as a rule, coarse-grained. Since the formation represents fore-arc deposits of the Izu-Bonin and the Honsu arc collision zone, it might be expected that tectonic activity also played a role as a trigger of the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in these sediments. This is indicated, indeed, by the abundance of soft-sediment deformations over large lateral distances that occur in numerous beds that are sandwiched between undeformed beds. On the basis of their characteristics and the geological context, these layers can be explained satisfactorily only by assuming deformation triggered by seismicity, which must be related to the Izu-Bonin and Honsu arc collision. The layers thus form deep-marine seismites.

  8. Local seismic hazard assessment in explosive volcanic settings by 3D numerical analyses (United States)

    Razzano, Roberto; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Marcini, Marco; Polpetta, Federica; Simionato, Maurizio; Sirianni, Pietro; Sottili, Gianluca; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Piscitelli, Sabatino


    This work deals with the assessment of local seismic response in the explosive volcanic settings by reconstructing the subsoil model of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy), whose pyroclastic succession records eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago. Heterogeneous characteristics of the Stracciacappa maar (stratification, structural setting, lithotypes, and thickness variation of depositional units) make it an ideal case history for understanding mechanisms and processes leading to modifications of amplitude-frequency-duration of seismic waves generated at earthquake sources and propagating through volcanic settings. New geological map and cross sections, constrained with recently acquired geotechnical and geophysical data, illustrate the complex geometric relationships among different depositional units forming the maar. A composite interfingering between internal lacustrine sediments and epiclastic debris, sourced from the rim, fills the crater floor; a 45 meters thick continuous coring borehole was drilled in the maar with sampling of undisturbed samples. Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys and 2D passive seismic arrays were also carried out for constraining the geological model and the velocity profile of the S-waves, respectively. Single station noise measurements were collected in order to define natural amplification frequencies. Finally, the nonlinear cyclic soil behaviour was investigated through simple shear tests on the undisturbed samples. The collected dataset was used to define the subsoil model for 3D finite difference site response numerical analyses by using FLAC 3D software (ITASCA). Moreover, 1D and 2D numerical analyses were carried out for comparison purposes. Two different scenarios were selected as input motions: a moderate magnitude (volcanic event) and a high magnitude (tectonic event). Both earthquake scenarios revealed significant ground motion amplification (up to 15 in terms of spectral acceleration

  9. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  10. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore H. Asch; Donald Sweetkind; Bethany L. Burton; Erin L. Wallin


    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir


    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  12. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data (United States)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.


    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  13. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands (United States)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.


    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  14. A Geophysical Study in Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity, Teton County, Wyoming: With Sections on Stratigraphy and Structure and Precambrian Rocks (United States)

    Behrendt, John Charles; Tibbetts, Benton L.; Bonini, William E.; Lavin, Peter M.; Love, J.D.; Reed, John C.


    An integrated geophysical study - comprising gravity, seismic refraction, and aeromagnetic surveys - was made of a 4,600-km2 area in Grand Teton National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, for the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the structural relationships in the region. The Teton range is largely comprised of Precambrian crystalline rocks and layered metasedimentary gneiss, but it also includes granitic gneiss, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss, granodiorite, and pegmatite and diabase dikes. Elsewhere, the sedimentary section is thick. The presence of each system except Silurian provides a chronological history of most structures. Uplift of the Teton-Gros Ventre area began in the Late Cretaceous; most of the uplift occurred after middle Eocene time. Additional uplift of the Teton Range and downfaulting of Jackson Hole began in the late Pliocene and continues to the present. Bouguer anomalies range from -185 mgal over Precambrian rocks of the Teton Range to -240 mgal over low-density Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Jackson Hole. The Teton fault (at the west edge of Jackson Hole), as shown by steep gravity gradients and seismic-refraction data, trends north-northeast away from the front of the Teton Range in the area of Jackson Lake. The Teton fault either is shallowly inclined in the Jenny Lake area, or it consists of a series of fault steps in the fault zone; it is approximately vertical in the Arizona Creek area. Seismic-refraction data can be fitted well by a three-layer gravity model with velocities of 2.45 km per sec for the Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks above the Cloverly Formation, 3.9 km per sec for the lower Mesozoic rocks, and 6.1 km per sec for the Paleozoic (limestone and dolomite) and Precambrian rocks. Gravity models computed along two seismic profiles are in good agreement (sigma=+- 2 mgal) if density contrasts with the assumed 2.67 g per cm2 Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are assumed to be -0.35 and -0.10 g per cm2 for the 2

  15. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  16. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  17. Geophysical wave tomography (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoguang


    This study is concerned with geophysical wave tomography techniques that include advanced diffraction tomography, traveltime calculation techniques and simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches. We propose the source independent approximation, the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation and develop a fast and accurate diffraction tomography algorithm that uses this approximation. Since the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation accounts for the scattering fields within scatterers, this tomography algorithm produces better image quality than conventional Born approximation tomography algorithm does with or without the presence of multiple scatterers and can be used to reconstruct images of high contrast objects. Since iteration is not required, this algorithm is efficient. We improve the finite difference traveltime calculation algorithm proposed by Vidale (1990). The bucket theory is utilized in order to enhance the sorting efficiency, which accounts for about ten percent computing time improvement for large velocity models. Snell's law is employed to solve the causality problem analytically, which enables the modified algorithm to compute traveltimes accurately and rapidly for high velocity contrast media. We also develop two simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches, which use traveltimes and amplitude spectra of the observed data, and discuss some of their applications. One approach is processing geophysical data that come from one single survey and the other deals with the repeated survey cases. These approaches are nonlinear and therefore more accurate than linear tomography. A linear system for wave propagation and constant-Q media are assumed in order to develop the tomography algorithms. These approaches not only produce attenuation and velocity images at the same time but also can be used to infer the physical rock properties, such as the dielectric permittivity, the electric conductivity, and the porosity. A crosshole radar

  18. Geophysics publications honored (United States)

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Editors and artists of the bimonthly USGS Earthquake Information Bulletin were awarded third place in the category for technical magazines using at least two colors.

  19. Depth-to-the-bottom optimization for magnetic data inversion: Magnetic structure of the Latium volcanic region, Italy (United States)

    Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.


    We present an algorithm for the linear inversion of two-dimensional (2-D) surface magnetic data to obtain 3-D models of the susceptibility of the source. The forward model is discretized by a mesh of prismatic cells with constant magnetization that allows the recovery of a complete 3-D generating source. As the number of cells are normally greater than the amount of available data, we have to solve an underdetermined linear inverse problem. A Tikhonov regularization of the solution is introduced as a depth-weighting function adapted from Li and Oldenburg (1996) to close the source toward the bottom. The main novelty of this method is a first-stage optimization that gives information about the depth to the bottom of the generating source. This parameter permits both the evaluation of the appropriate vertical extension of the mesh and the definition of the shape of the regularizing depth-weighting distribution. After discussing the performance of this method by showing the results of various synthetic tests, we invert the magnetic anomalies of the volcanic edifices in the Latium region in central Italy to define their 3-D source distribution.

  20. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi


    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  1. Learning to recognize volcanic non-eruptions (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.


    An important goal of volcanology is to answer the questions of when, where, and how a volcano will erupt—in other words, eruption prediction. Generally, eruption predictions are based on insights from monitoring data combined with the history of the volcano. An outstanding example is the A.D. 1980–1986 lava dome growth at Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States). Recognition of a consistent pattern of precursors revealed by geophysical, geological, and geochemical monitoring enabled successful predictions of more than 12 dome-building episodes (Swanson et al., 1983). At volcanic systems that are more complex or poorly understood, probabilistic forecasts can be useful (e.g., Newhall and Hoblitt, 2002; Marzocchi and Woo, 2009). In such cases, the probabilities of different types of volcanic events are quantified, using historical accounts and geological studies of a volcano's past activity, supplemented by information from similar volcanoes elsewhere, combined with contemporary monitoring information.

  2. Interaction of Volcanic Forcing and El Nino: Sensitivity to the Eruption Magnitude and El Nino Intensity

    KAUST Repository

    Predybaylo, Evgeniya


    Volcanic aerosols formed in the stratosphere after strong explosive eruptions influence Earth\\'s radiative balance, affecting atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and circulation. It was observed that the recent volcanic eruptions frequently occurred in El Nino years. Analysis of the paleo data confirms that the probability of a sequent El Nino occurrence after the eruption increases. To better understand the physical mechanism of this interaction we employed ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model CM2.1, developed in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, and conducted a series of numerical experiments using initial conditions with different El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strengths forced by volcanic eruptions of different magnitudes, Pinatubo of June 1991 and Tambora of April 1815: (i) strong ENSO/Pinatubo, (ii) weak ENSO/Pinatubo, (iii) strong ENSO/Tambora. The amount of ejected material from the Tambora eruption was about three times greater than that of the Pinatubo eruption. The initial conditions with El Nino were sampled from the CM2.1 long control run. Our simulations show the enhancement of El Nino in the second year after an eruption. We found that the spatial-temporal structure of model responses is sensitive to both the magnitude of an eruption and the strength of El Nino. We analyzed the ocean dynamic in the tropical Pacific for all cases to uncover the physical mechanism, resulting in the enhanced and/or prolonged El Nino.

  3. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  4. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  5. Volcanics in the Gulf Coast [volcanicg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The volcanic provinces are modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The...

  6. Evidence for sub-lacustrine volcanic activity in Lake Bolsena (central Italy) revealed by high resolution seismic data sets (United States)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd; Schuerer, Anke


    The Bolsena caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.2 Ma has a well preserved structural rim, which makes it an ideal site to study the tectonic and volcanic evolution of calderas. However, the main area is covered by a 150 m deep lake which makes it rather difficult to investigate the subsurface structure directly. To overcome this problem new high resolution hydro-acoustic surveys using a multichannel reflection seismic system and a sediment echo-sounder system were conducted in September 2012. As space was limited we used a rowing boat towed by a rubber boat to handle a 36 m long and 24 channel streamer to receive seismic reflections produced using a Mini GI-Gun (0.25 l). The subsurface structure of Lake Bolsena was imaged up to a sediment depth of 190 m, which is estimated to have filled over a period of 333 kyrs. However, massive pyroclastic flow deposits found in the deeper parts of the basin indicate an initial infill of volcanic deposits from two adjacent younger calderas, the Latera (W) and Montefiascone (SE) calderas. Our data suggest that the caldera has a long history of active volcanism, because the lacustrine sediments show post-sedimentary influences of geothermal fluids. We mapped several mound structures at various stratigraphic depths. Two volcanic structures outcrop at the modern lake surface implying recent activity. One of these structures is hardly covered by sediments and has a crater-like feature in its summit. The other structure shows a pockmark-like depression on top. Another observable feature is a partially sediment filled crater located in the western part of the lake which further implies the existence of a magma chamber located beneath the Bolsena caldera. Since the late Pleistocene and Holocene, the sedimentation was mainly hemipelagic evidenced by a sediment drape of up to 10 m thick sediment drape on the uppermost sediments. Beneath the drape we found evidence for a distal tephra layer likely related to an explosive eruption from

  7. Three-dimensional seismic structure and moment tensors of non-double-couple earthquakes at the Hengill-Grensdalur volcanic complex, Iceland (United States)

    Miller, A.D.; Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.


    The volcanic and geothermal areas of Iceland are rich sources of non-double-couple (non-DC) earthquakes. A state-of-the-art digital seismometer network deployed at the Hengill-Grensdalur volcanic complex in 1991 recorded 4000 small earthquakes. We used the best recorded of these to determine 3-D VP and VP/VS structure tomographically and accurate earthquake moment tensors. The VP field is dominated by high seismic wave speed bodies interpreted as solidified intrusions. A widespread negative (-4 per cent) VP/VS anomaly in the upper 4 km correlates with the geothermal field, but is too strong to be caused solely by the effect of temperature upon liquid water or the presence of vapour, and requires in addition mineralogical or lithological differences between the geothermal reservoir and its surroundings. These may be caused by geothermal alteration. Well-constrained moment tensors were obtained for 70 of the best-recorded events by applying linear programming methods to P- and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios. About 25 per cent of the mechanisms are, within observational error, consistent with DC mechanisms consistent with shear faulting. The other 75 per cent have significantly non-DC mechanisms. Many have substantial explosive components, one has a substantial implosive component, and the deviatoric component of many is strongly non-DC. Many of the non-DC mechanisms are consistent, within observational error, with simultaneous tensile and shear faulting. However, the mechanisms occupy a continuum in source-type parameter space and probably at least one additional source process is occurring. This may be fluid flow into newly formed cracks, causing partial compensation of the volumetric component. Studying non-shear earthquakes such as these has great potential for improving our understanding of geothermal processes and earthquake source processes in general.

  8. Sampling functions for geophysics (United States)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.


    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  9. Geophysics of Mars (United States)

    Wells, R. A.


    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  10. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.


    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  11. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server


    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  12. Seismic properties of volcanic rocks from Montagne Pelée (Martinique, Lesser Antilles) and their relations to transport properties (United States)

    Bernard, M.-L.; Zamora, M.


    Numerous laboratory and theoretical studies on the physical properties of rocks and their relationships - lead mainly in the framework of petroleum exploration - show that rock physics is necessary for an accurate quantitative interpretation of geophysical observations. Moreover joint inversion of different geophysical datasets is emerging as an important tool to enhance resolution and decrease inversion artifacts in imaging of structurally complex areas such as volcanoes. In many cases, the coupling between the inverted parameters is based on empirical or theoretical relationships derived from laboratory data. Consequently rock physics can be used to: interpret simultaneously several geophysical datasets on volcanoes when they are available, improve the imaging of volcano structures, and better understand the coupled processes that can occur during volcanic unrest. It's in this context that we lead a laboratory study on the transport properties (permeability, thermal and electrical conductivities) and seismic properties (velocity and attenuation of P and S waves) of volcanic rocks representative of Montagne Pelée (Martinique) deposits. In this presentation we will focus on (1) the seismic properties and (2) the relations between seismic and transport properties. The 43 samples collected are representative of the main lithological units of this volcano: vesicular lava blocks and indurated ashed from indurated block-and-ash flows also called breccias, vesicular lava blocks from "Pelean nuee ardente" flows, scoriae from scoria flows, pumices from ash-and-pumices flows, and dense lava blocks from lava flows and lava domes. Their total porosity varies over a wide range from 4 to 73%. Since the samples present similar chemical and mineralogical compositions (andesites), the main difference between the samples comes from their pore structure and reflects differences in the mechanisms of magma degassing and vesiculation during their formation (Bernard et al., 2007). This

  13. Is there a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains caldera? (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Davidson, J.


    determine within-crystal geochemical variations. Our current conclusions and working hypotheses are: 1) All igneous rocks from the Organ Mountains are crustal-mantle melt mixtures indicating two component mixing; 2) the caldera-forming ignimbrites are likely derived from a fractionating Organ Needle pluton; 3) pre- and post-caldera lavas are isotopically similar to the post-caldera Sugarloaf Peak quartz-monzonite; 4) K-feldspar cumulate textures in the structurally top 0.5-1 km of the Organ Needle pluton indicate that interstitial melt was lost from the magma mush, which likely fed the ignimbrite eruptions. 5) Plutonic feldspar textures are complex compared to rather simple zoned volcanic feldspars including K-feldspar rimmed plagioclase, plagioclase rimmed K-feldspar and unrimmed feldspars occurring over a range of grain sizes at thin section scale. Some volcanic feldspar phenocrysts have any previous zonation erased due to late stage albitization. Although the single mineral studies are still work in progress and details need resolving, our data so far suggest a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Organ Mountains caldera, albeit a complex one; and greater complexity in plutonic versus volcanic minerals. [1] Seager (1980), NM Bureau of Mines and Min. Res. Memoir 36, 97 p. [2] Zimmerer & McIntosh (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, p. 4421-4433

  14. The Ventotene Volcanic Ridge: a newly explored complex in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) (United States)

    Cuffaro, Marco; Martorelli, Eleonora; Bosman, Alessandro; Conti, Alessia; Bigi, Sabina; Muccini, Filippo; Cocchi, Luca; Ligi, Marco; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Scrocca, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Chiocci, Francesco L.; Conte, Aida M.; Doglioni, Carlo; Perinelli, Cristina


    New high-resolution geophysical data collected along the eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin, in the Pontine Islands area, reveal a ˜NW-SE elongated morphological high, the Ventotene Volcanic Ridge (VR), located on the northern edge of the Ventotene Basin. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry, combined with magnetic data, multi- and single-channel seismic profiles, and ROV dives, suggest that VR results from aggregation of a series of volcanic edifices. The summit of these volcanoes is flat and occurs at about 170 m water depth. Given their depths, we propose that flat morphologies were probably caused by surf erosion during Quaternary glacial sea level lowstands. Seismic stratigraphy together with magnetic data suggest that the volcanic activity in this area is older than 190-130 ka age and may be coeval with that of Ventotene Island (Middle Pleistocene). The submarine volcanoes, located 25 km north of Ventotene, are part of a ˜E-W regional volcanic alignment and extend the Pontine volcanism landward toward the Gaeta bay. Integration of structural data from multichannel seismic profiles in this sector of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin indicates that several normal and/or transtensional faults, striking WNW-ESE, NNW-SSE, and NE-SW, offset the basement and form alternating structural highs and depressions filled by thick, mostly undeformed, sedimentary units. Arc-related magmatism is widespread in the study area, where the VR is placed at the hangingwall of the west-directed Apennines subduction zone, which is undergoing tensional and transtensional tectonics. Bathymetric and topographic evidence shows that VR lies in between a major NE-SW trending escarpment east of Ponza and a NE-SW trending graben southwest of the Roccamonfina volcano, a NE-SW transfer zone that accommodate the extension along this segmented portion of the margin. This suggests that the interaction between NE-SW and NW-SE trending fault systems acts as a structural control on

  15. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.


    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Florindo


    Full Text Available Annals of Geophysics is a bimonthly international journal, which publishes scientific papers in the field of geophysics sensu lato. It derives from Annali di Geofisica, which commenced publication in January 1948 as a quarterly periodical devoted to general geophysics, seismology, earth magnetism, and atmospheric studies. The journal was published regularly for a quarter of a century until 1982 when it merged with the French journal Annales de Géophysique to become Annales Geophysicae under the aegis of the European Geophysical Society. In 1981, this journal ceased publication of the section on solid earth geophysics, ending the legacy of Annali di Geofisica. In 1993, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING, founder of the journal, decided to resume publication of its own journal under the same name, Annali di Geofisica. To ensure continuity, the first volume of the new series was assigned the volume number XXXVI (following the last issue published in 1982. In 2002, with volume XLV, the name of the journal was translated into English to become Annals of Geophysics and in consequence the journal impact factor counter was restarted. Starting in 2010, in order to improve its status and better serve the science community, Annals of Geophysics has instituted a number of editorial changes including full electronic open access, freely accessible online, the possibility to comment on and discuss papers online, and a board of editors representing Asia and the Americas as well as Europe. [...

  17. Geological and geophysical characteristics of massive sulphide deposits: A case study of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit of Western Kenya (United States)

    Dindi, E.; Maneno, J. B. J.


    massive sulphide deposit with those of better documented massive sulphides. Despite the fact that very little is known about Lirhanda, there are several similarities on the characteristics compared. These include evidence of back arc regional environment, calc-alkaline volcanic associations, conformity of anomalies to the structural trend of the host rock, proximity of synvolcanic rift, dispersive anomalies of copper and zinc in soils, presence of gossan and association of the deposit with strong EM anomalies.

  18. Velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle at the northern group of Kamchatka volcanoes (Based on the travel time of P-waves from volcanic earthquakes) (United States)

    Slavina, L. B.; Pivovarova, N. B.; Senyukov, S. L.


    The results of a calculation of the P-wave ( V P ) velocity fields are presented on the basis of the method of the reversible wave and the TAU parameter characterizing the V P / V S ratio of seismic waves from the local volcanic earthquakes that occurred at the northern group of Kamchatka volcanoes in 2005-2007. The 3D velocity cross sections were constructed along the SW-NE-trending volcanic group from the Ploskii Tolbachik volcano in the southwest up to the Shiveluch volcano in the northeast. The change of velocity field in time and depth is found. The problems of relating these changes to volcanic activity is reviewed.

  19. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural studies with ERTS-1 imagery (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Boeovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Saemundsson, K.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.


    The author has identified the following significant results. The wide variety of geological and geophysical phenomena which can be observed in Iceland, and particularly their very direct relation to the management of the country's natural resources, has provided great impetus to the use of ERTS-1 imagery to measure and map the dynamic natural phenomena in Iceland. MSS imagery is being used to study a large variety of geological and geophysical eruptive products, geologic structure, volcanic geomorphology, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena of Iceland. Some of the preliminary results from this research projects are: (1) a large number of geological and volcanic features can be studied from ERTS-1 imagery, particularly imagery acquired at low sun angle, which had not previously been recognized; (2) under optimum conditions the ERTS-1 satellite can discern geothermal areas by their snow melt pattern or warm spring discharge into frozen lakes; (3) various maps at scales of 1:1 million and 1:500,000 can be updated and made more accurate with ERTS-1 imagery; (4) the correlation of water reserves with snowcover can improve the basis for planning electrical production in the management of water resources; (5) false-color composites (MSS) permitted the mapping of four types of vegetation: forested; grasslands, reclaimed, and cultivated areas, and the seasonal change of the vegetation, all of high value to rangeland management.

  20. The earliest open conduit eruptive center of the Etnean region: evidence from aeromagnetic, geophysical, and geological data (United States)

    Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Branca, Stefano; Ferlito, Carmelo; Chiappini, Massimo


    At Mount Etna, the present-day active volcano is an open conduit structure characterized by continuous eruptive activity. Such conditions have been thought unique in the evolution of the Etnean volcano as well as in the Mediterranean region. However, a review study of available geophysical data and models, combined with geological records, petrographic and geochemical considerations, has led us to consider that a large area of about 28 km2 located in Val Calanna, on the eastern side of Valle del Bove, can be interpreted as the site of an old open conduit volcano. A dyke swarm outcrops in the area, whose deep alteration and fumarolization can be attributed to the sustained passage of volcanic gases over long periods. Radiometric dating yields an age of about 129 ka. This finding sheds new light on the evolution of Mount Etna volcano, indicating that the tectonic conditions leading to an open conduit volcano must also have been active in the past.

  1. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.


    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  2. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics. (United States)

    Pachepsky, Y. A.; Martinez, G.; Guber, A.; Walthall, C. L.; Vereecken, H.


    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and transmission of water, energy, solutes, electrical charge, etc. Several focal points of the research have emerged as the knowledge base of the critical zone geophysics grows. Time-lapse or multiple geophysical surveys admittedly improve the subsurface characterization. One of intriguing possibilities here is to use the temporal variation in geophysical parameters among time-lapse surveys directly to model spatial variation in soil properties affecting soil-water contents. Because critical phenomena causing erratic routing have been recently discovered in hillslope subsurface flow networks, it remains to be seen whether the time-lapse imagery depicts the same flow network if weather conditions are seemingly similar. High-frequency network observations usually reveal the temporal stability patterns in soil variables, including water contents, CO2 fluxes, etc. It becomes clear that these patterns can be described with spatiotemporal geostatistics models, and the opportunity arises to infer the spatial correlation structure of soil parameters from temporal variations of soil dynamic variables. There are indications that the spatial correlation structures of the geophysical parameters and soil/plant variables can be similar even though the correlations between these parameters are low. This may open additional avenues for mapping sparsely measured soil and plant variables. Fallacies of scale in geophysical depicting subsurface structural units and patterns are far from being understood. Soil state variables affect geophysical retrieval in nonlinear ways, and therefore scale effects in retrievals are warranted. For this reason, the strength and type of dependencies between geophysical

  3. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories (United States)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  4. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T


    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  5. The geophysical impact of the Aristoteles mission (United States)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Klingele, E.; Sabadini, R.; Tinti, S.; Zerbini, Suzanna


    The importance of a precise, high resolution gradiometric and magnetometric mission in some topics of geophysical interest is stressed. Ways in which the planned Aristoteles mission can allow the geophysical community to improve the knowledge and the physical understanding of several important geodynamical processes involving the coupled system consisting of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and upper mantle are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the inversion of anomalous density structures in collision and subduction zones by means of the joint use of gradiometric and seismic tomographic data. Some modeling efforts accomplished to study the capability of the mission to invert the rheological parameters of the lithosphere and upper mantle through the gravimetric signals of internal and surface density anomalies are described.

  6. Analysis of the geophysical data using a posteriori algorithms (United States)

    Voskoboynikova, Gyulnara; Khairetdinov, Marat


    The problems of monitoring, prediction and prevention of extraordinary natural and technogenic events are priority of modern problems. These events include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the lunar-solar tides, landslides, falling celestial bodies, explosions utilized stockpiles of ammunition, numerous quarry explosion in open coal mines, provoking technogenic earthquakes. Monitoring is based on a number of successive stages, which include remote registration of the events responses, measurement of the main parameters as arrival times of seismic waves or the original waveforms. At the final stage the inverse problems associated with determining the geographic location and time of the registration event are solving. Therefore, improving the accuracy of the parameters estimation of the original records in the high noise is an important problem. As is known, the main measurement errors arise due to the influence of external noise, the difference between the real and model structures of the medium, imprecision of the time definition in the events epicenter, the instrumental errors. Therefore, posteriori algorithms more accurate in comparison with known algorithms are proposed and investigated. They are based on a combination of discrete optimization method and fractal approach for joint detection and estimation of the arrival times in the quasi-periodic waveforms sequence in problems of geophysical monitoring with improved accuracy. Existing today, alternative approaches to solving these problems does not provide the given accuracy. The proposed algorithms are considered for the tasks of vibration sounding of the Earth in times of lunar and solar tides, and for the problem of monitoring of the borehole seismic source location in trade drilling.

  7. Terrane Boundary Geophysical Signatures in Northwest Panay, Philippines: Results from Gravity, Seismic Refraction and Electrical Resistivity Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Aira S. Gabo


    Full Text Available Northwest Panay consists of two terranes that form part of the Central Philippine collision zone: Buruanga Peninsula and Antique Range. The Buruanga Peninsula consists of a Jurassic chert-clastic-limestone sequence, typical of oceanic plate stratigraphy of the Palawan Micro-continental Block. The Antique Range is characterized by Antique Ophiolite Complex peridotites and Miocene volcanic and clastic rocks, representing obducted oceanic crust that serves as the oceanic leading edge of the collision with the Philippine Mobile Belt. The Nabas Fault is identified as the boundary between the two terranes. This study employed the gravity method to characterize the Northwest Panay subsurface structure. Results indicate higher Bouguer anomaly values for Buruanga Peninsula than those for Antique Range, separated by a sudden decrease in gravity values toward the east-southeast (ESE direction. Forward gravity data modeling indicates the presence of an underlying basaltic subducted slab in the Buruanga Peninsula. Furthermore, the Nabas Fault is characterized as an east-dipping thrust structure formed by Buruanga Peninsula basement leading edge subduction beneath Antique Range. Additional geophysical constraints were provided by shallow seismic refraction and electrical resistivity surveys. Results from both methods delineated the shallow subsurface signature of the Nabas Fault buried beneath alluvium deposits. The gravity, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity methods were consistent in identifying the Nabas Fault as the terrane boundary between the Buruanga Peninsula and the Antique Range. The three geophysical methods helped constrain the subsurface configuration in Northwest Panay.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2012 ... olokoro lateritic soil, particle size distribution, compaction test, geophysical properties, california bearing ratio. 1. ... e.g. alluvial soil, aeolin soil, glacial soil etc. [2]. .... Garg, S.K. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer- ing.

  9. Sustainable urban development and geophysics (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.


    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  10. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik I.


    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  11. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy) (United States)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.


    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  12. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.


    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  13. Volcanic rock properties control sector collapse events (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian; Di Toro, Giulio


    Volcanoes constructed by superimposed layers of varying volcanic materials are inherently unstable structures. The heterogeneity of weak and strong layers consisting of ash, tephra and lavas, each with varying coherencies, porosities, crystallinities, glass content and ultimately, strength, can promote volcanic flank and sector collapses. These volcanoes often exist in areas with complex regional tectonics adding to instability caused by heterogeneity, flank overburden, magma movement and emplacement in addition to hydrothermal alteration and anomalous geothermal gradients. Recent studies conducted on the faulting properties of volcanic rocks at variable slip rates show the rate-weakening dependence of the friction coefficients (up to 90% reduction)[1], caused by a wide range of factors such as the generation of gouge and frictional melt lubrication [2]. Experimental data from experiments conducted on volcanic products suggests that frictional melt occurs at slip rates similar to those of plug flow in volcanic conduits [1] and the bases of mass material movements such as debris avalanches from volcanic flanks [3]. In volcanic rock, the generation of frictional heat may prompt the remobilisation of interstitial glass below melting temperatures due to passing of the glass transition temperature at ˜650-750 ˚C [4]. In addition, the crushing of pores in high porosity samples can lead to increased comminution and strain localisation along slip surfaces. Here we present the results of friction tests on both high density, glass rich samples from Santaguito (Guatemala) and synthetic glass samples with varying porosities (0-25%) to better understand frictional properties underlying volcanic collapse events. 1. Kendrick, J.E., et al., Extreme frictional processes in the volcanic conduit of Mount St. Helens (USA) during the 2004-2008 eruption. J. Structural Geology, 2012. 2. Di Toro, G., et al., Fault lubrication during earthquakes. Nature, 2011. 471(7339): p. 494-498. 3

  14. Escript: Open Source Environment For Solving Large-Scale Geophysical Joint Inversion Problems in Python (United States)

    Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan; Fenwick, Joel; Smith, Troy


    The program package escript has been designed for solving mathematical modeling problems using python, see Gross et al. (2013). Its development and maintenance has been funded by the Australian Commonwealth to provide open source software infrastructure for the Australian Earth Science community (recent funding by the Australian Geophysical Observing System EIF (AGOS) and the AuScope Collaborative Research Infrastructure Scheme (CRIS)). The key concepts of escript are based on the terminology of spatial functions and partial differential equations (PDEs) - an approach providing abstraction from the underlying spatial discretization method (i.e. the finite element method (FEM)). This feature presents a programming environment to the user which is easy to use even for complex models. Due to the fact that implementations are independent from data structures simulations are easily portable across desktop computers and scalable compute clusters without modifications to the program code. escript has been successfully applied in a variety of applications including modeling mantel convection, melting processes, volcanic flow, earthquakes, faulting, multi-phase flow, block caving and mineralization (see Poulet et al. 2013). The recent escript release (see Gross et al. (2013)) provides an open framework for solving joint inversion problems for geophysical data sets (potential field, seismic and electro-magnetic). The strategy bases on the idea to formulate the inversion problem as an optimization problem with PDE constraints where the cost function is defined by the data defect and the regularization term for the rock properties, see Gross & Kemp (2013). This approach of first-optimize-then-discretize avoids the assemblage of the - in general- dense sensitivity matrix as used in conventional approaches where discrete programming techniques are applied to the discretized problem (first-discretize-then-optimize). In this paper we will discuss the mathematical framework for

  15. Geophysical applications for levee assessment (United States)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  16. Neogene volcanism in Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Kovacs


    Full Text Available Two types of volcanism developed in Gutâi Mts. (inner volcanic chain of Eastern Carpathians: a felsic, extensional/“back-arc” type and an intermediate, arc type. The felsic volcanism of explosive origin, consisting of caldera-related rhyolitic ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics, had taken place during Early-Middle Badenian and Early Sarmatian. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The geochemical study on the volcanic rocks shows the calc-alkaline character of both felsic and intermediate volcanism and typical subduction zones geochemical signatures for the intermediate one. The felsic volcanism shows affinities with subduction-related rocks as well. The main petrogenetic process in Gutâi Mts. was crustal assimilation, strongly constrained by trace element and isotope geochemistry.

  17. The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni


    The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

  18. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska (United States)

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra


    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  19. The α-β phase transition in volcanic cristobalite.


    Damby, D. E.; Llewellin, E.W.; Horwell, C. J.; Williamson, B.J.; Najorka, J; Cressey, G.; Carpenter, M.A.


    Cristobalite is a common mineral in volcanic ash produced from dome-forming eruptions. Assessment of the respiratory hazard posed by volcanic ash requires understanding the nature of the cristobalite it contains. Volcanic cristobalite contains coupled substitutions of Al3+ and Na+ for Si4+; similar co-substitutions in synthetic cristobalite are known to modify the crystal structure, affecting the stability of the α and β forms and the observed transition between them. Here, for the first time...

  20. Volcanic Rocks and Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  1. Architecture of the intracontinental Jaibaras Rift, Brazil, based on geophysical data (United States)

    Pedrosa, Nilo C.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Castelo Branco, R. M. G.; Almeida, Afonso R. de; Silva, Nilton C. Vieira; Braga, Luiz R. C.


    Qualitative and quantitative integration and interpretation of magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data help to determine the internal architecture of the Jaibaras rift, and allow assessing the evolution of the Jaibaras Rift within the Precambrian crystalline basement of Borborema Province, NE Brazil. This was achieved by 2D joint modeling of magnetic and gravity data in five sections across the main axis of the Jaibaras Rift. Surface data, rock density measurements, depth constraints from 2D Euler deconvolution and geophysical information from previous work in the area were integrated to constrain the modeling. The magnetic and gravity profiles of the Jaibaras Rift indicate estimated source bodies at depths up to 2.5 km, showing complex configuration for the structural framework, with a set of asymmetric grabens and horsts. The 2D magnetotelluric inversion shows that the Jaibaras Rift is marked by low resistivity values, and maximum thickness of the sedimentary package up to approximately 3 km. Shallow dipping conductive material may represent either a suture zone between the Ceará Central and Médio Coreaú domains or a set of fractures due to horizontal σ1 stress in the Ceará Central Domain. The Jaibaras Rift displays a very complex internal structure, with discontinuous sequences of grabens and horsts, and a significant volume of surface and subsurface volcanic rocks. The sedimentary packages with volcanic rift sequences have variable thicknesses, from 1 to 3 km. These rock units are controlled by normal faults that developed from older discontinuities, such as the Transbrasiliano lineament.

  2. Volcanic jet noise: infrasonic source processes and atmospheric propagation (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; Ogden, D. E.


    Volcanic eruption columns are complex flows consisting of (possibly supersonic) injections of ash-gas mixtures into the atmosphere. A volcanic eruption column can be modeled as a lower momentum-driven jet (the gas-thrust region), which transitions with altitude into a thermally buoyant plume. Matoza et al. [2009] proposed that broadband infrasonic signals recorded during this type of volcanic activity represent a low-frequency form of jet noise. Jet noise is produced at higher acoustic frequencies by smaller-scale man-made jet flows (e.g., turbulent jet flow from jet engines and rockets). Jet noise generation processes could operate at larger spatial scales and produce infrasonic frequencies in the lower gas-thrust portion of the eruption column. Jet-noise-like infrasonic signals have been observed at ranges of tens to thousands of kilometers from sustained volcanic explosions at Mount St. Helens, WA; Tungurahua, Ecuador; Redoubt, AK; and Sarychev Peak, Kuril Islands. Over such distances, the atmosphere cannot be considered homogeneous. Long-range infrasound propagation takes place primarily in waveguides formed by vertical gradients in temperature and horizontal winds, and exhibits strong spatiotemporal variability. The timing and location of volcanic explosions can be estimated from remote infrasonic data and could be used with ash cloud dispersion forecasts for hazard mitigation. Source studies of infrasonic volcanic jet noise, coupled with infrasound propagation modeling, hold promise for being able to constrain more detailed eruption jet parameters with remote, ground-based geophysical data. Here we present recent work on the generation and propagation of volcanic jet noise. Matoza, R. S., D. Fee, M. A. Garcés, J. M. Seiner, P. A. Ramón, and M. A. H. Hedlin (2009), Infrasonic jet noise from volcanic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036486.

  3. Laboratory simulations of volcanic ash charging and conditions for volcanic lightning on Venus (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Warriner-Bacon, Elliot; Aplin, Karen


    to a high-precision electrometer. The separate effects of varying the atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure on the charges attained and the relationship between particle size and charge polarity will be addressed, and the implications discussed. The key questions considered here are: (a) is volcanic activity a feasible mechanism for lightning generation on Venus, (b) how do the extreme environmental conditions on Venus affect the mechanisms required to generate lightning, (c) what are the implications for volcanic lightning's role in the emergence of life on other planets? [1] Navarro-Gonzalez, R. and Segura, A., (2001) Volcanic lightning and the availability of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus for chemical evolution. [2] Marcq, E., et al. (2012) Nature Geoscience, 1-4 [3] Shalygin, E.V., et al. (2015) Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 [4] Smrekar, S.E., et al. (2010) Science, 328, 5978, 605-608 [5] Russell, C.T., et al. (2008) Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 113 [6] Aplin, K.L. and Fischer, G. (In press) Weather, (preprint at [7] Takahashi, Y., et al. (2008) Space Sci. Rev., 137, 1-4, 317-334 [8] Airey, M.W., et al. (2015) Planetary and Space Science, 113-114, 33-48 [9] James, M.R., et al. (2000) Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 105, B7, 16641-16649

  4. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.


    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  5. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars. (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  6. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards (United States)

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.


    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  7. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ BGP is one of the world leading onshore geophysical service contractors with a registered capital of 5,100 million Yuan. In 2002, BGP became a liability-limited company after merging other six Chinese geophysical companies.

  9. Integrating Geophysics, Geology, and Hydrology for Enhanced Hydrogeological Modeling (United States)

    Auken, E.


    Geophysical measurements are important for providing information on the geological structure to hydrological models. Regional scale surveys, where several watersheds are mapped at the same time using helicopter borne transient electromagnetic, results in a geophysical model with a very high lateral and vertical resolution of the geological layers. However, there is a bottleneck when it comes to integrating the information from the geophysical models into the hydrological model. This transformation is difficult, because there is not a simple relationship between the hydraulic conductivity needed for the hydrological model and the electrical conductivity measured by the geophysics. In 2012 the Danish Council for Strategic Research has funded a large research project focusing on the problem of integrating geophysical models into hydrological models. The project involves a number of Danish research institutions, consulting companies, a water supply company, as well as foreign partners, USGS (USA), TNO (Holland) and CSIRO (Australia). In the project we will: 1. Use statistical methods to describe the spatial correlation between the geophysical and the lithological/hydrological data; 2. Develop semi-automatic or automatic methods for transforming spatially sampled geophysical data into geological- and/or groundwater-model parameter fields; 3. Develop an inversion method for large-scale geophysical surveys in which the model space is concordant with the hydrological model space 4. Demonstrate the benefits of spatially distributed geophysical data for informing and updating groundwater models and increasing the predictive power of management scenarios. 5. Develop a new receiver system for Magnetic Resonance Sounding data and further enhance the resolution capability of data from the SkyTEM system. 6. In test areas in Denmark, Holland, USA and Australia we will use data from existing airborne geophysical data, hydrological and geological data and also collect new airborne

  10. Hunting for the Tristan mantle plume - An upper mantle tomography around the volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (United States)

    Schlömer, Antje; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion


    The active volcanic island Tristan da Cunha, located at the southwestern and youngest end of the Walvis Ridge - Tristan/Gough hotspot track, is believed to be the surface expression of a huge thermal mantle anomaly. While several criteria for the diagnosis of a classical hotspot track are met, the Tristan region also shows some peculiarities. Consequently, it is vigorously debated if the active volcanism in this region is the expression of a deep mantle plume, or if it is caused by shallow plate tectonics and the interaction with the nearby Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Because of a lack of geophysical data in the study area, no model or assumption has been completely confirmed. We present the first amphibian P-wave finite-frequency travel time tomography of the Tristan da Cunha region, based on cross-correlated travel time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 24 ocean-bottom seismometers. The data can be used to image a low velocity structure southwest of the island. The feature is cylindrical with a radius of ∼100 km down to a depth of 250 km. We relate this structure to the origin of Tristan da Cunha and name it the Tristan conduit. Below 250 km the low velocity structure ramifies into narrow veins, each with a radius of ∼50 km. Furthermore, we imaged a linkage between young seamounts southeast of Tristan da Cunha and the Tristan conduit.

  11. Time Series Analysis OF SAR Image Fractal Maps: The Somma-Vesuvio Volcanic Complex Case Study (United States)

    Pepe, Antonio; De Luca, Claudio; Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Susi; Riccio, Daniele; Ruello, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana


    The fractal dimension is a significant geophysical parameter describing natural surfaces representing the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scale; in case of volcanic structures, it has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. In this work, we present the analysis of the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension estimates generated from multi-pass SAR images relevant to the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex (South Italy). To this aim, we consider a Cosmo-SkyMed data-set of 42 stripmap images acquired from ascending orbits between October 2009 and December 2012. Starting from these images, we generate a three-dimensional stack composed by the corresponding fractal maps (ordered according to the acquisition dates), after a proper co-registration. The time-series of the pixel-by-pixel estimated fractal dimension values show that, over invariant natural areas, the fractal dimension values do not reveal significant changes; on the contrary, over urban areas, it correctly assumes values outside the natural surfaces fractality range and show strong fluctuations. As a final result of our analysis, we generate a fractal map that includes only the areas where the fractal dimension is considered reliable and stable (i.e., whose standard deviation computed over the time series is reasonably small). The so-obtained fractal dimension map is then used to identify areas that are homogeneous from a fractal viewpoint. Indeed, the analysis of this map reveals the presence of two distinctive landscape units corresponding to the Mt. Vesuvio and Gran Cono. The comparison with the (simplified) geological map clearly shows the presence in these two areas of volcanic products of different age. The presented fractal dimension map analysis demonstrates the ability to get a figure about the evolution degree of the monitored volcanic edifice and can be profitably extended in the future to other volcanic systems with

  12. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  13. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green


    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  14. Thermal, radioactive and magnetic properties of the lavas of the Mt Melbourne Volcanic Field (Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Armadillo


    Full Text Available We present the results of measurements of physical properties carried out on mafic lavas from the Mt Melbourne
    Volcanic Field, useful for interpretation of geophysical surveys designed to shed light on the structure of the
    crust. The thermal conductivity is comparable to that of glass and shows a clear negative dependence on porosity.
    The volume heat capacity and the thermal diffusivity are less variable. The concentration of the thermally
    important natural radioactive isotopes was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Lavas denoted a rather low
    heat-production rate, and the largest concentration of heat-producing elements (potassium, uranium, thorium
    was found in the trachyte samples. The magnetic susceptibility is more variable than the other physical properties
    and, among the several iron-titanium oxides, it appears primarily controlled by the ulvöspinel-magnetite solid
    solution series.

  15. Modeling of the thermal state of Mount Vesuvius from 1631 A.D. to present and the role of CO2 degassing on the volcanic conduit closure after the 1944 A.D. eruption (United States)

    Quareni, Francesca; Moretti, Roberto; Piochi, Monica; Chiodini, Giovanni


    The last eruptive event at Mount Vesuvius occurred in 1944 A.D., ending a cycle of continuous eruptive activity started with the sub-Plinian event of 1631 A.D. The aim of this research is (1) to model the thermal evolution of the volcanic system from 1631 A.D. up to the present and (2) to investigate the possible process leading the volcano to the current state of quiescence. A finite element software is employed to solve the time-dependent energy equation and obtain the thermal field in the volcanic edifice and the surrounding medium. Volcanological, petrological, and geophysical constraints are used to define the crustal structure beneath the volcanic edifice, the magma supply system active since 1631 A.D., and the physico-chemical conditions of magma. Thermodynamic properties of magma and wall rocks have been evaluated from well-established thermo-chemical compilations and data from the literature. It is shown that heat transfer due to magma degassing is required in addition to the heat conduction in order to obtain transient depth-temperature fields consistent with geochemical observations, high crustal magnetization, and rigid behavior of the shallow crust as indicated by geophysical data. Surface data of carbon dioxide soil flux coming out from the Mount Vesuvius crater are taken to constrain such an additional heat flux. The agreement between modeled and measured temperatures at the crater since 1944 A.D. proves the consistency of the model. It is concluded that the present state of quiescence of Mount Vesuvius is mostly a consequence of the absence of magma supply from the deep reservoir into the shallower system. This allows the cooling of residual magma left within the volcanic conduit and the transition from continuous eruptive activity to the condition of conduit obstruction. In this scenario, the hydrothermal system may have developed subsequent to the cooling of the magma within the conduit. Our findings are a direct consequence of the high

  16. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, B.W.


    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10/sup -9//km/sup 2//y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10/sup -7//y.

  17. Geophysical Hunt for Chromite in Ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarik Ali


    Full Text Available Ophiolite of Oman are famous world over, and are favorite for exploring chromite, which is a source of chromium that is used widely in steel, nichrome, and plating and painting industries. The best known chromite deposits are found in the Bushveld complex of South africa, however countries like Pakistan and Oman are also contributing but less than 2% of the world production. Chromite is found in the mantle rocks such as peridotite and its altered products. Large economic deposits are generally found in stratiform structure and the smaller ones in pod-like or tabular lenses. In Oman the chromite deposits occur in Oman ophiolite (Semile, mainly in the mantle sequence comprising harzburgite and dunite. The mining efforts for chromite in Oman are in progress but not on scientific grounds. On a site called Izki (670 m asl the chromite was expected on the top of a hill in a small area (150x50 m of ophiolite, and mining through pitting procedure was tried over there but remained unsuccessful. Geophysical methods were applied in the same area to search out the possibility of the existence of the ore. Since chromite is denser, more conductive and magnetically less susceptible deposit as compared to the host rocks harzburgite and serpentinite, it is expected that the existence of a shallow sizable ore body would generate favorable gravity, magnetic, and resistivity signals. The integrated geophysical study (gravity, magnetic and resistivity reveals the probability of chromite within 30 m depth. For confirmation the drilling was recommended on a point upto a depth of 35 meters. The drilling could not be continued beyond 12 meters depth due to reasons known to the lease owner. The drilling showed harzburgite up to 8 meters depth, then a chromite layer of 0.7 meter thickness, after that harzburgite started for the next 3 meters depth. This state of affairs confirms not only the presence of chromite but also the revealing power of geophysics.

  18. Lung problems and volcanic smog (United States)

    ... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...

  19. Marine geological and geophysical study of the continental shelf off southern part of Cheju Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Woo; Jang, Jung Hae; Kim, Won Sik; Sin, Won Chul; Min, Gun Hong; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Ho Young; Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Sung Pil; Kim, Jung Ki; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report is a preliminary result of marine geological and geophysical surveys conducted by KIGAM in 1996 obtain data available for mapping Korean continental shelves. The survey area is located off Seoguipo city of Cheju Island, which is the largest volcanic island in Korea. Total of 1,050 line-km of geophysical survey includes echo sounding, side scan sonar survey, 3.5 KHz subbottom profiling, air gun seismic and magnetic surveys. 75 grab samples were collected from grid positions of 4 x 4 miles spacing by using a Smith McIntyre sampler for textural analysis of surface sediments, and 27 sediment cores were raised from the sites determined by interpretation of geophysical data. The survey vessel, R/V Tamhae, was positioned by GPS system. Isobaths shallower than 90 m are parallel to coastline and the sea floor deepens rapidly from coast to the water depth of more than 100 m deep. The sea floor exceeding 90 m in water depth is comparatively smooth. A moat-like topographic low up to ca. 160 m deep occurs between Gapa and Mara Islands, where the tidal currents in the upper layer is stronger than 3.4 knots. The sea floor is largely covered with thin (<20 cm) shell fragment aggregates including lithic pebbles. The content of CaCO{sub 3} in coarse fraction of the surface sediments ranges from 30 % to 100 %, and is relatively higher values in nearshore. According to textural parameters and sedimentary structures, the shallow substratum can be divided into 10 sedimentary facies; 1) massive sandy mud (MSm), 2) laminated sandy mud (MSl), 3) massive muddy sand (SMm), 4) bioturbated muddy sand (SMb), 5) faintly laminated muddy sand (SMf), 6) fining-upward muddy sand (SMfu), 7) massive sand (Sm), 8) fining-upward gravelly sand (GSfu), and 9) disorganized gravelly sand (GSd). The near-surface sediments of the survey area has deposited largely under low energy conditions interrupted by high energy events. Laminated sandy mud (MSl) and bioturbated muddy sand (SMb) reflect the

  20. Compatible finite element spaces for geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea


    Compatible finite elements provide a framework for preserving important structures in equations of geophysical fluid dynamics, and are becoming important in their use for building atmosphere and ocean models. We survey the application of compatible finite element spaces to geophysical fluid dynamics, including the application to the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations, and the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations. We summarise analytic results about dispersion relations and conservation properties, and present new results on approximation properties in three dimensions on the sphere, and on hydrostatic balance properties.

  1. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  2. Applications of dip angle and coherence attributes to recognition of volcanic edifice in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of the shape and inner structure of volcanic edifice, the dip angle and coherence were selected to recognize the buried volcanic edifices in Songliao Basin. Five volcanic edifices were recognized in both two methods in the first volcanic cycle of Yingcheng Formation and the prediction perfectly corresponds to the drilling results in well XS8 area. The results are satisfying when the prediction method were employed in the exploration and development of Qingshen gas field.

  3. Geophysical investigations with TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry data (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Lago, B.; Rabinowicz, M.; Biancale, R.; Houry, S.; Okal, E. B.; Diament, M.; Parsons, B.


    In the proposed research, TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data will be used with Geosat and European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1) data to compute global, region, and local oceanic geoid surfaces. These observations will then be analyzed to conduct geophysical studies relative to the structure of the oceanic lithosphere and mantle.

  4. Geophysical observations at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Gassner, Alexandra; Guichard, Sebastien; Kamil Syahbana, Devy; Abkar, Fanani; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Nugraha, Andri; Umar, Muksin; Jaya, Makky; Erbas, Kemal


    We assess geothermal resources from our understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs and hydrothermal systems in the south of Bandung. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We deployed a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period (1 Hz) seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) from October 2012 until December 2013. We extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period seismometers. Finally, we deployed a geodetic network including a continuously recording gravity meter, a GPS station, clinometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic and geodetic networks and we discuss first observations and results. As a first estimation of this excellent data set, we performed preliminary location of earthquakes using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We use this first estimate to perform joint inversion tomography of hypocenters and velocity model. We discuss the found seismic pattern within the area.

  5. Near-surface applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Everett, Mark E.


    Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook fo...

  6. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.


    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  7. Geophysical fields of a megalopolis (United States)

    Spivak, A. A.; Loktev, D. N.; Rybnov, Yu. S.; Soloviev, S. P.; Kharlamov, V. A.


    A description of the Center of Geophysical Monitoring for Systematic Investigation of Negative Consequences for the Human Environment and Infrastructure of the City of Moscow Resulting from Natural and Technogenic Factors, which is part of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS), is presented. The results of synchronous observations of the seismic vibrations, electric and acoustic fields, and atmospheric meteoparameters performed at the Center and in the Mikhnevo Geophysical observatory of IGD RAS situated outside of the zone of the Moscow influence are examined. It is shown that the megalopolis influence consists of an increase in the amplitudes of the physical fields, a change in their spectral composition, and the violation of natural periodicities. A technogenic component that has a considerable impact on the natural physical processes in the surface atmosphere is an important factor that characterizes a megalopolis.

  8. Joint geophysical data analysis for geothermal energy exploration (United States)

    Wamalwa, Antony Munika

    Geophysical data modelling often yields non-unique results and hence the interpretation of the resulting models in terms of underlying geological units and structures is not a straightforward problem. However, if multiple datasets are available for a region of study, an integrated interpretation of models for each of the geophysical data may results to a more realistic geological description. This study not only demonstrates the strength of resistivity analysis for geothermal fields but also the gains from interpreting resistivity data together with other geophysical data such as gravity and seismic data. Various geothermal fields have been examined in this study which includes Silali and Menengai geothermal fields in Kenya and Coso geothermal field in California, USA.

  9. Spatial analysis of oil reservoirs using DFA of geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available We employ Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA technique to investigate spatial properties of an oil reservoir. This reservoir is situated at Bacia de Namorados, RJ, Brazil. The data corresponds to well logs of the following geophysical quantities: sonic, gamma ray, density, porosity and electrical resistivity, measured in 56 wells. We tested the hypothesis of constructing spatial models using data from fluctuation analysis over well logs. To verify this hypothesis we compare the matrix of distances among well logs with the differences among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities using spatial correlation function and Mantel test. Our data analysis suggests that sonic profile is a good candidate to represent spatial structures. Then, we apply the clustering analysis technique to the sonic profile to identify these spatial patterns. In addition we use the Mantel test to search for correlation among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities.

  10. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.


    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (< 750,000 years) movement along basin bounding and low level (M<4) seismicity. Over the past 4 years we have been using a conjunction of microgravity, magnetic, water well logs and electrical resistivity studies to image the complex structure of these basins within a heavily urbanized environment. These studies suggest the presence of several northwest-southeast striking cross faults within the southern Mesilla Bolson as well as an extensive subsurface andesite body related to the Cristo Rey laccolith. Intrabasin faults in the Hueco Bolson appear to cut the basin into at least 3 smaller subbasins and to control the boundary between fresh and saline water within the aquifer system beneath El Paso. We are also able to trace the East Franklins Mountain fault (last movement < 15,000 ya) at least 15 km south of the U.S.-Mexico border.

  11. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai


    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  12. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen


    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  13. Geophysical and isotopic constraints on crustal structure related to mineral trends in north-central Nevada and implications for tectonic history (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Rodriguez, B.D.; Wooden, J.L.


    We combined information from Sr and Pb isotope data and magnetotelluric models to develop a new magnetic and gravity interpretation of the crustal structure of north-central Nevada to better understand the origin of mineral trends. The new interpretation suggests a crustal structure that is composed of Precambrian continental crust, transitional crust, and primarily oceanic crust that are separated by northwest- and northeast-striking fault zones. The magnetic expression of the buried Precambrian continental crust is recognized for the first time. Low magnetic values primarily reflect magnetite-poor crystalline crust rather than elevated temperatures at depth. Northwest- and northeast-striking crustal boundaries are defined by isotopic data and abrupt gradients in gravity and magnetic data. The Carlin and Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trends are associated with two of three northwest-striking boundaries. The Carlin boundary is primarily defined by a change in density and isotopic character of the lower to middle crust. The Battle Mountain-Eureka boundary coincides with a density contrast in the upper crust and a change in isotopic character in the lower to middle crust. Magnetotelluric models suggest that the Battle Mountain-Eureka boundary represents a crustal fault zone for most of its extent, but that deep-rooted faulting is more complex near and northwest of Battle Mountain. Crustal fault zones inferred from the magnetotelluric models near the Carlin trend are oblique to it, suggesting that they may not have been controlled by the deep boundary seen in the gravity and isotopic data. The third northwest-trending boundary is related to the western edge of the buried Precambrian continent in west-central Nevada, but lacks an associated mineral trend. A northeast-striking boundary forms the northern limit of Precambrian continental and transitional crust. The boundaries may have originated as rift or transform faults during Precambrian breakup of Rodinia or as

  14. Geophysical examination of coal deposits (United States)

    Jackson, L. J.


    Geophysical techniques for the solution of mining problems and as an aid to mine planning are reviewed. Techniques of geophysical borehole logging are discussed. The responses of the coal seams to logging tools are easily recognized on the logging records. Cores for laboratory analysis are cut from selected sections of the borehole. In addition, information about the density and chemical composition of the coal may be obtained. Surface seismic reflection surveys using two dimensional arrays of seismic sources and detectors detect faults with throws as small as 3 m depths of 800 m. In geologically disturbed areas, good results have been obtained from three dimensional surveys. Smaller faults as far as 500 m in advance of the working face may be detected using in seam seismic surveying conducted from a roadway or working face. Small disturbances are detected by pulse radar and continuous wave electromagnetic methods either from within boreholes or from underground. Other geophysical techniques which explicit the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and geothermal properties of rocks are described.

  15. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  16. New perspectives on superparameterization for geophysical turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majda, Andrew J. [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Prototype Climate Modelling, NYU Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Grooms, Ian, E-mail: [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)


    This is a research expository paper regarding superparameterization, a class of multi-scale numerical methods designed to cope with the intermittent multi-scale effects of inhomogeneous geophysical turbulence where energy often inverse-cascades from the unresolved scales to the large scales through the effects of waves, jets, vortices, and latent heat release from moist processes. Original as well as sparse space–time superparameterization algorithms are discussed for the important case of moist atmospheric convection including the role of multi-scale asymptotic methods in providing self-consistent constraints on superparameterization algorithms and related deterministic and stochastic multi-cloud parameterizations. Test models for the statistical numerical analysis of superparameterization algorithms are discussed both to elucidate the performance of the basic algorithms and to test their potential role in efficient multi-scale data assimilation. The very recent development of grid-free seamless stochastic superparameterization methods for geophysical turbulence appropriate for “eddy-permitting” mesoscale ocean turbulence is presented here including a general formulation and illustrative applications to two-layer quasigeostrophic turbulence, and another difficult test case involving one-dimensional models of dispersive wave turbulence. This last test case has randomly generated solitons as coherent structures which collapse and radiate wave energy back to the larger scales, resulting in strong direct and inverse turbulent energy cascades.

  17. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.


    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  18. A structural scheme proposal derived from geophysical data in the epicentral area of the Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake of May 21, 2003 (United States)

    Samai, Saddek; Idres, Mouloud; Ouyed, Merzouk; Bourmatte, Amar; Boughacha, Mohamed Salah; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José Fernando


    In this study, we processed and interpreted gravity and aeromagnetic data of the epicentral area of the Boumerdes earthquake (May 21, 2003). The joint interpretation of both data allowed the development of a structural scheme that shows the basement undulations offshore and onshore. The shape of the eastern part of the Mitidja Basin is better defined; its northern edge is represented by a large ;sub-circular; uplifted basement located offshore. The rise of this basement indicates that this basin does not extend towards the sea. At the eastern part of the study area, aeromagnetic data have revealed that the Sid-Ali-Bounab basement is individualized in a ;sub-circular; shape, while the Dellys basement, located in the NE part, is elongated in the NE-SW direction and extends offshore. The aeromagnetic data also highlighted two EW basement uplifts which divide Isser depression into three parts. The northern part of this depression extends offshore. The southernmost uplift is an extension of the Thenia Fault (TF), suggesting the continuity of this fault to the east. It is important to note that the active Reghaia Fault (RF), which runs through the Boudouaou and Reghaia urban centers, is bounded by two faults suggesting that its length does not exceed 12 km. Moreover, alluvial terraces observed west of the active Zemmouri Fault (ZF) are in agreement with the reverse component of this fault.

  19. Definition of Brittle Ductile Transition of the upper crust beneath the Campi Flegrei-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity (United States)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Santilano, Alessandro; Gola, Gianluca; Pepe, Susi; D'Auria, Luca; Solaro, Giuseppe


    The thermo-rheology behaviour of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behaviour of the crust of tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to clarify the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic areas. In this framework, the knowledge of the Brittle-Ductile transition inside the upper crust may provide insights to verify the roles that some hypothesized mechanisms, such as slab pull, crustal delamination might have played in the evolution of a tectonically active region. The goal of our study was the 3D imaging of the crust rheology beneath the active Campi Flegrei-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity. Despite many works have been done on the internal structure of the active volcanoes, the determination of the 3D rheological stratification of the crust below the caldera has not yet been tackled. To fill this gap of knowledge, we proposed the definition of 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition calculated via numerical optimization modelling based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical available data. We first performed a 3D numerical modelling of thermal field by using the a priori geological and geophysical information starting to thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the crust beneath the caldera. We developed a suitable 3D conductive/convective time-dependent thermal numerical model solving the Fourier equation and further we used the retrieved thermal model to image a 3D rheological stratification of the shallow crust below the volcanic district. Finally we demonstrate the role of the crustal rheology on seismicity cut off and its implication on maximum expected earthquakes magnitude.

  20. Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR imagery of volcanic clouds (United States)

    Rose, William I.


    This project consisted of merging volcanic cloud data from initial studies from TOMS and AVHRR sensors. Because of the different data acquisition platforms and processing algorithms and formats, the combination of the two data required special consideration. Once the registration technique was perfected, several eruptions with data from both sensors were studied. The conclusion showed that, from the initial work, the positions of the volcanic clouds as detected by the two sensors are very similar. Because the AVHRR algorithm is now capable of retrieving masses of ash and sulfate aerosol, the capability of comparing data from the two sensors now allows changes in SO2, H2SO4, and silicated ash in drifting clouds to be described. The results of this study culminated in several presentations, and a master's thesis, which in turn was converted into a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research. Abstracts of two presentations are attached.

  1. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions. (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L N; Miller, Ana Z; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat


    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  2. Io's Diverse Styles of Volcanic Activity: Results from Galileo NIMS (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L. W.; Doute, S.; Carlson, R.; McEwen, A.; Geissler, P.


    Observations by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer were used to map the thermal structure of several of Io's hot spots, revealing different styles of volcanism Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..

  3. Characterization of geothermal paleosystem in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc: structural, petrographic, thermodynamic and petrophysics analysis of Terre-de-Haut (Les Saintes archipelago, Lesser Antilles) (United States)

    Favier, Alexiane; Navelot, Vivien; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc


    This survey takes part in the GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration of geothermal resource in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. An exclusive license has been issued in the Vieux-Habitants area (Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe) to carry on the development of high-temperature geothermal energy in this active volcanic region. The deep geothermal reservoir on the Basse-Terre island could be characterized in exhumed paleosystems. The reference paleosystem in the Guadeloupe archipelago is located in Terre-de-Haut. Four major fault directions have been highlighted N000-N020, N050-N070, N090-N110 and N130-N140. Field observations emphasize three major cleavage directions overlaying the fault systems: N035-N060, N080-N110, N145-N165. Volcanic rocks affected by cleavage display several metamorphic transformation grades. The more transformed calc-alkaline rocks are located at the intersection of several cleavage directions. Mineralogical transformations due to metamorphism and surimposed fractures are also responsible for strong changes of petrophysical properties. In comparison with the reference protolith of andesitic lava flows outcropping in Vieux-Habitants, which have porosity and permeability lower than 5 % and 10-15 m2, andesites of Terre-de-Haut have better reservoir properties with connected porosity and permeability higher than 15 % and 10-14-10-15 m2 respectively. Thermodynamic modelling based on petrography and chemical composition of the most transformed rocks highlights a steady state mineral assemblage between 0.25 - 1.5 kbar and 350 - 450 ˚ C. It corresponds to a geothermal gradient higher than 120 to 150˚ C/km. This is consistent with temperatures measured in Bouillante wells. However, this geothermal gradient is notably higher to a usual volcanic arc conductive gradient estimated to 70-100˚ C/km. It can be explained

  4. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico. (United States)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.


    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  5. Comparative Analysis of Volcanic Inflation—Deflation Cycles (United States)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.


    GPS geodetic data together with INSAR images are often used to formulate kinematic models of the sources of volcanic deformations. The increasing amount of data now available allows one to produce time series that are several years long and thus capture continuously the history of volcanic deformations, in particular their nonlinear behavior. This information is highly valuable in helping understand the dynamics of volcanic systems.Nonlinear deformation signals are, however, difficult to extract from the background noise inherent in the GPS time series. It is also arduous to unravel the signal of interest from other nonlinear signals, such as the seasonal oscillations associated with mass variations in the atmosphere, the ocean, and the hydrological reservoirs. Here we use Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) — an advanced, data-adaptive method for time series analysis that exploits simultaneously the temporal and spatial correlations of geophysical fields — to extract such deformation signals.We apply M-SSA to GPS data sets from four volcanoes: Akutan, Alaska; Okmok, Alaska; Westdahl, Alaska; and Piton de la Fournaise, La Reunion. Our analyses show that all four volcanoes share similar features in their deformation history, suggesting similarities in the dynamics that generate the inflation-deflation cycles. In particular, all four volcanic systems exhibit sawtooth-shaped oscillations with slow inflations followed by slower deflations, with time scales that vary from 6 months to 4 years. This relation of dynamical similarity is further highlighted by the phase portrait reconstruction of the four systems in the plane of deformation vs. rate-of-deformation, as obtained from the deformation signals extracted from the GPS time series using M-SSA.The inflating phase of these oscillations is followed by eruptions at Okmok volcano and at Piton de la Fournaise. These analysis results suggest that these volcanic inflation—deflation cycles are associated

  6. Exploring Hawaiian Volcanism (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken


    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai`i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO's founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists' understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  7. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken


    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20102191 Du Letian(Beijing Uranium Geology Research Institute,Beijing 100029,China)Mantle Ichor(HACONS Fluids):The Interior Crucial Factor of Geodynamics(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,30(6),2009,p.739-748,7 illus.,2 tables,36 refs.)Key words:mantle convection,ore-forming fluidsThis paper attempts to summarize the achievements in geodynamic studies as a whole.Five dynamic principles of the Earth are put forward in this paper:1)the introduction of Na and K to any kind of rocks is the key to magma genesis;2)Na-and K-metasomatism is the most fundamental mechanism in whole hydrothermalism;3)geotectonic movement results from mantle-crust asthenospherization,which is stimulated by Na-and K-metasomatism;4)the evolution of the Earth is represented;and 5)Na-and K-fluids(namely,mantle ichors-HACONS)are derived from deep hydrogen(H+,H,H2)flow extraction from the mantle.20102192 Gao Rui(Lithosphere Research Center,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)

  9. Water in volcanic glass: From volcanic degassing to secondary hydration (United States)

    Seligman, Angela N.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watkins, James M.; Ross, Abigail M.


    Volcanic glass is deposited with trace amounts (0.1-0.6 wt.%) of undegassed magmatic water dissolved in the glass. After deposition, meteoric water penetrates into the glass structure mostly as molecular H2O. Due to the lower δD (‰) values of non-tropical meteoric waters and the ∼30‰ offset between volcanic glass and environmental water during hydration, secondary water imparts lighter hydrogen isotopic values during secondary hydration up to a saturation concentration of 3-4 wt.% H2O. We analyzed compositionally and globally diverse volcanic glass from 0 to 10 ka for their δD and H2Ot across different climatic zones, and thus different δD of precipitation, on a thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TCEA) furnace attached to a mass spectrometer. We find that tephrachronologically coeval rhyolite glass is hydrated faster than basaltic glass, and in the majority of glasses an increase in age and total water content leads to a decrease in δD (‰), while a few equatorial glasses have little change in δD (‰). We compute a magmatic water correction based on our non-hydrated glasses, and calculate an average 103lnαglass-water for our hydrated felsic glasses of -33‰, which is similar to the 103lnαglass-water determined by Friedman et al. (1993a) of -34‰. We also determine a smaller average 103lnαglass-water for all our mafic glasses of -23‰. We compare the δD values of water extracted from our glasses to local meteoric waters following the inclusion of a -33‰ 103lnαglass-water. We find that, following a correction for residual magmatic water based on an average δD and wt.% H2Ot of recently erupted ashes from our study, the δD value of water extracted from hydrated volcanic glass is, on average, within 4‰ of local meteoric water. To better understand the difference in hydration rates of mafic and felsic glasses, we imaged 6 tephra clasts ranging in age and chemical composition with BSE (by FEI SEM) down to a submicron resolution. Mafic tephra

  10. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi


    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Mt.Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Mt. Etna in Sicily, Italy, from the viewpoint of science of complex systems, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them regarding their exotic spatio-temporal properties is reported. In both of the volcanic seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions follow the power law. In particular, a careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and accordingly, the previously reported results for Mt. Etna [S. Abe and N. Suzuki, EPL 110, 59001 (2015)] are reinterpreted. It is shown that spreads of the volcanic earthquakes are subdiffusive at both of the volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on presence/absence of long term memories in the context of t...

  11. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  12. COTHERM: Geophysical Modeling of High Enthalpy Geothermal Systems (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    In recent years geothermal heating and electricity generation have become an attractive alternative energy resource, especially natural high enthalpy geothermal systems such as in Iceland. However, the financial risk of installing and operating geothermal power plants is still high and more needs to be known about the geothermal processes and state of the reservoir in the subsurface. A powerful tool for probing the underground system structure is provided by geophysical techniques, which are able to detect flow paths and fracture systems without drilling. It has been amply demonstrated that small-scale features can be well imaged at shallow depths, but only gross structures can be delineated for depths of several kilometers, where most high enthalpy systems are located. Therefore a major goal of our study is to improve geophysical mapping strategies by multi-method geophysical simulations and synthetic data inversions, to better resolve structures at greater depth, characterize the reservoir and monitor any changes within it. The investigation forms part of project COTHERM - COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geoTHERMal systems - in which a holistic and synergistic approach is being adopted to achieve multidisciplinary cooperation and mutual benefit. The geophysical simulations are being performed in combination with hydrothermal fluid flow modeling and chemical fluid rock interaction modeling, to provide realistic constraints on lithology, pressure, temperature and fluid conditions of the subsurface. Two sites in Iceland have been selected for the study, Krafla and Reykjanes. As a starting point for the geophysical modeling, we seek to establish petrophysical relations, connecting rock properties and reservoir conditions with geophysical parameters such as seismic wave speed, attenuation, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility with a main focus on seismic properties. Therefore, we follow a comprehensive approach involving

  13. 3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and

  14. Caldera of Godean, Sleman, Yogyakarta: A Volcanic Geomorphology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono


    Full Text Available Godean hills is located approximately 10 km westward from the Yogyakarta City. The landscape of Godean hills and plains is affected by various factors, such as lithology, geological structure, and sub-aerial process. The purpose of this study was to reveal the landscape of Godean. The method consisted of field study, morphological variables assessment, rock sampling, and laboratory analysis. The results of field mapping indicated that the landscape of Godean  is an isolated hill with a steep slope of >40° and an elevation of +231 m a.s.l, passed by the rivers flows from northeast to southwest that disembogue into the west part of Kulon Progo. The morphologhy of Godean hills varies including G. (Gunung/Mountain So (+173 m amsl, G. Gede (+218 m a.s.l, G. Wungkal (+187 m a.s.l, G. Butak (+154 m a.s.l, and G. Berjo ( + 175 m a.s.l, dominated by the lithology of igneous rock, which is composed of porphyry andesite-microdiorite, pumice lapilli, and quartz rich lapilli-tuff. In addition, most of the igneous rocks have weathered and have been altered to clays, while the deposition from Merapi volcano formed a landscape with an altitude between +100–+150 m a.s.l surrounding Godean hills. Sentolo Formation was found in Kembang, Bantul, which is located approximately ±5km in the south of the study area N93ºE/12º,  while the distribution in the southwest and northeast relatively covers the Godean hills in curve shape. The results of the analysis provide information related with Godean landscape that it is the remains of the volcanic caldera, with various igneous rock types and volcaniclastics deposits, as well as endured the occurrences of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Further geophysical research is required to determine the configuration of igneous rocks under the earth's surface.

  15. Problems of data bases in geophysics (United States)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    Ten problems areas in the design and implementation of geophysical data bases are listed and briefly characterized. The emphasis is on software aspects, which are seen as critical given the current state of hardware technology. Topics examined include data sources and users; the difference between information-ordering schemes for the humanities and for the natural sciences; economic limitations on acquisition, evaluation, and storage of data; private versus public data; centralized, decentralized, and distributed computer systems; and the need for structured, transportable, and adequately documented software. A glossary of data terminology, extensive tables and block diagrams listing types of data and applications and illustrating ordering schemes, estimates of the data-processing and storage requirements of typical missions, and a summary of the CODMAC 1982 recommendations are provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Spivak


    Full Text Available Geophysical fields influenced by tectonics faults were observed, and instrumental observation results are analysed in the article. It is shown that fault zones are characterized by geophysical fields that are more variable than those in midmost segments of crustal blocks, more intense responses to weak external impacts such as lunar and solar tides and atmospheric pressure variations, and intensive relaxation. Transformation of energy between geophysical fields varying in origin takes place mainly in the fault zones.

  17. 3D stochastic geophysical inversion for contact surface geometry (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin; Bijani, Rodrigo


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. As such, 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy is to consider a fundamentally different type of inversion that works directly with models that comprise surfaces representing contacts between rock units. We are researching such an approach, our goal being to perform geophysical forward and inverse modelling directly with 3D geological models of any complexity. Geological and geophysical models should be specified using the same parameterization such that they are, in essence, the same Earth model. We parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces in a 3D model as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The physical properties of each rock unit in a model remain fixed while the geophysical inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via the control nodes, perturbing the surfaces as required to fit the geophysical data responses. This is essentially a "geometry inversion", which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. We apply global optimization strategies to solve the inverse problem, including stochastic sampling to obtain statistical information regarding the likelihood of particular features in the model, helping to assess the viability of a proposed model. Jointly inverting multiple types of geophysical data is simple

  18. Biological and geophysical aspects of coastal structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    , tides and shallow currents. Thus the sedimentary history of the shelves and nearshore environments reflect the ever-changing relationship between tectonic subsidence, sea level oscillations and the dynamic processes acting at these water depths...

  19. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  20. Structure of the central Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Hall, Jerome; Wilson, Terry; Henrys, Stuart


    The Terror Rift is a zone of post-middle Miocene faulting and volcanism along the western margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. A new seismic data set from NSF geophysical cruise NBP04-01, integrated with the previous dataset to provide higher spatial resolution, has been interpreted in this study in order to improve understanding of the architecture and history of the Terror Rift. The Terror Rift contains two components, a structurally-controlled rollover anticlinal arch intruded by younger volcanic bodies and an associated synclinal basin. Offsets and trend changes in fault patterns have been identified, coincident with shifts in the location of depocenters that define rift sub-basins, indicating that the Terror Rift is segmented by transverse structures. Multiple phases of faulting all post-date 17 Ma, including faults cutting the seafloor surface, indicating Neogene rifting and possible modern activity.

  1. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  3. Open Access to Geophysical Data (United States)

    Sergeyeva, Nataliya A.; Zabarinskaya, Ludmila P.


    Russian World Data Centers for Solar-Terrestrial Physics & Solid Earth Physics hosted by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences are the Regular Members of the ICSU-World Data System. Guided by the principles of the WDS Constitution and WDS Data Sharing Principles, the WDCs provide full and open access to data, long-term data stewardship, compliance with agreed-upon data standards and conventions, and mechanisms to facilitate and improve access to data. Historical and current geophysical data on different media, in the form of digital data sets, analog records, collections of maps, descriptions are stored and collected in the Centers. The WDCs regularly fill up repositories and database with new data, support them up to date. Now the WDCs focus on four new projects, aimed at increase of data available in network by retrospective data collection and digital preservation of data; creation of a modern system of registration and publication of data with digital object identifier (DOI) assignment, and promotion of data citation culture; creation of databases instead of file system for more convenient access to data; participation in the WDS Metadata Catalogue and Data Portal by creating of metadata for information resources of WDCs.

  4. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.


    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  5. Volcanic edifice weakening via decarbonation: A self-limiting process? (United States)

    Mollo, Silvio; Heap, Michael J.; Iezzi, Gianluca; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Dingwell, Donald B.


    The inherent instability of volcanic edifices, and their resultant propensity for catastrophic collapse, is a constant source of volcanic risk. Structural instability of volcanic edifices may be amplified by the presence of carbonate rocks in the sub-volcanic strata, due to the debilitating response of carbonates to thermally-induced alteration. Nonetheless, decarbonation reactions (the primary weakening mechanism), may stall when the system becomes buffered by rising levels of a reaction product, carbon dioxide. Such thermodynamic stalling might be inferred to serve to circumvent the weakness of volcanic structures. However, the present study shows that, even when decarbonation is halted, rock physical properties continue to degrade due to thermal microcracking. Furthermore, as a result, the pathways for the escape of carbon dioxide are numerous within a volcanic edifice. Therefore, in the case of an edifice with a sub-volcanic sedimentary basement, the generation of carbon dioxide via decarbonation is unlikely to hinder its impact on instability, and thus potentially devastating flank collapse.

  6. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius (United States)

    Pommier, A.; Tarits, P.; Hautot, S.; Pichavant, M.; Scaillet, B.; Gaillard, F.


    A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the structure. For each configuration tested, modeled MT transfer functions were compared to field transfer functions from field magnetotelluric studies. The field electrical data are reproduced with a shallow and very conductive layer (˜0.5 km depth, 1.2 km thick, 5 ohm.m resistive) that most likely corresponds to a saline brine present beneath the volcano. Our results are also compatible with the presence of cooling magma batches at shallow depths ( ˜100 ohm.m. According to a petro-physical conductivity model, such a resistivity value is in agreement either with a low-temperature, crystal-rich magma chamber or with a small quantity of hotter magma interconnected in the resistive surrounding carbonates. However, the low quality of MT field data at long periods prevent from placing strong constraints on a potential deep magma reservoir. A comparison with seismic velocity values tends to support the second hypothesis. Our findings would be consistent with a deep structure (8-10 km depth) made of a tephriphonolitic magma at 1000°C, containing 3.5 wt%H2O, 30 vol.% crystals, and interconnected in carbonates in proportions ˜45% melt -55% carbonates.

  7. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41 (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.


    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  8. Reconstructing Volcanic Forcing of Climate: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Sigl, M.


    Radiative forcing resulting from major volcanic eruptions has been a dominant driver of climate variability during Earth's history. Including volcanic forcing in climate model simulations is therefore essential to recreate past climate variability, and provides the opportunity to test the ability of models to respond accurately to external forcing. Ice cores provide estimates of the volcanic sulfate loadings from past eruptions, from which radiative forcing can be reconstructed, with associated uncertainties. Using prior reconstructions, climate models have reproduced the gross features of global mean temperature variability reconstructed from climate proxies, although some significant differences between model results and reconstructions remain. There is much less confidence in the accuracy of the dynamical responses to volcanic forcing produced by climate models, and thus the regional aspects of post-volcanic climate anomalies are much more uncertain—a result which mirrors uncertainties in the dynamical responses to future climate change. Improvements in model's response to volcanic forcing may be possible through improving the accuracy of the forcing data. Recent advances on multiple fronts have motivated the development of a next-generation volcanic forcing timeseries for use in climate models, based on (1) improved dating and precision of ice core records, (2) better understanding of the atmospheric transport and microphysical evolution of volcanic aerosol, including its size distribution, and (3) improved representations of the spatiotemporal structure of volcanic radiative forcing. A new volcanic forcing data set, covering the past 2500 years, will be introduced and compared with prior reconstructions. Preliminary results of climate model simulations using the new forcing will also be shown, and current and future applications of the forcing set discussed.

  9. Stratigraphy, structure, and some petrographic features of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the USW G-2 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Koether, S.L.


    A continuously cored drill hole designated as USW G-2, located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, penetrated 1830.6 m of Tertiary volcanic strata composed of abundant silicic ash-flow tuffs, minor lava and flow breccias, and subordinate volcaniclastic rocks. The volcanic strata penetrated are comprised of the following in descending order: Paintbrush Tuff (Tiva Canyon Member, Yucca Mountain Member, bedded tuff, Pah Canyon Member, and Topopah Spring Member), tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, Crater Flat Tuff (Prow Pass Member, Bullfrog Member, and Tram unit), lava and flow breccia (rhyodacitic), tuff of Lithic Ridge, bedded and ash-flow tuff, lava and flow breccia (rhyolitic, quartz latitic, and dacitic), bedded tuff, conglomerate and ash-flow tuff, and older tuffs of USW G-2. Comparison of unit thicknesses at USW G-2 to unit thicknesses at previously drilled holes at Yucca Mountain indicate the following: (1) thickening of the Paintbrush Tuff members and tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills toward the northern part of Yucca Mountain; (2) thickening of the Prow Pass Member but thinning of the Bullfrog Member and Tram unit; (3) thinning of the tuff of Lithic Ridge; (4) presence of approximately 280 m of lava and flow breccia not previously penetrated by any drill hole; and (5) presence of an ash-flow tuff unit at the bottom of the drill hole not previously intersected, apparently the oldest unit penetrated at Yucca Mountain to date. Petrographic features of some of the units include: (1) decrease in quartz and K-feldspar and increases in biotite and plagioclase with depth in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills; (2) an increase in quartz phenocrysts from the top to the bottom members of the Crater Flat Tuff; (3) a low quartz content in the tuff of Lithic Ridge, suggesting tapping of the magma chamber at quartz-poor levels; (4) a change in zeolitic alteration from heulandite to clinoptilolite to mordenite with increasing depth; (5) lavas characterized by a rhyolitic

  10. Is volcanic phenomena of fractal nature? (United States)

    Quevedo, R.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Alparone, S.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sagiya, T.; Barrancos, J.; Rodriguez-Santana, A. A.; Ramos, A.; Calvari, S.; Perez, N. M.


    A particular resonance waveform pattern has been detected beneath different physical volcano manifestations from recent 2011-2012 period of volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, and also from other worldwide volcanoes with different volcanic typology. This mentioned pattern appears to be a fractal time dependent waveform repeated in different time scales (periods of time). This time dependent feature suggests this resonance as a new approach to volcano phenomena for predicting such interesting matters as earthquakes, gas emission, deformation etc. as this fractal signal has been discovered hidden in a wide typical volcanic parameters measurements. It is known that the resonance phenomenon occurring in nature usually denote a structure, symmetry or a subjacent law (Fermi et al., 1952; and later -about enhanced cross-sections symmetry in protons collisions), which, in this particular case, may be indicative of some physical interactions showing a sequence not completely chaotic but cyclic provided with symmetries. The resonance and fractal model mentioned allowed the authors to make predictions in cycles from a few weeks to months. In this work an equation for this waveform has been described and also correlations with volcanic parameters and fractal behavior demonstration have been performed, including also some suggestive possible explanations of this signal origin.

  11. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph


    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  12. Structure and Dynamics of the Southeast Indian Ridge, 129°E to 140°E, and Off-axis Volcanism: Preliminary Results of the STORM Cruise (United States)

    Briais, Anne; Barrère, Fabienne; Boulart, Cédric; Ceuleneer, Georges; Ferreira, Nicolas; Hanan, Barry; Hémond, Christophe; Macleod, Sarah; Maia, Marcia; Maillard, Agnès; Merkuryev, Sergey; Park, Sung-Hyun; Révillon, Sidonie; Ruellan, Etienne; Schohn, Alexandre; Watson, Sally; Yang, Yun-Seok


    We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante early 2015. The SEIR between Australia and Antarctica displays large variations of axial morphology despite an almost constant intermediate spreading rate. The Australia-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) between 120°E and 128°E is a section of the mid-ocean ridge where the magma budget is abnormally low, and which marks the boundary between Indian and Pacific mantle domains with distinct geochemical isotopic compositions. The STORM project focuses on the area east of the discordance from 128 to 140°E, where gravity highs observed on satellite-derived maps of the flanks of the SEIR reveal numerous volcanic seamounts. A major objective of the STORM cruise was to test the hypothesis of a mantle flow from the Pacific to the Indian domains. We collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data between 136 and 138°E to map off-axis volcanic ridges up to 10 Ma-old crust. We mapped the SEIR axis between 129 and 140°E, and the northern part of the George V transform fault. We collected rock samples on seamounts and in the transform fault, basaltic glass samples along the ridge axis, and near-bottom samples and in-situ measurements in the water column. Our observations reveal that the off-axis seamounts form near the SEIR axis, are not associated to off-axis deformation of the ocean floor, and are often located near the traces of ridge axis discontinuities. We also observe a general shallowing of the ridge axis from the AAD to the George V TF and the presence of robust axial segments near the transform fault. Our new data allow us to describe the complex evolution of the transform fault system. They also permit to locate new hydrothermal systems along the ridge axis.

  13. Aurorae and Volcanic Eruptions (United States)


    Thermal-IR Observations of Jupiter and Io with ISAAC at the VLT Summary Impressive thermal-infrared images have been obtained of the giant planet Jupiter during tests of a new detector in the ISAAC instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). . They show in particular the full extent of the northern auroral ring and part of the southern aurora. A volcanic eruption was also imaged on Io , the very active inner Jovian moon. Although these observations are of an experimental nature, they demonstrate a great potential for regular monitoring of the Jovian magnetosphere by ground-based telescopes together with space-based facilities. They also provide the added benefit of direct comparison with the terrestrial magnetosphere. PR Photo 21a/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (L-band: 3.5-4.0 µm) . PR Photo 21b/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 4.07 µm) . PR Photo 21c/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 3.28 µm) . PR Photo 21d/01 : ISAAC image of Jupiter (Narrow-band 3.21 µm) . PR Photo 21e/01 : ISAAC image of the Jovian aurorae (false-colour). PR Photo 21f/01 : ISAAC image of volcanic activity on Io . Addendum : The Jovian aurorae and polar haze. Aladdin Meets Jupiter Thermal-infrared images of Jupiter and its volcanic moon Io have been obtained during a series of system tests with the new Aladdin detector in the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) , in combination with an upgrade of the ESO-developed detector control electronics IRACE. This state-of-the-art instrument is attached to the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The observations were made on November 14, 2000, through various filters that isolate selected wavebands in the thermal-infrared spectral region [1]. They include a broad-band L-filter (wavelength interval 3.5 - 4.0 µm) as well as several narrow-band filters (3.21, 3.28 and 4.07 µm). The filters allow to record the light from different components of the Jovian atmosphere

  14. Volcanic Ash Nephelometer Probe Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes may enable unprecedented observations of...

  15. Geophysical survey at Tell Barri (Syria) (United States)

    Florio, Giovanni; Cella, Federico; Pierobon, Raffaella; Castaldo, Raffaele; Castiello, Gabriella; Fedi, Maurizio


    A geophysical survey at the archaeological site of Tell Barri (Northeasterm Syria) was carried out. The Tell (Arab word for "hill") is 32 m high with a whole covered area of 37 hectares. The Tell, with its huge dimensions and with a great amount of pottery on the surface, is a precious area to study the regional history from IV mill. BC to Islamic and Medieval period. The geophysical study consisted in magnetic and electromagnetic measurements in the lower town area. The aim of this survey was to provide evidence of the presence of buried archaeological structures around an already excavated area. The wall structures in the Tell Barri are made by backed or crude clay bricks. The instrument used for the magnetic survey was an Overhauser-effect proton magnetometer (Gem GSM-19GF), in gradiometric configuration. The electromagnetic instrument used, Geonics Ltd. EM31, implements a Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Method (FDEM). It was used in vertical coils configuration, and this choice should grant a maximum theoretical investigation depth of about 6 m. Before starting the measurements on a larger scale, we conducted a magnetic and EM test profile on some already excavated, outcropping, baked bricks walls. Results were encouraging, because clear and strong magnetic and EM anomalies were recorded over the outcropping walls. However, in the survey area these structures are covered by 3 to 4 meters of clay material and the increased sensors-structures distance will reduce the anomalies amplitude. Moreover, the cover material is disseminated with bricks, basalt blocks and ceramics, all of which have relevant magnetic properties. After magnetic surveying some 50 m side square areas, we verified that unfortunately their effect resulted to be dominant with respect to the deeper wall structures, degrading too much the signal-to-noise ratio. The processing and analysis of magnetic data is however currently underway and will determine decisions about further use of this method

  16. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate (United States)

    Robock, A.


    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  17. Analogue Models Of Volcanic Spreading At Mt. Vesuvius (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Castaldo, Raffaele; D'Auria, Luca; James, Michael; Lane, Steve; Massa, Bruno; Pepe, Susi; Tizzani, Pietro


    Somma-Vesuvius is a quiescent strato-volcano of the Neapolitan district, southern Italy, for which various geophysical and geological evidences (e.g. geodetic measurements, geological and structural data, seismic profiles interpretations and surface deformation analysis with Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR)) indicate ongoing spreading deformation. In this research we investigate the spreading deformation and associated surface deformation pattern by performing analogue experiments and comparing the results with actual ground deformation as measured using DInSAR data recorded between 1992 and 2010. Somma-Vesuvius consists of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) lying within an asymmetric caldera (Somma). The Somma caldera is the result of at least 7 Plinian eruptions, the last of which was the 79 CE. Pompeii eruption. The current cone of Mt. Vesuvius grew within the caldera in the following centuries as the effect of continued explosive and effusive activity of the volcano. The volcano lies on a substratum consisting of a Mesozoic carbonatic basement, overlapped by Holocene clastic sediments and volcanic rocks. Our analogue models were built to simulate the shape of the Somma-Vesuvius top a scale of about 1:100000, emplaced on a sand layer (brittle behaviour) laid on a silicone layer (ductile behaviour). Models are based on the Fluid-dynamics Dimensionless Analysis (FDA), according to the Buckingham-Π theorem. In this context, we considered few dimensionless parameters that allowed the setting of a reliable scaled model. To represent the complex Somma-Vesuvius geometry, an asymmetric model was built by setting a truncated cone (mimicking the topography of Somma edifice) topped by another small cone (mimicking the Gran Cono) shifted off the axis of the main cone. Different experiments were carried out in which the thickness of the basal sand layer and of the silicone one were varied. To quantify the vertical and horizontal displacements the

  18. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  19. Hydro-biogeochemical Controls on Geophysical Signatures (Invited) (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.


    Geophysical techniques such as seismic, magnetic and electrical techniques have historically played a major role in oil exploration. Their main use has been for delineation basin geometry, structures and hydrocarbon traps and for understanding the subsurface stratigraphy. Their use for investigating microbial processes has only recently been recognized over the last decade resulting in the development of biogeophysics as a frontier research area which bridges the fields of environmental microbiology, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology. Recent biogeophysical studies have demonstrated the potential of geophysical technologies to (1) probe the presence of microbial cells and biofilms in subsurface geologic media, (2) investigate the interactions between microorganisms and subsurface geologic media, (3) assess biogeochemical transformations, biomineralization, and biogeochemical reaction rates, and (4) investigate the alteration of physical properties of subsurface geologic media induced by microorganisms. The unique properties of geophysical datasets (e.g. non-invasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) make them attractive for probing microbial processes affecting fate and transport of contaminants. This presentation will provide an updated understanding of major controls on geophysical signatures by highlighting some of the important advancements in biogeophysical studies at hydrocarbon contaminated environments. Important challenges that provide an opportunity for further research in this new field will also be examined.

  20. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Yoram


    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  1. GOCE observations and geophysical constraints to better understand the lithosphere and geodynamical processes under the Paraná-Etendeka region: preliminary results of PERLA project (United States)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla


    In the light of the considerable progress made by the modern geodetic satellite mission GOCE, one of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth deep interior, and their relationship to Earth-surface changes. In this context we propose a study that aims to understand the two pieces of lithosphere underlying the Paraná-Etendeka conjugate margins (Brazil, and Angola-Namibia). It is essential to collect the geological and geophysical information about the thickness and the density of sedimentary layers, crustal thickness and mantle inhomogeneities. Our methodology integrates the geophysical database with the GOCE data, product of the innovative gravity satellite mission, that was concluded November 2013. Crustal thickness was obtained from all available seismological datasets. The density-depth relation of the shallow layers is modeled by geophysical data collected from literature and from the on-shore and off-shore drilling programs. Several compaction laws are used to estimate the density of each layer. This information is necessary to reduce the observations considering the gravity effect of all intracrustal known layers, to resolve the deep crustal structures (e.g. Moho and intracrustal bodies). A positive gravity anomaly is expected due to the magmatic activity of the Paraná-Etendeka province. The smaller-scale and shallow gravity anomaly should be due to the occurrence of the volcanic activity close to the alkaline-carbonatite complexes, while the large-scale anomaly is expected from the underplating of a wide denser body at the depth of the crustal mantle boundary. In the present work some preliminary results of the inversion of the residual gravity anomaly in terms of densities in the middle and shallow lithosphere under the Paraná-Etendeka region will be presented and interpreted.

  2. HMF-Geophysics: A Model for Collaborative Research in Hydrogeophysics (United States)

    Knight, R.; Crook, N.; Bales, R.; Moore, J.; Papanicolaou, T.; Welty, C.


    river channel and the subsurface water of its associated bars and floodplain. We used a combination of surface and borehole electrical resistivity tomography to image the geometry and internal structure of the sediment packages in these floodplain deposits. By transforming the geophysical parameters, using high- resolution aquifer testing conducted in the boreholes, our plan is to identify preferential flowpaths known to exist in the heterogeneous sediments. One of the interests of the Sierra Nevada test-bed is the surface-groundwater interaction that occurs in the alpine meadows. The purpose of the geophysics was to assist in identifying the subsurface flowpaths. We provided subsurface characterization using electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar and conducted a series of time-lapse electromagnetic induction surveys during the snow melt season. The Clear Creek test-bed in Iowa is an intensively managed watershed comprising wetlands, agricultural and urbanized catchments. We used electromagnetic induction mapping to obtain high-resolution ground conductivity maps. These will be calibrated against infiltration experiments run at numerous locations to produce a spatial map of hydraulic properties of the soil. This will assist in the study of the link between land use and high soil erosion rates in the watershed.

  3. Tectonic blocks and suture zones of eastern Thailand: evidence from enhanced airborne geophysical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arak Sangsomphong


    Full Text Available Airborne geophysical data were used to analyze the complex structures of eastern Thailand. For visual interpretation, the magnetic data were enhanced by the analytical signal, and we used reduction to the pole (RTP and vertical derivative (VD grid methods, while the radiometric data were enhanced by false-colored composites and rectification. The main regional structure of this area trends roughly in northwest-southeast direction, with sinistral faulting movements. These are the result of compression tectonics (sigma_1 in an east-west direction that generated strike-slip movement during the pre Indian-Asian collision. These faults are cross-cut by the northeast-southwest-running sinistral fault and the northwest-southeast dextral fault, which occurred following the Indian-Asian collision, from the transpession sinistral shear in the northwest-southeast direction. Three distinct geophysical domains are discernible; the Northern, Central and Southern Domains. These three domains correspond very well with the established geotectonic units, as the Northern Domain with the Indochina block, the Central Domain with the Nakhonthai block, the Upper Southern Sub-domain with the Lampang-Chaing Rai block, and the Lower Southern Sub-domain with the Shan Thai block. The Indochina block is a single unit with moderate radiometric intensities and a high magnetic signature. The direction of the east-west lineament pattern is underlain by Mesozoic non-marine sedimentary rock, with mafic igneous bodies beneath this. The Nakhonthai block has a strong magnetic signature and a very weak radiometric intensity, with Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic volcanic rock and mélange zones that are largely covered by Cenozoic sediments. The boundaries of this block are the southern extension of the Mae Ping Faults and are oriented in the northwest-southeast direction. The Lampang-Chaing Rai and Shan Thai blocks, with very weak to moderate magnetic signatures and moderate to very

  4. Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Russia: preventing the danger of volcanic eruptions to aviation. (United States)

    Girina, O.; Neal, Ch.


    The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has been a collaborative project of scientists from the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Surveys, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (IVS, KB GS and AVO). The purpose of KVERT is to reduce the risk of costly, damaging, and possibly deadly encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds. To reduce this risk, KVERT collects all possible volcanic information and issues eruption alerts to aviation and other emergency officials. KVERT was founded by Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry FED RAS in 1993 (in 2004, IVGG merged with the Institute of Volcanology to become IVS). KVERT analyzes volcano monitoring data (seismic, satellite, visual and video, and pilot reports), assigns the Aviation Color Code, and issues reports on eruptive activity and unrest at Kamchatkan (since 1993) and Northern Kurile (since 2003) volcanoes. KVERT receives seismic monitoring data from KB GS (the Laboratory for Seismic and Volcanic Activity). KB GS maintains telemetered seismic stations to investigate 11 of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. Data are received around the clock and analysts evaluate data each day for every monitored volcano. Satellite data are provided from several sources to KVERT. AVO conducts satellite analysis of the Kuriles, Kamchatka, and Alaska as part of it daily monitoring and sends the interpretation to KVERT staff. KVERT interprets MODIS and MTSAT images and processes AVHRR data to look for evidence of volcanic ash and thermal anomalies. KVERT obtains visual volcanic information from volcanologist's field trips, web-cameras that monitor Klyuchevskoy (established in 2000), Sheveluch (2002), Bezymianny (2003), Koryaksky (2009), Avachinsky (2009), Kizimen (2011), and Gorely (2011) volcanoes, and pilots. KVERT staff work closely with staff of AVO, AMC (Airport Meteorological Center) at Yelizovo Airport and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the

  5. Cluster Analysis of vents in monogenetic volcanic fields, Lunar Crater Volcanic Field (Nevada) (United States)

    Tadini, A.; Cortes, J. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Johnson, P. J.; Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.


    Monogenetic volcanic fields pose a serious risk to human activities and settlements due to their high occurrence around the world and because of the type of eruptive activity that they exhibit. The need of adequate tools to better undertake volcanic hazard assessment for volcanic fields, especially from a spatial point of view, is of key importance at the time of mitigate such hazard. Among these tools, a better understanding of the spatial distribution of cones and vents and any structural/tectonical relationship are essential to understand the plumbing system of the field and thus help to predict the likelihood location of future eruptions. In this study we have developed a spatial methodology, which is the combination of various methodologies developed for volcanic textures and other clustering goals [1,2], to study the clustering of volcanic vents and their relation with structural features from satellite images. The methodology first involves the statistical identification and removal of spatial outliers using a predictive elliptical area [2] and the generation of randomly distributed points in the same predictive area. A comparison of the Near Neighbor Distance (NND) between the generated data and the data measured in a volcanic field is used to determine whether the vents are clustered or not. If the vents are clustered, a combination of hierarchical clustering and K-means [3] is then used to identify the clusters and their related vents. Results are then further constrained with the study of lineaments and other structural features that can be affected and related with the clusters. The methodology was tested in the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada (USA) and successfully has helped to identify tectonically controlled lineaments from those that are resultant of geomorphological processes such the drainage control imposed by the cone clusters. Theoretical approaches has been developed before to constrain the plumbing of a volcanic field [4], however these

  6. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future (United States)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  7. Gravimetric control of active volcanic processes (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis


    Volcanic activity includes phases of magma chamber inflation and deflation, produced by movement of magma and/or hydrothermal processes. Such effects usually leave their imprint as deformation of the ground surfaces which can be recorded by GNSS and other methods, on one hand, and on the other hand they can be modeled as elastic deformation processes, with deformation produced by volcanic masses of finite dimensions such as spheres, ellipsoids and parallelograms. Such volumes are modeled on the basis of inversion (non-linear, numerical solution) of systems of equations relating the unknown dimensions and location of magma sources with observations, currently mostly GNSS and INSAR data. Inversion techniques depend on the misfit between model predictions and observations, but because systems of equations are highly non-linear, and because adopted models for the geometry of magma sources is simple, non-unique solutions can be derived, constrained by local extrema. Assessment of derived magma models can be provided by independent observations and models, such as micro-seismicity distribution and changes in geophysical parameters. In the simplest case magmatic intrusions can be modeled as spheres with diameters of at least a few tens of meters at a depth of a few kilometers; hence they are expected to have a gravimetric signature in permanent recording stations on the ground surface, while larger intrusions may also have an imprint in sensors in orbit around the earth or along precisely defined air paths. Identification of such gravimetric signals and separation of the "true" signal from the measurement and ambient noise requires fine forward modeling of the wider areas based on realistic simulation of the ambient gravimetric field, and then modeling of its possible distortion because of magmatic anomalies. Such results are useful to remove ambiguities in inverse modeling of ground deformation, and also to detect magmatic anomalies offshore.

  8. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.


    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  9. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique


    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  10. Fractals in geology and geophysics (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.


    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  11. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Figueroa, Ricardo


    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  12. Volcan Reventador's Unusual Umbrella (United States)

    Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.


    In the past two decades, field observations of the deposits of volcanoes have been supplemented by systemmatic, and sometimes, opportunistic photographic documentation. Two photographs of the umbrella of the December 3, 2002 eruption of Volcan Reventador, Ecuador, reveal a prominently scalloped umbrella that is unlike any umbrella previously documented on a volcanic column. The material in the umbrella was being swept off a descending pyroclastic flow, and was, therefore, a co-ignimbrite cloud. We propose that the scallops are the result of a turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with no precedents in volcanology. We ascribe the rare loss of buoyancy that drives this instability to the fact that the Reventador column fed on a cool co-ignimbrite cloud. On the basis of the observed wavelength of the scallops, we estimate a value for the eddy viscosity of the umbrella of 4000 ~m2/s. This value is consistent with a previously obtained lower bound (200 ~m2/s, K. Wohletz, priv. comm., 2005). We do not know the fate of the material in the umbrella subsequent to the photos. The analysis suggests that the umbrella was negatively buoyant. Field work on the co-ignimbrite deposits might reveal whether or not the material reimpacted, and if so, where and whether or not this material was involved in the hazardous flows that affected the main oil pipeline across Ecuador.

  13. Uranium series, volcanic rocks (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.


    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  14. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.


    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  15. Online Polar Oceans Geophysical Databases (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.


    With funding from the Office of Polar Programs of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through Data Link ( which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The data visualisation tool GeoMapApp ( supports dynamic exploration of a multi-resolutional digital elevation model (DEM) of the global oceans, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seaflooor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. To promote inter-operability, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. For example, the global DEM is served freely as an OGC-compliant Web Map Service map layer and is available for viewing with Google Earth. We are working towards full indexing of the AMBS database holdings at the Antarctic Master Directory.

  16. Segment-scale variations in seafloor volcanic and tectonic processes from multibeam sonar imaging, Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rainbow region (35°45'-36°35'N) (United States)

    Eason, Deborah E.; Dunn, Robert A.; Pablo Canales, J.; Sohn, Robert A.


    Along-axis variations in melt supply and thermal structure can lead to significant variations in the mode of crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges. We examine variations in seafloor volcanic and tectonic processes on the scale of individual ridge segments in a region of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35°45'-36°35'N) centered on the Rainbow nontransform discontinuity (NTD). We use multibeam sonar backscatter amplitude data, taking advantage of multifold and multidirectional coverage from the MARINER geophysical study to create a gridded compilation of seafloor reflectivity, and interpret the sonar image within the context of other data to examine seafloor properties and identify volcanic flow fields and tectonic features. Along the spreading segments, differences in volcanic productivity, faulting, eruption style, and frequency correlate with inferred magma supply. Regions of low magma supply are associated with more widely spaced faults, and larger volcanic flow fields that are more easily identified in the backscatter image. Identified flow fields with the highest backscatter occur near the ends of ridge segments. Their relatively smooth topography contrasts with the more hummocky, cone-dominated terrain that dominates most of the neovolcanic zone. Patches of seafloor with high, moderately high, and low backscatter intensity across the Rainbow massif are spatially correlated with observations of basalt, gabbro and serpentinized peridotite, and sediment, respectively. Large detachment faults have repeatedly formed along the inside corners of the Rainbow NTD, producing a series of oceanic core complexes along the wake of the NTD. A new detachment fault is currently forming in the ridge segment just north of the now inactive Rainbow massif.

  17. Agricultural geophysics: Past/present accomplishments and future advancements (United States)

    Geophysical methods have become an increasingly valuable tool for application within a variety of agroecosystems. Agricultural geophysics measurements are obtained at a wide range of scales and often exhibit significant variability both temporally and spatially. The three geophysical methods predomi...

  18. Built-up of the continental margin offshore Central Mozambique from marine geophysical investigations (United States)

    Heyde, I.; Block, M.; Ehrhardt, A.; Reichert, C. J.; Schreckenberger, B.


    In September/October 2007, along with institutes from Germany, France and Portugal BGR conducted the cruise MoBaMaSis (Mozambique Basin Marine Seismic Survey) using RV MARION DUFRESNE. The goal of the marine geophysical measurements offshore central Mozambique was the investigation of the continental margin in terms of its structure and formation history with special focus on the opening history of Eastern Gondwana and the hydrocarbon potential. A total of four long transects (450 to 225 km long) and a number of connection lines were acquired from the shelf and the slope into the deep Mozambique Basin. The data comprises multichannel seismic reflection (MCS), magnetic, gravimetric and swath bathymetry. On the eastern two transects two on-/offshore seismic refraction studies were carried out. Apart from results of the MCS and the magnetic work, in particular the results of the gravity data are presented. A 3D density model was developed. In the Mozambique Basin a large thick sedimentary succession of up to 8 km thickness from Jurassic to present is observed. Two deep reaching wells supported, at least in part, the identification of stratigraphy. Faint indications for SDR sequences related to volcanic flows are found in the northern part of the study area. In the south, the Beira High represents a prominent structure. The basement high with sediments of considerable reduced thickness is characterized by a distinct gravity minimum. A possible explanation is that the high is formed by a continental fragment. In addition, no clear magnetic chrons are identifiable. Thus, stretched continental crust is assumed underlying this part of the Mozambique Basin.

  19. Major results of geophysical investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A. [eds.] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hunter, W.C. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch


    In the consideration of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for storing high level nuclear waste, a number of geologic concerns have been suggested for study by the National Academy of Sciences which include: (1) natural geologic and geochemical barriers, (2) possible future fluctuations in the water table that might flood a mined underground repository, (3) tectonic stability, and (4) considerations of shaking such as might be caused by nearby earthquakes or possible volcanic eruptions. This volume represents the third part of an overall plan of geophysical investigation of Yucca Mountain, preceded by the Site Characterization Plan (SCP; dated 1988) and the report referred to as the Geophysical White Paper, Phase 1, entitled Status of Data, Major Results, and Plans for Geophysical Activities, Yucca Mountain Project (Oliver and others, 1990). The SCP necessarily contained uncertainty about applicability and accuracy of methods then untried in the Yucca Mountain volcano-tectonic setting, and the White Paper, Phase 1, focused on summarization of survey coverage, data quality, and applicability of results. For the most part, it did not present data or interpretation. The important distinction of the current volume lies in presentation of data, results, and interpretations of selected geophysical methods used in characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Chapters are included on the following: gravity investigations; magnetic investigations; regional magnetotelluric investigations; seismic refraction investigations; seismic reflection investigations; teleseismic investigations; regional thermal setting; stress measurements; and integration of methods and conclusions. 8 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Petersen, Kenni Dinesen

    underlain by high-velocity and density bodies (“Lower Crustal Bodies”, LCBs). A widely accepted theory of the origin of LCBs is that they were emplaced by magmatic underplating at volcanic margins. At the same time mantle serpentinization is thought to create geophysically similar structures at non...... and shows that such structures can ‘survive’ subsequent rifting and continental break up. Our model is a simple alternative that explains observations at passive margins and rift zones by accounting for the observation that most passive margins are sub-parallel to earlier shortening and extension events...

  1. Geophysical data collection using an interactive personal computer system. Part 1. ; Experimental monitoring of Suwanosejima volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M. (Kyoto Univerdity, Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Reserach Institute)


    In the article, a computer-communication system was developed in order to collect geophysical data from remote volcanos via a public telephpne network. This system is composed of a host presonal computer at an observatory and several personal computers as terminals at remote stations. Each terminal acquires geophysical data, such as seismic, intrasonic, and ground deformation date. These gara are stored in the terminals temporarily, and transmitted to the host computer upon command from host computer. Experimental monitoring was conducted between Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory and several statins in the Satsunan Islands and southern Kyushu. The seismic and eruptive activities of Suwanosejima volcano were monitored by this system. Consequently, earthquakes and air-shocks accompanied by the explosive activity were observed. B-type earthquakes occurred prio to the relatively prolonged eruptive activity. Intermittent occurrences of volcanic tremors were also clearly recognized from the change in mean amplitubes of seismic waves. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering (United States)


    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  3. Multidisciplinary geophysical study of the NE sector of the unstable flank of Etna volcano (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Cocina, Ornella; Siniscalchi, Agata; Barberi, Graziella; Guglielmino, Francesco; Romano, Gerardo; Sicali, Simona; Tripaldi, Simona


    On volcanic areas, usually characterized by complex structural environments, a lot of independent geophysical studies are usually performed. The non-uniqueness of the geophysical inverse models, the different level of resolution and sensitivity of the results spurred us to integrate independent geophysical datasets and results collected on Mt. Etna volcano, in order to obtain more accurate and reliable model interpretation. Mt. Etna volcano is located along the eastern coast of Sicily and it is characterized by a complex structural setting. In this region, the general N-S compressive regime related to the Africa - Europe collision interacts with the WNW-ESE extensional regime associated to the Malta Escarpment dynamics, observable along the eastern coast of Sicily. At Mt Etna, a great number of studies concerns the existence of instability phenomena; a general eastward motion of the eastern flank of the volcano has been measured with always increasing detail and its relationship with the eruptive and magmatic activity is being investigated. The unstable flank appears bounded to the north by the E-W-trending Provenzana - Pernicana Fault System and to the SW by the NS Ragalna Fault system. Eastwards, this area is divided by several NW-SE trending faults. Recent studies consider this area as divided into several blocks characterized by different shape and kinematics. Ground deformation studies (GPS and InSAR) define the NE portion of the unstable flank as the most mobile one. In the frame of the MEDiterranean Supersites Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project, ground deformation data (GPS and INSAR), 3D seismicity, seismic tomography and two resistivity model profiles, have been analyzed together, in order to put some constraints on the deep structure of the NE sector of the unstable flank. Seismic data come from the permanent network run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) - Sezione di Catania, Osservatorio Etneo. Ground deformation data comes from In

  4. Friction in volcanic environments (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan


    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  5. Particle analysis of volcanic ash with Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Lieke, K. I.; Kristensen, T. B.; Koch, C. B.; Korsholm, U. S.; Sørensen, J. H.; Bilde, M.


    Since the airspace closure over Europe due to the Eyjafjalla eruption in 2010, volcanic ash has come more in the focus of atmospheric science. The airspace closure accompanying the Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 clearly indicates that there is still a great need to increase the scientific understanding of the properties and impacts of volcanic ash particles. Determination of particle characteristics, preferably in near real time, serves as an important input to transport models in operational use for decision support and guidance of authorities. We collected particles before and after the Grímsvötn volcanic ash arrived at Copenhagen, Denmark, between 23 May and 31 May 2011, as well as at a number of other locations. The analysis of meteorological conditions shows that the particle collection performed before arrival of the volcanic ash may serve as a good reference sample. We have thus been able to identify significant differences in aerosol chemical composition during a volcanic ash event over Copenhagen. These results are compared to volcanic ash particles collected on Iceland. We provide unique data about single-particle structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of volcanic ash particles. Single-particle analysis by SEM, and mineralogical studies by XRD and TEM prove that the particles are composed of glass of a characteristic composition and small, nm sized minerals attached to the large (up to tens of µm) glass fragments. The derived information about volcanic ash particles can be used by transport models, resulting in improved information to the authorities in case of new volcanic ash events over Scandinavia or Europe.

  6. Formation of volcanic edifices in response to changes in magma budget at intermediate spreading rate ridges (United States)

    Howell, J.; White, S. M.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Bizimis, M.


    The spatial and abundance distributions of volcanic edifices along mid-ocean ridges have a well known correlation with spreading rate. Along slow spreading centers, volcanic edifices are normally distributed about the segment center. Volcanic edifices along fast spreading centers have the opposing trend, i.e. edifices form primarily at the ends of segments. However, in ridges affected by plumes and at back arc basins, the spatial and abundance distributions of volcanic edifices differ from that observed at normal ridges of the same spreading rate. This suggests that magma supply rate may control the spatial and abundance distribution of volcanic edifices. Recent geophysical and geochemical studies along the Galapagos Spreading Centers (GSC), Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) and the Valu Fa (VF) and Eastern Lau Spreading Centers (ELSC) put tight constraints on crustal thickness, making it possible investigate the effect of magma budget and axial morphology on the formation of volcanic edifices. Volcanic edifices are described according to their volume, shape (their height to basal radius ratio) and their location relative to the end or center of a segment (abundance distribution). For the GSC, the shape and distribution of volcanic edifices correlate with changes in crustal thickness and axial morphology, consistent with a magma supply control on their formation in this region. This relationship is not apparent along the SEIR or JdFR, where edifices show little variation with changes in axial morphology at relatively constant spreading rates. Results for VF and ELSC are what we expect for changes in spreading rate, not axial morphology. Our study suggests that the formation of volcanic edifices at intermediate spreading rate ridges are influenced by magma budget but only when it is above a certain threshold.

  7. Basaltic ignimbrites in monogenetic volcanism: the example of La Garrotxa volcanic field (United States)

    Martí, J.; Planagumà, L. l.; Geyer, A.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.; Pedrazzi, D.; Bolós, X.


    Ignimbrites are pyroclastic density current deposits common in explosive volcanism involving intermediate and silicic magmas and in less abundance in eruptions of basaltic central and shield volcanoes. However, they are not widely described in association with monogenetic volcanism, where typical products include lava flows, scoria and lapilli fall deposits, as well as various kinds of pyroclastic density current deposits and explosion breccias. In La Garrotxa basaltic monogenetic volcanic field, part of the Neogene-Quaternary European rift system located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, we have identified a particular group of pyroclastic density current deposits that show similar textural characteristics to silicic ignimbrites, indicating an overlap in transport and depositional processes. These deposits can be clearly distinguished from other pyroclastic density current deposits generated during phreatomagmatic phases that typically correspond to thinly laminated units with planar-to-cross-bedded stratification. The monogenetic ignimbrite deposits correspond to a few meters to several tens of meters thick units rich in lithic- and lapilli scoria fragments, with an abundant ash matrix, and internally massive structure, emplaced along valleys and gullies, with run-out distances up to 6 km and individual volumes ranging from 106 to 1.5 × 107 m3. The presence of flattened scoria and columnar jointing in some of these deposits suggests relatively high emplacement temperatures, coinciding with available paleomagnetic data that suggests an emplacement temperature around 450-500 °C. In this work, we describe the main characteristics of these pyroclastic deposits that were generated by a number of phreatomagmatic episodes. Comparison with similar deposits from silicic eruptions and previous examples of ignimbrites associated with basaltic volcanism allows us to classify them as `basaltic ignimbrites'. The recognition in monogenetic volcanism of such

  8. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego


    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  9. A Research of the Application Geophysical Methods to the Polluted Site and the river bottom mud in Geophysical Methods (United States)

    Cheng, S.; Liu, H. C.


    Many site investigations have found that DNAPL is able to penetrate the low permeable layer such as clay or silt-caly layer in subsurface environment. The cumulated DNAPL within the low permeable Layer will gradually diffuse to the high permeable layer to affect he accuracy of investigation and remedial design. As to the deeper zone affected by the penetration of DNAPL, the conventional sampling design investigating only the first unconfined aquifer is no longer suitable for DNAPL investigation. Precisely define the boundary and the distribution of high and low permeable layer is the key to conduct a successful DNAPL investigation. Point information derived from the conventional bore-hole sampling is difficult to be used for locating the DNAPL pollution due to the uncertainty of DNAPL migration and the soluble-phase distribution of the DNAPL partitioned into ground water between the low and high permeable layer. Recently, non-invaded technologies such as geophysical technology have been introduced to provide the plane and space information of pollution in subsurface by integrating few bore-hole dates. The most common used geophysical technologies are ground-penetrating radar method (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Both methods have their limitations on the pollution investigation when there are interferences exist such as building structure or heavy pavement. A new geophysical technology, geophysical well logging has been developed to overcome above limitations. The information of multi-wells logging could be used to interpret the permeability of subsurface, the dominate flow path and the hot-spot for evaluating the distribution of pollution and the efficiency of remediation in different time sequences. This study would first discuss how DNAPL and its soluble-phase components invade into the low permeable layer based on the field observation. Then, the importance of geophysical technology is introduced with comparing to the limitations of bore

  10. Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.


    Santorini volcanic group form the central part of the modern Aegean volcanic arc, developed within the Hellenic arc and trench system, because of the ongoing subduction of the African plate beneath the European margin throughout Cenozoic. It comprises three distinct volcanic structures occurring along a NE-SW direction: Christianna form the southwestern part of the group, Santorini occupies the middle part and Koloumbo volcanic rift zone extends towards the northeastern part. The geology of the Santorini volcano has been described by a large number of researchers with petrological as well as geochronological data. The offshore area of the Santorini volcanic field has only recently been investigated with emphasis mainly inside the Santorini caldera and the submarine volcano of Kolumbo. In September 2011, cruise NA-014 on the E/V Nautilus carried out new surveys on the submarine volcanism of the study area, investigating the seafloor morphology with high-definition video imaging. Submarine hydrothermal vents were found on the seafloor of the northern basin of the Santorini caldera with no evidence of high temperature fluid discharges or massive sulphide formations, but only low temperature seeps characterized by meter-high mounds of bacteria-rich sediment. This vent field is located in line with the normal fault system of the Kolumbo rift, and also near the margin of a shallow intrusion that occurs within the sediments of the North Basin. Push cores have been collected and they will provide insights for their geochemical characteristics and their relationship to the active vents of the Kolumbo underwater volcano. Similar vent mounds occur in the South Basin, at shallow depths around the islets of Nea and Palaia Kameni. ROV exploration at the northern slopes of Nea Kameni revealed a fascinating underwater landscape of lava flows, lava spines and fractured lava blocks that have been formed as a result of 1707-1711 and 1925-1928 AD eruptions. A hummocky topography at

  11. Volcanic studies at Katmai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) is a national effort supported by the Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation. One of the projects proposed for the CSDP consists of drilling a series of holes in Katmai National Park in Alaska to give a third dimension to the model of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, and to investigate the processes of explosive volcanism and hydrothermal transport of metals (Eichelberger et al., 1988). The proposal for research drilling at Katmai states that ``the size, youth, elevated temperature, and simplicity of the Novarupta vent make it a truly unique scientific target.`` The National Park Service (NPS), which has jurisdiction, is sympathetic to aims of the study. However, NPS wishes to know whether Katmai is indeed uniquely suited to the research, and has asked the Interagency Coordinating Group to support an independent assessment of this claim. NPS suggested the National Academy of Sciences as an appropriate organization to conduct the assessment. In response, the National Research Council -- the working arm of the Academy -- established, under the aegis of its US Geodynamics Committee, a panel whose specific charge states: ``The proposed investigation at Katmai has been extensively reviewed for scientific merit by the three sponsoring and participating agencies. Thus, the scientific merit of the proposed drilling at Katmai is not at issue. The panel will review the proposal for scientific drilling at Katmai and prepare a short report addressing the specific question of the degree to which it is essential that the drilling be conducted at Katmai as opposed to volcanic areas elsewhere in the world.``

  12. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... in basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...

  13. Review of Geophys