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Sample records for volcanic moon io

  1. Io After Galileo A New View of Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C

    2007-01-01

    Jupiter’s moon Io is the Solar System’s most exotic satellite. Active volcanism on Io was discovered from observations by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979, confirming a possibility suggested from theoretical studies of Io’s orbit. Our knowledge of Io’s volcanism, composition, and space environment were significantly increased as a result of observations by the Galileo spacecraft from 1996 through 2001. The end of the Galileo mission in 2003 makes this an ideal time to summarize the new results in a book as no book has ever been written about Jupiter’s volcanic moon, Io.

  2. High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.R.; Schubert, G.; Matson, D.L.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Head, J.W.; Geissler, P.; Fagents, S.; Davies, A.G.; Carr, M.H.; Breneman, H.H.; Belton, M.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at last 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on Earth today. In at least one case, the eruption near Pillan Patea, two independent instruments on Galileo show that the lava temperature must have exceeded 1700 kelvin and may have reached 2000 kelvin. The most likely explanation is that these lavas are ultramafic (magnesium-rich) silicates, and this idea is supported by the tentative identification of magnesium-rich orthopyroxene in lava flows associated with thse high-temperature hot spots.

  3. Volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io and its relation to interior processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System and offers insight into processes of tidal heating, melt generation, and magma ascent. Investigating these processes contributes to a better understanding of Io's geologic history, internal structure, and tidal dissipation mechanisms, as well as to understanding similar processes operating on other tidally-heated worlds (e.g., Europa, Enceladus, and some exoplanets). Four recent developments provide new observational constraints that prompt re-examination of the relationships between Io's surficial geology and interior structure. These developments include: (1) completion of the first 1:15,000,000 scale geologic map of Io based on a synthesis of Voyager and Galileo data; (2) re-interpretation of Galileo magnetometer data, which suggests that Io has a globally continuous subsurface magma ocean; (3) new global surveys of the power output from volcanic centers on Io; and (4) identification of an offset between volcano concentrations and surface heat flux maxima predicted by solid body tidal heating models. In this study, the spatial distributions of volcanic hotspots and paterae on Io are characterized using distance-based clustering techniques and nearest neighbor statistics. Distance-based clustering results support a dominant role for asthenospheric heating within Io, but show a 30-60° eastward offset in volcano concentrations relative to locations of predicted surface heat flux maxima. The observed asymmetry in volcano concentrations, with respect to the tidal axis, cannot be explained by existing solid body tidal heating models. However, identification of a global magma ocean within Io raises the intriguing possibility that a fluid tidal response—analogous to the heating of icy satellites by fluid tidal dissipation in their liquid oceans—may modify Io's thermal budget and locations of enhanced volcanism. The population density of volcanoes is greatest near the equator, which also

  4. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  5. Volcanism on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  6. Terrestrial Lava Lake Physical Parameter Estimation Using a Silicate Cooling Model - Implications for a Return to the Volcanic Moon, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley

    2010-05-01

    Active lava lakes are open volcanic systems, where lava circulates between a magma chamber and the surface. Rare on Earth, lava lakes may be common on Io, the highly volcanic moon of Jupiter (see [1]). Lava lakes are important targets for future missions to Io [2, 3] as they provide excellent targets at which to measure lava eruption temperature (see [2] for other targets). With this in mind, hand-held infrared imagers were used to collect in-situ thermal emission data from the anorthoclase phonolite lava lake at Erebus volcano (Antarctica) in December 2005 [1, 3] and the basalt lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) in September 2009. These data have been analysed to establish surface temperature and area distributions and the integrated thermal emission spectra for each lava lake. These spectra have been used to test models developed for analysis of remote sensing data of lava lakes and lava flows on both Earth and Io, where no ground-truth exists. The silicate cooling model [4] assumes, for the lava lake model variant, that the existing surface crust has been created at a fixed rate. Model output consists of a synthesized thermal emission spectrum, estimate of surface age range, and a rate of surface crust area formation. The cooling model provides accurate reproductions of actual thermal spectra and the total emitting area to within a few percent of actual emitting area. Despite different composition lavas, the integrated thermal emission spectra from the two terrestrial lava lakes studied are very similar in shape, and, importantly, bear a striking similarity to spectra of Pele, a feature on Io that has been proposed to be a persistent, active lava lake [1]. The 2005 Erebus lava lake had an area of ~820 m2 and a measured surface temperature distribution of 1090 K to 575 K with a broad peak from 730 K to 850 K [5]. Total heat loss was estimated to be 23.5 MW [5]. The model fit yielded an area of ~820 m2, temperatures from 1475 K to 699 K, and an average

  7. A comparison of volcanic eruption processes on Earth, Moon, Mars, Io and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.; Lancaster Univ.; Head, J.W. III

    1983-01-01

    The silicate planets and satellites display a wide range of physical, chemical and atmospheric characteristics which may influence the nature of volcanism, a major geological process common to the evolution of the surfaces of these bodies. Consideration of the process of magma ascent and eruption from first principles allows predictions to be made concerning volcanic eruption styles and expected landforms and deposits on each planetary body. Examination of actual landforms and deposits in light of these predictions leads to a better understanding of the nature of volcanic eruption processes and outlines outstanding problems. (author)

  8. Imaging of volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io by Galileo during the Galileo Europa Mission and the Galileo Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.; Phillips, C.B.; Milazzo, M.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.P.; Radebaugh, J.; Williams, D.A.; Simonelli, D.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Denk, T.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez, Del; Castillo, E.M.; Belton, M.J.S.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Mueller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Bender, K.; Chuang, F.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, E.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Schenk, P.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Procter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Schuster, P.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Jaeger, W.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Gran,

    2001-01-01

    The Solid-State Imaging (SSI) instrument provided the first high- and medium-resolution views of Io as the Galileo spacecraft closed in on the volcanic body in late 1999 and early 2000. While each volcanic center has many unique features, the majority can be placed into one of two broad categories. The "Promethean" eruptions, typified by the volcanic center Prometheus, are characterized by long-lived steady eruptions producing a compound flow field emplaced in an insulating manner over a period of years to decades. In contrast, "Pillanian" eruptions are characterized by large pyroclastic deposits and short-lived but high effusion rate eruptions from fissures feeding open-channel or open-sheet flows. Both types of eruptions commonly have ???100-km-tall, bright, SO2-rich plumes forming near the flow fronts and smaller deposits of red material that mark the vent for the silicate lavas. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  10. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  11. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is

  12. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can

  13. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  14. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  15. Topographic evidence for shield volcanism on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.M.; Mcewen, A.S.; Albin, E.F.; Greeley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Similarities between terrestrial shield volcanoes and a volcano on Io observed in Voyager I imagery of the satellite at 30 0 S, 246 0 W are delineated. A photoclinometry model was used to numerically estimate the slope based on the Minnaert photometric function. The slope values are accurate to within 10 deg on the sun-facing slope and 1 deg on the shadow side. As found with shield volcanoes, the feature has a central edifice, 40-50 km in diameter, and a broad, elliptical base, 77 x 90 km across. The summit of the Io volcano is 2.2-2.8 km above the surrounding plane and contains a caldera about 5 km in diameter. The similarity in shape between basaltic terrestrial shield volcanoes and the Io volcano indicates that the Io feature may also be composed of basalt. The composition could be sulfur if the heat flow was under 0.05 W/sq m, as it might have been in later stages of formation. 9 references

  16. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  17. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io has been monitored during the nominal Galileo satellite tour from mid 1996 through late 1997. The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment was able to observe many manifestations of this active volcanism, including (1) changes in the color and albedo of the surface, (2) active airborne plumes, and (3) glowing vents seen in eclipse. About 30 large-scale (tens of kilometers) surface changes are obvious from comparison of the SSI images to those acquired by Voyager in 1979. These include new pyroclastic deposits of several colors, bright and dark flows, and caldera-floor materials. There have also been significant surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission itself, such as a new 400-km-diameter dark pyroclastic deposit around Pillan Patera. While these surface changes are impressive, the number of large-scale changes observed in the four months between the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979 suggested that over 17 years the cumulative changes would have been much more impressive. There are two reasons why this was not actually the case. First, it appears that the most widespread plume deposits are ephemeral and seem to disappear within a few years. Second, it appears that a large fraction of the volcanic activity is confined to repeated resurfacing of dark calderas and flow fields that cover only a few percent of Io's surface. The plume monitoring has revealed 10 active plumes, comparable to the 9 plumes observed by Voyager. One of these plumes was visible only in the first orbit and three became active in the later orbits. Only the Prometheus plume has been consistently active and easy to detect. Observations of the Pele plume have been particularly intriguing since it was detected only once by SSI, despite repeated attempts, but has been detected several times by the Hubble Space Telescope at 255 nm. Pele's plume is much taller (460 km) than during Voyager 1 (300 km) and much fainter at visible wavelengths. Prometheus-type plumes (50

  18. Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.B.; Yoder, C.F.; Carr, M.H.; Gradie, J.; Hunten, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The present work reviews the history of Io studies and describes the current level of understanding of Io's physics, chemistry, geology, orbital dynamics, and geophysics. Consideration is given to the satellite's internal, superficial, atmospheric, plasma, and magnetospheric properties and how they interrelate. A pictorial map of Io's surface based on Voyager 1 and 2 images is presented. It is found that Io's surface color and spectra are dominated by sulfur compounds which may include various sulfur allotropes. Volcanic processes yielding three kinds of surface features (vent regions, plains, and mountains) dominate Io's surface geology. The Io plasma torus corotates with Jupiter's magnetic field in the plane of Jupiter's centrifugal equator centered at Io's orbital radius

  19. Monitoring Io's Volcanic Activity in the Visible and Infrared from JUICE - It's All About (Eruption) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Matson, D.; McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2012-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) will provide many opportunities for long-range monitoring of Io's extraordinary silicate, high-temperature volcanic activity [1, 2]. A considerable amount of valuable work can be performed even with relatively low-spatial-resolution observations [2]. Techniques developed from the examination and analysis of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, as well as observations of terrestrial silicate volcanic activity, allows the identification of likely eruption style [2] at many locations where the entire eruption is sub-pixel. Good temporal coverage, especially for episodic eruptions (including high-energy "outburst" eruptions), is important for modelling purposes. With opportunities to observe Io on a regular basis (hours-days) during cruise/orbital reduction phases, a visible-to-near-infrared mapping spectrometer (covering ~0.4-5.5 μm) is the best instrument to chart the magnitude and variability of Io's volcanic activity, allowing comparison with an existing and constantly expanding set of Io observations [e.g. 1, 3]. The eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lava, a constraint on interior composition and conditions, is a major unanswered question in the wake of the Galileo mission [1]. A careful approach to instrument design is needed to ensure that observations by both imager and IR spectrometer on JUICE are capable of determining lava eruption temperature [e.g., 4] in low spatial resolution data. With an ideal thermal target (e.g., an outburst eruption, or the proposed lava lake at Pele) the imager should obtain multi-spectral data in a rapid sequence to allow stability of the thermal source to be quantified. Observations by imager and spectrometer have to be contemporaneous and unsaturated. References: [1] Davies, A. (2007) "Volcanism on Io", Cam. Univ. Press. [2] Davies, A. et al. (2010) JVGR, 194, 75-99. [3] Veeder, G. et al. (2012) Icarus, 219, 701-722. [4] Davies, A. et

  20. Volcanic eruptions on Io: Heat flow, resurfacing, and lava composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Matson, Dennis L.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1995-01-01

    We model an infrared outburst on Io as being due to a large, erupting lava flow which increased its area at a rate of 1.5 x 10(exp 5)/sq m and cooled from 1225 to 555 K over the 2.583-hr period of observation. The inferred effusion rate of 3 x 10(exp 5) cu m/sec for this eruption is very high, but is not unprece- dented on the Earth and is similar to the high eruption rates suggested for early lunar volcanism. Eruptions occur approxi- mately 6% of the time on Io. These eruptions provide ample resurfacing to explain Io's lack of impact craters. We suggest that the large total radiometric heat flow, 10(exp 14) W, and the size and temperature distribution of the thermal anomalies (McEwen et al. 1992; Veeder et al. 1994) can be accounted for by a series of silicate lava flows in various stages of cooling. We propose that the whole suite of Io's currently observed thermal anomalies was produced by multiple, high-eruptive-rate silicate flows within the past century.

  1. Characterization of Io's volcanic activity by infrared polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goguen, J.D.; Sinton, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal emission from Io's volcanic hot spots is linearly polarized.Infrared measurements at 4.76 micrometers show disk-integrated polarization as large as 1.6 percent. The degree and position angle of linear polarization vary with Io's rotation in a manner characteristic of emission from a small number of hot spots. A model incorporating three hot spots best fits the data. The largest of these hot spots lies to the northeast of Loki Patera, as mapped from Voyager, and the other spot on the trailing hemisphere is near Ra Patera. The hot spot on the leading hemisphere corresponds to no named feature on the Voyager maps. The value determined for the index of refraction of the emitting surface is a lower bound; it is similar to that of terrestrial basalts and is somewhat less than that of sulfur. 25 references

  2. TIDAL HEATING IN A MAGMA OCEAN WITHIN JUPITER’S MOON Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Robert H.; Henning, Wade G.; Hamilton, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Active volcanism observed on Io is thought to be driven by the temporally periodic, spatially differential projection of Jupiter's gravitational field over the moon. Previous theoretical estimates of the tidal heat have all treated Io as essentially a solid, with fluids addressed only through adjustment of rheological parameters rather than through appropriate extension of the dynamics. These previous estimates of the tidal response and associated heat generation on Io are therefore incomplete and possibly erroneous because dynamical aspects of the fluid behavior are not permitted in the modeling approach. Here we address this by modeling the partial-melt asthenosphere as a global layer of fluid governed by the Laplace Tidal Equations. Solutions for the tidal response are then compared with solutions obtained following the traditional solid-material approach. It is found that the tidal heat in the solid can match that of the average observed heat flux (nominally 2.25 W m −2 ), though only over a very restricted range of plausible parameters, and that the distribution of the solid tidal heat flux cannot readily explain a longitudinal shift in the observed (inferred) low-latitude heat fluxes. The tidal heat in the fluid reaches that observed over a wider range of plausible parameters, and can also readily provide the longitudinal offset. Finally, expected feedbacks and coupling between the solid/fluid tides are discussed. Most broadly, the results suggest that both solid and fluid tidal-response estimates must be considered in exoplanet studies, particularly where orbital migration under tidal dissipation is addressed

  3. Thermal Mapper (TMAP) concept to study volcanism on Io

    OpenAIRE

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Walter, Ingo; Peter, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Mapper (TMAP) is part of the payload of the proposed Discovery mission IVO. TMAP will provide near-global coverage at 0.1–20 km/pixel to map heat flow and monitor volcanism. It is a high spatial- resolution thermal imaging system optimized for observing Io with heritage from the ESA AIDA mission’s Minaturized Asteroid infrared Imager (MAIR) and Radiometer instrument and the Bepi-Colombo mission’s MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS). Minor modifications of the...

  4. Spatial Distribution of Volcanic Hotspots and Paterae on Io: Implications for Tidal Heating Models and Magmatic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C. W.; Beggan, C. D.; Lopes, R.; Williams, D. A.; Radenbaugh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Io, the innermost of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, is the most volcanically active body in the Solar. System. Io's global mean heat flow is approximately 2 W/square m, which is approximately 20 times larger than on Earth. High surface temperatures concentrate within "hotspots" and, to date, 172 Ionian hotspots have been identified by spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes. The Laplace resonance between Io, Europa, and Ganymede maintains these satellites in noncircular orbits and causes displacement of their tidal bulges as the overhead position of Jupiter changes for each moon. Gravitational interactions between Jupiter and Io dominate the orbital evolution of the Laplacian system and generate enormous heat within to as tidal energy is dissipated. If this energy were transferred out of Io at the same rate as it is generated, then the associated surface heat flux would be 2.24 +/- 0.45 W/square m. This estimate is in good agreement with observed global heat flow, but to better constrain tidal dissipation mechanisms and infer how thermal energy is transferred to Io's surface, it is critical to closely examine the spatial distribution of volcanic features. End-member tidal dissipation models either consider that heating occurs completely in the mantle, or completely in the asthenosphere. Mixed models typically favor one-third mantle and two-thirds asthenosphere heating. Recent models also consider the effects of mantle-asthenosphere boundary permeability and asthenospheric instabilities. Deep-mantle heating models predict maximum surface heat flux near the poles, whereas asthenosphere heating models predict maxima near the equator-particularly in the Sub-Jovian and Anti-Jovian hemispheres, with smaller maxima occurring at orbit tangent longitudes. Previous studies have examined the global distribution of Ionian hotspots and patera (i.e., irregular or complex craters with scalloped edges that are generally interpreted to be volcanic calderas), but in this study, we

  5. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  6. Explosive Volcanism in Io's Lava Lakes - The Key To Constraining Eruption Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Active lava lakes are open volcanic systems, where lava circulates between a magma chamber and the surface. Rare on Earth, lava lakes may be common on Io, the highly volcanic jovian moon (e.g., [1]). Io’s low atmospheric pressure means that activity within Io’s lava lakes may be explosive, exposing lava at near-liquid temperatures (currently poorly constrained for Io). Lava lakes are therefore important targets for future missions to Io [2, 3]. With this in mind, hand-held infrared imagers were used to collect thermal emission data from the phonolite Erebus (Antarctica) lava lake [4] and the basalt lava lake at Erta’Ale (Ethiopia). Temperature-area distributions and the integrated thermal emission spectra for each lava lake were determined from the data. These calculated spectra have been used to test models developed for analysis of remote sensing data of lava lakes and lava flows on both Earth and Io, where no ground-truth exists. The silicate cooling model [5] assumes, for the lava lake model variant, that the existing surface crust has been created at a fixed rate. Model output consists of a synthesized thermal emission spectrum, estimate of surface age range, and a rate of surface crust area formation. The cooling model provides accurate reproductions of actual thermal spectra and the total emitting area to within a few percent of actual emitting area. Model resurfacing rates broadly agree with observed behaviour at both lakes. Despite different composition lavas, the short-wavelength infrared thermal emission spectra from the two terrestrial lava lakes studied are very similar in shape, and, importantly, bear a striking similarity to spectra of Pele, an Io volcano that has been proposed to be a persistent, active lava lake [6] and which is the source of a 300-km high dust and gas plume. Our study of the cooling of the hottest lava exposed at Erta’Ale yields constraints on the ability of multispectral imagers to determine eruption temperature. We find

  7. Volcanism on Io: The Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine the magnitude of thermal emission from Io's volcanoes and variability with time at local, regional and global scales, we have calculated the 4.7 or 5 μm radiant flux for every hot spot in every Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observation obtained during the Galileo mission between June 1996 and October 2001. The resulting database contains over 1000 measurements of radiant flux, corrected for emission angle, range to target, and, where necessary, incident sunlight. Io's volcanoes produce the most voluminous and most powerful eruptions in the Solar System [1] and NIMS was the ideal instrument for measuring thermal emission from these volcanoes (see [1, 2]). NIMS covered the infrared from 0.7 to 5.2 μm, so measurement of hot spot thermal emission at ~5 μm was possible even in daytime observations. As part of a campaign to quantify magnitude and variability of volcanic thermal emission [1, 3-5] we examined the entire NIMS dataset (196 observations). The resulting NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED) allows the charting of 5-μm thermal emission at individual volcanoes, identifying individual eruption episodes, and enabling the comparison of activity at different hot spots [e.g., 6] and different regions of Io. Some ionian hot spots were detected only once or twice by NIMS (e.g., Ah Peku Patera, seen during I32), but most were detected many times (e.g., Culann, Tupan and Zamama, [6]). For example, the database contains over 40 observations of Loki Patera (some at high emission angle, and two partial observations). There are 55 observations of Pele. The 27 nighttime observations of Pele show a remarkably steady 5-μm radiant flux of 35 ± 12 GW/μm. There are 34 observations of Pillan, which erupted violently in 1997. Although in many observations low spatial resolution makes it difficult to separate hot spot pairs such as Susanoo Patera and Mulungu Patera; Tawhaki Patera and Hi'iaka Patera; and Janus Patera and Kanehekili

  8. Near-surface flow of volcanic gases on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Thomas, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Significant near-surface flow of gas several hundred kilometers from Pele (Plume 1) on Io is indicated by a series of bright, elongate albedo markings. Particles produced at small, local vents are apparently carried as much as 70 km farther 'downwind' from Pele. The gas densities and velocities necessary to suspend 0.1 to 10 micron particles at such a distance imply mass flow rates of 10 to the 7th - 10 to the 9th g/sec. Such flow rates are consistent with other estimates of mass transport by the plume. The large flow rates so far from the source allow an estimate of the rate of resurfacing of Io by lava flows and pyroclastics that is independent of estimates based on meteorite flux or on the amount of solids carried within the plumes themselves

  9. Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2005-01-01

    Two bodies in the Solar System exhibit high-temperature active volcanism: Earth and Io. While there are important differences in the eruptions on Earth and Io, in low-spatial-resolution data (corresponding to the bulk of available and foreseeable data of Io), similar styles of effusive and explosive volcanism yield similar thermal flux densities. For example, a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Io looks very similar to a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Earth. If, from observed thermal emission as a function of wavelength and change in thermal emission with time, the eruption style of an ionian volcano can be constrained, estimates of volumetric fluxes can be made and compared with terrestrial volcanoes using techniques derived for analysing terrestrial remotely-sensed data. In this way we find that ionian volcanoes fundamentally differ from their terrestrial counterparts only in areal extent, with Io volcanoes covering larger areas, with higher volumetric flux. Io outbursts eruptions have enormous implied volumetric fluxes, and may scale with terrestrial flood basalt eruptions. Even with the low-spatial resolution data available it is possible to sometimes constrain and classify eruption style both on Io and Earth from the integrated thermal emission spectrum. Plotting 2 and 5 m fluxes reveals the evolution of individual eruptions of different styles, as well as the relative intensity of eruptions, allowing comparison to be made from individual eruptions on both planets. Analyses like this can be used for interpretation of low-resolution data until the next mission to the jovian system. For a number of Io volcanoes (including Pele, Prometheus, Amirani, Zamama, Culann, Tohil and Tvashtar) we do have high/moderate resolution imagery to aid determination of eruption mode from analyses based only on low spatial-resolution data.

  10. The Importance of Differing Types of Io Volcanic Activity for the Jupiter Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Jupiter magnetosphere is populated largely by sulfur and oxygen ultimately derived from the volcanoes on Io and correlations have been detected between changes in volcanic activity and the magnetosphere. However different types of volcanic activity on Io vary widely in the amount and composition of the gasses they release. For example while Loki is often the brightest volcanic hotspot in the infrared (and therefore most easily monitored from earth) it appears to release a comparatively small amount of gas compared to Prometheus type plumes and the giant plumes such as Pele. The dominant volatile released at most sites is sulfur dioxide but giant plumes such as Pele appear to contain significantly fractions of S2 gas. The amounts and type of dust produced may also differ. Finally, the way material is buffered in Io's surface and atmosphere before escaping to the magnetosphere is also uncertain. A better understanding of the connection between volcanic activity and the magnetosphere will require studying not just correlations between broad measures of activity but rather specific indices of different types of activity. Observations of possible storage buffers such as the atmosphere, as are now becoming possible with ALMA, will also be essential.

  11. Volcanic eruptions on Io - Implications for surface evolution and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io results in a continual resurfacing of the satellite. Analysis of required burial rates to erase impact craters, the mass production in the observed plumes, and the energy requirements for the volcanic activity suggest resurfacing rates of 0.001 to 10 cm/yr in recent geologic time. If this rate is typical of the last 4.5 Gyr, then extensive recycling of the upper crust and mantle must have occurred. The currently estimated loss rate of S, O, and Na from Io into the magnetosphere corresponds to only a small fraction of the resurfacing rate and should not have resulted in either extensive erosion or total depletion of any of the escaping species.

  12. Road to Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.

    1989-01-01

    The potential study of Io by the Galileo mission is discussed. The mission, which is scheduled for launch from the Space Shuttle in 1989, is expected to fly 20 to 100 times closer to the Galilean moons of Jupiter than the Voyager missions. Topics which the mission hopes to address include volcanism, tidal forces and continental drift on Io, and the torus of charged particles that accompanies Io on its orbit of Jupiter. The Venus-earth-earth gravity assist route of the mission and the NIR mapping spectrometer aboard Galileo are considered

  13. Opportunities for Monitoring Io's Volcanic Activity in the Visible and Infrared From JUICE - It's All About (Eruption) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley; Matson, D.; McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.

    2012-10-01

    The ESA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) provides many opportunities for long-range monitoring of Io’s extraordinary silicate volcanic activity [1, 2]. A considerable amount of valuable work can be performed even with relatively low-spatial-resolution observations [2]. Techniques developed from the study of Galileo NIMS data and observations of terrestrial silicate volcanism allow the identification of likely eruption style [2] at many locations where the entire eruption is sub-pixel. Good temporal coverage, especially for episodic eruptions (including high-energy “outburst” eruptions), is important for modelling purposes. With opportunities to observe Io on a regular basis (hours-days) during cruise/orbital reduction phases, a visible-to-near-infrared mapping spectrometer (covering 0.4-5.5 µm) is the best instrument to chart the magnitude and variability of Io’s volcanic activity, allowing comparison with an existing and constantly expanding set of Io observations [e.g. 1, 3]. The eruption temperature of Io’s dominant silicate lava, a constraint on interior composition and conditions, is a major unanswered question in the wake of the Galileo mission [1]. A careful approach to instrument design is needed to ensure that observations by both imager and IR spectrometer on JUICE are capable of determining lava eruption temperature [e.g., 4] in low spatial resolution data. With an ideal thermal target (e.g., outburst eruption; the proposed lava lake at Pele) the imager should obtain multi-spectral data in a rapid sequence to allow stability of the thermal source to be quantified. Observations by imager and spectrometer have to be contemporaneous and unsaturated. References: [1] Davies, A. (2007) “Volcanism on Io”, Cam. Univ. Press. [2] Davies et al. (2010) JVGR, 194, 75-99. [3] Veeder et al. (2012) Icarus, 219, 701-722. [4] Davies et al. (2011) GRL, 38, L21308. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology

  14. Io after Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M C; Williams, David A

    2005-01-01

    Io, the volcanically active innermost large moon of Jupiter, was a target of intense study during the recently completed NASA Galileo mission to Jupiter (1989-2003). Galileo's suite of instruments obtained unprecedented observations of Io, including high spatial resolution imaging in the visible and infrared. This paper reviews the insights gained about Io's surface, atmosphere and space environment during the Galileo mission. Io is thought to have a large Fe-FeS core, whose radius is slightly less than half the radius of Io and whose mass is 20% of the moon. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field implies that the core is either completely solid or completely liquid. The mantle of Io appears to undergo a high degree of partial melting (20-50% molten) that produces ultramafic lavas dominated by Mg-rich orthopyroxene in an apparent 'mushy magma ocean', suggesting an undifferentiated mantle. The crust of Io is thought to be rigid, 20-30 km thick, cold away from volcanic heat sources and composed of mafic to ultramafic silicates. Tidal flexing due to Io's orbital resonance produces ∼100 m tides at the surface, generating heat that powers Io's volcanism. Silicate volcanism appears to be dominant at most hot spots, although secondary sulfur volcanism may be important in some areas. The key discoveries of the Galileo era at Io were: (1) the detection of high-temperature volcanism (ultramafic, superheated mafic or 'ceramic'); (2) the detection of both S 2 and SO 2 gas in Ionian plumes; (3) the distinction between eruption styles, including between Pelean plumes (originating from central vents) and Promethean plumes (originating from silicate lava flow fronts); (4) the relationship between mountains and paterae, which indicates that many paterae are formed as magma preferentially ascends along tectonic faults associated with mountain building; (5) the lack of detection of an intrinsic magnetic field; (6) a new estimate of global heat flow; and (7) increased understanding

  15. Jupiter's Auroral Energy Input Observed by Hisaki/EXCEED and its Modulations by Io's Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kita, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aurora is an important indicator representing the momentum transfer from the fast-rotating outer planet to the magnetosphere and the energy input into the atmosphere through the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's northern aurora was achieved by the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) onboard JAXA's Earth-orbiting planetary space telescope Hisaki until today after its launch in September 2013. We have proceeded the statistical survey of the Jupiter's auroral energy input into the upper atmosphere. The auroral electron energy is estimated using a hydrocarbon color ratio (CR) adopted for the wavelength range of EXCEED, and the emission power in the long wavelength range 138.5-144.8 nm is used as an indicator of total emitted power before hydrocarbon absorption and auroral electron energy flux. Temporal dynamic variation of the auroral intensity was detected when Io's volcanic activity and thus EUV emission from the Io plasma torus are enhanced in the early 2015. Average of the total input power over 80 days increases by 10% with sometimes sporadically more than a factor of 3 upto 7, while the CR indicates the auroral electron energy decrease by 20% during the volcanic event compared to the other period. This indicates much more increase in the current system and Joule heating which contributes heating of the upper atmosphere. We will discuss the impact of this event on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

  16. New Style of Volcanic Eruption Activity Identified in Galileo NIMS data at Marduk Fluctus, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Davies, R. L.; Veeder, G. J.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Matson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of observations of Marduk Fluctus, Io, by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) reveals a style of volcanic activity not previously seen on Io - a very short-duration, highly-changeable, powerful thermal event, similar to what might be expected from a strombolian-like explosion. Marduk Fluctus is a persistent active volcano characterised by ≈3600 km2 of silicate flows [1]. Between 1996 and 2001, NIMS obtained 44 observations of Marduk Fluctus at a wide variety of spatial and spectral resolutions. Six observations were obtained during Galileo orbit E4, with five nighttime observations obtained on 1996 Dec 19 in the space of less than three hours. Three of these observations were each separated by one minute. Compared to the previous observation obtained a few hours earlier, the first two of these three observations show an order of magnitude increase in spectral radiance (corrected for emission angle). Spectral radiance then dropped back to the background level one minute later. The emission angles for these five E4 observations are large (>70°), but even without the emission angle radiance correction the spike in activity is still a factor of five larger than the pre- and post-spike radiances. The NIMS spectrum of the central observation shows a shift in peak of thermal emission to short wavelengths characteristic of the exposure of a large area of incandescent lava. The rapid increase and decrease in activity suggests an equally rapid physical process, the most likely being a large strombolian explosion that generated small clasts that cooled rapidly. The presence of such events provide an additional volcanic process that can be imaged with the intent of determining lava composition from eruption temperature, an important constraint on internal composition and state. For this particular eruption type, eruption temperature can be constrained if non-saturated, multiple-wavelength IR observations are obtained simultaneously and with very

  17. Global Distribution of Active Volcanism on Io as Known at the End of the Galileo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Kamp. Lucas W.; Smythe, W. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Turtle, E.; Perry, J.; Bruno, B.

    2004-01-01

    Hot spots are manifestations of Io s mechanism of internal heating and heat transfer. Therefore, the global distribution of hot spots and their power output has important implications for how Io is losing heat. The end of the Galileo mission is an opportune time to revisit studies of the distribution of hot spots on Io, and to investigate the distribution of their power output.

  18. A Study by Remote Sensing Methods of Volcanism at Craters of the Moon National Park, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, B.; Sears, D. W. G.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Heldmann, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Park, on the eastern Snake River Plain, and its associated lava fields are currently a focus of the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team. COTM was selected for study owing to similarities with volcanic features observed on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The COTM basaltic lava fields emanate from an 80 km long rift zone where at least eight eruptive episodes, occurring 15,000 to 2,000 BP, have created an expansive volcanic field covering an area of approximately 1,650 km2. This polygenetic volcanic field hosts a diverse collection of basaltic volcanic edifices such as phreatic explosion craters, eruptive fissures, cinder cones, spatter cones, shield volcanoes and expansive lava flows. Engineering challenges and high cost limit the number of robotic and human field investigations of planetary bodies and, due to these constraints, exhaustive remote sensing investigations of planetary surface properties are undertaken prior to field deployment. This creates an unavoidable dependence upon remote sensing, a critical difference between field investigations of planetary bodies and most terrestrial field investigations. Studies of this nature have utility in terrestrial investigations as they can help link spatially encompassing datasets and conserve field resources. We present preliminary results utilizing Earth orbital datasets to determine the efficacy of products derived from remotely sensed data when compared to geologic field observations. Multispectral imaging data (ASTER, AVIRIS, TIMS) collected at a range of spatial and spectral resolutions are paired with high resolution imagery from both orbit and unmanned aircraft systems. This enables the creation of derived products detailing morphology, compositional variation, mineralogy, relative age and vegetation. The surface morphology of flows within COTM differs from flow to flow and observations of these properties can aid in

  19. Complex explosive volcanic activity on the Moon within Oppenheimer crater, Icarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristen A; Horgan, Briony H N; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Allen, Carlton C.; Hayne, Paul O; Bell, James F III; Paige, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Oppenheimer Crater is a floor-fractured crater located within the South Pole-Aitken basin on the Moon, and exhibits more than a dozen localized pyroclastic deposits associated with the fractures. Localized pyroclastic volcanism on the Moon is thought to form as a result of intermittently explosive Vulcanian eruptions under low effusion rates, in contrast to the higher-effusion rate, Hawaiian-style fire fountaining inferred to form larger regional deposits. We use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and Diviner Radiometer mid-infrared data, Chandrayaan-1 orbiter Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared spectra, and Clementine orbiter Ultraviolet/Visible camera images to test the hypothesis that the pyroclastic deposits in Oppenheimer crater were emplaced via Vulcanian activity by constraining their composition and mineralogy. Mineralogically, we find that the deposits are variable mixtures of orthopyroxene and minor clinopyroxene sourced from the crater floor, juvenile clinopyroxene, and juvenile iron-rich glass, and that the mineralogy of the pyroclastics varies both across the Oppenheimer deposits as a whole and within individual deposits. We observe similar variability in the inferred iron content of pyroclastic glasses, and note in particular that the northwest deposit, associated with Oppenheimer U crater, contains the most iron-rich volcanic glass thus far identified on the Moon, which could be a useful future resource. We propose that this variability in mineralogy indicates variability in eruption style, and that it cannot be explained by a simple Vulcanian eruption. A Vulcanian eruption should cause significant country rock to be incorporated into the pyroclastic deposit; however, large areas within many of the deposits exhibit spectra consistent with high abundances of juvenile phases and very little floor material. Thus, we propose that at least the most recent portion of these deposits must have erupted via a Strombolian or more continuous fire

  20. An Eruption on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The first images returned to Earth by New Horizons during its close encounter with Jupiter feature the Galilean moon Io, snapped with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 0840 UTC on February 26, while the moon was 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from the spacecraft. Io is intensely heated by its tidal interaction with Jupiter and is thus extremely volcanically active. That activity is evident in these images, which reveal an enormous dust plume, more than 150 miles high, erupting from the volcano Tvashtar. The plume appears as an umbrella-shaped feature of the edge of Io's disk in the 11 o'clock position in the right image, which is a long-exposure (20-millisecond) frame designed specifically to look for plumes like this. The bright spots at 2 o'clock are high mountains catching the setting sun; beyond them the night side of Io can be seen, faintly illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter itself. The left image is a shorter exposure -- 3 milliseconds -- designed to look at surface features. In this frame, the Tvashtar volcano shows as a dark spot, also at 11 o'clock, surrounded by a large dark ring, where an area larger than Texas has been covered by fallout from the giant eruption. This is the clearest view yet of a plume from Tvashtar, one of Io's most active volcanoes. Ground-based telescopes and the Galileo Jupiter orbiter first spotted volcanic heat radiation from Tvashtar in November 1999, and the Cassini spacecraft saw a large plume when it flew past Jupiter in December 2000. The Keck telescope in Hawaii picked up renewed heat radiation from Tvashtar in spring 2006, and just two weeks ago the Hubble Space Telescope saw the Tvashtar plume in ultraviolet images designed to support the New Horizons flyby. Most of those images will be stored onboard the spacecraft for downlink to Earth in March and April.

  1. Moon-Mars simulation campaign in volcanic Eifel: Remote science support and sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.; Kamps, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Moon-Mars analogue missions using a mock-up lander that is part of the ESA/ILEWG ExoGeoLab project were conducted during Eifel field campaigns in 2009, 2015 and 2016 (Foing et al., 2010). In the last EuroMoonMars2016 campaign the lander was used to conduct reconnaissance experiments and in situ geological scientific analysis of samples, with a payload that mainly consisted of a telescope and a UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer. The aim of the campaign was to exhibit possibilities for the ExoGeoLab lander to perform remotely controlled experiments and test its applicability in the field by simulating the interaction with astronauts. The Eifel region in Germany where the experiments with the ExoGeoLab lander were conducted is a Moon-Mars analogue due to its geological setting and volcanic rock composition. The research conducted by analysis equipment on the lander could function in support of Moon-Mars sample return missions, by providing preliminary insight into characteristics of the analyzed samples. The set-up of the prototype lander was that of a telescope with camera and solar power equipment deployed on the top, the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer together with computers and a sample webcam were situated in the middle compartment and to the side a sample analysis test bench was attached, attainable by astronauts from outside the lander. An alternative light source that illuminated the samples in case of insufficient daylight was placed on top of the lander and functioned on solar power. The telescope, teleoperated from a nearby stationed pressurized transport vehicle that functioned as a base control center, attained an overview of the sampling area and assisted the astronauts in their initial scouting pursuits. Locations of suitable sampling sites based on these obtained images were communicated to the astronauts, before being acquired during a simulated EVA. Sampled rocks and soils were remotely analyzed by the base control center, while the astronauts

  2. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  3. Io's Pele Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io with Pele prominently in view. The inset images are from the Voyager 1 (top) and 2 (bottom) spacecraft using the violet, blue, and orange filters. The large image is from Galileo, using the violet, green, and red filters. The colors in the Galileo image are closer to what the human eye would see. With the filters used in the Solid State Imaging system on Galileo, it is clear now that some of the recent volcanic deposits on Io are indeed very red, a point not resolved by Voyager. Scientists speculate that the red deposits are a form of Sulfur produced in volcanic eruptions on Io. Note the rapid changes seen in the shape of the distal (far from the vent) plume deposits from Pele between Voyagers 1 (April, 1979) and 2 (July, 1979). The Galileo image was obtained by the imaging system on board the spacecraft in June, 1996. North is to the top.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Eruption Conditions of Pele Volcano on Io Inferred from Chemistry of Its Volcanic Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We used thermodynamic models and HST observations of Pele plume to calculate the temperature (1430 K) and oxidation state (log fO2 = -11.7) of volcanic gases and magmas of Pele. Our estimated vent pressure is 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) bars.

  5. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2009-06-18

    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  6. Ponds, Flows, and Ejecta of Impact Cratering and Volcanism: A Remote Sensing Perspective of a Dynamic Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopar, Julie D.

    Both volcanism and impact cratering produce ejecta and associated deposits incorporating a molten rock component. While the heat sources are different (exogenous vs. endogenous), the end results are landforms with similar morphologies including ponds and flows of impact melt and lava around the central crater. Ejecta from both impact and volcanic craters can also include a high percentage of melted rock. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) images, crucial details of these landforms are finally revealed, suggesting a much more dynamic Moon than is generally appreciated. Impact melt ponds and flows at craters as small as several hundred meters in diameter provide empirical evidence of abundant melting during the impact cratering process (much more than was previously thought), and this melt is mobile on the lunar surface for a significant time before solidifying. Enhanced melt deposit occurrences in the lunar highlands (compared to the mare) suggest that porosity, target composition, and pre-existing topography influence melt production and distribution. Comparatively deep impact craters formed in young melt deposits connote a relatively rapid evolution of materials on the lunar surface. On the other end of the spectrum, volcanic eruptions have produced the vast, plains-style mare basalts. However, little was previously known about the details of small-area eruptions and proximal volcanic deposits due to a lack of resolution. High-resolution images reveal key insights into small volcanic cones (0.5-3 km in diameter) that resemble terrestrial cinder cones. The cones comprise inter-layered materials, spatter deposits, and lava flow breaches. The widespread occurrence of the cones in most nearside mare suggests that basaltic eruptions occur from multiple sources in each basin and/or that rootless eruptions are relatively common. Morphologies of small-area volcanic deposits indicate diversity in eruption behavior of lunar basaltic

  7. Relationship between the latest activity of mare volcanism and topographic features of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to crater counting analysis with remote sensing data, the model ages of mare basalt units indicate a second peak of magma activity at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which has high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the mechanism for causing the second peak and its magma source, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although no systematic relationship is observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruption, which occurred at the late stage of mare volcanism, can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be explained by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. We calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. We investigated the timing of ridge formation in the PKT by using stratigraphic relationship between mare basalts and ridges. The ridges were formed before and after the high-Ti basaltic eruptions and seem to be along with the plateau. These results suggest that the plateau formation is connected with the high-Ti basaltic eruptions.

  8. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  9. HUBBLE CLICKS IMAGES OF IO SWEEPING ACROSS JUPITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io

  10. Dynamics and Evolution of SO 2 Gas Condensation around Prometheus-like Volcanic Plumes on Io as Seen by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, Sylvain; Lopes, Rosaly; Kamp, Lucas W.; Carlson, Robert; Schmitt, Bernard; Galileo NIMS Team

    2002-08-01

    We analyze a series of spectral image cubes acquired by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) over the Prometheus region of Io. We use SO 2 frost, a volatile compound ubiquitous on the surface, as a tracer to understand various thermodynamic and volcanic processes acting in this equatorial region. Here we develop a new method to derive, from the 12-wavelength NIMS products, the distribution and physical properties of solid SO 2. This method is based on the inversion of a bidirectional reflectance model on two observed spectral ratios sensitive to (1) the areal abundance of SO 2 and (2) its mean grain size. As a result, reliable and consistent maps of SO 2 abundance and granularity are obtained which can be correlated to distinguish four different physical units. The distribution of these SO 2 units indicates zones of condensation, metamorphism, and sublimation linked with the thermodynamic and volcanic processes of interest. Our maps depict equatorial plains undisturbed by any kind of vigorous volcanic activity over 35-40% of their surface. Elsewhere, 10-20% of the equatorial plains display abnormally low frost coverage which may imply the recent presence of positive thermal anomalies with temperatures in the range 110-200 K. Hot-spots such as Prometheus, Culann, Surya, and Tupan (to mention the most persistent) emit a great variety of gases, some of which will condense at Io's surface near their source regions. Associated fields of freshly condensed SO 2 are easily observed, and deposits of more refractory compounds with higher (e.g., S 8) or lower (e.g., NaCl) molecular weight must also be present (although their exact nature is unknown). Three different mechanisms of emission are proposed for the volatile compounds and supported by the distribution maps. These are (a) the interaction between flowing lava and preexisting volatile deposits on the surface, (b) direct degassing from the lava, an d (c) the eruption of a liquid aquifer from underground

  11. The Mons Rümker volcanic complex of the Moon: A candidate landing site for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Xiao, Long; Qiao, Le; Glotch, Timothy D.; Huang, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Mons Rümker is a large volcanic complex in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon and is a candidate landing site for China's Chang'E-5 sample return mission. We conducted a comprehensive study of the topography, geomorphology, composition, and stratigraphy of the Mons Rümker region with multisource remote sensing data in order to better understand the geology of the region and provide further support for the Chang'E-5 mission. The results show that the Rümker plateau stands 200-1300 m above the surrounding mare surface and 75% of the plateau has a slope of less than 3° at a baseline length of 30 m. Domes are the most prominent volcanic landforms in Mons Rümker and a total of 22 domes were identified and divided into two types that may represent different stages of volcanic activity. Spectral analyses indicated that Mons Rümker is covered by low-Ti basalt and the dominant mafic mineral is high-calcium pyroxene, though signs of mixing of highland materials and basalt have been found. Mons Rümker has three main basalt units, and their absolute model ages are 3.71 Ga, 3.58 Ga, and 3.51 Ga, respectively. Steep-sided domes could be the youngest volcanic features on the plateau with indications that they were active until the Eratosthenian. A new geologic map of the study region was produced and used to interpret and discuss the geologic evolution of the region. Finally, we propose two candidate landing sites for the Chang'E-5 mission.

  12. MOON MOON DEVI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. MOON MOON DEVI. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 88 Issue 5 May 2017 pp 79 Research Article. Physics potential of the ICAL detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · A KUMAR A M VINOD KUMAR ABHIK JASH AJIT K MOHANTY ...

  13. Io Pele plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this narrow-angle camera image on 5 March 1979 from a distance of 450,000 kilometers. At this geometry, the camera looks straight down through a volcanic plume at one of Io's most active volcanos, Pele. The large heart-shaped feature is the region where Pele's plume falls to the surface. At the center of the 'heart' is the small dark fissure that is the source of the eruption. The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. Sulfate- and Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria as Terrestrial Analogs for Microbial Life on Jupiter's Satellite Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have revealed Jupiter's moon Io to be the most volcanically active body of our Solar System. The Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS) detected extensive deposits of sulfur compounds, elemental sulfur and SO2 frost on the surface of Io. There are extreme temperature variations on Io's surface, ranging from -130 C to over 2000 C at the Pillan Patera volcanic vent. The active volcanoes, fumaroles, calderas, and lava lakes and vast sulfur deposits on this frozen moon indicate that analogs of sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria might inhabit Io. Hence Io may have great significance to Astrobiology. Earth's life forms that depend on sulfur respiration are members of two domains: Bacteria and Archaea. Two basic links of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of Earth have been studied: 1) the sulfur oxidizing process (occurring at aerobic conditions) and 2) the process of sulfur-reduction to hydrogen sulfide (anaerobic conditions). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (StRB) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SrRB) are responsible for anaerobic reducing processes. At the present time the systematics of StRB include over 112 species distributed into 35 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. Moderately thermophilic and mesophilic SrRB belong to the Bacteria. The hyperthermophilic SrRB predominately belong to the domain Archaea and are included in the genera: Pyrodictium, Thermoproteus, Pyrobaculum, Thermophilum, Desulfurococcus, and Thermodiscus. The StRB and SrRB use a wide spectrum of substrates as electron donors for lithotrophic and heterotrophic type nutrition. The electron acceptors for the StRB include: sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfur, arsenate, dithionite, tetrathionate, sulfur monoxide, iron, nitrite, selenite, fumarate, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chlorine-containing phenol compounds. The Sulfate- and Sulfur-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in anaerobic ecosystems, including extreme environments like hot springs

  15. Extreme Worlds of the Outer Solar System: Dynamic Processes on Uranus & Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Katherine Rebecca de

    A central goal of planetary science is the creation of a framework within which the properties of each solar system body can be understood as the product of initial conditions acted on by fundamental physical processes. The solar system's extreme worlds -- those objects that lie at the far ends of the spectrum in terms of planetary environment -- bring to light our misconceptions and present us with opportunities to expand and generalize this framework. Unraveling the processes at work in diverse planetary environments contextualizes our understanding of Earth, and provides a basis for interpreting specific signatures from planets beyond our own solar system. Uranus and Io, with their unusual planetary environments, present two examples of such worlds in the outer solar system. Uranus, one of the outer solar system's ice giants, produces an anomalously low heat flow and orbits the sun on its side. Its relative lack of bright storm features and its bizarre multi-decadal seasons provide insight into the relative effects of internal heat flow and time- varying solar insolation on atmospheric dynamics, while its narrow rings composed of dark, macroscopic particles encode the history of bombardment and satellite disruption within the system. Jupiter's moon Io hosts the most extreme volcanic activity anywhere in the solar system. Its tidally-powered geological activity provides a window into this satellite's interior, permitting rare and valuable investigations into the exchange of heat and materials between interiors and surfaces. In particular, Io provides a laboratory for studying the process of tidal heating, which shapes planets and satellites in our solar system and beyond. A comparison between Earth and Io contextualizes the volcanism at work on our home planet, revealing the effects of planetary size, atmospheric density, and plate tectonics on the style and mechanisms of geological activity. This dissertation investigates the processes at work on these solar

  16. A novel technology for measuring the eruption temperature of silicate lavas with remote sensing: Application to Io and other planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Gunapala, Sarath; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David; Rafol, Sir; Blackwell, Megan; Hayne, Paul O.; Kelly, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The highly variable and unpredictable magnitude of thermal emission from evolving volcanic eruptions creates saturation problems for remote sensing instruments observing eruptions on Earth and on Io, the highly volcanic moon of Jupiter. For Io, it is desirable to determine the temperature of the erupting lavas as this measurement constrains lava composition. One method of determining lava eruption temperature is by measuring radiant flux at two or more wavelengths and fitting a blackbody thermal emission function. Only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable, those where detectable thermal emission is from a restricted range of surface temperatures close to the eruption temperature. Volcanic processes where this occurs include large lava fountains; smaller lava fountains common in active lava lakes; and lava tube skylights. Problems that must be overcome to obtain usable data are: (1) the rapid cooling of the lava between data acquisitions at different wavelengths, (2) the unknown magnitude of thermal emission, which has often led to detector saturation, and (3) thermal emission changing on a shorter timescale than the observation integration time. We can overcome these problems by using the HOT-BIRD detector and a novel, advanced digital readout circuit (D-ROIC) to achieve a wide dynamic range sufficient to image lava on Io without saturating. We have created an instrument model that allows various instrument parameters (including mirror diameter, number of signal splits, exposure duration, filter band pass, and optics transmissivity) to be tested to determine the detectability of thermal sources on Io's surface. We find that a short-wavelength infrared instrument on an Io flyby mission can achieve simultaneity of observations by splitting the incoming signal for all relevant eruption processes and still obtain data fast enough to remove uncertainties in accurate determination of the highest lava surface temperatures. Observations at 1 and 1.5 μm are

  17. Heat flow from Io /JI/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.; Ransford, G. A.; Johnson, T. V.

    1981-01-01

    The existing ground-based measurements of Io's thermal emission at infrared wavelengths of 8.4, 10.6, and 21 microns have been reexamined. Present in these data is the signature of hot spots, presumably similar to the hot spots seen by the IRIS experiment on Voyager. It is possible to extract from these data the total amount of power radiated. Since the hot spots are believed to be a result of deep-seated activity in Io and since the remainder of Io's surface is an extraordinarily poor thermal conductor, the power radiated by the hot spots is essentially the total heat flow. The analysis yields a heat flow of 2 + or - 1 W/sq m. This value is tremendously large in comparison to the average heat flow of the earth (0.06 W/sq m) and the moon (0.02 W/sq m), but is characteristic of active geothermal areas on the earth. A heat flow this large requires that the interior of Io be at least partially molten on a global scale.

  18. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE MOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.

  19. The formation of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III

    1974-01-01

    Supporting evidence for the fission hypothesis for the origin of the moon is offered. The maximum allowable amount of free iron now present in the moon would not suffice to extract the siderophiles from the lunar silicates with the observed efficiency. Hence extraction must have been done with a larger amount of iron, as in the mantle of the earth, of which the moon was once a part, according to the fission hypothesis. The fission hypothesis gives a good resolution of the tektite paradox. Tektites are chemically much like products of the mantle of the earth; but no physically possible way has been found to explain their production from the earth itself. Perhaps they are a product of late, deep-seated lunar volcanism. If so, the moon must have inside it some material with a strong resemblance to the earth's mantle.

  20. Erosional scarps on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, J.F.; Soderblom, L.A.; Smith, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Irregular or fretted scarps on Io as revealed during the voyager 1 mission are similar to those found on Earth and Mars. A sapping mechanism involving liquid SO 2 is proposed to explain these complexly eroded terrains on Io. (author)

  1. FOOLISH MOON

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Foolish Moon is a product design for Chinese young adults who come to big Chinese cities to fight for their dreams to help them to slow down, to think more, to be practical and patient under the influence of fast culture which makes people eager to quick success. It has two physical parts, a moon phase clock anda work journal book, and three functions: 1) a new time experience of slow, stable and circular; 2) to encourage people to write down their goals and plans; 3) to make time capsules to...

  2. Lack of visible change around active hotspots on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes around two hotspots on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by Voyager 1 in April 1979 (left) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft on September 7th, 1996 (middle and right). The right frame was created with images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. For better comparison, the middle frame mimics Voyager colors. The calderas at the top and at the lower right of the images correspond to the locations of hotspots detected by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit. There are no significant morphologic changes around these hot calderas; however, the diffuse red deposits, which are simply dark in the Voyager colors, appear to be associated with recent and/or ongoing volcanic activity. The three calderas range in size from approximately 100 kilometers to approximately 150 kilometers in diameter. The caldera in the lower right of each frame is named Malik. North is to the top of all frames.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. sanghoon moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. SANGHOON MOON. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 1041-1046 Research article. Genome-based exome sequencing analysis identifies GYG1, DIS3L and DDRGK1 are associated with myocardial infarction in Koreans · JI-YOUNG LEE ...

  4. Grabens on Io: Evidence for Extensional Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.

    2012-12-01

    Io may well be the most geologically active body in the solar system. A variety of volcanic features have been identified, including a few fissure eruptions, but tectonism is generally assumed to be limited to compression driven mountain formation (Schenk et al., 2001). A wide range of structural features can also be identified including scarps, lineaments, faults, and circular depressions (pits and patera rims). Narrow curvilinear graben (elongated, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults on its sides) are also scattered across Io's volcanic plains. These features are dwarfed by the more prominent neighboring volcanoes and mountains, and have been largely ignored in the literature. Although they are likely to be extensional in origin, their relationship to local or global stress fields is unknown. We have mapped the locations, length and width of graben on Io using all available Voyager and Galileo images with a resolution better than 5 km. We compare the locations of graben with existing volcanic centers, paterae and mountain data to determine the degree of correlation between these geologic features and major topographic variations (basins/swells) in our global topographic map of Io (White et al., 2011). Graben are best observed in > 1-2 km low-sun angle images. Approximately 300 images were converted from ISIS to ArcMap format to allow easy comparison with the geological map of Io (Williams et al., 2012) along with previous higher resolution structural mapping of local areas (e.g. Crown et al., 1992). We have located >45 graben to date. Typically 1-3 kilometers across, some of these features can stretch for over 500 kilometers in length. Their formation may be related to global tidal stresses or local deformation. Io's orbit is eccentric and its solid surface experiences daily tides of up to ˜0.1 km, leading to repetitive surface strains of 10-4 or greater. These tides flex and stress the lithosphere and can cause it to fracture

  5. Pele Plume Deposit on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The varied effects of Ionian volcanism can be seen in this false color infrared composite image of Io's trailing hemisphere. Low resolution color data from Galileo's first orbit (June, 1996) have been combined with a higher resolution clear filter picture taken on the third orbit (November, 1996) of the spacecraft around Jupiter.A diffuse ring of bright red material encircles Pele, the site of an ongoing, high velocity volcanic eruption. Pele's plume is nearly invisible, except in back-lit photographs, but its deposits indicate energetic ejection of sulfurous materials out to distances more than 600 kilometers from the central vent. Another bright red deposit lies adjacent to Marduk, also a currently active ediface. High temperature hot spots have been detected at both these locations, due to the eruption of molten material in lava flows or lava lakes. Bright red deposits on Io darken and disappear within years or decades of deposition, so the presence of bright red materials marks the sites of recent volcanism.This composite was created from data obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The region imaged is centered on 15 degrees South, 224 degrees West, and is almost 2400 kilometers across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3 kilometers across. North is towards the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the west.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Magmatism on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  7. NIMS Observation of Hotspots on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Io has been imaged by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on Galileo. The image on the right shows for the first time the distribution of volcanic hotspots on the surface of Io, as seen by NIMS. Three of these hotspots are new discoveries, only detectable with the NIMS instrument. This image was taken during the G1 encounter on June 29 1996. The image on the left shows the same view of Io as seen by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979. At least one dozen hotspots have been identified from this NIMS image. Most of the hotspot locations can be matched with volcanic features on the surface of Io, including the vent area of the active Prometheus plume.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The

  9. GO JUP POS GLL TRAJECTORY MOON CENTERED COORDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Galileo trajectory data in moon (Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto) centered coordinates for all of the near satellite encounters....

  10. NIMS: hotspots on Io during G2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 7 September 1996. This image shows (on the right) Io as seen in the infrared by NIMS. The image on the left shows the same view from Voyager in 1979. This NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS images from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The NIMS image is at 4.9 microns, showing thermal emissions from the hotspots. The brightness of the pixels is a function of size and temperature.At least 10 hotspots have been identified and can be matched with surface features. An accurate determination of the position of the hotspot in the vicinity of Shamash Patera is pending. Hotspots are seen in the vicinity of Prometheus, Volund and Marduk, all sites of volcanic plume activity during the Galileo encounters, and also of active plumes in 1979. Temperatures and areas have been calculated for the hotspots shown. Temperatures range from 828 K (1031 F) to 210 K (- 81.4 F). The lowest temperature is significantly higher than the Io background (non-hotspot) surface temperature of about 100 K (-279 F). Hotspot areas range from 6.5 square km (2.5 sq miles) to 40,000 sq km (15,400 sq miles). The hottest hotspots have smallest areas, and the cooler hotspots have the largest areas. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.The Galileo mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  11. Galileo SSI Observations of Io During Orbits C30 I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Jaeger, W.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    New Galileo SSI imaging of Io from orbits C30 I33 will be presented. The aging Galileo spacecraft continues to produce spectacular new results, including the tallest volcanic plume yet found on Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Dating the Moon: Teaching Lunar Stratigraphy and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edward; Bell, Randy

    2013-01-01

    As our closest celestial neighbor, the Moon is a familiar and inspiring object to investigate using a small telescope, binoculars, or even photographs or one of the many high quality maps available online. The wondrously varied surface of the Moon--filled with craters, mountains, volcanic flows, scarps, and rilles--makes the Moon an excellent…

  13. The Structure and Composition of Io's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W. H.; Marconi, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Io's atmosphere is thought to be generated principally by sublimation on the dayside and by multiple volcanoes scattered throughout its surface and more concentrated near the equator. While SO2 seems to be the principle product of these sources, many other chemical species are placed into the atmosphere by these sources, including substantial amounts of SO and S2 as well as smaller but observationally significant amounts of Na bearing molecules. These species in turn interact strongly with the torus plasma generating additional species such as O2, S, O, and Na. The strong interaction of the torus plasma with the neutral atmosphere not only exerts a profound effect on the composition of Io's atmosphere but also strongly affects the dynamics and thermodynamics of Io's atmosphere, particularly at higher altitudes. In addition, as Io orbits Jupiter, the change in location of the sublimation region and the eclipse of Io as it passes through Jupiter's shadow result in substantial variation in the atmosphere. A complex time-dependent three-dimensional atmosphere with strong spatial compositional variation is created. Here we extend the two-dimensional multispecies Navier-Stokes model of Smyth and Wong (2004) to three-dimensions, include two volcanic sources similar to Pele and Loki, and include the effect of Io's movement around Jupiter on sublimation. The effects of the torus plasma are also included as in Smyth and Wong. We will present the overall composition and structure of the atmosphere, O to S ratios in the upper atmosphere, and discuss a potential issue with the O2 abundance. Smyth, W.H. and M.C. Wong, Icarus 171, 171-182, 2004.

  14. FIRE - Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounters: A conceptual design for a New Frontiers mission to Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Terry-Ann; Padovan, Sebastiano; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Shkolyar, Svetlana; Cable, Morgan; Walker, Catherine; Szalay, Jamey; Parker, Charles; Cumbers, John; Gentry, Diana; Harrison, Tanya; Naidu, Shantanu; Trammell, Harold J.; Reimuller, Jason; Budney, Charles J.; Lowes, Leslie L.

    2017-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a low complexity, heritage-based flyby mission to Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite and the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. The design addresses the 2011 Decadal Survey's recommendation for a New Frontiers class mission to Io and is based upon the result of the June 2012 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. A science payload is proposed to investigate the link between the structure of Io's interior, its volcanic activity, its surface composition, and its tectonics. A study of Io's atmospheric processes and Io's role in the Jovian magnetosphere is also planned. The instrument suite includes a visible/near-IR imager, a magnetic field and plasma suite, a dust analyzer, and a gimbaled high gain antenna to perform radio science. Payload activity and spacecraft operations would be powered by three Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG). The primary mission includes 10 flybys with close-encounter altitudes as low as 100 km. The mission risks are mitigated by ensuring that relevant components are radiation tolerant and by using redundancy and flight-proven parts in the design. The spacecraft would be launched on an Atlas V rocket with a delta-v of 1.3 km/s. Three gravity assists (Venus, Earth, Earth) would be used to reach the Jupiter system in a 6-year cruise. The resulting concept demonstrates the rich scientific return of a flyby mission to Io.

  15. On possible life on Jupiter's satellite Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Some of the satellites of Jupiter may well be suitable both for mastering, and for finding possible traces of life there. Among them such satellite like Io - nearest Galilean satellite of Jupiter, and one of the most volcanically active bodies in the solar system. Warming of the mantle is caused by a powerful tidal force from the side of Jupiter. This leads to the heating of some parts of the mantle to a temperature above 1800 K, with an average surface temperature of about 140 K. But under its surface can be safe and even comfortable shelters, where life could once have come from the outside (even in a very primitive form), and could survive to this day. Moreover, according to some model's assumptions, Io could sometime be formed in another part of the Solar system, where the water could exist. Note that on neighboring Galilean satellites now exist significant amounts of water .

  16. IOs as Social Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Susan M.; Vetterlein, Antje

    Norms research has made significant inroads into examining their emergence and influence in international relations, while recognizing international organizations (IOs) as key social sites for norms to be created and/or disseminated. This paper interrogates how IOs as “organizational platforms......” (Finnemore 1996) influence the norm building process. Going beyond state-centric approaches to norm construction, it argues that the process of taking up a norm by an IO does affect the norm’s power. A norm’s strength is determined by the extent to which it is uncontested and taken for granted as appropriate...... the norm building process in this way provides insight into the effect of IOs as social sites in strengthening a norm....

  17. Juno-UVS observation of the Io footprint: Influence of Io's local environment and passage into eclipse on the strength of the interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, V.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Versteeg, M.; Bonfond, B.; Saur, J.; Davis, M. W.; Roth, L.; Grodent, D. C.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Kammer, J.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Juno mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to study Jupiter, from its internal structure to its magnetospheric environment. Juno-UVS is a UV spectrograph with a bandpass of 70vantage point above the poles. In particular, UVS has observed the instantaneous Io footprint and extended tail as Io enters into eclipse. This observation may better constrain whether the atmosphere of Io is sustained via volcanic activity or sublimation. Among other processes, the modulation of Io's footprint brightness correlates to the strength of the interaction between the Io plasma torus and its ionosphere, which, in turn, is likely to be affected by the atmospheric collapse. UVS observed the Io footprint during two eclipses that occurred on PJ1 and PJ3, and one additional eclipse observation is planned during PJ9 (24 Oct. 2017). We present how the electrodynamic coupling between Io and Jupiter is influenced by changes in Io's local environment, e.g. Io's passage in and out of eclipse and Io's traverse of the magnetodisc plasma sheet.

  18. Volcanic Flooding Experiments in Impact Basins and Heavily Cratered Terrain Using LOLA Data: Patterns of Resurfacing and Crater Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial planetary bodies are characterized by extensive, largely volcanic deposits covering their surfaces. On Earth large igneous provinces (LIPs) abound, maria cover the nearside of the Moon, and volcanic plains cover large portions of Venus, Mars and Mercury.

  19. Art on the Moon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Rosemary; Minch, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Manuel Minch launched Internet Moon Gallery in 2016 with the intention of exploring new modes of creating and engaging with digital art. This article is the result of a collaborative conversation between Manuel Minch and Rosemary Lee, which has evolved from their work together on the exhibition...... “Memory Palace”, launched on Internet Moon Gallery on the full moon, May 2017....

  20. FabIO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Sørensen, Henning O.; Wright, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    FabIO is a Python module written for easy and transparent reading of raw two-dimensional data from various X-ray detectors. The module provides a function for reading any image and returning a fabioimage object which contains both metadata (header information) and the raw data. All fabioimage...

  1. Volcanogenic Sulfur on Earth and Io: Composition and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J.S.; Delmelle, P.; Nash, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The causes of Io's variegated surface, especially the roles of sulfur, and the geochemical history of sulfur compounds on Io are not well understood. Suspecting that minor impurities in sulfur might be important, we have investigated the major and trace element chemistry and spectroscopic reflectance of natural sulfur from a variety of terrestrial volcanic-hydrothermal environments. Evidence suggests that Io may be substantially coated with impure sulfur. On Earth, a few tenths of a percent to a few percent of chalcophile trace elements (e.g., As and Se) comonly occur in sulfur and appear to stabilize material of yellow, brown, orange, and red hues, which may persist even at low temperatures. Percentage levels of chalcophile impurities are reasonably expected to occur on Io in vapor sublimate deposits and flows derived from such deposits. Such impurities join a host of other mechanisms that might explain Io's reds and yellows. Two-tenths to two percent opaque crystalline impurities, particularly pyrite (FeS2), commonly produces green, gray, and black volcanic sulfur on Earth and might explain areas of Io having deposits of these colors. Pyrite produces a broad absorption near 1 ??m that gradually diminishes out to 1.6 ??m - similar but not identical to the spectrum of Io seen in Galileo NIMS data. Percentage amounts of carbonaceous impurities and tens of percent SiO2 (as silicates) also strongly affect the spectral properties of Earth's sulfur. Io's broad absorption between 0.52 and 0.64 ??m remains unexplained by these data but could be due to sodium sulfides, as suggested previously by others, or to As, Se, or other impurities. These impurities and others, such as P and Cl (which could exist on Io's surface in amounts over 1% that of sulfur), greatly alter the molecular structure of molten and solid sulfur. Minor impurities could impact Io's geology, such as the morphology of sulfur lava flows and the ability of sulfur to sustain high relief. We have not found

  2. IoT gateway architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Leleika, Paulius

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of HTTP, CoAP, AMQP, DDS, MQTT, XMPP communication protocols. The main IoT problem is that IoT devices uses many different communication protocols and devices cannot communicate with each other directly. IoT gateway helps to solve that problem. This paper also identifies requirements for IoT gateway software. Provides solution for communication between devices which are using different messaging architectures. Presents security aspects and ways to secure IoT ga...

  3. Production Function of Outgassed Volatiles on Mercury: Implications for Polar Volatiles on Mercury and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, A. N.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    We are interested in the flux of volatiles delivered to the polar regions of Mercury and the Moon through time. We integrate the production functions for volatile delivery from impacts, solar wind, and volcanism, which we focus on initially.

  4. Discovery of gaseous S2 in Io's Pele plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J R; Jessup, K L; McGrath, M A; Ballester, G E; Yelle, R

    2000-05-19

    Spectroscopy of Io's Pele plume against Jupiter by the Hubble Space Telescope in October 1999 revealed absorption due to S2 gas, with a column density of 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(16) per square centimeter, and probably also SO(2) gas with a column density of 7 +/- 3 x 10(16) per square centimeter. This SO2/S2 ratio (3 to 12) is expected from equilibration with silicate magmas near the quartz-fayalite-magnetite or wüstite-magnetite buffers. Condensed S3 and S4, probable coloring agents in Pele's red plume deposits, may form by polymerization of the S2, which is unstable to ultraviolet photolysis. Diffuse red deposits near other Io volcanoes suggest that venting and polymerization of S2 gas is a widespread feature of Io volcanism.

  5. Evidence of a global magma ocean in Io's interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Krishan K; Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G; Nimmo, Francis; Schubert, Gerald; Russell, Christopher T

    2011-06-03

    Extensive volcanism and high-temperature lavas hint at a global magma reservoir in Io, but no direct evidence has been available. We exploited Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a sounding signal and show that the magnetometer data collected by the Galileo spacecraft near Io provide evidence of electromagnetic induction from a global conducting layer. We demonstrate that a completely solid mantle provides insufficient response to explain the magnetometer observations, but a global subsurface magma layer with a thickness of over 50 kilometers and a rock melt fraction of 20% or more is fully consistent with the observations. We also place a stronger upper limit of about 110 nanoteslas (surface equatorial field) on the dynamo dipolar field generated inside Io.

  6. IO and OI. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1978-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper (J. Comput. System Sci. 15, Number 3 (1977)) we presented a fixed point characterization of the (IO and OI) context-free tree languages. We showed that a context-free tree grammar can be viewed as a system of regular equations over a tree language substitution algebra. In ....... In this part we shall use these results to obtain a theory of systems of context-free equations over arbitrary continuous algebras. We refer to the Introduction of Part 1 for a description of the contents of this part.......In Part 1 of this paper (J. Comput. System Sci. 15, Number 3 (1977)) we presented a fixed point characterization of the (IO and OI) context-free tree languages. We showed that a context-free tree grammar can be viewed as a system of regular equations over a tree language substitution algebra...

  7. NIMS: hotspots on Io during G2 (continued)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is another Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) image of Io, taken during the G2 encounter in September 1996. This is a dayside image of Io (on the right) against the clouds of Jupiter (the blue background). On the left is a Voyager mosaic of Io with the same viewing geometry for comparison purposes. This NIMS data set has been processed to highlight the positions of hot spots on the surface of Io. At least 11 can be seen. Two of the hotspots are newly discovered by the NIMS instrument. Others correspond to sites of plume eruptions and volcanic calderas and volcanic flows. This image can be compared with the SSI image P-47971 released on October 23, 1996, which was taken almost exactly the same position.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Comparing the Atmospheric Losses at Io and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, V. J.; Bagenal, F.; Crary, F. J.; Cassidy, T.

    2017-12-01

    At Io and Europa, the interaction of the Jovian plasma with the moon atmosphere leads to a significant loss of atomic/molecular neutrals and ions to space. The processes that lead to atmospheric escape are diverse: atmospheric sputtering, molecular dissociation, molecular ion recombination, Jeans escape etc. Each process leads to neutrals escaping at different velocities (i.e. electron impact dissociation leads to very slow atomic neutrals, sputtering might eject faster molecular neutrals). Some neutrals will be ejected out of the Jovian system; others will form extended neutral clouds along the orbit of the moons. These atomic/molecular extended neutral clouds are probably the main source of plasma for the Jovian magnetosphere. They are difficult to observe directly thus their composition and density are still poorly constrained. A future modeling of the formation of these extended clouds requires an estimate of their atmospheric sources. We estimate the atmospheric losses at Io and Europa for each loss process with a multi-species chemistry model, using a prescribed atmospheric distribution consistent with the observations. We compare the neutral losses at Io and Europa.

  9. Java I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Harold, Elliotte Rusty

    2006-01-01

    All of Java's Input/Output (I/O) facilities are based on streams, which provide simple ways to read and write data of different types. Java provides many different kinds of streams, each with its own application. The universe of streams is divided into four largecategories: input streams and output streams, for reading and writing binary data; and readers and writers, for reading and writing textual (character) data. You're almost certainly familiar with the basic kinds of streams--but did you know that there's a CipherInputStream for reading encrypted data? And a ZipOutputStream for automati

  10. Using a 2D Model of the Io Plasma Torus to Investigate the Effects of Density Variations on the Morphology and Intensity of the Io Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, A. P.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Bonfond, B.; Crary, F.

    2012-12-01

    Io is the primary source of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere, continuously releasing approximately 1 ton/s of SO2 from volcanic eruptions. The interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the density structure of the resulting plasma torus and the position of Io relative to the center of the torus [Bonfond et al. 2008]. This unusual interaction produces a complex auroral feature on Jupiter's ionosphere known as the Io footprint. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter's far-UV aurora during spring 2007 showed an increased number of isolated auroral blobs along with a continuous expansion of Jupiter's main auroral oval over a few months. These blobs were associated with several large injections of hot plasma between 9 and 27 Jovian radii. These events coincided with a large volcanic eruption of the Tvashtar Paterae on Io, as observed by the New Horizons spacecraft [Spencer et al., 2007]. This, in turn, may have resulted in a significant increase in the plasma torus density. Besides, on June 7th, 2007, the Io footprint momentarily became so faint that it disappeared under a diffuse patch of emission remaining from an injection blob [Bonfond et al., 2012]. The goal of the present study is to examine the relationship between the increased density of the plasma torus and the dimming of the Io footprint. We implement a 2D model of the Io plasma torus that treats the variable-density torus as being composed of discrete layers of uniform density. As the co-rotating plasma in the plasma torus impinges on Io, Alfvén waves are launched at a pushback angle obtained from Gurnett and Goertz [1981]. The waves propagate inside the plasma torus through reflection and refraction at density discontinuities where they lose some of their initial energy. Using the above model, we can track the Alfvén wave fronts in the plasma torus and determine the longitude at which they exit the torus along with the corresponding remaining energy. Since

  11. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  12. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  13. Radial and azimuthal distribution of Io's oxygen neutral cloud observed by Hisaki/EXCEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, R.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoneda, M.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kimura, T.; Smith, H. T.

    2017-12-01

    We report the spatial distributions of oxygen neural cloud surrounding Jupiter's moon Io and along Io's orbit observed by the HISAKI satellite. Atomic oxygen and sulfur in Io's atmosphere escape from the exobase and move to corona ( 5.8 Io radii) mainly due to atmospheric sputtering. Io plasma torus is formed by ionization of these atoms by electron impact and charge exchange processes. It is essential to examine the dominant source of Io plasma torus, particularly in the vicinity of Io (5.8 Io radii; extended neutral clouds). The spatial distribution of oxygen and sulfur neutral clouds is important to understand the source. The extreme ultraviolet spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) installed on the Hisaki satellite observed Io plasma torus continuously in 2014-2015, and we carried out the monitoring of the distribution of atomic oxygen emission at 130.4 nm. The emission averaged over the distance range of 4.5-6.5 Jovian radii on the dawn and dusk sides strongly depends on the Io phase angle (IPA), and has a emission peak between IPA of 60-90 degrees on the dawn side, and between 240-270 degrees on the dusk side, respectively. It also shows the asymmetry with respect to Io's position: the intensity averaged for IPA 60-90 degrees (13.3 Rayleighs (R)) is 1.2 times greater than that for IPA 90-120 degrees (11.1 R) on the dawn side. The similar tendency is found on the dusk side. Weak atomic oxygen emission (4 R) uniformly distributes in every IPA. We also examined the radial distribution of the oxygen neutral cloud during the same period and found the emission peak near Io's orbit with decreasing the intensity toward 8.0 Jupiter radii. The results show the high density component of the oxygen neutral cloud is concentrated around Io and extends mainly toward leading side of Io. In addition, the low density neutrals uniformly exist along Io's orbit. Both components extend radially outward up to 8 Jovian radii with

  14. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  15. Two Decades (almost) of Keck Observations of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Davies, A. G.; de Kleer, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have regularly observed Io with the 10-m Keck Telescope since 1998, initially using the speckle imaging technique, and switching to Adaptive Optics techniques when this became available in 2001. In this talk we will discuss several eruptions that we witnessed, and present 20-30 year timelines of thermal emission from Pele, Pillan, Janus Patera, Kanehekili Fluctus, and Loki Patera, updating timelines in recent publications [1, 2] with additional Keck adaptive optics data obtained between 2002 and 2015. These new timelines are the most comprehensive plots ever produced of the volcanic thermal emission variability for these or any other locations on Io, utilizing data from multiple ground- and space-based assets. Our continuing multi-decadal observing program forms the basis for charting the variability of Io's volcanic activity, of great importance for understanding the evolution of the Galilean satellite system, and with the expectation of new missions to the jovian system in the next decade. Acknowledgements: This research is in part supported by NSF grant AST-1313485 to UC Berkeley. AGD is supported by a grant from the NASA OPR Program. References: [1] Davies et al. (2012) Icarus, 221, 466-470. [2] Rathbun and Spencer (2010) Icarus, 209, 625-630.

  16. Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.

  17. Plutonian Moon confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late February, two separate observations confirmed the 1978 discovery by U.S. Naval Observatory scientist James W. Christy of a moon orbiting the planet Pluto. According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, these two observations were needed before the International Astronomical Society (IAS) would officially recognize the discovery.Two types of observations of the moon, which was named Charon after the ferryman in Greek mythology who carried the dead to Pluto's realm, were needed for confirmation: a transit, in which the moon passes in front of Pluto, and an occultation, in which the moon passes behind the planet. These two phenomena occur only during an 8-year period every 124 years that had been calculated to take place during 1984-1985. Both events were observed in late February.

  18. Moon nature and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Long before a rocket hit the Man in the Moon in the eye in Georges Méliès's early film Le Voyage dans la Lune, the earth's lone satellite had entranced humans. We have worshipped it as a deity, believed it to cause madness, used it as a means of organizing time, and we now know that it manipulates the tides-our understanding of the moon continues to evolve. Following the moon from its origins to its rich cultural resonance in literature, art, religion, and politics, Moon provides a comprehensive account of the significance of our lunar companion. Edgar Williams explores the interdependence of

  19. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  20. Surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Phillips, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.

    2004-01-01

    A careful survey of Galileo SSI global monitoring images revealed more than 80 apparent surface changes that took place on Io during the 5 year period of observation, ranging from giant plume deposits to subtle changes in the color or albedo of Patera surfaces. Explosive volcanic activity was discovered at four previously unrecognized centers: an unnamed patera to the south of Karei that produced a Pele-sized red ring, a patera to the west of Zal that produced a small circular bright deposit, a large orange ring detected near the north pole of Io, and a small bright ring near Io's south pole. Only a handful of Io's many active volcanoes produced large scale explosive eruptions, and several of these erupted repeatedly, leaving at least 83% of Io's surface unaltered throughout the Galileo mission. Most of the hot spots detected from SSI, NIMS and ground-based thermal observations caused no noticeable surface changes greater than 10 km in extent over the five year period. Surface changes were found at every location where active plumes were identified, including Acala which was never seen in sunlight and was only detected through auroral emissions during eclipse. Two types of plumes are distinguished on the basis of the size and color of their deposits, confirming post-Voyager suggestions by McEwen and Soderblom [Icarus 55 (1983) 191]. Smaller plumes produce near-circular rings typically 150-200 km in radius that are white or yellow in color unless contaminated with silicates, and frequently coat their surroundings with frosts of fine-grained SO2. The larger plumes are much less numerous, limited to a half dozen examples, and produce oval, orange or red, sulfur-rich rings with maximum radii in the north-south direction that are typically in the range from 500 to 550 km. Both types of plumes can be either episodic or quasi-continuous over a five year period. Repeated eruptions of the smaller SO2-rich plumes likely contribute significantly to Io's resurfacing rate

  1. Structure of the moon's surface

    CERN Document Server

    Fielder, Gilbert

    1961-01-01

    Structure of the Moon's Surface aims to assemble and marshal relevant matter, and to produce a largely unprejudiced text which brings lunar studies up to date and stresses the importance of certain features of the Moon which have frequently been disregarded in the past, largely because of lack of knowledge about them. The book contains 14 chapters organized into two parts. Part I reviews and summarizes important physical problems. These include the liberations of the moon; height determinations of points of the moon's surface; the figure of the moon; and the moon's temperature and atmosphere.

  2. Moons a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2015-01-01

    Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.

  3. The Tethered Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Dubrovolskis, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moonforming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean1,2. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000- 4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down. A 2nd initial condition is a substantial atmosphere, 100-1000 bars of H2O and CO2, supplemented by smaller amounts of CO, H2, N2, various sulfur-containing gases, and a suite of geochemical volatiles evaporated from the magma. Third, we start the Moon with its current mass at the relevant Roche limit. The 4th initial condition is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Canonical models hold this constant, whilst some recent models begin with considerably more angular momentum than is present today. Here we present a ruthlessly simplified model of Earth's cooling magmasphere based on a full-featured atmosphere and including tidal heating by the newborn Moon. Thermal blanketing by H2O-CO2 atmospheres slows cooling of a magma ocean. Geochemical volatiles - chiefly S, Na, and Cl - raise the opacity of the magma ocean's atmosphere and slow cooling still more. We assume a uniform mantle with a single internal (potential) temperature and a global viscosity. The important "freezing point" is the sharp rheological transition between a fluid carrying suspended crystals and a solid matrix through which fluids percolate. Most tidal heating takes place at this "freezing point" in a gel that is both pliable and viscous. Parameterized convection links the cooling rate to the temperature and heat generation inside the Earth. Tidal heating is a major effect. Tidal dissipation in the magma ocean is described by viscosity. The Moon is entwined with Earth by the negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate

  4. Turning Internet of Things(IoT) into Internet of Vulnerabilities (IoV) : IoT Botnets

    OpenAIRE

    Angrishi, Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is the next big evolutionary step in the world of internet. The main intention behind the IoT is to enable safer living and risk mitigation on different levels of life. With the advent of IoT botnets, the view towards IoT devices has changed from enabler of enhanced living into Internet of vulnerabilities for cyber criminals. IoT botnets has exposed two different glaring issues, 1) A large number of IoT devices are accessible over public Internet. 2) Security (if cons...

  5. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A

  6. The Moon Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  7. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The

  8. The moon's origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, P.; Benz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Planet formation theory is recalled. The different existing hypothesis on the moon's origins are reviewed also to see how much they are compatible with the planet formation theory. Up to now, the giant impact model seems to be the only model to satisfy all the constraints. Computerized simulation results have been presented in colloquiums and their scenarios are recalled [fr

  9. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  10. iOS 6 foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    A practical introduction for using iOS 6 to create universal apps If you have prior experience programming in an object-oriented language and are eager to start building universal apps for iPad and iPhone (including the iPod touch), then this is the book for you! Using the latest version of iOS (iOS 6) along with the latest version of Xcode (Xcode 4.5), this book is a practical introduction rather than just a catalog of components. Full-color and packed with groundbreaking, innovative designs, this book teaches you how to create eye-catching, unique apps. Teaches you the va

  11. Experience the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  12. Earthlike planets: Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, earth, moon, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.; Malin, M. C.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The surfaces of the earth and the other terrestrial planets of the inner solar system are reviewed in light of the results of recent planetary explorations. Past and current views of the origin of the earth, moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars are discussed, and the surface features characteristic of the moon, Mercury, Mars and Venus are outlined. Mechanisms for the modification of planetary surfaces by external factors and from within the planet are examined, including surface cycles, meteoritic impact, gravity, wind, plate tectonics, volcanism and crustal deformation. The origin and evolution of the moon are discussed on the basis of the Apollo results, and current knowledge of Mercury and Mars is examined in detail. Finally, the middle periods in the history of the terrestrial planets are compared, and future prospects for the exploration of the inner planets as well as other rocky bodies in the solar system are discussed.

  13. Moon-bevægelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, René Dybdal

    2014-01-01

    Moon-bevægelsen er det populære navn for religionen "Family Federation for World peace and Unification", som også tidligere kaldte sig "Unification Church". Moon-bevægelsen ser sig selv som den sande kristne kirke. Til forskel fra mange andre kristne kirker mener Moon-bevægelsen, at Gud ønskede...

  14. Rutes amb iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nofuentes Azcárate, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Projecte de l'implementació d'una aplicació per registrar i gestionar recorreguts basada al sistema operatiu iOS amb la possibilitat de sincronitzar amb un servei web sobre la plataforma Google App Engine. Proyecto de implementación de una aplicación para registrar y gestionar recorridos basada en el sistema operativo iOS con la posibilidad de sincronizar con un servicio web sobre la plataforma Google App Engine. Implementation project for an application to record and manage routes, bas...

  15. iOS 5 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    Each chapter will take you through a new major feature of iOS 5. You will learn how to integrate each feature into your applications. If you ever wanted to learn about the latest features of iOS 5 and learn how to incorporate Twitter, iCloud and Core Image framework effects functionality into your applications, then this book is for you. You should have a good knowledge of programming experience with Objective-C, and have used Xcode 4. iPhone programming experience is not required.

  16. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  17. Moons Around Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space

  18. Students versus IoT Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    What happens when you introduce students to IoT security for the first time? In this talk I will tell you about my first experience with IoT Security and the thought process behind the decisions I made.

  19. Dangoraižio projektavimo ypatumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Volvačiovas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Santrauka. Straipsnyje išskiriami pagrindiniai dangoraižio įgyvendinimo ir gyvavimo etapai, aptariamas dangoraižio projektavimo etapas, dangoraižio techninio projekto (TP ir darbo projekto (DP sudėtis, išskiriamos pagrindinės dangoraižių problemos, iškylančios projektavimo etape, ir pateikiami sprendimo būdai.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  20. IOS SAFETY APPLICATION FOR UITM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD FAHMI HUSSIN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iOS application, which is developed, to ensure that every task related to safety and health such as inspection, deviation analysis and accident reporting becomes more simple and easier. Normally, these three (3 tasks are done separately and the data are saved in different ways. These situations make the tasks become complicated and consume a lot of time. Therefore, this application is developed to overcome all the problems that occurred. The main objective of this application is to allow the user to handle inspection checklist, deviation analysis and accident reporting efficiently by using iOS devices such as iPhone and iPad. Hence, using iOS device, instead of using a lot of paper, can do all the tasks. Using Xcode SDK, which is the software that is used to develop iOS application, developed this application. Xcode use Objective-C as the programming language, which is quite similar with other programming languages such as C and C++. The final result of this project is that this application can handle all the three (3 tasks and the form or the findings can be emailed to the Safety and Health Officer (SHO. This application will reduce time consume to conduct safety inspection, deviation and reporting tasks as well as avoid delay that might happen while using the traditional method.

  1. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  2. Exploring the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2008-01-01

    David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which ''soft landed'' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 in terms of what was discovered, and how over the next several missions the program was progressively geared up to enable the final three missions each to spend three days on comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. Although aimed at the enthusiast, and can be read as an adventure in exploration, the book develops the scientific theme of lunar geology, and therefore will be of use as background reading for undergraduate students of planetary sciences. In addition, with the prospect of a resumption of human missions, it will help journalists understand what Apollo achieved ...

  3. DSMC Simulations of Irregular Source Geometries for Io's Pele Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.; Buchta, D. A.; Freund, J.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2010-10-01

    Volcanic plumes on Io represent a complex rarefied flow into a near-vacuum in the presence of gravity. A 3D rarefied gas dynamics method (DSMC) is used to investigate the gas dynamics of such plumes, with a focus on the effects of source geometry on far-field deposition patterns. These deposition patterns, such as the deposition ring's shape and orientation, as well as the presence and shape of ash deposits around the vent, are linked to the shape of the vent from which the plume material arises. We will present three-dimensional simulations for a variety of possible vent geometries for Pele based on observations of the volcano's caldera. One is a curved line source corresponding to a Galileo IR image of a particularly hot region in the volcano's caldera and the other is a large area source corresponding to the entire lava lake at the center of the plume. The curvature of the former is seen to be sufficient to produce the features seen in observations of Pele's deposition pattern, but the particular orientation of the source is found to be such that it cannot match the orientation of these features on Io's surface. The latter corrects the error in orientation while losing some of the structure, suggesting that the actual source may correspond well with part of the shore of the lava lake. In addition, we are collaborating with a group at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to develop a hybrid method to link the continuum flow beneath Io's surface and very close to the vent to the more rarefied flow in the large volcanic plumes. This work was funded by NASA-PATM grant NNX08AE72G.

  4. uFlip: Understanding Flash IO Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouganim, Luc; Jonsson, Bjørn; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    want to establish what kind of IOs should be favored (or avoided) when designing algorithms and architectures for flash-based systems. In this paper, we focus on flash IO patterns, that capture relevant distribution of IOs in time and space, and our goal is to quantify their performance. We define uFLIP...

  5. The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) for NASA Discovery 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    , which minimizes total ionizing radiation dose compared to other Jupiter orbiters (120°), best to detect and monitor volcanic plumes as well as high-temperature hot spots on Io. Four of the encounters are designed for optimal measurement of induced magnetic signature from mantle melt. IVO will collect at least 20 Gb of science data per encounter: 100 times the Io data from the 8-year Galileo tour. Encounters last ~1 week, including global monitoring and four Io eclipses, with distant monitoring and data playback near apojove. I8 includes a flythrough of Pele's plume, if it is active, for gas composition. IVO team: F. Bagenal, S. Bailey, S. Barabash, J. Boldt, D. Breuer, A. Davies, I. de Pater, K.-H. Glassmeier, C. Hamilton, J. Helbert, R. Heyd, D. Heyner, K. Hibbard, S. Hörst, D. Humm, L. Iess, X. Jia, L. Kestay, K. Khurana, R. Kirk, R. Lorenz, J. Moses, O. Mousis, F. Nimmo, S. Osterman, C. Paranicas, C. Parker, J. Perry, E. Reynolds, A. Showman, B. Spence, J. Spencer, T. Spohn, S. Sutton, N. Thomas, M. Wieser, P. Wurz.

  6. Lunar cryptomaria: Physical characteristics, distribution, and implications for ancient volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Cryptomaria, lunar volcanic deposits obscured by crater and basin impact ejecta, can provide important information about the thermal and volcanic history of the Moon. The timing of cryptomare deposition has implications for the duration and flux of mare basalt volcanism. In addition, knowing the distribution of cryptomaria can provide information about mantle convection and lunar magma ocean solidification. Here we use multiple datasets (e.g., M3, LOLA, LROC, Diviner) to undertake a global analysis to identify the general characteristics (e.g., topography, surface roughness, rock abundance, albedo, etc.) of lunar light plains in order to better distinguish between ancient volcanic deposits (cryptomaria) and impact basin and crater ejecta deposits. We find 20 discrete regions of cryptomaria, covering approximately 2% of the Moon, which increase the total area covered by mare volcanism to 18% of the lunar surface. Comparisons of light plains deposits indicate that the two deposit types (volcanic and impact-produced) are best distinguished by mineralogic data. On the basis of cryptomaria locations, the distribution of mare volcanism does not appear to have changed in the time prior to its exposed mare basalt distribution. There are several hypotheses explaining the distribution of mare basalts, which include the influence of crustal thickness, mantle convection patterns, asymmetric distribution of source regions, KREEP distribution, and the influence of a proposed Procellarum impact basin. The paucity of farside mare basalts means that multiple factors, such as crustal thickness variations and mantle convection, are likely to play a role in mare basalt emplacement.

  7. Hotspots on Io During the Ganymede 2 Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 6 September 1996. This image shows, on the right, Io as seen by NIMS, centered on 150 W longitude. The image on the left shows the same view point from Voyager data (from the encounters in 1979 and 1980). The NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS hotspot image from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The most dramatic feature of the G2 image is the hotspot at Malik Patera. Preliminary analysis of the data yields a temperature of at least 1000 K (727 C) for this hotspot, an increase of more than 300 K from the G1 encounter. In the overlap area of the G1 and G2 images all the hotspots seen during the G1 encounter are also seen in the G2 image. Other hotspots were seen, including one at the Pele plume origin site. This image is at the 4 micron band to best view the Malik hotspot. Most of the other hotspots are best seen at longer wavelengths. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Thermal Remote Sensing of Lava Lakes on Io and Earth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanology has been transformed by remote sensing. For decades, Earth's volcanoes have been studied in the infrared by a wide variety of instruments on spacecraft at widely varying spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions, for which techniques have been developed to interpret and understand ongoing volcanic eruptions. The study of volcanism on Io, the only Solar System body besides Earth known to have ongoing, high temperature, silicate-based effusive and explosive volcanic eruptions, requires new remote sensing techniques. The extraordinary volcanism allows us to examine Io's interior and composition from the material erupted onto the surface. For Io, the biggest question in the wake of NASA's Galileo mission concerns the eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas [1,2]. Constraining eruption temperature constrains magma composition, in turn a reflection of the composition, physical state and tidal heating within Io. However, the extraction of lava eruption temperature from remote sensing data is difficult. Detector saturation is likely except when the hot material fills a tiny fraction of a resolution element, unless instruments are designed for this objective. High temperature lava surfaces cool rapidly, so remote observations can miss the peak temperature. Observations at different wavelengths must be acquired nearly simultaneously to derive accurate temperatures of very hot and dynamic sources [3]. Uncertainties regarding hot lava emissivity [4] also reduce the confidence in derived temperatures. From studying thermal emission data from different styles of volcanic activity on Earth by remote sensing in conjunction with contemporaneous observations on the ground, it is found that only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable for deriving liquid lava temperatures [3]. Active lava lakes are particularly useful, especially during a phase of lava fountaining. Examination and analysis of FLIR data obtained at the Erta'Ale (Ethiopia) basaltic

  9. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  10. On I/O Virtualization Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danciu, Vitalian A.; Metzker, Martin G.

    The quick adoption of virtualization technology in general and the advent of the Cloud business model entail new requirements on the structure and the configuration of back-end I/O systems. Several approaches to virtualization of I/O links are being introduced, which aim at implementing a more flexible I/O channel configuration without compromising performance. While previously the management of I/O devices could be limited to basic technical requirments (e.g. the establishment and termination of fixed-point links), the additional flexibility carries in its wake additional management requirements on the representation and control of I/O sub-systems.

  11. Eruptive behavior of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake, Vanuatu and comparisons with lava lakes on Earth and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Howell, Robert R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from field remote sensing of the morphology, kinematics and temperature of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake in the Vanuatu archipelago in 2014 reveal a highly active, vigorously erupting lava lake. Active degassing and fountaining observed at the 50 m lava lake led to large areas of fully exposed lavas and rapid ( 5 m/s) movement of lava from the centers of upwelling outwards to the lake margins. These rapid lava speeds precluded the formation of thick crust; there was never more than 30% non-translucent crust. The lava lake was observed with several portable, handheld, low-cost, near-infrared imagers, all of which measured temperatures near 1000 °C and one as high as 1022 °C, consistent with basaltic temperatures. Fine-scale structure in the lava fountains and cooled crust was visible in the near infrared at 5 cm/pixel from 300 m above the lake surface. The temperature distribution across the lake surface is much broader than at more quiescent lava lakes, peaking 850 °C, and is attributed to the highly exposed nature of the rapidly circulating lake. This lava lake has many characteristics in common with other active lava lakes, such as Erta Ale in Ethiopia, being confined, persistent and high-temperature; however it was much more active than is typical for Erta Ale, which often has > 90% crust. Furthermore, it is a good analogue for the persistent, high-temperature lava lakes contained within volcanic depressions on Jupiter's moon Io, such as Pele, also believed from spacecraft and ground-based observations to exhibit similar behavior of gas emission, rapid overturn and fountaining.

  12. When Moons Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufu, Raluca; Aharonson, Oded

    2017-10-01

    Impacts between two orbiting satellites is a natural consequence of Moon formation. Mergers between moonlets are especially important for the newly proposed multiple-impact hypothesis as these moonlets formed from different debris disks merge together to form the final Moon. However, this process is relevant also for the canonical giant impact, as previous work shows that multiple moonlets are formed from the same debris disk.The dynamics of impacts between two orbiting bodies is substantially different from previously heavily studied planetary-sized impacts. Firstly, the impact velocities are smaller and limited to, thus heating is limited. Secondly, both fragments have similar mass therefore, they would contribute similarly and substantially to the final satellite. Thirdly, this process can be more erosive than planetary impacts as the velocity of ejected material required to reach the mutual Hill sphere is smaller than the escape velocity, altering the merger efficiency. Previous simulations show that moonlets inherit different isotopic signatures from their primordial debris disk, depending on the parameters of the collision with the planet. We therefore, evaluate the degree of mixing in moonlet-moonlet collisions in the presence of a planetary gravitational field, using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Preliminary results show that the initial thermal state of the colliding moonlets has only a minor influence on the amount of mixing, compared to the effects of velocity and impact angle over their likely ranges. For equal mass bodies in accretionary collisions, impact angular momentum enhances mixing. In the hit-and-run regime, only small amounts of material are transferred between the bodies therefore mixing is limited. Overall, these impacts can impart enough energy to melt ~15-30% of the mantle extending the magma ocean phase of the final Moon.

  13. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  14. The final Galileo SSI observations of Io: Orbits G28-I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Radebaugh, J.; Milazzo, M.; Simonelli, D.P.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.A.; Perry, J.; Jaeger, W.L.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Denk, T.; Phillips, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the observations of Io acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment during the Galileo Millennium Mission (GMM) and the strategy we used to plan the exploration of Io. Despite Galileo's tight restrictions on data volume and downlink capability and several spacecraft and camera anomalies due to the intense radiation close to Jupiter, there were many successful SSI observations during GMM. Four giant, high-latitude plumes, including the largest plume ever observed on Io, were documented over a period of eight months; only faint evidence of such plumes had been seen since the Voyager 2 encounter, despite monitoring by Galileo during the previous five years. Moreover, the source of one of the plumes was Tvashtar Catena, demonstrating that a single site can exhibit remarkably diverse eruption styles - from a curtain of lava fountains, to extensive surface flows, and finally a ??? 400 km high plume - over a relatively short period of time (??? 13 months between orbits 125 and G29). Despite this substantial activity, no evidence of any truly new volcanic center was seen during the six years of Galileo observations. The recent observations also revealed details of mass wasting processes acting on Io. Slumping and landsliding dominate and occur in close proximity to each other, demonstrating spatial variation in material properties over distances of several kilometers. However, despite the ubiquitous evidence for mass wasting, the rate of volcanic resurfacing seems to dominate; the floors of paterae in proximity to mountains are generally free of debris. Finally, the highest resolution observations obtained during Galileo's final encounters with Io provided further evidence for a wide diversity of surface processes at work on Io. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. More Saturnian Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  16. Constructional Volcanic Edifices on Mercury: Candidates and Hypotheses of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jack; Rothery, David A.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury, a planet with a predominantly volcanic crust, has perplexingly few, if any, constructional volcanic edifices, despite their common occurrence on other solar system bodies with volcanic histories. Using image and topographical data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, we describe two small (Earth and the Moon. Though we cannot definitively conclude that these landforms are volcanic, the paucity of constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury is intriguing in itself. We suggest that this lack is because volcanic eruptions with sufficiently low eruption volumes, rates, and flow lengths, suitable for edifice construction, were highly spatiotemporally restricted during Mercury's geological history. We suggest that volcanic edifices may preferentially occur in association with late-stage, postimpact effusive volcanic deposits. The European Space Agency/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury will be able to investigate further our candidate volcanic edifices; search for other, as-yet unrecognized edifices beneath the detection limits of MESSENGER data; and test our hypothesis that edifice construction is favored by late-stage, low-volume effusive eruptions.

  17. Programming iOS 6

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Get a solid grounding in all the fundamentals of Cocoa Touch, and avoid problems during iPhone and iPad app development. With this revised and expanded edition, you'll dig into Cocoa and learn how to work effectively with Objective-C and Xcode. This book covers iOS 6 in a rigorous, orderly fashion-ideal whether you're approaching iOS for the first time or need a reference to bolster existing skills. Learn about features introduced with iOS 6, including Objective-C language advances, autosynthesis, autolayout, new view controller rotation rules, unwind segues, state restoration, styled text, and collection views. * Learn Objective-C language details and object-oriented programming concepts * Understand the anatomy of an Xcode project and all the stages of its lifecycle * Grasp key Cocoa concepts such as relationships between classes, receiving events, and model-view-controller architecture * Learn how views and layers are managed, drawn, composited, and animated * Become familiar with view controllers and thei...

  18. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  19. Age of meteorites, the Moon, the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikova, G.V.; Levskij, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Review of modern data on age determination of meteorites and lunar rocks and review of papers dedicted to calculations of the Earth age as well are given. Analysis of the age present values, obtained by different methods of isotopic dating has allowed to build up the global events following succession: ∼ 4.8x10 9 years ago - the beginning of dust component condensation within protosolar cloud; ∼ 4.55x10 9 year - the end of cosmic bodies accretion; (4.5-4.4)x10 9 years - differentiation of large planetray bodies (the Moon, the Mars, the Earth) with isolation of the bed type protocrust. Substance differentiation is not typical for solar system small bodies (asteroid-size bodies). Development of the magnetism of main composition (achondrites) on the surface of these bodies is their peculiarity. Both differentiation and basalt volcanism at early periods of cosmic bodies existance are initiated by exogenous factors. Duration of endogenous basalt volcanism correlates with planetary body size

  20. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  1. Securing IoT Devices at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    CERN has more than 1000 Internet of Things (IoT) devices, which are connected to the office network. We have been doing the research to find all vulnerable IoT devices in CERN and mitigated them. We are currently working on detecting IoT devices automatically and, moreover, identifying the manufacturer, model and the running firmware version. This will help the CERN Computer Security Team to spot vulnerable devices and to show the security risks associated with them.

  2. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  3. Shooting the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for

  4. The Brick Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  5. Saturn's Irregular Moon Ymir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2012-10-01

    Ymir (diameter 18 km), Saturn's second largest retrograde outer or irregular moon, has been observed six times by the Cassini narrow-angle camera (NAC) during the first 7 months in 2012. The observations span phase angles from 2° up to 102° and were taken at ranges between 15 and 18 million kilometers. From such a distance, Ymir is smaller than a pixel in the Cassini NAC. The data reveal a sidereal rotation period of 11.93 hrs, which is 1.6x longer than the previously reported value (Denk et al. 2011, EPSC/DPS #1452). Reason for this discrepancy is that the rotational light curve shows a rather uncommon 3-maxima and 3-minima shape at least in the phase angle range 50° to 100°, which was not recognizable in earlier data. The data cover several rotations from different viewing and illumination geometries and allow for a convex shape inversion with possibly a unique solution for the pole direction. The model reproduces the observed light curves to a very good accuracy without requiring albedo variegation, thereby suggesting that the lightcurve is dominated by the shape of Ymir. Among Saturn's irregular moons, the phenomenon of more than two maxima and minima at moderate to high phase angles is not unique to Ymir. At least Siarnaq and Paaliaq also show light curves with a strong deviation from a double-sine curve. Their rotation periods, however, remain unknown until more data can be taken. The light curve of Phoebe is fundamentally different to Ymir's because it is mainly shaped by local albedo differences and not by shape. Other reliable rotation periods of irregular satellites measured by Cassini include: Mundilfari 6.74 h; Kari 7.70 h; Albiorix 13.32 h; Kiviuq 21.82 h. More uncertain values are: Skathi 12 h; Bebhionn 16 h; Thrymr 27 h; Erriapus 28 h.

  6. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  7. Physics and astronomy of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Physics and Astronomy of the Moon focuses on the application of principles of physics in the study of the moon, including perturbations, equations, light scattering, and photometry. The selection first offers information on the motion of the moon in space and libration of the moon. Topics include Hill's equations of motion, non-solar perturbations, improved lunar ephemeris, optical and physical libration of the moon, and adjustment of heliometric observations of the moon's libration. The text then elaborates on the dynamics of the earth-moon system, photometry of the moon, and polarization of

  8. MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

    2008-09-01

    MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive

  9. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  10. EDGE TECHNOLOGIES IN IoT AND APPLICATION SCENARIO OF RFID BASED IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Dharam Gami *, Asst. Prof. Dhaval Nimavat, Asst. Prof. Shubham Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things possesses the power to change the era. IoT will offer an advance connectivity between objects which will change the face of machine-to-machine communication. IoT will connect autonomous systems, devices and heterogeneous machines and make them communicate without human interactions. Many technologies will play significant role in IoT implementation. In this paper, we aim to describe the candidate of edge technologies in IoT and demonstrate how RFID based IoT system will loo...

  11. IoT Architectural Framework: Connection and Integration Framework for IoT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uviase, Onoriode; Kotonya, Gerald

    2018-01-01

    The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has since seen a growing interest in architectural design and adaptive frameworks to promote the connection between heterogeneous IoT devices and IoT systems. The most widely favoured software architecture in IoT is the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), which aims to provide a loosely coupled systems to leverage the use and reuse of IoT services at the middle-ware layer, to minimise system integration problems. However, despite the flexibil...

  12. Understanding Information Hiding in iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglione, Luca; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The Apple operating system (iOS) has so far proved resistant to information-hiding techniques, which help attackers covertly communicate. However, Siri - a native iOS service that controls iPhones and iPads via voice commands - could change this trend.

  13. Sesame IO Library User Manual Version 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhold, Hilary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Young, Ginger Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This document is a user manual for SES_IO, a low-level library for reading and writing sesame files. The purpose of the SES_IO library is to provide a simple user interface for accessing and creating sesame files that does not change across sesame format type (such as binary, ascii, and xml).

  14. iOS app development for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    If you've got incredible iOS ideas, get this book and bring them to life! iOS 7 represents the most significant update to Apple's mobile operating system since the first iPhone was released, and even the most seasoned app developers are looking for information on how to take advantage of the latest iOS 7 features in their app designs. That's where iOS App Development For Dummies comes in! Whether you're a programming hobbyist wanting to build an app for fun or a professional developer looking to expand into the iOS market, this book will walk you through the fundamentals of building a univer

  15. Does Io's ionosphere influence Jupiter's radio bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. L.; Alksne, A. Y.; Whitten, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Goldreich and Lynden-Bell's theory of Jupiter's Io-correlated decametric radiation sets a lower limit to Io's conductivity, high enough to carry the current associated with the radiated power. Dermott's analysis of conductivities of rocks and ice shows no such conductivity at Io's temperature. However, we show that if Io has even a small atmosphere, say of methane as suggested by Binder and Cruikshank, or of argon or nitrogen, it will have an ionosphere with adequate conductivity to meet the above criterion. A requirement for higher conductivity was found by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell on the basis of motion of magnetic lines past Io. This requirement appears to us unnecessary in view of experiments which prove that motion of the lines is not the source of the electromotance.

  16. Impact History of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bottke, W. F.; Norman, M. V.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Fassett, C. I.; Hiesinger, H.; Joy, K. H.; Mazrouei, S. A.; Nemchin, A.; Neumann, G. A.; Zellner, N. E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Establishing an absolute planetary chronology has important ramifications for understanding the early structure of the solar system and the geologic history of the planets. The Moon is the cornerstone for understanding this impact history.

  17. Radio astronomy on the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Asbell, J.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and opportunities for radio astronomy on the moon during the early to mid 21st century are reviewed. In particular, it is argued that the lack of atmosphere, the extremely low seismic activity, the low RF background, and the natural cryogenic environment make the moon (particularly the far side and the poles) a nearly ideal locale for submillimeter/FIR to VLF (below 10 MHz) radio astronomy. 22 references

  18. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    spiralling journey accounted for more than 100 million kilometres, while the Moon - if you wanted to go there in a straight line - is only between 350,000 and 400,000 kilometres away from the Earth. As SMART-1 neared its destination, it began using the gravity of the Moon to bring it into a position where it was captured by the Moon’s gravitational field. This occurred in November 2004. After being captured by the Moon, in January 2005, SMART-1 started to spiral down to its final operational polar elliptical orbit with a perilune (closest point to the lunar surface) altitude of 300 km and apolune (farthest point) altitude of 3000 km. to conduct its scientific exploration mission. What was there to know that we didn’t know already? Despite the number of spacecraft that have visited the Moon, many scientific questions concerning our natural satellite remained unanswered, notably to do with the origin and evolution of the Moon, and the processes that shape rocky planetary bodies (such as tectonics, volcanism, impacts and erosion). Thanks to SMART-1, scientists all over Europe and around the world now have the best resolution surface images ever from lunar orbit, as well as a better knowledge of the Moon’s minerals. For the first time from orbit, they have detected calcium and magnesium using an X-ray instrument. They have measured compositional changes from the central peaks of craters, volcanic plains and giant impact basins. SMART-1 has also studied impact craters, volcanic features and lava tubes, and monitored the polar regions. In addition, it found an area near the north pole where the Sun always shines, even in winter. SMART-1 has roamed over the lunar poles, enabling it to map the whole Moon, including its lesser known far side. The poles are particularly interesting to scientists because they are relatively unexplored. Moreover, some features in the polar regions have a geological history which is distinct from the more closely studied equatorial regions where

  19. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  20. The moon as a symbol of death in "The Romance of the Moon, Moon"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo Perdomo Vanegas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an approach to semiotic analysis of the artistic text, specifically the poem. It takes up the thesis that consider poetic language as an integral element of semiotics, not linguistics. From a semiotic perspective, the text discusses the symbol of death in the Ballad of the Moon, Moon by Federico García Lorca, the analysis establishes a relationship between natural language and poetic language, reflecting part of Gypsy culture.

  1. Scaling properties of planetary calderas and terrestrial volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanism plays an important role in transporting internal heat of planetary bodies to their surface. Therefore, volcanoes are a manifestation of the planet's past and present internal dynamics. Volcanic eruptions as well as caldera forming processes are the direct manifestation of complex interactions between the rising magma and the surrounding host rock in the crust of terrestrial planetary bodies. Attempts have been made to compare volcanic landforms throughout the solar system. Different stochastic models have been proposed to describe the temporal sequences of eruptions on individual or groups of volcanoes. However, comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for volcano formation and eruption and more specifically caldera formation remains elusive. In this work, we propose a scaling law to quantify the distribution of caldera sizes on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Io, as well as the distribution of calderas on Earth depending on their surrounding crustal properties. We also apply the same scaling analysis to the distribution of interevent times between eruptions for volcanoes that have the largest eruptive history as well as groups of volcanoes on Earth. We find that when rescaled with their respective sample averages, the distributions considered show a similar functional form. This result implies that similar processes are responsible for caldera formation throughout the solar system and for different crustal settings on Earth. This result emphasizes the importance of comparative planetology to understand planetary volcanism. Similarly, the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions are independent of the type of volcanism or geographical location.

  2. Geologic mapping of the Amirani-Gish Bar region of Io: Implications for the global geologic mapping of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Crown, D.A.; Jaeger, W.L.; Schenk, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We produced the first geologic map of the Amirani-Gish Bar region of Io, the last of four regional maps generated from Galileo mission data. The Amirani-Gish Bar region has five primary types of geologic materials: plains, mountains, patera floors, flows, and diffuse deposits. The flows and patera floors are thought to be compositionally similar, but are subdivided based on interpretations regarding their emplacement environments and mechanisms. Our mapping shows that volcanic activity in the Amirani-Gish Bar region is dominated by the Amirani Eruptive Center (AEC), now recognized to be part of an extensive, combined Amirani-Maui flow field. A mappable flow connects Amirani and Maui, suggesting that Maui is fed from Amirani, such that the post-Voyager designation "Maui Eruptive Center" should be revised. Amirani contains at least four hot spots detected by Galileo, and is the source of widespread bright (sulfur?) flows and active dark (silicate?) flows being emplaced in the Promethean style (slowly emplaced, compound flow fields). The floor of Gish Bar Patera has been partially resurfaced by dark lava flows, although other parts of its floor are bright and appeared unchanged during the Galileo mission. This suggests that the floor did not undergo complete resurfacing as a lava lake as proposed for other ionian paterae. There are several other hot spots in the region that are the sources of both active dark flows (confined within paterae), and SO2- and S2-rich diffuse deposits. Mapped diffuse deposits around fractures on mountains and in the plains appear to serve as the source for gas venting without the release of magma, an association previously unrecognized in this region. The six mountains mapped in this region exhibit various states of degradation. In addition to gaining insight into this region of Io, all four maps are studied to assess the best methodology to use to produce a new global geologic map of Io based on the newly released, combined Galileo

  3. From BPM to IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Cherrier , Sylvain; Deshpande , Varun

    2017-01-01

    International audience; IoT’s presence is increasingly felt. There are already more connected devices to the internet than total human population and sales are starting to rise. As there is extensive research ongoing in order to propose a global architecture to build IoT applications, the domain will rise as soon as a common solution will be widespread. Further, we would need to integrate IoT applications into the legacy data processing solutions. Business Process Model, for example, is a com...

  4. Human‐Centric IoT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee; Pejanovic, Milica

    2017-01-01

    The current Internet of things (IoT) concept is characterized with billions and billions of devices interworking through a myriad of technologies for the delivery of smart personalized services and applications. At the center of these is the human user who drives his/her own interconnected cluster....... This concept has also been introduced elsewhere as “human center sensing (HCS).” The vision pushed by the authors of this chapter for the IoT beyond 2050 is one of the large‐scale and dense HCS connectivities, the complexity of which can be used to extract new IoT value proposition....

  5. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P R; Wright, A N

    1989-06-08

    The decametric radio emissions from Jupiter are known to be influenced by the Galilean satellite Io. It is believed that the structure in these emissions is associated with the Alfven-wave wake downstream of Io. However, recent studies have shown that the structure of the wake cannot be as simple as originally thought. Here we present preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io, and find that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emissions reveal fine, medium-and large-scale structure. The simulation we present here can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models. (author).

  6. Io's theothermal (sulfur) - Lithosphere cycle inferred from sulfur solubility modeling of Pele's magma supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Steven M.; Stewart, Michael A.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-06-01

    Surface deposits of volatile compounds such as water (Earth) or sulfur (Io) on volcanically active bodies suggest that a magmatic distillation process works to concentrate volatiles in surface reservoirs. On Earth, this is the combined hydrologic and tectonic cycle. On Io, sulfurous compounds are transferred from the interior to the surface reservoirs through a combination of a mantle-sourced magmatic system, vertical cycling of the lithosphere, and a sulfur-dominated crustal thermal system that we here call the "theothermal" system. We present a geochemical analysis of this process using previously inferred temperature and oxygen fugacity constraints of Pele's basaltic magma to determine the behavior of sulfur in the ionian magmas. Sulfate to sulfide ratios of Pele's magma are -4.084 ± 0.6 and -6.442 ± 0.7 log10 units, comparable to or lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts. This reflects the similarity of Io's oxidation state with Earth's depleted mantle as previously suggested by Zolotov and Fegley (Zolotov, M.Y., Fegley, B. [2000]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2789-2792). Our calculated limits of sulfur solubility in melts from Pele's patera (˜1100-1140 ppm) are also comparable to terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflecting a compositional similarity of mantle sources. We propose that the excess sulfur obvious on Io's surface comes from two sources: (1) an insoluble sulfide liquid phase in the magma and (2) theothermal near-surface recycling.

  7. Understanding IoT systems: a life cycle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, Leila Fatmasari; Ozcelebi, Tanir; Lukkien, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems and the corresponding network architectures are complex due to distributed services on many IoT devices collaboratively fulfilling common goals of IoT applications. System requirements for different types of IoT application domains are still not well-established. The

  8. IoT Contextual Factors on Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Caridakis, George

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things, new services in healthcare will be available and existing systems will be integrated in the IoT framework, providing automated medical supervision and efficient medical treatment. Context awareness plays a critical role in realizing the vision of the IoT, providing rich contextual information that can help the system act more efficiently. Since context in healthcare has its unique characteristics, it is necessary to define an appropriate context aware framework for healthcare IoT applications. We identify this context as perceived in healthcare applications and describe the context aware procedures. We also present an architecture that connects the sensors that measure biometric data with the sensory networks of the environment and the various IoT middleware that reside in the geographical area. Finally, we discuss the challenges for the realization of this vision.

  9. Perception Management: A Core IO Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaman, Khyber

    2007-01-01

    This thesis postulates that in today's media environment, with adversaries skillfully using propaganda to skirt nations' resolve, Perception Management is key to military success and should be an Information Operations (IO) Core Capability...

  10. Two Word CAMAC I/O module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, L.L.

    1981-05-01

    This note describes the 2 Word I/O subsystem and details its operating characteristics. SLAC drawings in the 926-306 series support this device and should be referenced for construction and connection details

  11. AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Donno, Michele; Dragoni, Nicola; Giaretta, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 is remembered as the year that showed to the world how dangerous Distributed Denial of Service attacks can be. Gauge of the disruptiveness of DDoS attacks is the number of bots involved: the bigger the botnet, the more powerful the attack. This character, along with the increasing...... availability of connected and insecure IoT devices, makes DDoS and IoT the perfect pair for the malware industry. In this paper we present the main idea behind AntibIoTic, a palliative solution to prevent DDoS attacks perpetrated through IoT devices....

  12. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Hamish

    2001-01-01

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  13. The atmosphere and ionosphere of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, M.B.; Yung, Y.L.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of models for Io's atmosphere, ionosphere, surface, and environment are developed and discussed in the context of recent observational data. The sodium emission detected by Brown appears to require a collisional excitation process in Io's atmosphere, and the extended sodium emission measured by Trafton et al. may require scattering of the planetary radiation by an extended sodium cloud. The sodium is presumably present initially in bound form on Io's surface and may be released by the sputtering mechanism suggested by Matson et al. The ionosphere detected by the radio occultation experiment on Pioneer 10 could be attributed to photoionization of atmospheric sodium if Io's atmosphere could sustain significant vertical motions, of order 1 s/sup -1/ directed up during the day, down at night. Vertical motions of this magnitude could be driven by condensation of atmospheric NH 3 . The total density of gas at Io's surface appears to lie in the range 10 10 -10 12 molecules cm/sup -3/. Corpuscular ionization could play an additional role for the ionosphere. In this case the sateSe should exhibit an exceedingly bright, approx.10 kR, airglow at Lα. The incomplete hydrogen torus observed by Judge and Carlson in the vicinity of Io requires a large supply of hydrogen from the satellite's atmosphere. The escape flux should be of order 10 11 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ and could be maintained by photolysis of atmospheric NH 3 . The observed geometry of the hydrogen torus appears to require a surprisingly short lifetime, approx.10 5 s, for neutral hydrogen near Io's orbit, and may indicate the presence of a large flux, approx.10 9 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, of low-energy protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Implications of the hydrogen torus for the energy and mass balance of Jupiter's magnetosphere are discussed briefly, and observational programs are identified which might illuminate present uncertainties in our understanding of Io

  14. Geologic mapping of the Hi’iaka and Shamshu regions of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Melissa K.; Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald; Jaeger, Windy L.

    2010-06-01

    We produced regional geologic maps of the Hi'iaka and Shamshu regions of Io's antijovian hemisphere using Galileo mission data to assess the geologic processes that are involved in the formation of Io's mountains and volcanic centers. Observations reveal that these regions are characterized by several types of volcanic activity and features whose orientation and texture indicate tectonic activity. Among the volcanic features are multiple hotspots and volcanic vents detected by Galileo, one at each of the major paterae: Hi'iaka, Shamshu, and Tawhaki. We mapped four primary types of geologic units: flows, paterae floors, plains, and mountains. The flows and patera floors are similar, but are subdivided based upon emplacement environments and mechanisms. The floors of Hi'iaka and Shamshu Paterae have been partially resurfaced by dark lava flows, although portions of the paterae floors appear bright and unchanged during the Galileo mission; this suggests that the floors did not undergo complete resurfacing as flooding lava lakes. However, the paterae do contain compound lava flow fields and show the greatest activity near the paterae walls, a characteristic of Pele type lava lakes. Mountain materials are tilted crustal blocks that exhibit varied degrees of degradation. Lineated mountains have characteristic en echelon grooves that likely formed as a result of gravitational sliding. Undivided mountains are partially grooved but exhibit evidence of slumping and are generally lower elevation than the lineated units. Debris lobes and aprons are representative of mottled mountain materials. We have explored the possibility that north and south Hi'iaka Mons were originally one structure. We propose that strike-slip faulting and subsequent rifting separated the mountain units and created a depression which, by further extension during the rifting event, became Hi'iaka Patera. This type of rifting and depression formation is similar to the mechanism of formation of terrestrial

  15. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  16. NIMPH - Nano Icy Moons Propellant Harvester

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The latest Decadal Survey lists multiple sample return missions to the Moon, Mars and Jovian moons as high priority goals. In particular, a mission to Jupiter's...

  17. Surface material of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C.R.

    1963-01-01

    A skeletal fuzz that consists mostly of open space probably covers the moon to a depth of several millimeters or centimeters. The solid part of the fuzz probably consists of randomly oriented linear units, with or without enlarged nodes, which either anastomose in a mesh or are branching.

  18. There is no I/O like no I/O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, T.Y.

    1985-01-01

    On most computer systems the most common cause of performance degradation is I/O contention. This paper will examine some efforts that can be taken in a VM environment to reduce I/O or its effect at both the global and local levels

  19. AP-IO: asynchronous pipeline I/O for hiding periodic output cost in CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoguang, Ren; Xinhai, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO) optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%.

  20. AP-IO: Asynchronous Pipeline I/O for Hiding Periodic Output Cost in CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%.

  1. Tidal effects on Earth, Planets, Sun by far visiting moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The Earth has been formed by a huge mini-planet collision forming our Earth surface and our Moon today. Such a central collision hit was statistically rare. A much probable skimming or nearby encounter by other moons or planets had to occur. Indeed Recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, sea regressions, large meteoritic impacts and drastic changes in global climate. They could have caused the major biological mass extinctions in the past in the geological records. For instance a ten times a terrestrial radius nearby impact scattering by a peripherical encounter by a small moon-like object will force huge tidal waves (hundred meter height), able to lead to huge tsunami and Earth-quake. Moreover the historical cumulative planet hits in larger and wider planets as Juppiter, Saturn, Uranus will leave a trace, as observed, in their tilted spin axis. Finally a large fraction of counter rotating moons in our solar system probe and test such a visiting mini-planet captur origination. In addition the Earth day duration variability in the early past did show a rare discountinuity, very probably indebt to such a visiting planet crossing event. These far planets in rare trajectory to our Sun may, in thousands event capture, also explain sudden historical and recent temperature changes.

  2. A child's view of the moon

    OpenAIRE

    Grilc, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This diploma paper is divided into two parts, the theoretical and the practical one. The first part describes the history of travelling and landing on the Moon, general information on the Moon (its evolution, composition, surface, visibility, and moon phases), and the astronomical instruments. The development of a child's way of thinking is also briefly presented. The second, more practical part, is introduced by a questionnaire consisting of 10 general questions about the Moon. The aim ...

  3. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  4. First Results at the Moon from the SMART-1 / AMIE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; AMIE Team

    2005-08-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on board ESA SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon (launched on 27th September 2003), is an imaging system with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to image the Lunar South Pole, permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non-mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (South Pole Aitken basin). The technical objectives are to perform a laserlink experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA/Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation. The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration. We present here the first results obtained during the cruise phase and at the Moon.

  5. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  6. Io's Active Eruption Plumes: Insights from HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, K. L.; Spencer, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Taking advantage of the available data, we recently [10] completed a detailed analysis of the spectral signature of Io's Pele-type Tvashtar plume as imaged by the HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) via absorption during Jupiter transit and via reflected sunlight in 2007, as well as HST/WFPC2 observations of the 1997 eruption of Io's Prometheus-type Pillan plume (Fig. 1). These observations were obtained in the 0.24-0.42 μm range, where the plumes gas absorption and aerosol scattering properties are most conspicuous. By completing a detailed analysis of these observations, several key aspects of the reflectance and the absorption properties of the two plumes have been revealed. Additionally, by considering the analysis of the HST imaging data in light of previously published spectral analysis of Io's Prometheus and Pele-type plumes several trends in the plume properties have been determined, allowing us to define the relative significance of each plume on the rate of re-surfacing occurring on Io and providing the measurements needed to better assess the role the volcanoes play in the stability of Io's tenuous atmosphere.

  7. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-01-01

    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  8. The Mountains of Io: Global and Geological Perspectives from Voyager and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul; Hargitai, Henrik; Wilson, Ronda; McEwen, Alfred; Thomas, Peter; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To search for local and global scale geologic associations that may be related to the internal dynamics of Io, we have completed a global catalog of all mountains and volcanic centers. We have identified 115 mountain structures (covering approx. 3% of the surface) and 541 volcanic centers, including paterae (calderas and dark spots) and shield volcanoes. The average length of an Ionian mountain is 157 km, with the longest being 570 km. The mean height of Ionian mountains is 6.3 km, and the highest known mountain is Boosaule Montes (17.5 +/- 3 km). Five basic morphologic types of mountains have been identified; mesa, plateau peak, ridge, and massif. Very few mountains bear any physical similarity. to classic volcanic landforms, but many resemble flatiron mountains on Earth and are interpreted as tilted crustal blocks. This would be consistent with the hypothesis that most mountains are thrust blocks formed as a result of compressive stresses built up in the lower crust due to the global subsidence of volcanic layers as they are buried over time. More than one mechanism may be responsible for all Ionian mountains, however. The proximity of some mountains to paterae may indicate a direct link between some mountains and volcanism, although it is not always clear which came first. In contrast to earlier studies, a pronounced bimodal pattern is observed in the global distribution of both mountains and volcanic centers. The regions of highest areal densities of volcanic centers are near the sub- and anti-Jovian regions, but are offset roughly 90deg in longitude from the two, regions of greatest concentration of mountains. This anticorrelation may indicate the overprinting of a second stress field on the global compressive stresses due to subsidence. The bimodal distribution of volcanic centers and mountains is consistent with models of asthenospheric tidal heating and internal convection developed by Tackley et al.Over regions of mantle upwelling, compressive stresses in

  9. iOS app development portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The essential skills and technologies needed for iOS development in one handy guide! The unprecedented popularity of iOS devices, such as the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, has led to a development boom. If you’re eager to become part of the action, then this is the book for you! Packed with must-have information on iOS development, this handy guide covers Objective-C, Xcode, Frameworks, and sound design principles and explains how to upload an app to the app store and integrate apps with the latest advances that Apple offers developers. The featured tips and tricks will get you up and ru

  10. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  11. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  12. IoTFLiP: IoT-based flipped learning platform for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqbool Ali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case-Based Learning (CBL has become an effective pedagogy for student-centered learning in medical education, which is founded on persistent patient cases. Flippped learning and Internet of Things (IoTs concepts have gained significant attention in recent years. Using these concepts in conjunction with CBL can improve learning ability by providing real evolutionary medical cases. It also enables students to build confidence in their decision making, and efficiently enhances teamwork in the learing environment. We propose an IoT-based Flip Learning Platform, called IoTFLiP, where an IoT infrastructure is exploited to support flipped case-based learning in a cloud environment with state of the art security and privacy measures for personalized medical data. It also provides support for application delivery in private, public, and hybrid approaches. The proposed platform is an extension of our Interactive Case-Based Flipped Learning Tool (ICBFLT, which has been developed based on current CBL practices. ICBFLT formulates summaries of CBL cases through synergy between students' and medical expert knowledge. The low cost and reduced size of sensor device, support of IoTs, and recent flipped learning advancements can enhance medical students' academic and practical experiences. In order to demonstrate a working scenario for the proposed IoTFLiP platform, real-time data from IoTs gadgets is collected to generate a real-world case for a medical student using ICBFLT.

  13. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  14. Professional iOS database application programming

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Updated and revised coverage that includes the latest versions of iOS and Xcode Whether you're a novice or experienced developer, you will want to dive into this updated resource on database application programming for the iPhone and iPad. Packed with more than 50 percent new and revised material - including completely rebuilt code, screenshots, and full coverage of new features pertaining to database programming and enterprise integration in iOS 6 - this must-have book intends to continue the precedent set by the previous edition by helping thousands of developers master database

  15. iOS application security analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Βλάχος, Κωνσταντίνος Γ.; Vlachos, Konstantinos G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explain the nature of the Apple iOS applications and provide all the available Open Source tools for analyzing them, starting from decrypting any application’s binary downloaded from the AppStore to reverse engineering it and even altering the flow of its running process on the actual device. We start introducing the basic theory of the iOS operating system and its applications including the security mechanisms incorporated by Apple that are a...

  16. Intrusion Detection System In IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Intrusion detection detects misbehaving nodes in a network. In Internet of Things(IoT), IPv6 Routing for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the standard routing protocol. In IoT, devices commonly have low energy, storage and memory, which is why the implemented intrusion algorithm in this thesis will try to minimize the usage of these resources. IDS for RPL-networks have been implemented before, but the use of resources or the number of packets sent was too high to be successful when findi...

  17. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  18. Modular HPC I/O characterization with Darshan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Shane; Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Ross, Robert; Lockwood, Glenn K.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-11-13

    Contemporary high-performance computing (HPC) applications encompass a broad range of distinct I/O strategies and are often executed on a number of different compute platforms in their lifetime. These large-scale HPC platforms employ increasingly complex I/O subsystems to provide a suitable level of I/O performance to applications. Tuning I/O workloads for such a system is nontrivial, and the results generally are not portable to other HPC systems. I/O profiling tools can help to address this challenge, but most existing tools only instrument specific components within the I/O subsystem that provide a limited perspective on I/O performance. The increasing diversity of scientific applications and computing platforms calls for greater flexibililty and scope in I/O characterization.

  19. Designing the IoT sandbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frens, Joep; Funk, Mathias; van Hout, Bastiaan; Le Blanc, Joep

    2018-01-01

    This pictorial describes the design and design process of the IoT Sandbox: a (scale model of a) smart home equipped with actuators and a modular interface that controls the interactive aspects of the smart home. This modular interface can 'grow" together with the house it controls whereby it offers

  20. Electron distribution functions in Io plasma torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Electron distribution functions measured by the Voyager 1 in different shares of the Io plasma torus are explained. It is proved that their suprathermal tails are formed by the electrical field induced by the 'Jupiter wind'. The Maxwellian parts of all these spectra characterize thermal equilibrium populations of electrons and the radiation of exited ions

  1. IoT for Smart Living

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Professor. Robert Bosch Centre for Cyber-Physical Systems, ... Develop Information models/Knowledge structures to capture “Cities” to enable Intelligent apps. IoT Technology is now easily accessible for anyone to experiment with. Build very ...

  2. Io with Loki Plume on Bright Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Voyager 1 image of Io showing active plume of Loki on limb. Heart-shaped feature southeast of Loki consists of fallout deposits from active plume Pele. The images that make up this mosaic were taken from an average distance of approximately 490,000 kilometers (340,000 miles).

  3. Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    INSTRUTOR /OPERATOR STATION (IOS) AI O...The three functional categories also define three different users in terms of jobs and qualifications (if the functions have been allocated to manual ...function manually (e.g., collect the data S required from schedules, printed course outlines and telephone calls to training and facility managers).

  4. Choosing your IoT programming framework : architectural aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, L.F.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is turning into practice. To drive innovations, it is crucial that programmers have means to develop IoT applications in the form of IoT programming frameworks. These are toolkits to develop applications according to a certain style or method and that let developers

  5. Synthesizing Knowledge on Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on Internet of Things (IoT) has been booming for past couple of years due to technological advances and its potential for application. Nonetheless, the rapid growth of IoT articles as well as the heterogeneous nature of IoT pose challenges in synthesizing prior research on the phenomenon...

  6. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  7. Critical review of a new volcanic eruption chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Sigl. et al. (2015, Nature) present historical evidence for 32 volcanic eruptions to evaluate their new polar ice core 10-Be chronology - 24 are dated within three years of sulfur layers in polar ice. Most of them can be interpreted as weather phenomena (Babylonia: disk of sun like moon, reported for only one day, e.g. extinction due to clouds), Chinese sunspot reports (pellet, black vapor, etc.), solar eclipses, normal ice-halos and coronae (ring, bow, etc.), one aurora (redness), red suns due to mist drops in wet fog or fire-smoke, etc. Volcanic dust may facilitate detections of sunspots and formation of Bishop's ring, but tend to inhibit ice-halos, which are otherwise often reported in chronicles. We are left with three reports possibly indicating volcanic eruptions, namely fulfilling genuine criteria for atmospheric disturbances due to volcanic dust, e.g. bluish or faint sun, orange sky, or fainting of stars for months (BCE 208, 44-42, and 32). Among the volcanic eruptions used to fix the chronology (CE 536, 626, 939, 1257), the reports cited for the 930s deal only with 1-2 days, at least one reports an eclipse. In the new chronology, there is a sulfur detection eight years after the Vesuvius eruption, but none in CE 79. It may appear surprising that, from BCE 500 to 1, all five northern sulfur peaks labeled in figure 2 in Sigl et al. are systematically later by 2-4 years than the (corresponding?) southern peaks, while all five southern peaks from CE 100 to 600 labeled in figure 2 are systematically later by 1-4 years than the (corresponding?) northern peaks. Furthermore, in most of their six strongest volcanic eruptions, temperatures decreased years before their sulfur dating - correlated with weak solar activity as seen in radiocarbon, so that volcanic climate forcing appears dubious here. Also, their 10-Be peaks at CE 775 and 994 are neither significant nor certain in dating.

  8. Moessbauer mineralogy on the Moon: The lunar regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Korotev, Randy L.; Shelfer, Tad D.

    1998-01-01

    A first-order requirement for spacecraft missions that land on solid planetary objects is instrumentation for mineralogical analyses. For purposes of providing diagnostic information about naturally-occurring materials, the element iron is particularly important because it is abundant and multivalent. Knowledge of the oxidation state of iron and its distribution among iron-bearing mineralogies tightly constrains the types of materials present and provides information about formation and modification (weathering) processes. Because Moessbauer spectroscopy is sensitive to both the valence of iron and its local chemical environment, the technique is unique in providing information about both the relative abundance of iron-bearing phases and oxidation state of the iron. The Moessbauer mineralogy of lunar regolith samples (primarily soils from the Apollo 16 and 17 missions to the Moon) were measured in the laboratory to demonstrate the strength of the technique for in-situ mineralogical exploration of the Moon. The regolith samples were modeled as mixtures of five iron-bearing phases: olivine, pyroxene, glass, ilmenite, and metal. Based on differences in relative proportions of iron associated with these phases, volcanic-ash regolith can be distinguished from impact-derived regolith, impact-derived soils of different geologic affinity (e.g., highlands and maria) can be distinguished on the basis of their constituent minerals, and soil maturity can be estimated. The total resonant absorption area of the Moessbauer spectrum can be used to estimate total FeO concentrations

  9. Sparking young minds with Moon rocks and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    What could be more exciting than seeing pieces of other worlds? The Apollo program left a legacy of astounding accomplishments and precious samples. Part of the thrill of those lunar missions is brought to schools by the lunar sample educational disks, which contain artifacts of six piloted trips to the Moon. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is preparing 100 new educational disks containing pieces of meteorites collected in Antarctica. These represent chunks of several different asteroids, that were collected in one of the most remote, forbidding environments on Earth. These pieces of the Moon and asteroids represent the products of basic planetary processes (solar nebular processes, initial differentiation, volcanism, and impact), and, in turn, these processes are controlled by basic physical and chemical processes (energy, energy transfer, melting, buoyancy, etc.). Thus, the lunar and meteorite sample disks have enormous educational potential. New educational materials are being developed to accompany the disks. Present materials are not as effective as they could be, especially in relating samples to processes and to other types of data such as spectral studies and photogeology. Furthermore, the materials are out of date. New background materials will be produced for teachers, assembling slide sets with extensive captions, and devising numerous hands-on classroom activities to do while the disks are at a school and before and after they arrive. The classroom activities will be developed by teams of experienced teachers working with lunar and meteorite experts.

  10. Mapping and Naming the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ewen A.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. First Era: From Prehistoric Images to Archetype Map: 1. Pre-telescopic lunar observations; 2. Early telescopic observations of the Moon; 3. Van Langren (Langrenus) and the birth of selenography; 4. Six more years of sporadic activity; Part II. Second Era: From Archetype to Maturity: 5. 140 years of sporadic activity; 6. A globe, tree rings, and a city; 7. Lunar cartography comes of age; Part III. Third Era: From proliferation to standardisation: 8. Lunar mapping in the Victorian period; 9. Nomenclature gets international attention; Part IV. The Space Age Demands Changes: 10. Setting up guidelines; 11. Planets and satellites set the rules. Appendices 1 - 22.

  11. Ranking System for IoT Industry Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Somshree

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has seen a huge growth spurt in the last few years which has resulted in the need for more standardised IoT technology. Because of this, numerous IoT platforms have sprung up that offer a variety of features and use different technologies which may not necessarily be compliant with each other or with other technologies. Companies that wish to enter theIoT market are in constant need to find the most suitable IoT platform for their business and have a certain set o...

  12. Klasifikace v oblasti IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Flégl, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on classification of IoT. The aim of this thesis is classifying and categorizing IoT using systematic literature review. Several steps are needed to fulfill this aim. First part of this thesis focuses on defining IoT. Top ten companies, which invest the most to IoT are introduced with their view on IoT. Then follows characterization of classification and categorization including differences between them. Second part focuses on describing SLR. First of all the p...

  13. Zabezpečení platformy iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nidl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is focused on security of operating system iOS from Apple. The thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter describes iOS and Apple company. The second chapter deals with iOS security architecture in terms of security model and security mechanisms. The third chapter deals with the security of iOS applications and options of their testing. The fourth chapter describes software attacks against iOS in the form of malware and exploitation. The fifth chapter descri...

  14. Taking Europe To The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  15. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 +/- 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0farcs57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis > or approx. = 21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This dark moon hypothesis can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  16. Unique Moon Formation Model: Two Impacts of Earth and After Moon's Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Moon rocks are mixed with two impact-processes of Earth's impact breccias and airless Moon's impact breccias; discussed voids-rich texture and crust-like composition. The present model might be explained as cave-rich interior on the airless-and waterless Moon.

  17. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  18. Infrared observations of eclipses of Io, its thermophysical parameters, and the thermal radiation of the Loki volcano and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, William M.; Kaminski, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Io during eclipses by Jupiter in 1981-1984 are reported. Data obtained at 3.45-30 microns using bolometer system No. 1 on the 3-m IRTF telescope at Mauna Kea are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed by means of least-squares fitting of thermophysical models to the eclipse cooling and heating curves, thermal-radiation calculations for the Io volcanoes, and comparison with Voyager data. Best fits are obtained for a model comprising (1) a bright region with a vertically inhomogeneous surface and (2) a dark vertically homogeneous region with thermal inertia only about 0.1 times that of (1). Little evidence of volcanic-flux variability during the period is found, and the majority (but not all) of the excess thermal IR radiation in the sub-Jovian hemisphere is attributed to the Loki volcano and its lava lake.

  19. iOS cloud development dor dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Want to create robust, data-driven, iOS cloud apps? This book makes it easier! Apple's mobile operating system (iOS) supports iPhones, iPads, iPods and other Apple devices, and while even beginners can now develop apps to run just on these devices themselves, sometimes you want to create an app with more heft. Applications such as live weather reports or multi-player games require a lot of data to be pulled from outside—often from cloud-based Web Services, such as Google or Amazon. This book, written by application development experts Sujee Maniyam and Neal Goldstein, shows you how to we

  20. Using Formal Grammars to Predict I/O Behaviors in HPC: The Omnisc'IO Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorier, Matthieu; Ibrahim, Shadi; Antoniu, Gabriel; Ross, Rob

    2016-08-01

    The increasing gap between the computation performance of post-petascale machines and the performance of their I/O subsystem has motivated many I/O optimizations including prefetching, caching, and scheduling. In order to further improve these techniques, modeling and predicting spatial and temporal I/O patterns of HPC applications as they run has become crucial. In this paper we present Omnisc'IO, an approach that builds a grammar-based model of the I/O behavior of HPC applications and uses it to predict when future I/O operations will occur, and where and how much data will be accessed. To infer grammars, Omnisc'IO is based on StarSequitur, a novel algorithm extending Nevill-Manning's Sequitur algorithm. Omnisc'IO is transparently integrated into the POSIX and MPI I/O stacks and does not require any modification in applications or higher-level I/O libraries. It works without any prior knowledge of the application and converges to accurate predictions of any N future I/O operations within a couple of iterations. Its implementation is efficient in both computation time and memory footprint.

  1. Use of new components in ios5

    OpenAIRE

    Cvenkel, Gašper

    2012-01-01

    Technological development of mobile technology is very fast now days, which contribute to increasing number of smart phones available on the market. Those phones are driven by different operating systems, which are developing, getting new features and upgrades. That is one of the reasons to introduce new features of iOS 5 (iCloud, Storyboard, Notification Center), compare them with competition and present pros and cons. The very rapid development is also reflected by the fact, that it is alre...

  2. IoT E-business applications

    OpenAIRE

    Radu BUCEA-MANEA-TONIS; Rocsana B. Manea Tonis

    2017-01-01

    “Internet of things” (IoT) will develop soon an ecosystem of internet-connected things, that facilitate the mobile commerce experiences and the client need to be informed all the time. It will be associated with a feeling of freedom and capacity of doing very easy what was considered difficult in the past. Nevertheless, these opportunities will not be capitalized upon without overcoming a series of obstacles, including addressing consumer privacy concerns, the long replacement cycles of du...

  3. Automatic Integration of IoT Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pêgo, Pedro Ruben Januário

    2016-01-01

    During the last years a new concept has gained prominence in the technology world. With an increasingly dominant role in our days, Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that is changing our lives. The imagination is the limit for the new devices that may appear in the market. This phenomenon is derived from both, the technological evolution and the growing acceptance of this type of products in our social life. Faced with a fast growth, an increasing diversity ...

  4. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  5. Taking the moon's internal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    LLL geophysicists were instrumental in resolving a serious discrepancy between lunar magnetic-field data and melting studies of lunar basalts brought back from the Moon by Apollo astronauts. Estimates of the subsurface temperatures, based on lunar electrical conductivity measurements and laboratory experiments, were hundreds of degrees below those given by models using known melting points of various minerals. The work uncovered a basic flaw in previous measurements. New measurements under more realistic conditions brought the electrical-conductivity temperature estimates into agreement with temperatures derived from melting experiments. This same work also contributed to in situ coal gasification studies; to ERDA's dry, hot-rock geothermal effort; and to a program of monitoring for seismic evidence of clandestine nuclear testing. 4 figures

  6. The surface of the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Knowledge of the history of the interplanetary environment is linked to that of the formation and evolution of the lunar regolith. The major importance of the various space flights was the collection of almost 400 kg of lunar soil and rock samples, the study of which, thanks to isotopic dating methods, enabled the main lines of the history of the moon to be retraced. Since the ending of magma activity (three thousand million years ago), only the impacts of meteorites have modified the appearance of the lunar surface; the data acquired on their flow provide the explanation of the essential characteristics of the lunar regolith. The processing of the core particles and the samples has contributed to the determination of the history of the flow of particles and matter in the interplanetary environment [fr

  7. Composition and location of volatiles at Loki Patera, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Landis, Claire E.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2014-02-01

    Volatiles play a critical role in determining the nature of volcanic activity on Earth, but their role in the volcanism on Io is less clear. To help determine that role we analyze Voyager and Galileo images of Loki Patera. Loki is the largest caldera in the Solar System and Io’s most powerful volcano, however its eruptive behavior is still not understood. It appears to be relatively volatile poor, in comparison to other sites like Pele where volatiles drive a 350 km high plume. A resurfacing wave, either from spreading flows or from foundering of a lava lake crust, periodically sweeps around Loki Patera. Photometry from Voyager I and II violet and blue images shows that most of the features in and around Loki have colors well matched by macroscopic mixing of sulfur and basalt. The dark western portion of the patera has the color of bare basalt. Assuming such a macroscopic sulfur-basalt mix, in the Voyager I images most of the rest of the patera appears to be covered with a background of 13-38% sulfur. We infer this background sulfur was deposited from the nearby plume observed by Voyager I and II. The surface of the patera is also dotted by numerous small bright areas which have colloquially been called “bergs”. We find that they are also composed of sulfur, with coverage ranging up to 100%. Darker regions adjacent to the patera, such as the “southwest overflow”, are a mixture of intermediate amounts of sulfur and basalt. The “bathtub ring” at the edge of the overflow is again roughly 100% sulfur, perhaps with significant amounts of SO2 included. Colors seen during the Voyager II flyby are also consistent with this general pattern, but most of the patera has a sulfur abundance higher than that seen in Voyager I, while the then-dark southern portion is again close to the reflectance of bare basalt. We have also analyzed the spatial distribution of the bergs. They clearly avoid the inner and outer margins of the patera, and they also avoid each other

  8. DISCOVERY OF A MAKEMAKEAN MOON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, Will M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Noll, Keith S., E-mail: aparker@boulder.swri.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  9. Life sciences on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  10. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    these processes result in transient thermal states and hence rapid evolution of icy body interiors. Interesting heat-flow phenomena (approximated as steady-state thermal states) have been modeled in volatile-rich main belt asteroids, Io, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto, and Makemake (2005 FY9). Thermal conditions can activate geologic processes, but the occurrence of geologic activity can fundamentally alter the thermal conductivity and elasticity of icy objects, which then further affects the distribution and type of subsequent geologic activity. For example, cryoclastic volcanism on Enceladus can increase solid-state greenhouse heating of the upper crust, reduce thermal conductivity, and increase retention of heat and spur further cryovolcanism. Sulfur extrusion on Io can produce low-thermal-conductivity flows, high thermal gradients, basal melting of the flows, and lateral extrusion and spreading of the flows or formation of solid-crusted lava lakes. Impact formation of regoliths and fine-grained dust deposits on large asteroids may generate local variations in thermal gradients. Interior heating and geologic activity can either (1) emplace low-conductivity materials on the surface and cause further interior heating, or (2) drive metamorphism, sintering, and volatile loss, and increase thermal conductivity and cool the object. Thus, the type and distribution of present-day geologic activity on icy worlds is dependent on geologic history. Geology begets geology.

  11. Backprojection of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  12. Challenges when bringing IoT into Industrial Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Lennvall, Tomas; Gidlund, Mikael; Åkerberg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is captivating the society because of its potential to rapidly transform businesses and people’s lives. It is widely believed that IoT will also transform the industrial automation business in terms of improved productivity, less cost, flexibility, and increased revenues. Hence, there are some challenges that needs to be addressed when IoT is introduced to the industrial automation domain. This paperaims to present realistic requirements and highlights identified ...

  13. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Nieto; Ruben Rios; Javier Lopez

    2018-01-01

    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntar...

  14. Benchmarking Distributed Stream Processing Platforms for IoT Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Anshu; Simmhan, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a technology paradigm where millions of sensors monitor, and help inform or manage, physical, envi- ronmental and human systems in real-time. The inherent closed-loop re- sponsiveness and decision making of IoT applications makes them ideal candidates for using low latency and scalable stream processing plat- forms. Distributed Stream Processing Systems (DSPS) are becoming es- sential components of any IoT stack, but the efficacy and performance of contemporary DSP...

  15. A Step Towards Checking Security in IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bodei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is smartifying our everyday life. Our starting point is IoT-LySa, a calculus for describing IoT systems, and its static analysis, which will be presented at Coordination 2016. We extend the mentioned proposal in order to begin an investigation about security issues, in particular for the static verification of secrecy and some other security properties.

  16. A Step Towards Checking Security in IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Bodei, Chiara; Degano, Pierpaolo; Ferrari, Gian-Luigi; Galletta, Letterio

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is smartifying our everyday life. Our starting point is IoT-LySa, a calculus for describing IoT systems, and its static analysis, which will be presented at Coordination 2016. We extend the mentioned proposal in order to begin an investigation about security issues, in particular for the static verification of secrecy and some other security properties.

  17. IoT Security Techniques Based on Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Liang; Wan, Xiaoyue; Lu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanyong; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) that integrate a variety of devices into networks to provide advanced and intelligent services have to protect user privacy and address attacks such as spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, jamming and eavesdropping. In this article, we investigate the attack model for IoT systems, and review the IoT security solutions based on machine learning techniques including supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. We focus on the machine le...

  18. Sensitive Information Tracking in Commodity IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Z. Berkay; Babun, Leonardo; Sikder, Amit K.; Aksu, Hidayet; Tan, Gang; McDaniel, Patrick; Uluagac, A. Selcuk

    2018-01-01

    Broadly defined as the Internet of Things (IoT), the growth of commodity devices that integrate physical processes with digital connectivity has had profound effects on society--smart homes, personal monitoring devices, enhanced manufacturing and other IoT apps have changed the way we live, play, and work. Yet extant IoT platforms provide few means of evaluating the use (and potential avenues for misuse) of sensitive information. Thus, consumers and organizations have little information to as...

  19. Xamarin mobile application development for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    This book is a standard tutorial aimed at teaching you everything you need to know about iOS app development using Xamarin.This book is written for those who are new to iOS app development as well as more experienced developers who just need a quick reference book. It is assumed that you are already comfortable using C#. Those teaching iOS to new students will also find this book invaluable as a form of reference material.

  20. Application development with Parse using iOS SDK

    CERN Document Server

    Birani, Bhanu

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, featuring step-by-step instructions showing you how to use Parse iOS, and handle your data on cloud.If you are a developer who wants to build your applications instantly using Parse iOS as a back end application development, this book is ideal for you. This book will help you to understand Parse, featuring examples to help you get familiar with the concepts of Parse iOS.

  1. Multiple Independent File Parallel I/O with HDF5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. C.

    2016-07-13

    The HDF5 library has supported the I/O requirements of HPC codes at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL) since the late 90’s. In particular, HDF5 used in the Multiple Independent File (MIF) parallel I/O paradigm has supported LLNL code’s scalable I/O requirements and has recently been gainfully used at scales as large as O(106) parallel tasks.

  2. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  3. Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    lunar science at a time when the exploration of the Moon is once again getting the world’s interest” said Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 Project Scientist. “The measurements by SMART-1 call into question the theories concerning the Moon’s violent origin and evolution,” he added. The Moon may have formed from the impact of a Mars-size asteroid with the Earth 4500 million years ago. “SMART-1 has mapped large and small impact craters, studied the volcanic and tectonic processes that shaped the Moon, unveiled the mysterious poles, and investigated sites for future exploration,” Foing concluded. “ESA’s decision to extend the SMART-1 scientific mission by a further year ( it was initially planned to last only six months around the Moon) allowed the instrument scientists to extensively use a number of innovative observing modes at the Moon,” added Gerhard Schwehm, ESA’s SMART-1 Mission Manager. In addition to plain nadir observations (looking down on the ‘vertical’ line for lunar surveys), they included targeted observations, moon-spot pointing and ‘push-broom’ observations (a technique SMART-1 used to obtain colour images). “This was tough work for the mission planners, but the lunar data archive we are now building is truly impressive.” “SMART-1 has been an enormous success also from a technological point of view,” said Giuseppe Racca, ESA SMART-1 Project Manager. The major goal of the mission was to test an ion engine (solar electric propulsion) in space for the first time for interplanetary travel, and capture a spacecraft into orbit around another celestial body, in combination with gravity assist manoeuvres. SMART-1 also tested future deep-space communication techniques for spacecraft, techniques to achieve autonomous spacecraft navigation, and miniaturised scientific instruments, used for the first time around the Moon. “It is a great satisfaction to see how well the mission achieved its technological objectives, and did great lunar

  4. Diverse Eruptions at Approximately 2,200 Years B.P. on the Great Rift, Idaho: Inferences for Magma Dynamics Along Volcanic Rift Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. E. Kobs; Borg, C.; Mallonee, H. C.; Purcell, S.; Neish, C.; Garry, W. B.; Haberle, C. W.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Compositionally and morphologically diverse lava flows erupted on the Great Rift of Idaho approximately 2.2 ka (kilo-annum, 1000 years ago) during a volcanic "flare-up" of activity following an approximately 2 ky (kiloyear, 1000 years) hiatus in eruptions. Volcanism at Craters of the Moon (COTM), Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields around this time included primitive and evolved compositions, separated over 75 kilometers along the approximately 85 kilometers-long rift, with striking variability in lava flow emplacement mechanisms and surface morphologies. Although the temporal associations may be coincidental, the system provides a planetary analog to better understand magma dynamics along rift systems, including that associated with lunar floor-fractured craters. This study aims to help bridge the knowledge gap between ancient rift volcanism evident on the Moon and other terrestrial planets, and active rift volcanism, e.g., at Hawai'i and Iceland.

  5. IoT interoperability : a hub-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Michael; Lea, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Interoperability in the Internet of Things is critical for emerging services and applications. In this paper we advocate the use of IoT ‘hubs’ to aggregate things using web protocols, and suggest a staged approach to interoperability. In the context of a UK government funded project involving 8 IoT projects to address cross-domain IoT interoperability, we introduce the HyperCat IoT catalogue specification. We then describe the tools and techniques we developed to adapt an existing data portal...

  6. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  7. Human‐Centric IoT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee; Pejanovic, Milica

    2017-01-01

    The current Internet of things (IoT) concept is characterized with billions and billions of devices interworking through a myriad of technologies for the delivery of smart personalized services and applications. At the center of these is the human user who drives his/her own interconnected cluster....... It can be expected in the future that the number of such clusters will grow exponentially, leading to an ultradense environment of interconnected devices belonging to the same or different clusters with the human user as the center point for the information being sensed, gathered, and processed...

  8. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  9. Flujo de control en iOS Flow control in iOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explicar los flujos de control que se usan en la programación de las aplicaciones en iOS, con el fin de resumir los aspectos más relevantes que se deben tomar en cuenta para programar una tarea a ser realizada por un dispositivo móvil del tipo iPhone o iPad. Debido a que el ambiente iOS es estrictamente orientado a objetos (OOP, los flujos de control no son obvios; además, los estándares de la firma Apple® definen patrones de diseño en el sistema que son altamente recomendados en este tipo de diseño. En este artículo se introducen algunos de ellos.This paper explain the control flows that are used by programming applications in iOS, trying to summarize the most important aspects to be considered by programming mobile devices like iPhone and iPad. Because iOS environment, is strictly a object-oriented one(OOP, control flows are not obvious, besides Apple® use design patterns highly recommended in this type of programming. Here we introduces some of them.

  10. Water on the Moon Confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    When NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) and a companion rocket purposely slammed into a crater at the Moon's south pole on 9 October, some observers on Earth lamented as anticlimactic the raised plumes of material that were partially blocked by a crater ridge and were difficult to see with backyard telescopes. However, it turns out that the projectiles struck it big. “Indeed, yes, we found water. We didn’t find just a little bit; we found a significant amount,” said Anthony Colaprete, LCROSS principal investigator with the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. At a 13 November news briefing, Colaprete lifted a 2-gallon plastic bucket and said preliminary results indicate that instruments detected about a dozen buckets' worth of water in parts of the two plumes, the first generated by the spent Centaur upper stage of the Atlas V launch vehicle at 1131 UTC and the second generated by LCROSS about 4 minutes later. NASA described the two plumes as a high-angle plume of vapor and fine dust and a lower-angle ejecta curtain of heavier material. LCROSS and the Centaur upper stage hit the permanently shadowed Cabeus crater.

  11. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  12. Yes, there was a moon race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of newly disclosed evidence confirms that the Soviets were indeed striving to reach the moon before the U.S. in 1969. It is noted that a Soviet unmanned lunar probe crashed on the moon's surface only hours before the U.S. Apollo landing. Now confirmed openly are moon-exploration schedules that were competitive with Apollo plans, the names and histories of Soviet lunar boosters and landers, identities of the lunar cosmonauts; and even photos of manned lunar craft are available. Additional details on the troubled moon-probe program are presented: technical problems, continuous changes in goals, schedules, and planning, vehicle and personnel disasters, transfer of authority between ministries, and political power struggles in the scientific community.

  13. Effective Methods of Teaching Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather; Hintz, E. G.; Lawler, M. J.; Jones, M.; Mangrubang, F. R.; Neeley, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of several commonly used methods for teaching the causes of moon phases to sixth grade students. Common teaching methods being investigated are the use of diagrams, animations, modeling/kinesthetics and direct observations of moon phases using a planetarium. Data for each method will be measured by a pre and post assessment of students understanding of moon phases taught using one of the methods. The data will then be used to evaluate the effectiveness of each teaching method individually and comparatively, as well as the method's ability to discourage common misconceptions about moon phases. Results from this research will provide foundational data for the development of educational planetarium shows for the deaf or other linguistically disadvantage children.

  14. An Alternative view of Earth's Tectonics : The Moon's explosive origin out of SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    insufficient time has elapsed, to break up the scar, by "plate" movement, or erosion. The present tectonic/ volcanic activity, (eg earthquakes/eruptions along the Pacific Ring of Fire) is further evidence of this "smoking gun". Coleman P.F., 2015, Alternative Models of the Moon, Physics Today, 68,4,8.

  15. Observations and temperatures of Io's Pele Patera from Cassini and Galileo spacecraft images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Turtle, E.P.; Dawson, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pele has been the most intense high-temperature hotspot on Io to be continuously active during the Galileo monitoring from 1996-2001. A suite of characteristics suggests that Pele is an active lava lake inside a volcanic depression. In 2000-2001, Pele was observed by two spacecraft, Cassini and Galileo. The Cassini observations revealed that Pele is variable in activity over timescales of minutes, typical of active lava lakes in Hawaii and Ethiopia. These observations also revealed that the short-wavelength thermal emission from Pele decreases with rotation of Io by a factor significantly greater than the cosine of the emission angle, and that the color temperature becomes more variable and hotter at high emission angles. This behavior suggests that a significant portion of the visible thermal emission from Pele comes from lava fountains within a topographically confined lava body. High spatial resolution, nightside images from a Galileo flyby in October 2001 revealed a large, relatively cool (Pele has lavas with ultramafic compositions. The long-lived, vigorous activity of what is most likely an actively overturning lava lake in Pele Patera indicates that there is a strong connection to a large, stable magma source region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrunk, David; Sharpe, Burton; Cooper, Bonnie; Thangavelu, Madhu

    1999-07-01

    This unique, visionary and innovative book describes how the Moon could be colonised and developed as a platform for science, industrialization and exploration of our Solar System and beyond. Thirty years ago, the world waited with baited breath to watch history in the making, as man finally stepped onto the moon's surface. In the last few years, there has been growing interest in the idea of a return to the moon. This book describes the reasons why we should now start lunar development and settlement, and how this goal may be accomplished. The authors, all of whom are hugely experienced space scientists, consider the rationale and steps necessary for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. Their innovative and scientific-based analysis concludes that the Moon has sufficient resources for large-scale human development. Their case for development includes arguments for a solar-powered electric grid and railroad, creation of a utilities infrastructure, habitable facilities, scientific operations and the involvement of private enterprise with the public sector in the macroproject. By transferring and adapting existing technologies to the lunar environment, the authors argue that it will be possible to use lunar resources and solar power to build a global lunar infrastructure embracing power, communication, transportation, and manufacturing. This will support the migration of increasing numbers of people from Earth, and realization of the Moon's scientific potential. As an inhabited world, the Moon is an ideal site for scientific laboratories dedicated to geosciences, astronomy and life sciences, and most importantly, it would fulfil a role as a proving ground and launch pad for future Solar System exploration. The ten chapters in this book go beyond the theoretical and conceptual. With vision and foresight, the authors offer practical means for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. The book will make fascinating and stimulating reading for students in

  17. Moon Effect on Paciic Basin Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayenda Khresna Brahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an empirical study on the inluences of moon on seven stock markets, which are Indonesia, Malaysia, United Kingdom, United States, Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. The period is from January 1999 until December 2009 in daily basis. This study investigates the relationship  between  moon  phase  and  market  returns.  We  divided  moon  phases  into  new moon  and  full  moon.  While  literature  mention  the  relationship  between  moon  phase  and market returns, our research reject the null hypothesis in regression analysis. However, the descriptive  catches  the  indication  and  conirmed  previous  research.  It  also  proposes  that the market is still rational and not moon-mood inluenced. This result is not contending the EMH theorem. Further research is needed in term of investigating the relationship between psychology  factors  (heuristic  bias,  information  ignorance,  and  other  factors  and  investor behavior. The effect of moon on certain anomalies has to examine speciically. ";} // -->activate javascript

  18. The Enigmatic Face of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galles, C. D.; Gallagher, C. J.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst Man's only way of observing the Moon was with the naked eye, attempts at explaining the spots on her surface remained highly speculative. The telescopic observation by Galileo of previously unknown spots, differing from the earlier ones by their variability in time, was to signify a radical change to the hereto medieval ideas on the material composition of the Moon. And curiously enough, this new scenario was a revindication of Plutarch's hypothesis construed more than a millennium before.

  19. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Moon over Mauna Loa - a review of hypotheses of formation of earth's moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper examines five models of lunar formation after considering the following constraints: (1) the large mass of the moon and the substantial prograde angular momentum of the earth-moon system; (2) the moon's depletion in volatile elements and iron, (3) the correspondence of oxygen isotope signatures in earth and moon, and (4) the lunar magma ocean. The models considered are: (1) capture from an independent heliocentric orbit, (2) coaccretion from a swarm of planetesimals in geocentric orbit, (3) fission from a rapidly rotating earth, (4) collisional ejection, and (5) disintegrative capture. 99 references

  1. Moon. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

  2. A survey of IoT cloud platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT envisages overall merging of several “things” while utilizing internet as the backbone of the communication system to establish a smart interaction between people and surrounding objects. Cloud, being the crucial component of IoT, provides valuable application specific services in many application domains. A number of IoT cloud providers are currently emerging into the market to leverage suitable and specific IoT based services. In spite of huge possible involvement of these IoT clouds, no standard cum comparative analytical study has been found across the literature databases. This article surveys popular IoT cloud platforms in light of solving several service domains such as application development, device management, system management, heterogeneity management, data management, tools for analysis, deployment, monitoring, visualization, and research. A comparison is presented for overall dissemination of IoT clouds according to their applicability. Further, few challenges are also described that the researchers should take on in near future. Ultimately, the goal of this article is to provide detailed knowledge about the existing IoT cloud service providers and their pros and cons in concrete form.

  3. Analysis of DDoS-capable IoT malwares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Donno, Michele; Dragoni, Nicola; Giaretta, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    to the top Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, making them more powerful and easier to achieve than ever. This paper aims at provide an up-to-date picture of DDoS attacks in the specific subject of the IoT, studying how these attacks work and considering the most common families in the IoT context...

  4. Sabatilles : Adaptació a iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cots Sanfeliu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Adaptació del conte en format paper Sabatilles a aplicació en iOS per a dispositius mòbils d'Apple. Adaptación del cuento en formato papel Sabatilles a aplicación en iOS para dispositivos móviles de Apple. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program.

  5. Remote I/O : fast access to distant storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Kohr, D., Jr.; Krishnaiyer, R.; Mogill, J.

    1997-12-17

    As high-speed networks make it easier to use distributed resources, it becomes increasingly common that applications and their data are not colocated. Users have traditionally addressed this problem by manually staging data to and from remote computers. We argue instead for a new remote I/O paradigm in which programs use familiar parallel I/O interfaces to access remote file systems. In addition to simplifying remote execution, remote I/O can improve performance relative to staging by overlapping computation and data transfer or by reducing communication requirements. However, remote I/O also introduces new technical challenges in the areas of portability, performance, and integration with distributed computing systems. We propose techniques designed to address these challenges and describe a remote I/O library called RIO that we have developed to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques. RIO addresses issues of portability by adopting the quasi-standard MPI-IO interface and by defining a RIO device and RIO server within the ADIO abstract I/O device architecture. It addresses performance issues by providing traditional I/O optimizations such as asynchronous operations and through implementation techniques such as buffering and message forwarding to off load communication overheads. RIO uses the Nexus communication library to obtain access to configuration and security mechanisms provided by the Globus wide area computing tool kit. Microbenchmarks and application experiments demonstrate that our techniques achieve acceptable performance in most situations and can improve turnaround time relative to staging.

  6. Interaction between users and IoT clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Gitanjali; Olesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is paving the way for a vast number of objects in our environment to react, respond and work autonomously as and when required and as per their capability, role and position. They will be able to announce and offer their services to the users, and together this will e......The Internet of Things (IoT) is paving the way for a vast number of objects in our environment to react, respond and work autonomously as and when required and as per their capability, role and position. They will be able to announce and offer their services to the users, and together...... this will enable the vision of an "Internet of People, Things and Services" (IoPTS). Application areas for IoT include smart cities, smart homes, environmental control, security & emergency, retail, logistics, industrial control, smart farming, and e-Health. All the IoT objects are organized in clusters, which...... framework that is needed to realize IoPTS. In particular, we focus on the interaction between the users and the IoT clusters, where the user profile (role, privileges, and preferences) should be matched with the services offered by the IoT cluster, including the initial set-up, access control...

  7. On Energy Efficiency of Prioritized IoT Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman; Shihada, Basem; Cavdar, Cicek

    2018-01-01

    The inevitable deployment of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) sheds the light on the importance of the energy efficiency (EE) performance of Device-to- Device (DD) communication systems. In this work, we address a potential IoT application, where

  8. Performance analysis of routing protocols for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Sridhar; Nalini, N.

    2018-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an arrangement of advancements that are between disciplinary. It is utilized to have compelling combination of both physical and computerized things. With IoT physical things can have personal virtual identities and participate in distributed computing. Realization of IoT needs the usage of sensors based on the sector for which IoT is integrated. For instance, in healthcare domain, IoT needs to have integration with wearable sensors used by patients. As sensor devices produce huge amount of data, often called big data, there should be efficient routing protocols in place. To the extent remote systems is worried there are some current protocols, for example, OLSR, DSR and AODV. It additionally tosses light into Trust based routing protocol for low-power and lossy systems (TRPL) for IoT. These are broadly utilized remote directing protocols. As IoT is developing round the corner, it is basic to investigate routing protocols that and evaluate their execution regarding throughput, end to end delay, and directing overhead. The execution experiences can help in settling on very much educated choices while incorporating remote systems with IoT. In this paper, we analyzed different routing protocols and their performance is compared. It is found that AODV showed better performance than other routing protocols aforementioned.

  9. The Potential for Volcanism and Tectonics on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Roberge, Aki

    2018-01-01

    JWST and other next-generation space telescopes (e.g., LUVOIR, HabEx, & OST) will usher in a new era of exoplanet characterization that may lead to the identification of habitable, Earth-like worlds. Like the planets and moons in our solar system, the surfaces and interiors of terrestrial exoplanets may be shaped by volcanism and tectonics (Fu et al., 2010; van Summeren et al., 2011; Henning and Hurford, 2014). The magnitude and rate of occurrence of these dynamic processes can either facilitate or preclude the existence of habitable environments. Likewise, it has been suggested that detections of cryovolcanism on icy exoplanets, in the form of geyser-like plumes, could indicate the presence of subsurface oceans (Quick et al., 2017).The presence of volcanic and tectonic activity on solid exoplanets will be intimately linked to planet size and heat output in the form of radiogenic and/or tidal heating. In order to place bounds on the potential for such activity, we estimated the heat output of a variety of exoplanets observed by Kepler. We considered planets whose masses and radii range from 0.067 ME (super-Ganymede) to 8 ME (super-Earth), and 0.5 to 1.8 RE, respectively. These heat output estimates were then compared to those of planets, moons, and dwarf planets in our solar system for which we have direct evidence for the presence/absence of volcanic and tectonic activity. After exoplanet heating rates were estimated, depths to putative molten layers in their interiors were also calculated. For planets such as TRAPPIST-1h, whose densities, orbital parameters, and effective temperatures are consistent with the presence of significant amounts of H2O (Luger et al., 2017), these calculations reveal the depths to internal oceans which may serve as habitable niches beneath surface ice layers.

  10. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  11. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  13. Lyman Alpha Camera for Io's SO2 atmosphere and Europa's water plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Sandel, Bill; Schneider, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The Student Lyman-Alpha Mapper (SLAM) was conceived for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission proposal (McEwen et al., 2014) to determine the spatial and temporal variations in Io's SO2 atmosphere by recording the H Ly-α reflection over the disk (Feldman et al., 2000; Feaga et al., 2009). SO2 absorbs at H Ly-α, thereby modulating the brightness of sunlight reflected by the surface, and measures the density of the SO2 atmosphere and its variability with volcanic activity and time of day. Recently, enhancements at the Ly-α wavelength (121.57 nm) were seen near the limb of Europa and interpreted as active water plumes ~200 km high (Roth et al., 2014). We have a preliminary design for a very simple camera to image in a single bandpass at Ly-α, analogous to a simplified version of IMAGE EUV (Sandel et al. 2000). Our goal is at least 50 resolution elements across Io and/or Europa (~75 km/pixel), ~3x better than HST STIS, to be acquired at a range where the radiation noise is below 1E-4 hits/pixel/s. This goal is achieved with a Cassegrain-like telescope with a 10-cm aperture. The wavelength selection is achieved using a simple self-filtering mirror in combination with a solar-blind photocathode. A photon-counting detector based on a sealed image intensifier preserves the poisson statistics of the incoming photon flux. The intensifier window is coated with a solar-blind photocathode material (CsI). The location of each photon event is recorded by a position-sensitive anode based on crossed delay-line or wedge-and-strip technology. The sensitivity is 0.01 counts/pixel/sec/R, sufficient to estimate SO2 column abundances ranging from 1E15 to 1E17 per cm2 in a 5 min (300 sec) exposure. Sensitivity requirements to search for and image Europa plumes may be similar. Io's Ly-α brightness of ~3 kR exceeds the 0.8 kR brightness of Europa's plume reported by Roth et al. (2014), but the plume brightness is a direct measurement rather than inferring column abundance from

  14. Future of IoT Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Kyu Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mobile devices has changed our daily lives. They enable users to obtain information even in a nomadic environment and provide information without limitations. A decade after the introduction of this technology, we are now facing the next innovation that will change our daily lives. With the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT, our communication ability will not be restricted to only mobile devices. Rather, it will expand to all things with which we coexist. Many studies have discussed IoT-related services and platforms. However, there are only limited discussions about the IoT network. In this paper, we will thoroughly analyze the technical details about the IoT network. Based on our survey of papers, we will provide insight about the future IoT network and the crucial components that will enable it.

  15. Internet of robotic things : converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu; Bröring, Arne; Tragos, Elias; Serrano, Martin; Bacciu, Davide; Chessa, Stefano; Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio; Dragone, Mauro; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Simoens, Pieter; Cavallo, Filippo; Bahr, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing newdevelopments in various application domains, such as the Internet of MobileThings (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous Systemof Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internetof Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc.that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influencerepresents new development and deployment challenges in different a...

  16. Towards multi-layer interoperability of heterogeneous IoT platforms : the INTER-IoT approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortino, Giancarlo; Savaglio, Claudio; Palau, Carlos E.; de Puga, Jara Suarez; Ghanza, Maria; Paprzycki, Marcin; Montesinos, Miguel; Liotta, Antonio; Llop, Miguel; Gravina, R.; Palau, C.E.; Manso, M.; Liotta, A.; Fortino, G.

    2018-01-01

    Open interoperability delivers on the promise of enabling vendors and developers to interact and interoperate, without interfering with anyone’s ability to compete by delivering a superior product and experience. In the absence of global IoT standards, the INTER-IoT voluntary approach will support

  17. New Horizons-LEISA Observations Of Io's Hotspots During The 2007 Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Constantine; Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft flew past Jupiter and its satellites in February 2007. The flyby provided one of the most exquisite sets of observations of Io’s active plumes and hotspots yet taken, including many observations of a large 350 km high eruption plume at Tvashtar. Among the suite of instruments active during the flyby was the Linear Etalon Infrared Spectral Array (LEISA), a near-infrared imaging spectrometer. It covers the wavelength region between 1.25 and 2.5 µm, at a resolving power of 240, with a higher resolving power segment (R=540), covering 2.1 to 2.25 µm. Both segments share the same detector array to give on a 256 x 256 pixel spectral image at 62 µrad per pixel field-of-view. LEISA identified more than 30 individual hotspots on Io, over the seven spectral cubes taken during the flyby. We can measure the thermal emission from these volcanoes, and arrive at eruption temperatures by fitting blackbody curves to hotspot spectra. The temperatures of Tvashtar, Pele and East Girru were all derived in the Spencer et al., (2007) study. These volcanoes were consistent with basaltic volcanism with temperatures between 1287 and 1335 K. Here, we present blackbody fits of the other volcanic hotspots identified in the spectral images to complete the study of hotspot locations, eruption temperatures, emitting area and temporal variability where possible.

  18. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  19. Did Triton Destroy Neptune's First Moons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Neptunes moon system is not what we would expect for a gas giant in our solar system. Scientists have now explored the possibility that Neptune started its life with an ordinary system of moons that was later destroyed by the capture of its current giant moon, Triton.An Odd SystemOur current understanding of giant-planet formation predicts a period of gas accretion to build up the large size of these planets. According to models, the circumplanetary gas disks that surround the planets during this time then become the birthplaces of the giant planets satellite systems, producing systems of co-planar and prograde (i.e., orbiting in the same direction as the planets rotation) satellites similar to the many-moon systems of Jupiter or Saturn.Tritons orbit is tilted relative to the inner Neptunian satellite orbits. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]Neptune, however, is quirky. This gas giant has surprisingly few satellites only 14 compared to, say, the nearly 70 moons of Jupiter and most of them are extremely small. One of Neptunes moons is an exception to this, however: Triton, which contains 99.7% of the mass of Neptunes entire satellite system!Tritons orbit has a number of unusual properties. The orbit is retrograde Triton orbits in the opposite direction as Neptunes rotation which is unique behavior among large moons in our solar system. Tritons orbit is also highly inclined, and yet the moons path is nearly circular and lies very close to Neptune.The distribution of impact velocities in the authors simulations for primordial satellite interactions with Triton, in three cases of different satellite mass ratios. In the low-mass case a third of the mass ratio of the Uranian satellite system 88% of simulations ended with Triton surviving on its high-inclination orbit. The survival rate was only 12% in the high-mass case. [Adapted from Rufu et al. 2017]How did this monster of a satellite get its strange properties, and why is Neptunes system so odd compared to what we

  20. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, announced in 2004, calls on NASA to finish constructing the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return to the Moon and go on the Mars. By exploring space, America continues the tradition of great nations who mastered the Earth, air, and sea, and who then enjoyed the benefits of increased commerce and technological advances. The progress being made today is part of the next chapter in America's history of leadership in space. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within the planned timeline and also within the allowable budget, NASA is building upon the best of proven space transportation systems. Journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. What America learns in reaching for the Moon will teach astronauts how to prepare for the first human footprints on Mars. While robotic science may reveal information about the nature of hydrogen on the Moon, it will most likely tale a human being with a rock hammer to find the real truth about the presence of water, a precious natural resource that opens many possibilities for explorers. In this way, the combination of astronauts using a variety of tools and machines provides a special synergy that will vastly improve our understanding of Earth's cosmic neighborhood.

  1. "A Nightmare Land, a Place of Death": An Exploration of the Moon as a Motif in Herge's "Destination Moon" (1953) and "Explorers on the Moon" (1954)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the symbolic meaning of the Moon in two "bande dessinee" books from the Tintin series, Herge's "Destination Moon" ("Objectif Lune," 1953) and its sequel "Explorers on the Moon" ("On a Marche sur la Lune," 1954). It argues that these two volumes stand out in the series for their graphic, narrative and philosophical emphasis on…

  2. IoT Platforms: Analysis for Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Liviu DUMITRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general survey of IoT platforms in terms of features for IoT project de-velopers. I will briefly summarize the state of knowledge in terms of technology regarding “In-ternet of Things” first steps in developing this technology, history, trends, sensors and micro-controllers used. I have evaluated a number of 5 IoT platforms in terms of the features needed to develop a IoT project. I have listed those components that are most appreciated by IoT pro-ject developers and the results have been highlighted in a comparative analysis of these plat-forms from the point of view of IoT project developers and which are strictly necessary as a de-velopment environment for an IoT project based. I’ve also considered the users' views of such platforms in terms of functionality, advantages, disadvantages and dangers presented by this technology.

  3. I/O in the ATLAS multithreaded framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cranshaw, Jack; The ATLAS collaboration; Nowak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Scalable multithreading poses challenges to I/O, and the performance of a thread-safe I/O strategy may depend upon many factors, including I/O latencies, whether tasks are CPU- or I/O-intensive, and thread count. In a multithreaded framework, an I/O infrastructure must efficiently supply event data to and collect it from many threads processing multiple events in flight. In particular, on-demand reading from multiple threads may challenge caching strategies that were developed for serial processing and may need to be enhanced. This I/O infrastructure must also address how to read, make available, and propagate in-file metadata and other non-event data needed as context for event processing. We describe the design and scheduling of I/O components in the ATLAS multithreaded control framework, AthenaMT, for both event and non-event I/O. We discuss issues associated with exploiting the multithreading capabilities of our underlying persistence technology, ROOT, in a manner harmonious with the ATLAS framework’s o...

  4. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  5. Some inner satellites of giant planets are still outgassing: Triton, Enceladus, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide hundreds of kilometers high. It is admitted that Io's orbital eccentricity is a main reason for volcanism creating its patchy atmosphere and plasma tore ("detached atmosphere"). It is interesting that the latest MESSENGER data show that spacious volcanic effusions cover Mercury and one region appears to have experienced a high level of volcanic activity. Chains of small deep pits occur in the region along with the larger 30 km across crater. The innermost planet Mercury is deeply degassed and almost dry. Areal volcanic effusions, clear traces of contraction (escarps or lobate ledges), numerous chains of deep pits (craters) controlled by lineaments or weakness zones witness this. Not able to keep an atmosphere in the close vicinity to mighty Sun, Mercury still has traces of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and noble gases in its exosphere (but it seems that sputtering from the surface is a main reason for their appearance). References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (2006) Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan: intensity of wiping out volatiles from celestial bodies and building atmospheres //36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Beijing, China, 16-23 July 2006, Abstr. COSPAR2006-A-00789, CD-ROM; [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2009) A regular row of planetary relief ranges connected with tectonic granulations of celestial bodies // New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, # 51, 58-61. [3] Kochemasov, G.G. (2006). Outgassing of planets in relation to their orbital frequencies // EUROPLANET-2006 Sci. Conference, Sept.22-26, 2006, Berlin, EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 1, EPSC2006-A-00043, CD-ROM.

  6. Nystagmus in Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruce Janati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laurence-Moon-Biedl (LMB syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive ciliopathy with manifold symptomatology. The cardinal clinical features include retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, intellectual delay, polydactyly/syndactyly, and hypogenitalism. In this paper, the authors report on three siblings with Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome associated with a probable pseudocycloid form of congenital nystagmus. Methods. This was a case study conducted at King Khaled Hospital. Results. The authors assert that the nystagmus in Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome is essentially similar to idiopathic motor-defect nystagmus and the nystagmus seen in optic nerve hypoplasia, ocular albinism, and bilateral opacities of the ocular media. Conclusion. The data support the previous hypothesis that there is a common brain stem motor abnormality in sensory-defect and motor-defect nystagmus.

  7. Magnetism and the history of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D. W.; Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Carnes, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    All lunar samples measured to date contain a weak but stable remanent magnetization of lunar origin. The magnetization is carried by metallic iron and is considered to be caused by cooling from above the Curie point in the presence of a magnetic field. Although at present the moon does not have a global field, the remanent magnetization of the rock samples and the presence of magnetic anomalies, both on the near and far side of the moon, imply that the moon experienced a magnetic field during some portion of its history. The field could have been generated in a liquid iron core sustaining a self-exciting dynamo, but there are some basic thermal and geochemical objections that need to be resolved.

  8. TMACS I/O termination point listing. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a listing of all analog and discrete input/output (I/O) points connected to the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). The list also provides other information such as the point tag name, termination location, description, drawing references and other parameters. The purpose is to define each point's unique tag name and to cross reference the point with other associated information that may be necessary for activities such as maintenance, calibration, diagnostics, or design changes. It provides a list in one document of all I/O points that would otherwise only be available by referring to all I/O termination drawings

  9. Knowledge driven discovery for opportunistic IoT networking.

    OpenAIRE

    Pozza, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    So far, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been concerned with the objective of connecting every-thing, or any object to the Internet world. By collaborating towards the creation of new services, the IoT has introduced the opportunity to add smartness to our cities, homes, buildings and healthcare systems, as well as businesses and products. In many scenarios, objects or IoT devices are not always statically deployed, but they may be free to move around being carried by people or vehicles, whil...

  10. TMACS I/O termination point listing. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaief, C.C. III

    1994-09-13

    This document provides a listing of all analog and discrete input/output (I/O) points connected to the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). The list also provides other information such as the point tag name, termination location, description, drawing references and other parameters. The purpose is to define each point`s unique tag name and to cross reference the point with other associated information that may be necessary for activities such as maintenance, calibration, diagnostics, or design changes. It provides a list in one document of all I/O points that would otherwise only be available by referring to all I/O termination drawings.

  11. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Ole Henry

    2011-01-01

    OS X and iOS Kernel Programming combines essential operating system and kernel architecture knowledge with a highly practical approach that will help you write effective kernel-level code. You'll learn fundamental concepts such as memory management and thread synchronization, as well as the I/O Kit framework. You'll also learn how to write your own kernel-level extensions, such as device drivers for USB and Thunderbolt devices, including networking, storage and audio drivers. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming provides an incisive and complete introduction to the XNU kernel, which runs iPhones, i

  12. RubyMotion iOS develoment essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nalwaya, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step book that builds on your knowledge by adding to an example app over the course of each chapter. Each topic uses example code that can be compiled and tested to show how things work practically instead of just telling you the theory. Complicated tasks are broken down into easy to follow steps with clear explanations of what each line of code is doing.Whether you are a novice to iOS development or looking for a simpler alternative to Objective-C; with RubyMotion iOS Development Essentials, you will become a pro at writing great iOS apps

  13. Beginning Swift games development for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwill, James

    2015-01-01

    Game apps are one of the most popular categories in the Apple iTunes App Store. Well, the introduction of the new Swift programming language will make game development even more appealing and easier to existing and future iOS app developers. In response, James Goodwill, Wesley Matlock and Apress introduce you to this book, Beginning Swift Games Development for iOS. In this book, you'll learn the fundamental elements of the new Swift language as applied to game development for iOS. In part 1, you'll start with a basic 2D game idea and build the game throughout the book introducing each Sprit

  14. Using Lava Tube Skylight Thermal Emission Spectra to Determine Lava Composition on Io: Quantitative Constraints for Observations by Future Missions to the Jovian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    Deriving the composition of Io's dominant lavas (mafic or ultramafic?) is a major objective of the next missions to the jovian system. The best opportunities for making this determination are from observations of thermal emission from skylights, holes in the roof of a lava tube through which incandescent lava radiates, and Io thermal outbursts, where lava fountaining is taking place [1]. Allowing for lava cooling across the skylight, the expected thermal emission spectra from skylights of different sizes have been calculated for laminar and turbulent tube flow and for mafic and ultramafic composition lavas. The difference between the resulting mafic and ultramafic lava spectra has been quantified, as has the instrument sensitivity needed to acquire the necessary data to determine lava eruption temperature, both from Europa orbit and during an Io flyby. A skylight is an excellent target to observe lava that has cooled very little since eruption (California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. AGD is supported by a grant from the NASA OPR Program. References: [1] Davies, A. G., 1996, Icarus, 124, 45-61. [2] Keszthelyi, L., et al., 2006, JGS, 163, 253-264. [3] Davies, A. G., 2007, Volcanism on Io, Cambridge University Press. [4] Keszthelyi, L., et al., 2007, Icarus, 192, 491-502. [5] Davies, A. G., et al., 2006, Icarus, 184, 460-477.

  15. DSMC Simulations of Io's Pele Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D.; Varghese, P.; Trafton, L.

    2012-10-01

    Io’s Pele plume rises over 300km in altitude and leaves a deposition ring 1200km across on the surface of the moon. Material emerges from an irregularly-shaped vent, and this geometry gives rise to complex 3D flow features. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to model the gas flow in the rarefied plume, demonstrating how the geometry of the source region is responsible for the asymmetric structure of the deposition ring and illustrating the importance of very small-scale vent geometry in explaining large observed features of interest. Simulations of small particles in the plume and comparisons to the black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are used to constrain particle sizes and entrainment mechanisms. Preliminary results for the effects of plasma energy and momentum transfer to the plume will also be presented.

  16. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  17. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  18. Moon Zoo - Examples of Interesting Lunar Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A. C.; Wilkinson, J.

    2012-09-01

    The MoonMappers citizen science project is part of CosmoQuest, a virtual research facility designed for the public. CosmoQuest seeks to take the best aspects of a research center - research, seminars, journal clubs, and community discussions - and provide them to a community of citizen scientists through a virtual facility. MoonMappers was the first citizen science project within CosmoQuest, and is being used to define best practices in getting the public to effectively learn and do science.

  19. Origin of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's interior and its bearing on the Earth's origin are discussed. It seems likely that the terrestrial planets formed by the accretion of solid planetisimals from the nebula of dust and gas left behind during the formation of the Sun. The scenario proposed is simpler than others. New evidence based upon a comparison of siderophile element abundances in the Earth's mantle and in the Moon imply that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had segregated

  20. Towards IoT platforms’ integration : Semantic Translations between W3C SSN and ETSI SAREF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João Luiz; Daniele, L.M.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wasielewska, Katarzyna; Szmeja, Pawel; Pawlowski, Wieslaw; Ganzha, Maria; Paprzycki, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Several IoT ontologies have been developed lately to improve the semantic interoperability of IoT solutions. The most popular of these ontologies, the W3C Semantic Sensor Network (SSN), is considered an ontological foundation for diverse IoT initiatives, particularly OpenIoT. With characteristics

  1. The Haskell Programmer's Guide to the IO Monad : Don't Panic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinger, S.

    2005-01-01

    Now, that you have started with Haskell, have you written a program doing IO yet, like reading a file or writing on the terminal? Then you have used the IO monad—but do you understand how it works? The standard explanation is, that the IO monad hides the non-functional IO actions —which do have side

  2. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  3. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  4. iOS 7 programming pushing the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Napier, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Get ready to create killer apps for iPad and iPhone on the new iOS 7! With Apple's introduction of iOS 7, demand for developers who know the new iOS will be high. You need in-depth information about the new characteristics and capabilities of iOS 7, and that's what you'll find in this book. If you have experience with C or C++, this guide will show you how to create amazing apps for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. You'll also learn to maximize your programs for mobile devices using iPhone SDK 7.0. Advanced topics such as security services, running on multiple iPlatforms, and local networking w

  5. New upper limits for atmospheric constituents on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of Io from 0.86 to 2.7 microns with a resolution of 3.36 per cm and a signal to rms noise ratio of 120 is presented. No absorptions due to any atmospheric constituents on Io could be found in the spectrum. Upper limits of 0.12 cm-atm for NH3, 0.12 cm-atm for CH4, 0.4 cm-atm for N2O, and 24 cm-atm for H2S were determined. Laboratory spectra of ammonia frosts as a function of temperature were compared with the spectrum of Io and showed this frost not to be present at the surface of Io. A search for possible resonance lines of carbon, silicon, and sulfur, as well as the 1.08-micron line of helium, proved negative. Upper emission limits of 60, 18, 27, and 60 kilorayleighs, respectively, were established for these lines.

  6. BRC/IoP standard importance in packaging quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BRC/IoP (British Retail Consortium / Institute of Packaging is the only industry standard dedicated entrepreneurs operating in the packaging industry, primarily intended for contact with food. The requirements of the BRC / IoP guarantee the safety of packaging and fulfillment of all legal and hygienic requirements. The article presents the main features of the standard, the basic requirements contained in the document and the results of research on the implementation of quality management systems, including standard BRC / IoP and the actions that are required checklists. It is noticeable that there is little interest in certification BRC / IoP, due to low awareness of the standard, despite the fulfillment of some of the basic requirements of the surveyed companies.

  7. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  8. Volcanic crisis in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Víctor Manuel Pérez Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of an investigation which is focussed on some deontological aspects of the scientificjournalism. In the first place it gives a theoretical vision about science, journalism, internet and including some reflectionsabout the deontological principles in handling the information about science and technology. This focus is useful as it formsthe base of an investigation where we deal with the information about a possible ”volcanic crisis” in El Teide during the years2004-2005 done by the digital newspaper” El Dïa” a canarian newspaper from Tenerife. The work required the revision of theinformation which was published and a followed analysis of its context. It was used the digital version with the purpose ofvisualizing the news which was published. It was also compared with a printed version, with local cover but divulged theinformation to the public who was most affected by this particular news. The results give rise to some questions regardinghow the information is given to a topic which is of local interest as well as national and international interest due to therepercussions in the social, economical and tourist field (the tourist field is the main industrial sector in Tenerife by receivingthis type of news.

  9. Integrating Facebook iOS SDK with your application

    CERN Document Server

    Macrì, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based guide with chapters focusing on learning and embedding crucial Facebook features.If you are a developer who wishes to develop and monetize your apps on the App store, then this is the book for you. This book assumes you have basic knowledge of iOS programming using Objective-C and XCode, however, prior knowledge of Facebook iOS SDK is not required.

  10. Identification of radio emission from the Io flux tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Many theories and observations suggest that Jovian decametric radio emission is generated in flux tubes that pass close to Io's orbit. However, comparison of theory and observation is hindered by lack of knowledge as to which specific flux tube is responsible for a particular emission. In this note, emission from the instantaneous Io flux tube is identified. This makes possible a mapping of emissions onto the causative flux tubes for a significant range of Jovian longitudes (240 0 --360 0 )

  11. Proof of Concept of Home IoT Connected Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Younsun; Oh, Hyunggoy; Kang, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    The way in which we interact with our cars is changing, driven by the increased use of mobile devices, cloud-based services, and advanced automotive technology. In particular, the requirements and market demand for the Internet of Things (IoT) device-connected vehicles will continuously increase. In addition, the advances in cloud computing and IoT have provided a promising opportunity for developing vehicular software and services in the automotive domain. In this paper, we introduce the con...

  12. A post-Galileo view of Io's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model for the interior of Io, taking the recent Galileo data into account. In this model, Io has a completely molten core, substantially molten mantle, and a very cold lithosphere. Heat from magmatic activity can mobilize volatile compounds such as SO2 in the lithosphere, and the movement of such cryogenic fluids may be important in the formation of surface features including sapping scarps and paterae. ?? Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Security Framework for the Web of IoT Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Atarah, Ivan Akoribila

    2017-01-01

    Connected devices of IoT platforms are known to produce, process and exchange vast amounts of data, most of it sensitive or personal, that need to be protected. However, achieving minimal data protection requirements such as confidentiality, integrity, availability and non-repudiation in IoT platforms is a non-trivial issue. For one reason, the trillions of interacting devices provide larger attack surfaces. Secondly, high levels of personal and private data sharing in this ubiquitous and het...

  14. 5G IoT Industry Verticals and Network Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Condoluci, Massimo; Lema Rosas, Maria Angel; Mahmoodi, Toktam; Dohler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The effective provisioning of industry verticals over the next-to-come 5G systems opens novel business opportunities for telco operators especially when considering the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) devices as enablers of business cases based on remote sensing and control. This chapter highlights the main features of IoT verticals with particular attention on healthcare, smart cities, industry automation and entertainment business cases. The aim of this Chapter is to derive the requ...

  15. SMART-ITEM: IoT-Enabled Smart Living

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, A; Pattinson, C; Yanovsky, M; Kharchenko, V

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this proposed project is to harness the emerging IoT technology to empower elderly population to self-manage their own health, stay active, healthy, and independent as long as possible within a smart and secured living environment. An integrated open-sourced IoT ecosystem will be developed. It will encompass the entire data lifecycle which involves the following processes: data acquisition, data transportation; data integration, processing, manipulation and computation; visua...

  16. Practical comparison of distributed ledger technologies for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Val A.

    2017-05-01

    Existing distributed ledger implementations - specifically, several blockchain implementations - embody a cacophony of divergent capabilities augmenting innovations of cryptographic hashes, consensus mechanisms, and asymmetric cryptography in a wide variety of applications. Whether specifically designed for cryptocurrency or otherwise, several distributed ledgers rely upon modular mechanisms such as consensus or smart contracts. These components, however, can vary substantially among implementations; differences involving proof-of-work, practical byzantine fault tolerance, and other consensus approaches exemplify distinct distributed ledger variations. Such divergence results in unique combinations of modules, performance, latency, and fault tolerance. As implementations continue to develop rapidly due to the emerging nature of blockchain technologies, this paper encapsulates a snapshot of sensor and internet of things (IoT) specific implementations of blockchain as of the end of 2016. Several technical risks and divergent approaches preclude standardization of a blockchain for sensors and IoT in the foreseeable future; such issues will be assessed alongside the practicality of IoT applications among Hyperledger, Iota, and Ethereum distributed ledger implementations suggested for IoT. This paper contributes a comparison of existing distributed ledger implementations intended for practical sensor and IoT utilization. A baseline for characterizing distributed ledger implementations in the context of IoT and sensors is proposed. Technical approaches and performance are compared considering IoT size, weight, and power limitations. Consensus and smart contracts, if applied, are also analyzed for the respective implementations' practicality and security. Overall, the maturity of distributed ledgers with respect to sensor and IoT applicability will be analyzed for enterprise interoperability.

  17. Enabling IoT ecosystems through platform interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Bröring, Arne; Schmid, Stefan; Schindhelm, Corina-Kim; Khelil, Abdelmajid; Kabisch, Sebastian; Kramer, Denis; Le Phuoc, Danh; Mitic, Jelena; Anicic, Darko; Teniente López, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) comprises vertically oriented platforms for things. Developers who want to use them need to negotiate access individually and adapt to the platform-specific API and information models. Having to perform these actions for each platform often outweighs the possible gains from adapting applications to multiple platforms. This fragmentation of the IoT and the missing interoperability result in high entry barriers for developers and prevent the emergence of broa...

  18. Astronomy from the Moon and International Lunar Observatory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.; Takahashi, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy from the Moon provides a promising new frontier for 21st century astrophysics and related science activity. International Lunar Observatory Association is an enterprise advancing missions to the Moon for observation and communication.

  19. Origin of the Earth–Moon system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, during the course of time some incon- sistencies of the impact hypothesis have surfaced. It is not the ... At the same time, there are some important differences between the composition of the Earth and that of ... primitive carbonaceous chondrites but to a much lesser degree. At first glance, depletion of the Moon in ...

  20. Mr.Seah Moon Ming Leadership & Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Life and Work Philosophy Seah Moon Ming considers life a continuous journey of learning,adaptation and attainment of goals.He believes that as long as there are changes,you will need to learn - to learn to adapt and to play a useful role in a dynamic and ever-changing world.

  1. Telerobotic exploration and development of the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There has been a debate for the last thirty years about the relative merits of human versus robotic systems and we argue here that both are essential components for successful lunar exploration and development.We examine the role of robots in the next phases of exploration and human development of the Moon.

  2. Europe over the moon with new satellite

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    ESA has taken delivery of a 3kg device that it plans to use to complete the first high-resolution map of the moon. The D-CIXS (Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer) will be aboard the SMART-1 satellite to be launched from French Guyana in South America next February (1/2 page).

  3. Sketching the moon an astronomical artist's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; McCague, Thomas; Rix, Erika; Russell, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Soon after you begin studying the sky through your small telescope or binoculars, you will probably be encouraged by others to make sketches of what you see. Sketching is a time-honored tradition in amateur astronomy and dates back to the earliest times, when telescopes were invented. Even though we have lots of new imaging technologies nowadays, including astrophotography, most observers still use sketching to keep a record of what they see, make them better observers, and in hopes of perhaps contributing something to the body of scientific knowledge about the Moon. Some even sketch because it satisfies their artistic side. The Moon presents some unique challenges to the astronomer-artist, the Moon being so fond of tricks of the light. Sketching the Moon: An Astronomical Artist’s Guide, by five of the best lunar observer-artists working today, will guide you along your way and help you to achieve really high-quality sketches. All the major types of lunar features are covered, with a variety of sketching te...

  4. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  5. The moon as a high temperature condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism, if it occurs during the early over-luminous stage of the sun, can explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. An important factor is the variation of pressure and temperature with distance from the sun, and in the case of the moon and captured satellites of other planets, with distance from the median plane. Current estimates of the temperature and pressure in the solar nebula suggest that condensation will not be complete in the vicinity of the terrestrial planets, and that depending on location, iron, magnesium silicates and the volatiles will be at least partially held in the gaseous phase and subject to separation from the dust by solar wind and magnetic effects associated with the transfer of angular momentum just before the sun joins the Main Sequence. Many of the properties of the moon, including the 'enrichment' in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the 'depletion' in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula.

  6. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  7. Space architecture for MoonVillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a multinational MoonVillage, as proposed by Jan Wörner of ESA, is analyzed with respect to diverse factors affecting its implementation feasibility: potential activities and scale as a function of location, technology, and purpose; potential participants and their roles; business models for growth and sustainability as compared to the ISS; and implications for the field of space architecture. Environmental and operations constraints that govern all types of MoonVillage are detailed. Findings include: 1) while technically feasible, a MoonVillage would be more distributed and complex a project than the ISS; 2) significant and distinctive opportunities exist for willing participants, at all evolutionary scales and degrees of commercialization; 3) the mixed-use space business park model is essential for growth and permanence; 4) growth depends on exporting lunar material products, and the rate and extent of growth depends on export customers including terrestrial industries; 5) industrial-scale operations are a precondition for lunar urbanism, which goal in turn dramatically drives technology requirements; but 6) industrial viability cannot be discerned until significant in situ operations occur; and therefore 7) government investment in lunar surface operations is a strictly enabling step. Because of the resources it could apply, the U.S. government holds the greatest leverage on growth, no matter who founds a MoonVillage. The interplanetary business to be built may because for engagement.

  8. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  9. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted image of two moons and the Pleiades from Mars Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence. On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from the surface of Mars would notice its oblong, potato-like shape and that it moves quickly against the background stars. Phobos takes only 7 hours, 39 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That is so fast, relative to the 24-hour-and-39-minute sol on Mars (the length of time it takes for Mars to complete one rotation), that Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east. Earth's moon, by comparison, rises in the east and sets in the west. The smaller martian moon, Deimos, takes 30 hours, 12 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That orbital period is longer than a martian sol, and so Deimos rises, like most solar system moons, in the east and sets in the west. Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the five images that make up this composite with the panoramic camera, using the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically

  10. An Application-Driven Modular IoT Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Yelamarthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the advancements in the recent years, a new paradigm in technology has emerged in Internet of Things (IoT. IoT has allowed for communication with the surrounding environment through a multitude of sensors and actuators, yet operating on limited energy. Several researchers have presented IoT architectures for respective applications, often challenged by requiring major updates for adoption to a different application. Further, this comes with several uncertainties such as type of computational device required at the edge, mode of wireless connectivity required, methods to obtain power efficiency, and not ensuring rapid deployment. This paper starts with providing a horizontal overview of each layer in IoT architecture and options for different applications. Then it presents a broad application-driven modular architecture, which can be easily customized for rapid deployment. This paper presents the diverse hardware used in several IoT layers such as sensors, embedded processors, wireless transceivers, internet gateway, and application management cloud server. Later, this paper presents implementation results for diverse applications including healthcare, structural health monitoring, agriculture, and indoor tour guide systems. It is hoped that this research will assist the potential user to easily choose IoT hardware and software as it pertains to their respective needs.

  11. Semantic Interoperability in Heterogeneous IoT Infrastructure for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability remains a significant burden to the developers of Internet of Things’ Systems. This is due to the fact that the IoT devices are highly heterogeneous in terms of underlying communication protocols, data formats, and technologies. Secondly due to lack of worldwide acceptable standards, interoperability tools remain limited. In this paper, we proposed an IoT based Semantic Interoperability Model (IoT-SIM to provide Semantic Interoperability among heterogeneous IoT devices in healthcare domain. Physicians communicate their patients with heterogeneous IoT devices to monitor their current health status. Information between physician and patient is semantically annotated and communicated in a meaningful way. A lightweight model for semantic annotation of data using heterogeneous devices in IoT is proposed to provide annotations for data. Resource Description Framework (RDF is a semantic web framework that is used to relate things using triples to make it semantically meaningful. RDF annotated patients’ data has made it semantically interoperable. SPARQL query is used to extract records from RDF graph. For simulation of system, we used Tableau, Gruff-6.2.0, and Mysql tools.

  12. TRIO: Burst Buffer Based I/O Orchestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Pritchard, Michael [Auburn University; Wang, Bin [Auburn University; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University

    2015-01-01

    The growing computing power on leadership HPC systems is often accompanied by ever-escalating failure rates. Checkpointing is a common defensive mechanism used by scientific applications for failure recovery. However, directly writing the large and bursty checkpointing dataset to parallel filesystem can incur significant I/O contention on storage servers. Such contention in turn degrades the raw bandwidth utilization of storage servers and prolongs the average job I/O time of concurrent applications. Recently burst buffer has been proposed as an intermediate layer to absorb the bursty I/O traffic from compute nodes to storage backend. But an I/O orchestration mechanism is still desired to efficiently move checkpointing data from bursty buffers to storage backend. In this paper, we propose a burst buffer based I/O orchestration framework, named TRIO, to intercept and reshape the bursty writes for better sequential write traffic to storage severs. Meanwhile, TRIO coordinates the flushing orders among concurrent burst buffers to alleviate the contention on storage server bandwidth. Our experimental results reveal that TRIO can deliver 30.5% higher bandwidth and reduce the average job I/O time by 37% on average for data-intensive applications in various checkpointing scenarios.

  13. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from

  14. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly after Its Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Mars sized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its…

  15. Apollo 14 crewmen near site of volcanic eruption on Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Prime crewmen and backup crewmen of the Apollo 14 mission look over an area near the site of a volcanic eruption in Aloi Alae, Hawaii. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (leaning with left hand on ground) and Edgar D. Mitchell (behind Shepard, wearing dark glasses) are the prime crewmen scheduled to walk on the moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (almost obscured at extreme left) and Joe H. Engle (partially visible, on Cernan's right) are back-up crew commander and lunar module pilot, respectively, for the mission. Others in the photograph are Pat Crosland (in hard hat), a geologist and a park ranger in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Michael C McEwen (facing Mitchell) of the Geology Branch, Lunar and Earth Sciences Division, Manned Spacecraft Center; and Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, who made the trip to serve as a spacecraft communicator during simulations of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface.

  16. A Federated Capability-based Access Control Mechanism for Internet of Things (IoTs)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of Internet of Things (IoTs) allows heterogeneous embedded smart devices to collaboratively provide intelligent services with or without human intervention. While leveraging the large-scale IoT-based applications like Smart Gird and Smart Cities, IoT also incurs more concerns on privacy and security. Among the top security challenges that IoTs face is that access authorization is critical in resource and information protection over IoTs. Traditional access control approaches, l...

  17. Learning the moon's phases through CL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Maria

    2013-04-01

    This work is a CLIL experience for a class of 14-year-old students, a first grade of a Secondary school, level B1/B2. It is presented an Astronomy lesson whose topic is about the Moon's phases, a quite difficult phenomenon to visualize. Students' attention is attracted by presenting them songs and a short documentary; comprehension is made easier using both Internet-based materials and a card game using Cooperative Learning strategies through Johnsons' ' Learning Together'. The lesson consists of three steps for a total length of three hours. The teacher assigns a time limit for each activity. During the pre-task step, students' interest for present-day music is used to catch their attention and make them aware of the importance of the Moon as an inspiring subject for artistic expression such as popular or rock music. Then the students are requested to brainstorm some simple ideas of ther own about the moon. In the task step, a clear short BBC video is shown in order to stimulate students' listening and comprehension skills and an animation is proposed to help them view the moon cycle. In the post-task step, students are engaged in a card game through Johnsons' 'Learning Together'.Learners are divided into pairs and they have to cooperate to rebuild the moon's cicle as fast as they can. Then the two pairs join together to form groups of four and check their answers. The Assessor shares the group's keys with the whole class. The teacher gives feedback. The groups celebrate their success by clapping their hands and saying what they appreciated regarding their way of working together as pairs and groups.

  18. Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon system is discussed with special attention to the effects of. Sun's perturbations on the Moon's orbit around the Earth. Important secular effects are the re- gression of the nodes, the advance of the perigee and the increase in the Moon's mean longitude. We discuss the relationship of the ...

  19. Moon Phase as a Context for Teaching Scale Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann; Dickerson, Daniel; Hopkins, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The Sun and the Moon are our most visible neighbors in space, yet their distance and size relative to the Earth are often misunderstood. Science textbooks fuel this misconception because they regularly depict linear images of Moon phases without respect to the actual sizes of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, nor their correlated distances from one…

  20. IoTA: IoT Automated SIP-based Emergency Call Triggering System for general eHealth purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Andriopoulou, F; Orphanoudakis, T; Dagiuklas, A

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of Internet of Things (IoT) and the evolution in communication technologies have enabled homes, cars even whole cities to be network connected. However, during an emergency incident, IoT devices have not been used to trigger emergency calls directly to healthcare providers mainly due to their constrained capabilities and lack of support session-oriented communications. Moreover, emergency services are currently offered by public safety stakeholders that do not support call trigg...

  1. High-performance file I/O in Java : existing approaches and bulk I/O extensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonachea, D.; Dickens, P.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of California at Berkeley; Illinois Institute of Technology

    2001-07-01

    There is a growing interest in using Java as the language for developing high-performance computing applications. To be successful in the high-performance computing domain, however, Java must not only be able to provide high computational performance, but also high-performance I/O. In this paper, we first examine several approaches that attempt to provide high-performance I/O in Java - many of which are not obvious at first glance - and evaluate their performance on two parallel machines, the IBM SP and the SGI Origin2000. We then propose extensions to the Java I/O library that address the deficiencies in the Java I/O API and improve performance dramatically. The extensions add bulk (array) I/O operations to Java, thereby removing much of the overhead currently associated with array I/O in Java. We have implemented the extensions in two ways: in a standard JVM using the Java Native Interface (JNI) and in a high-performance parallel dialect of Java called Titanium. We describe the two implementations and present performance results that demonstrate the benefits of the proposed extensions.

  2. The Wibbly-Wobbly Moon: Rotational Dynamics of the Moon After Large Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J. T.; Johnson, B. C.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    The spins of planets are not constant with time; they continuously evolve in response to both external and internal forces. One of the most dramatic ways a planet's spin can change is via impacts. Impacts change the planet's angular momentum, energy, and moments of inertia. These changes can have important consequences for the geology of the planet. For the well-studied case of the Moon, these repercussions include everything from changing the orientation of the magnetic field, controlling the geometry of fault networks, and altering the stability of volatiles (e.g. water ice) in permanently shadowed regions. While previous studies have investigated the dynamical effects of impacts on the Moon, most use simplistic models for the impact basin formation process—often only considering the impulsive change in the Moon's angular momentum, and occasionally the change in the Moon's moments of inertia from a simplified basin geometry (e.g. a cylindrical hole surrounded by a cylindrical ejecta blanket). These simplifications obscure some of the subtler and more complicated dynamics that occur in the aftermath of an impact. In this work, we present new model results for the rotational dynamics of the Moon after large, basin-forming impacts. We couple iSALE hydrocode simulations with the analytical and numerical formalisms of rotational dynamics. These simulations allow us to quantitatively track how different impact processes alter the Moon's moments of inertia, including basin formation, mantle uplift, impact heating, and ejecta-blanket emplacement. This unique combination of techniques enables us to more accurately track the spin of the Moon in the aftermath of these impacts, including periods of non-synchronous and non-principal-axis rotation, libration, and long-term reorientation (true polar wander). We find that the perturbation of the Moon's moments of inertia immediately after impact is several times larger than what is expected based on the present-day gravity

  3. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  4. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  5. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  6. K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4: Polar Materials with Strong SHG Responses Originating from Synergistic Effect of AuO4 and IO3 Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Hu, Chun-Li; Li, Bing-Xuan; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-26

    Two new polar potassium gold iodates, namely, K2 Au(IO3)5 (Cmc21) and β-KAu(IO3)4 (C2), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both compounds feature zero-dimensional polar [Au(IO3)4](-) units composed of an AuO4 square-planar unit coordinated by four IO3(-) ions in a monodentate fashion. In β-KAu(IO3)4, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions are separated by K(+) ions, whereas in K2 Au(IO3)5, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions and non-coordinated IO3(-) units are separated by K(+) ions. Both compounds are thermally stable up to 400 °C and exhibit high transmittance in the NIR region (λ=800-2500 nm) with measured optical band gaps of 2.65 eV for K2 Au(IO3 )5 and 2.75 eV for β-KAu(IO3)4. Powder second-harmonic generation measurements by using λ=2.05 μm laser radiation indicate that K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4 are both phase-matchable materials with strong SHG responses of approximately 1.0 and 1.3 times that of KTiOPO4, respectively. Theoretical calculations based on DFT methods confirm that such strong SHG responses originate from a synergistic effect of the AuO4 and IO3 units. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Out of the technological battlefield of World War II came a team of gifted German engineers and designers who developed the vengeance weapon, the V-2, which evolved into the peaceful, powerful Saturn V rocket to take men to the Moon. David Woods tells the exciting story, starting from America’s post war astronautical research facilities, that used the V-2 for the development of the robust, resilient and reliable Saturn V launcher. He describes the initial launches through manned orbital spaceflights, comprehensively detailing each step, including computer configuration, the role of ground control, trajectory planning, lunar orbiting, separation of the lander, walking and working on the Moon, retrieval of the lunar astronauts and returning to Earth in this massive technical accomplishment.

  8. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  9. To the Moon on a Shoestring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, T. F.; Rasmussen, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Euroluna Team is one of the around 30 teams competing in the Google Lunar X PRIZE Competition. The goal of the competition is to be the first team to successfully land a vehicle on the Moon, drive 500 m, and send video of the drive back to Earth. The Euroluna Team was formed in 2007, and the first flight hardware was acquired in 2010. Euroluna is financed privately with small funds. We have not received any external financial support. Therefore we have made an effort to keep all investments low. This has resulted in a design that uses new technologies and old technologies in a new way. Components are largely based on the Cubesat family and an ion thruster is being used for propulsion. A special strategy for landing on the Moon is under development. Special software of own design is being used for simulation of trajectories and energy consumption.

  10. On the Moon the apollo journals

    CERN Document Server

    Heiken, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Public interest in the first lunar landing transcended political, economic and social borders – the world was briefly united by the courage of the crew, and the wonder of the accomplishment. Prompted by the rivalry of the Cold War, Apollo 11 and the five missions that subsequently landed on the Moon were arguably the finest feats of exploration in human history. But these were more than exercises in ‘flags and footprints’, because the missions involved the crews making geological field trips on a low gravity site while wearing pressure suits, carrying life-support systems on their backs and working against an unforgiving time line. The missions delivered not only samples of moonrock, but also hard-learned lessons for how to work on the surface of another planet, and this experience will be crucial to planning the resumption of the human exploration of the Moon and going on to Mars.

  11. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  12. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  13. Apollo Anniversary: Moon Landing "Inspired World"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Roach; 李然

    2004-01-01

    @@ On July 20, 1969, at 10:56 p.m. ET, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon and said, "That' s one small step for man,one giant leap for mankind." Thirty-five years later, Steven Dick, NASA's chief historian at the space agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C. , said that a thousand years from now, that step may be considered the crowning① achievement of the 20th century.

  14. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  15. I/O load balancing for big data HPC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Arnab K. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Goyal, Arpit [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Butt, Ali R. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Brim, Michael J. [ORNL; Srinivasa, Sangeetha B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2018-01-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) big data problems require efficient distributed storage systems. However, at scale, such storage systems often experience load imbalance and resource contention due to two factors: the bursty nature of scientific application I/O; and the complex I/O path that is without centralized arbitration and control. For example, the extant Lustre parallel file system-that supports many HPC centers-comprises numerous components connected via custom network topologies, and serves varying demands of a large number of users and applications. Consequently, some storage servers can be more loaded than others, which creates bottlenecks and reduces overall application I/O performance. Existing solutions typically focus on per application load balancing, and thus are not as effective given their lack of a global view of the system. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach to load balance the I/O servers at scale, targeted at Lustre deployments. To this end, we design a global mapper on Lustre Metadata Server, which gathers runtime statistics from key storage components on the I/O path, and applies Markov chain modeling and a minimum-cost maximum-flow algorithm to decide where data should be placed. Evaluation using a realistic system simulator and a real setup shows that our approach yields better load balancing, which in turn can improve end-to-end performance.

  16. Occurrence and Magnitude of High Reflectance Materials on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, R. G.; Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) 643 nm photometrically normalized (30°, 0°, 30°; i, e, g) reflectance map to investigate the occurrence and origin of high reflectance materials on the Moon. Compositional differences (mainly iron and titanium content) and maturity state (e.g. Copernican crater rays and swirls) are the predominant factors affecting reflectance variations observed on the Moon. Therefore, comparing reflectance values of different regions yields insight into the composition and relative exposure age of lunar materials. But an accurate comparison requires precise reflectance values normalized across every region being investigated. The WAC [1] obtains monthly near-global ground coverage, each month's observations acquired with different lighting conditions. Boyd et al. [2] utilized a geologically homogeneous subset [0°N to 90°N, 146°E to 148°E] of the WAC observations to determine an equation that describes how viewing and lighting angles affect reflectance values. A normalized global reflectance map was generated by applying the local empirical solution globally, with photometric angles derived from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM)(GLD100) [3]. The GLD100 enables accurate correction of reflectance differences caused by local topographic undulations at the scale of 300 meters. We compare reflectance values across the Moon within 80°S to 80°N latitude. The features with the highest reflectance are steep crater walls within Copernican aged craters, such as the walls of Giordano Bruno, which have normalized reflectance values up to 0.35. Near-impact ejecta of some craters have high reflectance values, such as Virtanen (0.22). There are also broad relatively flat features with high reflectance, such as the 900-km Thales-Compton region (0.24) and the 600-km extent of Anaxagoras (Copernican age) ejecta (0.20). Since the interior of Anaxagoras contains occurrences of pure anorthosite [4], the high

  17. Radio Astronomy on and Around the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Klein Wolt, Mark; Ping, Jinsong; Chen, Linjie

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of remote places on other planets has now become a major goal in current space flight scenarios. On the other hand, astronomers have always sought the most remote and isolated sites to place their observatories and to make their most precise and most breath taking discoveries. Especially for radio astronomy, lunar exploration offers a complete new window to the universe. The polar region and the far-side of the moon are acknowledged as unique locations for a low-frequency radio telescope providing scientific data at wavelengths that cannot be obtained from the Earth nor from single satellites. Scientific areas to be covered range from radio surveys, to solar-system studies, exo-planet detection, and astroparticle physics. The key science area, however, is the detection and measurement of cosmological 21 cm hydrogen emission from the still unexplored dark ages of the universe. Developing a lunar radio facility can happen in steps and may involve small satellites, rover-based radio antennas, of free- flying constellations around the moon. A first such step could be the Netherlands-Chinese Long Wavelength Explorer (NCLE), which is supposed to be launched in 2018 as part of the ChangE’4 mission to the moon-earth L2 point.

  18. Formation, habitability, and detection of extrasolar moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Emeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology.

  19. The Moon In The Classic Maya World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giuliano

    During the Classic Period of the Maya civilization (250-900 A.D.) we have many documents in which it is possible to see the interest of this people on the principal lunar phenomena as the phases and the eclipses in particular. On a number of stelae, lintels and many other inscriptions (in Copan, Quirigua, Tikal, etc.), we can see that in correspondence of the dedication date of the monument, the Maya point out the phase of the Moon and its position in a period of six months corresponding to half year of eclipse. In some parts of the Dresda Codex (one of the four original codices of the Maya) we can see some pages in which were indicated the days of the Tzolkin calendar (the religious calendar of 260 days) in which it is possible to observe a lunar or solar eclipse. The periods of 177 or 148 days are allotted in a sequence that corresponds to the exact interval between the eclipses. The accuracy in the observations and in the calculations of the phases of the Moon, also in very old epochs, is an interesting evidence of the fundamental importance of the Moon in the Maya civilisation.

  20. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  1. On the road to secure and privacy-preserving IoT ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Serrano, Juan; Muñoz Tapia, José Luis; Bröring, Arne; Esparza Martín, Óscar; Mikkelsen, Lars; Schwarzott, Wolfgang; León Abarca, Olga; Zibuschka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is on the rise. Today, various IoT platforms are already available, giving access to myriads of things. Initiatives such as BIG IoT are bringing those IoT platforms together in order to form ecosystems. BIG IoT aims to facilitate cross-platform and cross-domain application developments and establish centralized marketplaces to allow resource monetization. This combination of multi-platform applications, heterogeneity of the IoT, as well as enabling marketing and a...

  2. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats

  3. The Moon as a unifying sociological attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, C.; Pachera, S.; Ciucci, A.

    We propose to develop an economic, fully automated telescope to equip a variety of public and private buildings, such as disco dancings, pubs, resting houses, hospitals, schools etc., optimized to image and project the Moon, both in daylight and nightime. We strongly believe that the wide spread conscience of being part of a common Universe, by imaging the real Moon ( not a series of computer files) and following its changing course, distributed in places where the soul is usually taken in a wave of loneliness, can have a profound effect. In fact, living such an experience of observation in places where people of all ages usually meet, can help them to mix up socially and have fun and acquire new interests and fulfillment. They could confront their doubts, opinions, curiosity. The Moon is the natural choice, being visible even in polluted cities, it comes to the Zenith of a large band on the Earth encompassing each emisphere, it has deeply rooted meanings in all civilizations, and it is therefore the perfect astronomical object towards which humanity should direct its view above the ground. The possibility of the instrument to zoom in and out and to move across the surface of the Moon or to observe in real time the slowly moving line of the terminator, is intended just for the sheer wonder of it. No didactic use is meant to begin with, although interest is sure to be stimulated and may be followed up in many ways. Our object is indeed to make young and older people throughout the world feel our satellite nearer and more familiar in the shapes and names of its features, truly a constant presence in our everyday natural surroundings. When the time will come for human coloniz ation, the Moon could no longer be considered such an extraneous, exotic and faraway new home. The telescope can be built in very large quantities by a variety of firms practically even in underdeveloped countries, easily automated and connected to the world wide web.

  4. Early Dynamics of the Moon's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas; Stewart, Sarah T.

    2018-04-01

    The Moon has a small molten iron core (Williams et al. 2006). Remanent magnetization in lunar rocks likely derives from a past lunar dynamo (Wieczorek 2018 and references therein), which may have been powered by differential precession between the mantle and the core. The rotations of the lunar mantle and core were largely decoupled for much of lunar history, with a large mutual offset during the Cassini State Transition (Meyer and Wisdom, 2011). It is likely that the past work underestimated lunar obliquities, and therefore core offsets, during early lunar history (Cuk et al. 2016). Here we investigate the dynamics of the lunar core and mantle using a Lie-Poisson numerical integrator (Touma and Wisdom 2001) which includes interactions between triaxial core and mantle, as well as all gravitational and tidal effects included in the model of Cuk et al. (2016). Since we assume a rigid triaxial mantle, this model is applicable to the Moon only once it has acquired its current shape, which probably happened before the Moon reached 25 Earth radii. While some details of the core dynamics depend on our assumptions about the shape of the lunar core-mantle boundary, we can report some robust preliminary findings. The presence of the core does not change significantly the evolutionary scenario of Cuk et al. (2016). The core and mantle are indeed decoupled, with the core having a much smaller obliquity to the ecliptic than the mantle for almost all of the lunar history. The core was largely in an equivalent of Cassini State 2, with the vernal equinoxes (wrt the ecliptic) of the core and the mantle being anti-aligned. The core-mantle spin axis offset has been very large during the Moon's first billion years (this is true both in canonical and high-inclination tidal evolution), causing the lunar core to be sub-synchronous. If the ancient lunar magnetic dipole was rotating around the core axis that was inclined to the Moon's spin axis, then the magnetic poles would move across

  5. Pre-Venus-Transit Dark Lunar Eclipse Reveals a Very Large Volcanic Eruption in 1761

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Kepler's third law states Sun-planet distances in AU. International observations of the solar parallax during the 1761/1769 Venus transits gave us the first AU in miles. Benjamin Franklin promoted American participation in the project. While serving as Ambassador to France he observed that a "dry fog” from the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland had obscured the Sun, and led to a cold summer and winter. Using Benjamin Franklin's method I analyzed photometric observations of the dark lunar eclipse made just before the 1761 Venus transit, ice core, tree ring, and Chinese weather data, and conclude that a very large previously unknown volcanic eruption in early 1761 had cooled the world climate. Observers worldwide found the 18 May 1761 totally eclipsed Moon very dark or invisible, e.g., Wargentin could not see the Moon for 38 minutes even with a 2-ft telescope (Phil. Trans. 52, 208, 1761-1762). Since the totally eclipsed Moon is illuminated only by sunlight refracted by the Earth's atmosphere, the obscuration must have been very severe. Ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica have large sulfuric acid contents in 1761-1762, precipitated from the global volcanic acid cloud (Zeilinski, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 26625, 1997). Frost-damaged rings in American bristlecone pines confirm that 1761 was very cold (LaMarche, Nature 307, 121, 1984). Contemporary Chinese chronicles report that heavy sustained snow fell from the Tropic of Cancer to the Yellow River. Wells and rivers froze, e.g., Taihu "Great Lake” and nearby Yangtze tributaries were not navigable. Innumerable trees, birds and livestock perished, etc. All observations are consistent with the above conclusion. Finally Benjamin Franklin's criteria for a climate-altering volcanic eruption are still universally used. Moreover his legacy continues to inspire climate researchers. See Pang, Eos 74, no. 43, 106, 1993; and as cited in "Earth in Balance,” Al Gore, p. 379, 1993.

  6. Collaborative Working Architecture for IoT-Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Signes-Pont, María Teresa; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus

    2018-05-23

    The new sensing applications need enhanced computing capabilities to handle the requirements of complex and huge data processing. The Internet of Things (IoT) concept brings processing and communication features to devices. In addition, the Cloud Computing paradigm provides resources and infrastructures for performing the computations and outsourcing the work from the IoT devices. This scenario opens new opportunities for designing advanced IoT-based applications, however, there is still much research to be done to properly gear all the systems for working together. This work proposes a collaborative model and an architecture to take advantage of the available computing resources. The resulting architecture involves a novel network design with different levels which combines sensing and processing capabilities based on the Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) paradigm. An experiment is included to demonstrate that this approach can be used in diverse real applications. The results show the flexibility of the architecture to perform complex computational tasks of advanced applications.

  7. Development of eStudent iOS mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjan Antic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— iOS is the Apple mobile operating system, for Apple mobile devices. Initially developed for iPhone, and later for iPod Touch, iPad, AppleTV. The Metropolitan University has a Web application titled eStudent, which enables students by Web to get information about their marks for all subjects, their financies, exam scheduling, professors and assistents, and send exam registration and feedback about teaching, etc. This paper explains the development of the mobile application eStudent on the iOS platform. This application enables students whenever they want, by using their iPhone mobile phone, to get access to the information from the eStudent Web application, and to present it on their iPhone User Interface (UI. This paper explains in details software requirements analysis, system architecture, system modelling, and UI of the eStudent iOS mobile application.

  8. Tractable policy management framework for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goynugur, Emre; de Mel, Geeth; Sensoy, Murat; Calo, Seraphin

    2017-05-01

    Due to the advancement in the technology, hype of connected devices (hence forth referred to as IoT) in support of automating the functionality of many domains, be it intelligent manufacturing or smart homes, have become a reality. However, with the proliferation of such connected and interconnected devices, efficiently and effectively managing networks manually becomes an impractical, if not an impossible task. This is because devices have their own obligations and prohibitions in context, and humans are not equip to maintain a bird's-eye-view of the state. Traditionally, policies are used to address the issue, but in the IoT arena, one requires a policy framework in which the language can provide sufficient amount of expressiveness along with efficient reasoning procedures to automate the management. In this work we present our initial work into creating a scalable knowledge-based policy framework for IoT and demonstrate its applicability through a smart home application.

  9. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  10. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  11. I/O routing in a multidimensional torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip

    2018-04-24

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for routing data packet in a computing system comprising a multidimensional torus compute node network including a multitude of compute nodes, and an I/O node network including a plurality of I/O nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises assigning to each of the data packets a destination address identifying one of the compute nodes; providing each of the data packets with a toio value; routing the data packets through the compute node network to the destination addresses of the data packets; and when each of the data packets reaches the destination address assigned to said each data packet, routing said each data packet to one of the I/O nodes if the toio value of said each data packet is a specified value. In one embodiment, each of the data packets is also provided with an ioreturn value used to route the data packets through the compute node network.

  12. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  13. Io: Loki Patera as a Magma Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Castillo, Julie C.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a physical model for Loki Patera as a magma sea. We calculate the total volume of magma moving through the Loki Patera volcanic system every resurfacing cycle (approx.540 days) and the resulting variation in thermal emission. The rate of magma solidification at times reaches 3 x 10(exp 6) kg per second, with a total solidified volume averaging 100 cu km per year. A simulation of gas physical chemistry evolution yields the crust porosity profile and the timescale when it will become dense enough to founder in a manner consistent with observations. The Loki Patera surface temperature distribution shows that different areas are at different life cycle stages. On a regional scale, however, there can be coordinated activity, indicated by the wave of thermal change which progresses from Loki Patera's SW quadrant toward the NE at a rate of approx.1 km per day. Using the observed surface temperature distribution, we test several mechanisms for resurfacing Loki Patera, finding that resurfacing with lava flows is not realistic. Only the crustal foundering process is consistent with observations. These tests also discovered that sinking crust has a 'heat deficit' which promotes the solidification of additional magma onto the sinking plate ("bulking up"). In the limiting case, the mass of sinking material can increase to a mass of approx.3 times that of the foundering plate. With all this solid matter sinking, there is a compensating upward motion in the liquid magma. This can be in excess of 2 m per year. In this manner, solid-liquid convection is occurring in the sea.

  14. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  15. Proof of Concept of Home IoT Connected Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younsun; Oh, Hyunggoy; Kang, Sungho

    2017-06-05

    The way in which we interact with our cars is changing, driven by the increased use of mobile devices, cloud-based services, and advanced automotive technology. In particular, the requirements and market demand for the Internet of Things (IoT) device-connected vehicles will continuously increase. In addition, the advances in cloud computing and IoT have provided a promising opportunity for developing vehicular software and services in the automotive domain. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a home IoT connected vehicle with a voice-based virtual personal assistant comprised of a vehicle agent and a home agent. The proposed concept is evaluated by implementing a smartphone linked with home IoT devices that are connected to an infotainment system for the vehicle, a smartphone-based natural language interface input device, and cloud-based home IoT devices for the home. The home-to-vehicle connected service scenarios that aim to reduce the inconvenience due to simple and repetitive tasks by improving the urban mobility efficiency in IoT environments are substantiated by analyzing real vehicle testing and lifestyle research. Remarkable benefits are derived by making repetitive routine tasks one task that is executed by a command and by executing essential tasks automatically, without any request. However, it should be used with authorized permission, applied without any error at the right time, and applied under limited conditions to sense the habitants' intention correctly and to gain the required trust regarding the remote execution of tasks.

  16. The Method of System Test using I/O Stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Chang Hoi

    2016-01-01

    In general, the software development life cycle consists of the requirement phase, design phase, implementation phase, testing phase, integration phase (software-software integration, software-hardware integration), installation phase, and operation and maintenance phase. The fundamental parts to the testing phase are component test, software integration test, software hardware integration test, and system test. Among these tests, we focused in particular on system test using I/O stimulator. The system test operates the functionality, performance, and interface because system testing falls within the scope of black box testing, which should not require knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic. The purpose of developing a system test using a I/O stimulator is to save time and effort from the functionality and performance tests. We developed an I/O stimulator for the burning system test based on the operational scenario. The hardware, software, and manmachine- interface (MMI) are fundamental parts to the I/O stimulator. Signal sources from the I/O stimulator contain analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, a Programmable Power Supply, an RS232C Serial interface and a dual port Ethernet interface. While automation cannot reproduce everything that a software engineer can do, it can be extremely useful for the system test. However, it does require the test criteria and a well-developed test suite of the testing scripts in order to be useful. In this study, we developed a multipurpose and cost-efficient I/O stimulator using LabVIEW program instead of the testing scripts

  17. Proof of Concept of Home IoT Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younsun; Oh, Hyunggoy; Kang, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    The way in which we interact with our cars is changing, driven by the increased use of mobile devices, cloud-based services, and advanced automotive technology. In particular, the requirements and market demand for the Internet of Things (IoT) device-connected vehicles will continuously increase. In addition, the advances in cloud computing and IoT have provided a promising opportunity for developing vehicular software and services in the automotive domain. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a home IoT connected vehicle with a voice-based virtual personal assistant comprised of a vehicle agent and a home agent. The proposed concept is evaluated by implementing a smartphone linked with home IoT devices that are connected to an infotainment system for the vehicle, a smartphone-based natural language interface input device, and cloud-based home IoT devices for the home. The home-to-vehicle connected service scenarios that aim to reduce the inconvenience due to simple and repetitive tasks by improving the urban mobility efficiency in IoT environments are substantiated by analyzing real vehicle testing and lifestyle research. Remarkable benefits are derived by making repetitive routine tasks one task that is executed by a command and by executing essential tasks automatically, without any request. However, it should be used with authorized permission, applied without any error at the right time, and applied under limited conditions to sense the habitants’ intention correctly and to gain the required trust regarding the remote execution of tasks. PMID:28587246

  18. The Method of System Test using I/O Stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Chang Hoi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In general, the software development life cycle consists of the requirement phase, design phase, implementation phase, testing phase, integration phase (software-software integration, software-hardware integration), installation phase, and operation and maintenance phase. The fundamental parts to the testing phase are component test, software integration test, software hardware integration test, and system test. Among these tests, we focused in particular on system test using I/O stimulator. The system test operates the functionality, performance, and interface because system testing falls within the scope of black box testing, which should not require knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic. The purpose of developing a system test using a I/O stimulator is to save time and effort from the functionality and performance tests. We developed an I/O stimulator for the burning system test based on the operational scenario. The hardware, software, and manmachine- interface (MMI) are fundamental parts to the I/O stimulator. Signal sources from the I/O stimulator contain analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, a Programmable Power Supply, an RS232C Serial interface and a dual port Ethernet interface. While automation cannot reproduce everything that a software engineer can do, it can be extremely useful for the system test. However, it does require the test criteria and a well-developed test suite of the testing scripts in order to be useful. In this study, we developed a multipurpose and cost-efficient I/O stimulator using LabVIEW program instead of the testing scripts.

  19. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega; Khoswanto Handry; Sutjiadi Raymond; Lim Resmana

    2018-01-01

    Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is ...

  20. Instant OpenCV for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kornyakov, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book uses a very practical approach, with each recipe and their associated sample projects or examples focusing on a particular aspect of the technology.This book is intended for OpenCV developers who are interested in porting their applications to the iOS platform. Basic experience with OpenCV, computer vision, Objective C, and other iOS tools is encouraged.

  1. An iOS implementation of the Shannon switching game

    OpenAIRE

    Macík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Shannon switching game is a logical graph game for two players. The game was created by American mathematician Claude Shannon. iOS is an operating system designed for iPhone cellular phone, iPod music player and iPad tablet. The thesis describes existing implementations of the game and also specific implementation for iOS operating system created as a part of this work. This implementation allows you to play against virtual opponent and also supports multiplayer game consisting of two players...

  2. DMIA: A MALWARE DETECTION SYSTEM ON IOS PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Hongliang Liang; Yilun Xie; Yan Song

    2016-01-01

    iOS is a popular operating system on Apple’s smartphones, and recent security events have shown the possibility of stealing the users' privacy in iOS without being detected, such as XcodeGhost. So, we present the design and implementation of a malware vetting system, called DMIA. DMIA first collects runtime information of an app and then distinguish between malicious and normal apps by a novel machine learning model. We evaluated DMIA with 1000 apps from the official App Store. The results of...

  3. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  4. Exploring The Moon through a 21st Century Learning Environment of Interactive Whiteboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    the lessons. Module I: Students explore the properties of light and use an ALTA hand-held spectrometer to identify and map compositional variation on the moon's surface, discovering that the Moon is similar to, yet different from, the Earth and terrestrial planets. Module II: Students break up into teams of "Orbiters" and "Earth scientists" to gather reflectance data from "Moon rocks" and Earth rocks respectively. Students compare the reflectance spectra from those to identify the rock types on the Moon. Module III: Students create and compare color-coded mineralogy maps and topographical maps of the Moon. Using spectroscopic data and their understanding of cratering and volcanism from previous activities, students create questions and devise theories for the geologic history of the Moon. Current research is inconclusive as to whether or not the use of 21st century technologies are effective as learning tools. Although the technology may be available in modern classrooms, many teachers still teach with traditional instructional strategies. We have seen, that when students actively engage and are a part of using the technology, they develop a deeper understanding and a desire to learn more about the topics covered. The interactive whiteboard technology permits students to directly immerse themselves with the content.

  5. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  6. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  7. Constraining Diameters of Ash Particles in Io's Pele Plume by DSMC Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2013-10-01

    The black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are produced by silicate ash which is to some extent entrained in the gas flow from very low altitudes. These particles are key to understanding the volcanism at Pele. However, the Pele plume is not nearly as dusty as Prometheus, and these are not the only particles in the plume, as the SO2 in the plume will also condense as it cools. It is therefore difficult to estimate a size distribution for the ash particles by observation, and the drag on ash particles from the plume flow is significant enough that ballistic models are also of limited use. Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, we can simulate a gas plume at Pele which demonstrates very good agreement with observations. By extending this model down to nearly the surface of the lava lake, ash particles can be included in the simulation by assuming that they are initially entrained in the very dense (for Io) gas immediately above the magma. Particles are seen to fall to the ground to the east and west of the vent, agreeing with the orientation of the “butterfly wings”, and particles with larger diameters fall to the ground closer to the lava lake. We present a model for mapping simulated deposition density to the coloration of the surface and we use it to estimate the size distribution of ash particles in the plume.

  8. An Optimizing Compiler for Petascale I/O on Leadership Class Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Kandemir, Mahmut [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    In high-performance computing systems, parallel I/O architectures usually have very complex hierarchies with multiple layers that collectively constitute an I/O stack, including high-level I/O libraries such as PnetCDF and HDF5, I/O middleware such as MPI-IO, and parallel file systems such as PVFS and Lustre. Our project explored automated instrumentation and compiler support for I/O intensive applications. Our project made significant progress towards understanding the complex I/O hierarchies of high-performance storage systems (including storage caches, HDDs, and SSDs), and designing and implementing state-of-the-art compiler/runtime system technology that targets I/O intensive HPC applications that target leadership class machine. This final report summarizes the major achievements of the project and also points out promising future directions.

  9. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  10. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a Planning Tool for Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission was conceived as a one year exploration mission to pave the way for a return to the lunar surface, both robotically and by humans. After a year in orbit LRO transitioned to a science mission but has operated in a duel role of science and exploration ever since. Over the years LRO has compiled a wealth of data that can and is being used for planning future missions to the Moon by NASA, other national agencies and by private enterprises. While collecting this unique and unprecedented data set, LRO's science investigations have uncovered new questions that motivate new missions and targets. Examples include: when did volcanism on the Moon cease, motivating a sample return mission from an irregular mare patch such as Ina-D; or, is there significant water ice sequestered near the poles outside of the permanently shaded regions? In this presentation we will review the data products, tools and maps that are available for mission planning, discuss how the operating LRO mission can further enhance future missions, and suggest new targets motivated by LRO's scientific investigations.

  11. Moon and sun shadowing effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The deficit due to the absorption of cosmic rays by the Moon and the Sun can be observed detecting the muon flux generated in extensive air showers. This phenomenon, known as cosmic ray shadow, can be used to study the behaviour of the geomagnetic, solar and interplanetary magnetic fields, to measure the antiproton-proton ratio and to determine the angular resolution and alignment of the detectors to confirm its accuracy and precision. Many experiments using surface or underground detectors have measured the Moon and Sun shadow: MINOS, CYGNUS, CASA, Tibet, MACRO, Soudan2, L3+C, Milagro, BUST, GRAPE and HEGRA. The MINOS experiment (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) uses two layered steel and plastic scintillator detectors (Near Detector and Far Detector) along with a muon neutrino beam (NuMI - Neutrinos at the Main Injector) to search for ν μ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. However the magnetic field and the fiducial volume of the underground Far Detector at Soudan Underground Mine State Park (Minnesota, USA) allow a great opportunity to investigate cosmic rays at TeV surface energy. The deficit caused by the Moon and the Sun was detected by the MINOS Far Detector and this could also be done using the Near Detector. In this report we describe the motivation of measuring this effect. We present the recent results from MINOS along with its experimental apparatus and, in addition, the main results from the various experiments. We also make considerations about the possibility of doing such a measurement with the MINOS Near Detector. (author)

  12. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Sheik Mohammad Mostakim; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Ryu, Minwoo; Yun, Jaeseok

    2017-10-11

    An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer's disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors' ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called 'aging in place' (AIP). In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills) through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  13. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Mohammad Mostakim Fattah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors’ ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called ‘aging in place’ (AIP. In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  14. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  15. Titan the earth-like moon

    CERN Document Server

    Coustenis, Athena

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with Titan, one of the most mysterious bodies in the solar system. The largest satellite of the giant planet Saturn, Titan is itself larger than the planet Mercury, and is unique in being the only known moon with a thick atmosphere. In addition, its atmosphere bears a startling resemblance to the Earth's, but is much colder.The American and European space agencies, NASA and ESA, have recently combined efforts to send a huge robot spacecraft to orbit Saturn and land on Titan. This book provides the background to this, the greatest deep space venture of our time, a

  16. Solar System Moons Discovery and Mythology

    CERN Document Server

    Blunck, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Mars outward this concise handbook provides thorough information on the satellites of the planets in the solar system. Each chapter begins with a section on the discovery and the naming of the planet's satellites or rings. This is followed by a section presenting the historic sources of those names. The book contains tables with the orbital and physical parameters of all satellites and is illustrated throughout with modern photos of the planets and their moons as well as historical and mythological drawings. The Cyrillic transcriptions of the satellite names are provided in a register. Readers interested in the history of astronomy and its mythological backgrounds will enjoy this beautiful volume.

  17. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  18. Internet of Robotic Things – Converging Sensing/Actuating, Hyperconnectivity, Artificial Intelligence and IoT Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu; Bröring, Arne; Tragos, Elias Z.; Serrano, Martin; Bacciu, Davide; Chessa, Stefano; Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio; Dragone, Mauro; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Simoens, Pieter; Cavallo, Filippo; Bahr, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing new developments in various application domains, such as the Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous System of Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internet of Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc. that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influence represents new development and deployment challenges in diffe...

  19. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ana; Rios, Ruben; Lopez, Javier

    2018-02-07

    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.

  20. An IoT architecture for cloud connected electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramamurthy, P.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the EV-user scenario as an use-case of a hyper-connected environment. The need for efforts on standardisation in the IoT world is explained with a detailed view of the software architecture to achieve it.

  1. Learn Unity 4 for iOS game development

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The only book on Unity 4 game development The only up-to-date book on Unity for iOS Philip Chu is the author of a very popular online Unity tutorial, frequently recommended on sites like StackOverflow

  2. Cassini-VIMS at Jupiter: Solar occultation measurements using Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report unusual and somewhat unexpected observations of the jovian satellite Io, showing strong methane absorption bands. These observations were made by the Cassini VIMS experiment during the Jupiter flyby of December/January 2000/2001. The explanation is straightforward: Entering or exiting from Jupiter's shadow during an eclipse, Io is illuminated by solar light which has transited the atmosphere of Jupiter. This light, therefore becomes imprinted with the spectral signature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, which includes strong atmospheric methane absorption bands. Intercepting solar light refracted by the jovian atmosphere, Io essentially becomes a "miffor" for solar occultation events of Jupiter. The thickness of the layer where refracted solar light is observed is so large (more than 3000 km at Io's orbit), that we can foresee a nearly continuous multi-year period of similar events at Saturn, utilizing the large and bright ring system. During Cassini's 4-year nominal mission, this probing tecnique should reveal information of Saturn's atmosphere over a large range of southern latitudes and times. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stakeholder Management in IOS projects : Lessons from a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Implementing an effective inter-organizational system (IOS) requires significant organizational as well as technical changes. These will affect stakeholders with varying degrees of power and with varying degrees of interest in the system – yet promoters depend on them if the project is to succeed.

  4. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nieto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases.

  5. Creating Feedback Channels With Optical Communications For Information Operations (IO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    amphibious operations. Optical communications technologies, direct marketing principles , and current IO shortfalls are explored to determine whether...technology. First, these concepts are applied to show covert amphibious operations. Optical communications technologies, direct marketing principles , and...power, as per Appendix A. A major portion of the marketing campaign comes in the form of advertising. The correlating principles of advertising in

  6. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Javier

    2018-01-01

    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntarily providing electronic evidence to the authorities. However, this solution is highly dependent on the willingness of citizens to collaborate and they may be reluctant to do so if the sensitive information within their personal devices is not sufficiently protected when shared with the investigators. In this paper, we provide the digital witness approach with a methodology that enables citizens to share their data with some privacy guarantees. We apply the PRoFIT methodology, originally defined for IoT-Forensics environments, to the digital witness approach in order to unleash its full potential. Finally, we show the feasibility of a PRoFIT-compliant digital witness with two use cases. PMID:29414864

  7. Application-Tailored I/O with Streamline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, W.J.; Bos, H.J.; Bal, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Streamline is a stream-based OS communication subsystem that spans from peripheral hardware to userspace processes. It improves performance of I/O-bound applications (such as webservers and streaming media applications) by constructing tailor-made I/O paths through the operating system for each

  8. UbiCompass: An IoT Interaction Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Alce

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, different wearable form factors have reached the consumer domain. Wearables enable at-a-glance access to information and can continually sense the surrounding environment. Internet of Things (IoT researchers have focused on the main enabling factors: the integration of several technologies and communication solutions. Less effort has been devoted to exploring how not-so-tech-savvy end users can discover and directly interact with the numerous connected things predicted by the IoT vision. This paper presents a novel IoT interaction concept called UbiCompass. A functional, smartwatch face prototype of the UbiCompass was developed and integrated with an existing smart home system, in which five different connected devices could be controlled using simple interaction. It was then compared to a traditional smartphone mobile application in a controlled experiment. The results show statistically significant differences in favor of the proposed concept. This highlights the potential the UbiCompass has as an IoT interaction concept.

  9. Interoperability for smart appliances in the IoT world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.; Solanki, M.; Hartog, F. den; Roes, J.

    2016-01-01

    Household appliances are set to become highly intelligent, smart and networked devices in the near future. Systematically deployed on the Internet of Things (IoT), they would be able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing ecosystems. Smart systems are technically very

  10. Live from the Moon ExoLab: EuroMoonMars Simulation at ESTEC 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklesa, A.; Foing, B. H.; Lillo, A.; Evellin, P.; Kołodziejczyk, A.; Jonglez, C.; Heinicke, C.; Harasymczuk, M.; Authier, L.; Blanc, A.; Chahla, C.; Tomic, A.; Mirino, M.; Schlacht, I.; Hettrich, S.; Pacher, T.

    2017-10-01

    Space enthusiasts simulated the landing on the Moon having pre-landed Habitat ExoHab, ExoLab 2.0, supported by the control centre on Earth. We give here the first-hand experience from a reporter (A.N.) who joined the space crew.

  11. A soft X-ray image of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Truemper, J.; Snowden, S.L.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the Moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the Moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The Moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one per cent that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the Moon's surface. (author)

  12. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  13. Advanced I/O for large-scale scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasky, Scott; Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald F. II

    2010-01-01

    As scientific simulations scale to use petascale machines and beyond, the data volumes generated pose a dual problem. First, with increasing machine sizes, the careful tuning of IO routines becomes more and more important to keep the time spent in IO acceptable. It is not uncommon, for instance, to have 20% of an application's runtime spent performing IO in a 'tuned' system. Careful management of the IO routines can move that to 5% or even less in some cases. Second, the data volumes are so large, on the order of 10s to 100s of TB, that trying to discover the scientifically valid contributions requires assistance at runtime to both organize and annotate the data. Waiting for offline processing is not feasible due both to the impact on the IO system and the time required. To reduce this load and improve the ability of scientists to use the large amounts of data being produced, new techniques for data management are required. First, there is a need for techniques for efficient movement of data from the compute space to storage. These techniques should understand the underlying system infrastructure and adapt to changing system conditions. Technologies include aggregation networks, data staging nodes for a closer parity to the IO subsystem, and autonomic IO routines that can detect system bottlenecks and choose different approaches, such as splitting the output into multiple targets, staggering output processes. Such methods must be end-to-end, meaning that even with properly managed asynchronous techniques, it is still essential to properly manage the later synchronous interaction with the storage system to maintain acceptable performance. Second, for the data being generated, annotations and other metadata must be incorporated to help the scientist understand output data for the simulation run as a whole, to select data and data features without concern for what files or other storage technologies were employed. All of these features should be attained while

  14. Uncovering the Images and Meanings of International Organizations (IOs) in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Madden, Meggan

    2015-01-01

    Employing Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we examine how international organizations (IOs) are presented in the higher education literature. This paper examines how IOs, such as the World Bank, OECD, and UNESCO, are conceptualized and represented by higher education researchers. We focus on three main representations of IOs in the higher…

  15. Mineralogical Diversity and Geology of Humboldt Crater Derived Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, M.; Besse, S.; Flahaut, J.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; van Westrenen, W.

    2018-02-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectroscopic data and high-resolution imagery data sets were used to study the mineralogy and geology of the 207 km diameter Humboldt crater. Analyses of M3 data, using a custom-made method for M3 spectra continuum removal and spectral parameters calculation, reveal multiple pure crystalline plagioclase detections within the Humboldt crater central peak complex, hinting at its crustal origin. However, olivine, spinel, and glass are observed in the crater walls and rims, suggesting these minerals derive from shallower levels than the plagioclase of the central peak complex. High-calcium pyroxenes are detected in association with volcanic deposits emplaced on the crater's floor. Geologic mapping was performed, and the age of Humboldt crater's units was estimated from crater counts. Results suggest that volcanic activity within this floor-fractured crater spanned over a billion years. The felsic mineralogy of the central peak complex region, which presumably excavated deeper material, and the shallow mafic minerals (olivine and spinel) detected in Humboldt crater walls and rim are not in accordance with the general view of the structure of the lunar crust. Our observations can be explained by the presence of a mafic pluton emplaced in the anorthositic crust prior to the Humboldt-forming impact event. Alternatively, the excavation of Australe basin ejecta could explain the observed mineralogical detections. This highlights the importance of detailed combined mineralogical and geological remote sensing studies to assess the heterogeneity of the lunar crust.

  16. Mineralogical Diversity and Geology of Humboldt Crater Derived Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, M; Besse, S; Flahaut, J; Quantin-Nataf, C; Lozac'h, L; van Westrenen, W

    2018-02-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3 ) spectroscopic data and high-resolution imagery data sets were used to study the mineralogy and geology of the 207 km diameter Humboldt crater. Analyses of M 3 data, using a custom-made method for M 3 spectra continuum removal and spectral parameters calculation, reveal multiple pure crystalline plagioclase detections within the Humboldt crater central peak complex, hinting at its crustal origin. However, olivine, spinel, and glass are observed in the crater walls and rims, suggesting these minerals derive from shallower levels than the plagioclase of the central peak complex. High-calcium pyroxenes are detected in association with volcanic deposits emplaced on the crater's floor. Geologic mapping was performed, and the age of Humboldt crater's units was estimated from crater counts. Results suggest that volcanic activity within this floor-fractured crater spanned over a billion years. The felsic mineralogy of the central peak complex region, which presumably excavated deeper material, and the shallow mafic minerals (olivine and spinel) detected in Humboldt crater walls and rim are not in accordance with the general view of the structure of the lunar crust. Our observations can be explained by the presence of a mafic pluton emplaced in the anorthositic crust prior to the Humboldt-forming impact event. Alternatively, the excavation of Australe basin ejecta could explain the observed mineralogical detections. This highlights the importance of detailed combined mineralogical and geological remote sensing studies to assess the heterogeneity of the lunar crust.

  17. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  18. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, W David

    2011-01-01

    This new and expanded edition of the bestselling How Apollo Flew to the Moon tells the exciting story of how the Apollo missions were conducted and follows a virtual flight to the Moon and back. New material includes: - the exploration of the lunar surface; - more illustrations; - more technical explanations and anecdotes. From launch to splashdown, hitch a ride in the incredible Apollo spaceships, the most sophisticated machines of their time. Explore each step of the journey and glimpse the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. Although the tremendous technological accomplishments are well documented, the human dimension is not forgotten, and the book calls on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. A wealth of fascinating and accessible material is provided, including: the role of the powerful Saturn V; the reasoning  behind trajectories; the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health; the triumphs and difficulties of working in...

  19. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  20. Searching for alien artifacts on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Wagner, R. V.

    2013-08-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has a low probability of success, but it would have a high impact if successful. Therefore it makes sense to widen the search as much as possible within the confines of the modest budget and limited resources currently available. To date, SETI has been dominated by the paradigm of seeking deliberately beamed radio messages. However, indirect evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence could come from any incontrovertible signatures of non-human technology. Existing searchable databases from astronomy, biology, earth and planetary sciences all offer low-cost opportunities to seek a footprint of extraterrestrial technology. In this paper we take as a case study one particular new and rapidly-expanding database: the photographic mapping of the Moon's surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to 0.5 m resolution. Although there is only a tiny probability that alien technology would have left traces on the moon in the form of an artifact or surface modification of lunar features, this location has the virtue of being close, and of preserving traces for an immense duration. Systematic scrutiny of the LRO photographic images is being routinely conducted anyway for planetary science purposes, and this program could readily be expanded and outsourced at little extra cost to accommodate SETI goals, after the fashion of the SETI@home and Galaxy Zoo projects.

  1. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  2. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. IoT-B&B: Edge-Based NFV for IoT Devices with CPE Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For embracing the ubiquitous Internet-of-Things (IoT devices, edge computing and Network Function Virtualization (NFV have been enabled in branch offices and homes in the form of virtual Customer-Premises Equipment (vCPE. A Service Provider (SP deploys vCPE instances as Virtual Network Functions (VNFs on top of generic physical Customer-Premises Equipment (pCPE to ease administration. Upon a usage surge of IoT devices at a certain part of the network, vCPU, memory, and other resource limitations of a single pCPE node make it difficult to add new services handling the high demand. In this paper, we present IoT-B&B, a novel architecture featuring resource sharing of pCPE nodes. When a pCPE node has sharable resources available, the SP will utilize its free resources as a “bed-and-breakfast” place to deploy vCPE instances in need. A placement algorithm is also presented to assign vCPE instances to a cost-efficient pCPE node. By keeping vCPE instances at the network edge, their costs of hosting are reduced. Meanwhile, the transmission latencies are maintained at acceptable levels for processing real-time data burst from IoT devices. The traffic load to the remote, centralized cloud can be substantially reduced.

  4. Internet of Tangible Things (IoTT: Challenges and Opportunities for Tangible Interaction with IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things era, an increasing number of everyday objects are able to offer innovative services to the user. However, most of these devices provide only smartphone or web user interfaces. As a result, the interaction is disconnected from the physical world, decreasing the user experience and increasing the risk of user alienation from the physical world. We argue that tangible interaction can counteract this trend and this article discusses the potential benefits and the still open challenges of tangible interaction applied to the Internet of Things. After an analysis of open challenges for Human-Computer Interaction in IoT, we summarize current trends in tangible interaction and extrapolate eight tangible interaction properties that could be exploited for designing novel interactions with IoT objects. Through a systematic review of tangible interaction applied to IoT, we show what has been already explored in the systems that pioneered the field and the future explorations that still have to be conducted. In order to guide future work in this field, we propose a design card set for supporting the generation of tangible interfaces for IoT objects. The card set has been evaluated during a workshop with 21 people and the results are discussed.

  5. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - A chemical model. Part 1: The moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, H. St.C.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical implications of a giant impact model for the origin of the moon are examined, both for the moon and for the earth. The Impactor is taken to be an approximately Mars-sized body. It is argued that the likeliest bulk chemical composition of the moon is quite similar to that of the earth's mantle, and that this composition may be explained in detail if about 80% of the moon came from the primitive earth's mantle after segregation of the earth's core. The other 20% of the moon is modelled as coming from (a) the Impactor, which is constrained to be an oxidized, probably undifferentiated body of roughly CI chondritic composition (on a volatile free basis) and (b) a late stage veneer, with a composition and oxidation state similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites. This latter component is the source of all the volatile elements in the moon, which failed to condense from the earth-and Impactor-derived materials; this component constitutes about 4% of the moon. It is argued that Mo may behave as a volatile element under the relatively oxidising conditions necessary for the condensation of the proto-moon. The model accounts satisfactorily for most of the siderophile elements, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, P, and Cu. The relatively well-constrained lunar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are also accounted for; their depletion in the moon is inherited from the earth's mantle

  6. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  7. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  8. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  9. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

    1982-10-10

    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  10. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  11. Habitability potential of icy moons: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Bampasidis, Georgios; Wagner, Frank; Raulin, François; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-05-01

    environments to look for biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. If the silicate mantles of Eu-ropa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical en-ergy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Titan has been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphol-ogy and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In a recent study by Sohl et al. [2013], we have shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of inter-nal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of am-monia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. Such habi-tability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE-Laplace (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth : the search for habitable worlds in the Universe

  12. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  13. User Requirements for Internet Of Things (IoT) Applications : An Observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Namirimu, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) is a new trending phase of technology. IoT refers to communication and connectivity between things such as technological devices, actuators, sensors, and people or processes with unique identifiers. The importance of IoT is to improve the daily living standards of an average user. IoT is made for the people and used by the people for many reasons such as improved health, business innovations, and personal health trackers. Examples of IoT applications and serv...

  14. Green IoT: An Investigation on Energy Saving Practices for 2020 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, R.; Zahoor, S.; Shah, M.A.; Wahid, A.; Yu, Hongnian

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging concept which aims to connect billions of devices with each other. The IoT devices sense, collect and transmit important information from their surroundings. This exchange of very large amount of information amongst billions of devices creates a massive energy need. Green IoT envisions the concept of reducing the energy consumption of IoT devices and making the environment safe. Inspired by achieving a sustainable environment for IoT, we first give the ...

  15. IoT European Large-Scale Pilots – Integration, Experimentation and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Sergio Gustavo; Sala, Pilar; Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cano, Alicia; Posada, Jorge; Gutierrez, Germán; Palau, Carlos; Votis, Konstantinos; Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beers, George; Sundmaeker, Harald; Chatzikostas, Grigoris; Ziegler, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovation consortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutions in Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across the value chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usage context, and as close as possible to operational conditions. The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that propose IoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challe...

  16. Network Security Issues in The Internet of Things (IoT)

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    This paper surveys a broad range of other research works in order to discuss network security issues in the Internet of Things (IoT). We begin with setting the scene generally with an outline of IoT, followed by a discussion of IoT layer models and topologies. After this, IoT standardization efforts and protocols are analysed, before we discuss in depth vulnerabilities, attacks and mitigations with regard IoT. It is concluded that ample research and narrative exists for protocols and vulnerab...

  17. Internet of Things (IoT) Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT)is defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan need...

  18. Economics of Internet of Things (IoT): An Information Market Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niyato, D.; Lu, X.; Wang, P.; Kim, D. I.; Han, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) has been proposed to be a new paradigm of connecting devices and providing services to various applications, e.g., transportation, energy, smart city, and healthcare. In this paper, we focus on an important issue, i.e., economics of IoT, that can have a great impact to the success of IoT applications. In particular, we adopt and present the information economics approach with its applications in IoT. We first review existing economic models developed for IoT services....

  19. ESO Observations of New Moon of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Two astronomers, both specialists in minor bodies in the solar system, have performed observations with ESO telescopes that provide important information about a small moon, recently discovered in orbit around the solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Brett Gladman (of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and working at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France) and Hermann Boehnhardt ( ESO-Paranal) obtained detailed data on the object S/1999 J 1 , definitively confirming it as a natural satellite of Jupiter. Seventeen Jovian moons are now known. The S/1999 J 1 object On July 20, 2000, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced on IAU Circular 7460 that orbital computations had shown a small moving object, first seen in the sky in 1999, to be a new candidate satellite of Jupiter. The conclusion was based on several positional observations of that object made in October and November 1999 with the Spacewatch Telescope of the University of Arizona (USA). In particular, the object's motion in the sky was compatible with that of an object in orbit around Jupiter. Following the official IAU procedure, the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams designated the new object as S/1999 J 1 (the 1st candidate Satellite of Jupiter to be discovered in 1999). Details about the exciting detective story of this object's discovery can be found in an MPC press release and the corresponding Spacewatch News Note. Unfortunately, Jupiter and S/1999 J 1 were on the opposite side of the Sun as seen from the Earth during the spring of 2000. The faint object remained lost in the glare of the Sun in this period and, as expected, a search in July 2000 through all available astronomical data archives confirmed that it had not been seen since November 1999, nor before that time. With time, the extrapolated sky position of S/1999 J 1 was getting progressively less accurate. New observations were thus urgently needed to "recover

  20. Boundary conditions for the formation of the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, Maarten; de Meijer, R. J.; ten Kate, I. L.; van Westrenen, W.

    Recent measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of lunar samples indicate that the Moon's bulk composition shows great similarities with the composition of the silicate Earth. Moon formation models that attempt to explain these similarities make a wide variety of assumptions about the

  1. Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars Analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foing, B.H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the

  2. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, PK

    2016-01-18

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  3. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana; Irigoien, Xabier; Genton, Marc G.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  4. TRANSIT MODEL OF PLANETS WITH MOON AND RING SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusnski, Luis Ricardo M.; Valio, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, those most adequate for life to begin and evolve have been sought. Due to observational bias, however, most of the discovered planets so far are gas giants, precluding their habitability. However, if these hot Jupiters are located in the habitable zones of their host stars, and if rocky moons orbit them, then these moons may be habitable. In this work, we present a model for planetary transit simulation considering the presence of moons and planetary rings around a planet. The moon's orbit is considered to be circular and coplanar with the planetary orbit. The other physical and orbital parameters of the star, planet, moon, and rings can be adjusted in each simulation. It is possible to simulate as many successive transits as desired. Since the presence of spots on the surface of the star may produce a signal similar to that of the presence of a moon, our model also allows for the inclusion of starspots. The result of the simulation is a light curve with a planetary transit. White noise may also be added to the light curves to produce curves similar to those obtained by the CoRoT and Kepler space telescopes. The goal is to determine the criteria for detectability of moons and/or ring systems using photometry. The results show that it is possible to detect moons with radii as little as 1.3 R ⊕ with CoRoT and 0.3 R ⊕ with Kepler.

  5. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

  6. Effects of irradiation on hygiene quality of moon cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengjiao; Chen Bin; Guo Yaping; Gao Meixu; Li Haipeng; Sun Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    To explore the influence of controllable conditions with different doses of irradiation and store time on the safe and the quality of Moon Cake, the indexes including peroxide value, acid value, mould, coli group coliform group, total numbers of colony and taste of Moon Cake were concerned about. The results show that the peroxide value were increased and acid value were decreased gradually with the increased value of 60 Co γ-irradiation. Meanwhile, the microorganism growth in the moon cake were controlled. It is concluded that the taste of Moon Cake was not changed and the shelf life of ones were prolonged by 3 months when doses of irradiation was 8 kGy, in addition, Tea-polyphenols could prevent the lipid in Moon Cake from lipid oxidation effectively. (authors)

  7. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of gas and dust in Io's Pele plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William J.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.

    2015-09-01

    Io's giant Pele plume rises high above the moon's surface and produces a complex deposition pattern. We use the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to model the flow of SO2 gas and silicate ash from the surface of the lava lake, into the umbrella-shaped canopy of the plume, and eventually onto the surface where the flow leaves black "butterfly wings" surrounded by a large red ring. We show how the geometry of the lava lake, from which the gas is emitted, is responsible for significant asymmetry in the plume and for the shape of the red deposition ring by way of complicated gas-dynamic interactions between parts of the gas flow arising from different areas in the lava lake. We develop a model for gas flow in the immediate vicinity of the lava lake and use it to show that the behavior of ash particles of less than about 2 μm in diameter in the plume is insensitive to the details of how they are introduced into the flow because they are coupled to the gas at low altitudes. We simulate dust particles in the plume to show how particle size determines the distance from the lava lake at which particles deposit on the surface, and we use this dependence to find a size distribution of black dust particles in the plume that provides the best explanation for the observed black fans to the east and west of the lava lake. This best-fit particle size distribution suggests that there may be two distinct mechanisms of black dust creation at Pele, and when two log-normal distributions are fit to our results we obtain a mean particle diameter of 88 nm. We also propose a mechanism by which the condensible plume gas might overlay black dust in areas where black coloration is not observed and compare this to the observed overlaying of Pillanian dust by Pele's red ring.

  9. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project (http://ukr-vo.org/) we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) (www.imcce.fr/sat) online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  10. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  11. The heartbeat of the volcano: The discovery of episodic activity at Prometheus on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A.G.; Wilson, L.; Matson, D.; Leone, G.; Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal signature of thermal emission from a volcano is a valuable clue to the processes taking place both at and beneath the surface. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observed the volcano Prometheus, on the jovian moon Io, on multiple occasions between 1996 and 2002. The 5 micron (??m) brightness of this volcano shows considerable variation from orbit to orbit. Prometheus exhibits increases in thermal emission that indicate episodic (though non-periodic) effusive activity in a manner akin to the current Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha (afterwards referred to as the Pu'u 'O'o) eruption of Kilauea, Hawai'i. The volume of material erupted during one Prometheus eruption episode (defined as the interval from minimum thermal emission to peak and back to minimum) from 6 November 1996 to 7 May 1997 is estimated to be ???0.8 km3, with a peak instantaneous volumetric flux (effusion rate) of ???140 m3 s-1, and an averaged volumetric flux (eruption rate) of ???49 m3 s-1. These quantities are used to model subsurface structure, magma storage and magma supply mechanisms, and likely magma chamber depth. Prometheus appears to be supplied by magma from a relatively shallow magma chamber, with a roof at a minimum depth of ???2-3 km and a maximum depth of ???14 km. This is a much shallower depth range than sources of supply proposed for explosive, possibly ultramafic, eruptions at Pillan and Tvashtar. As Prometheus-type effusive activity is widespread on Io, shallow magma chambers containing magma of basaltic or near-basaltic composition and density may be common. This analysis strengthens the analogy between Prometheus and Pu'u 'O'o, at least in terms of eruption style. Even though the style of eruption appears to be similar (effusive emplacement of thin, insulated, compound pahoehoe flows) the scale of activity at Prometheus greatly exceeds current activity at Pu'u 'O'o in terms of volume erupted, area covered, and magma flux. Whereas the estimated magma chamber at

  12. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic map analyses: Correlation of geologic and cratering histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic map analyses are expanded, beginning with a discussion of particular regions which may illustrate volcanic and ballistic plains emplacement on Mercury. Major attention is focused on the surface history of Mercury through discussion of the areal distribution of plains and craters and the paleogeologic maps of the first quadrant. A summary of the lunar intercrater plains formation similarly interrelates the information from the Moon's geologic and cratering histories.

  13. Optical fiber sensors for IoT and smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    Domingues, Maria de Fátima F

    2017-01-01

    This brief provides a review of the evolution of optical fiber sensing solutions and related applications. Unique production methods are presented and discussed, highlighting their evolution and analyzing their complexity. Under this scope, this brief presents the existing silica optical fiber sensors and polymer optical fiber sensors solutions, comparing its field of action (sensitivity, accuracy), complexity of manufacture and economic cost. Special attention is given to low-cost production methods. This brief evaluates the different existing techniques, assessing the accuracy and suitability of these sensors for possible Internet of Things (IoT) integration in different considered scenarios. Critical analytical techniques, also covered in this brief, are expected to play a key role in the world of IoT and the smart city of tomorrow.

  14. Aplikasi Rekomendasi Pola Makan Berbasis iOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afan Galih Salman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal for implementing this system is to help users manage and track history about their eat pattern, choose proper food for body’s need, and pick restaurants. Methodology used for this research contains three parts, which is analysis, design, and literature study. In requirement analysis, we do some interview withnutritionist and food provider, analysis iOS user, compare with same kind of application, and identify components that we need. In design method, we use Unified Modelling Language approach, ERD design, and user interface design. The result is a food planning mobile application with iOS platform. This application canhelp user manage and track their eat pattern, help user choose balanced food that suitable for their body, and inform user where they can get food they plan to eat.

  15. IoT-based flood embankments monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michta, E.; Szulim, R.; Sojka-Piotrowska, A.; Piotrowski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper a concept of flood embankments monitoring system based on using Internet of Things approach and Cloud Computing technologies will be presented. The proposed system consists of sensors, IoT nodes, Gateways and Cloud based services. Nodes communicates with the sensors measuring certain physical parameters describing the state of the embankments and communicates with the Gateways. Gateways are specialized active devices responsible for direct communication with the nodes, collecting sensor data, preprocess the data, applying local rules and communicate with the Cloud Services using communication API delivered by cloud services providers. Architecture of all of the system components will be proposed consisting IoT devices functionalities description, their communication model, software modules and services bases on using a public cloud computing platform like Microsoft Azure will be proposed. The most important aspects of maintaining the communication in a secure way will be shown.

  16. Beginning iPhone 4 Development Exploring the IOS SDK

    CERN Document Server

    Nutting, Jack; LaMarche, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The authors of the bestselling Beginning iPhone 3 Development are back, with the same excellent material completely updated for iOS 4 and written from the ground up using the latest version of Apple's Xcode 3. All source code has been updated to use the latest Xcode templates and current APIs, and all-new screenshots show Xcode 3 in action. Beginning iPhone 4 Development is a complete course in iOS development. You'll master techniques that work on iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. We start with the basics, showing you how to download and install the tools you'll need, and how to create your first

  17. Izrada 2D video igre za iOS platformu

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuš, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Tema ovog završnog rada temelji se na izradi 2D video igre za iOS mobilni uređaj te njezinoj demonstraciji na istom. Kroz rad su opisane sve bitne funkcije GameSalad Creator-a koje su potrebne kod izrade igre bazirane na 2 dimenzije. Također se prolazi kroz iOS operativni sustav, što je on i kako se razvijao. Spominje se i tema koja govori općenito o igrama na mobilnim uređajima. U završnom dijelu rada prikazan je postupak izrade, koje funkcije programa se točno koriste i kako se igra može te...

  18. EVIO - A lightweight object-oriented I/O package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolin, E.; Abbott, D.; Gurjyan, V.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Lawrence, D.; Timmer, C.

    2008-01-01

    The EVIO package implements I/O between disk and an in-memory hierarchical object tree. Tree nodes are either container nodes, holding other nodes, or leaf nodes, containing any amount of data of a single type (int64 t ,..., int8 t , float, double, and string). Trees can easily be constructed using factory methods and stream operators; queried using STL-like algorithms, function object, etc; or modified using tree or node methods. The tree logically maps to XML, and utilities exist to transform between binary and ASCII XML formats. The binary representation is compact, I/O is simple and efficient, and endian conversions are handled automatically. EVIO will be used by the next generation of experiments at Jefferson Lab.

  19. IO Com: Is it a Non-secondary Minimum Star?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş Günay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Four-color photometry of IO Com, a detached eclipsing binary with a long period (~53 d, was accomplished in 2004–2008. The absolute astrophysical and orbital parameters of the system were determined by the analysis of the light and radial velocity curves. No secondary minima in the light curves were detected. It was revealed that IO Com is the system with a highly eccentric orbit consisting of the components of mid-F spectral types. The calculated masses and radii of the primary and secondary components are: 1.32 M⊙ and 1.21 M⊙, and 2.45 R⊙ and 1.51 R⊙, respectively. In the HR diagram, both components of the system are in agreement with the PARSEC isochrones for the ages between 1.5 and 2.2 Gyr and the metallicities Z between 0.01 and 0.02.

  20. Flood simulation and verification with IoT sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Huang, Sue-Wei

    2017-04-01

    2D flood dynamic simulation is a vivid tool to demonstrate the possible expose area that sustain impact of high rise of water level. Along with progress in high resolution digital terrain model, the simulation results are quite convinced yet not proved to be close to what is really happened. Due to the dynamic and uncertain essence, the expose area usually could not be well defined during a flood event. Recent development in IoT sensors bring a low power and long distance communication which help us to collect real time flood depths. With these time series of flood depths at different locations, we are capable of verifying the simulation results corresponding to the flood event. 16 flood gauges with IoT specification as well as two flood events in Annan district, Tainan city, Taiwan are examined in this study. During the event in 11, June, 2016, 12 flood gauges works well and 8 of them provide observation match to simulation.

  1. Semantic Description of IoT Security for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Getinet

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Information- and communication technology IKT590 - University of Agder 2017 This research work proposed, developed and evaluated IoT Security ontology for smart home energy management system (SHEMS) in smart grids. The ontology description includes infrastructure, attacks, vulnerabilities and counter measures for the main components of SHEMS such as Smart Meter, Smart Appliance, Home Gateway, and Billing data. The ontology extends the SAREF energy management ontology with s...

  2. On the energy crisis in the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A.; Bagenal, Fran; Cheng, Andrew F.; Strobel, Darrell

    1988-01-01

    Recent calculations of the energy balance of the Io plasma torus show that the observed UV and EUV radiation cannot be maintained solely via energy input by the ion pickup mechanism. Current theoretical models of the torus must be modified to include non-local energy input. It is argued that the required energy may be supplied by inward diffusion of energetic heavy ions with energies less than about 20 keV.

  3. IoT enabled Insurance Ecosystem - Possibilities Challenges and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Jai

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Thing (IoT) is looking over to overhaul the business processes of many industries including insurance domain. The current line of business such as Property and Casualty, Health, and Life Insurance can avail tremendous benefits from the contextual and relevant data being generated from billions of connected devices; Smartphone's, wearable gadget and other electronic smart sensors. For P&C insurer's the biggest challenges is not the rapidly changing environment but tackling these ch...

  4. Inspecting Sizewell B Class 1 and IoF components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, T.

    1990-01-01

    Class 1 and ''incredibility of failure'' (IoF) pre-service inspections for Sizewell B cover steam generator and pressurizer welds and nozzles, welds on the emergency boration system, accumulators and reactor coolant loop, and the whole of the Class 1 piping. The contractor for this work has recently been selected. The scope of the work and the techniques and equipment to be used are outlined. (author)

  5. Seedbed based on IoT: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kalathas; D.V. Bandekas; A. Kosmidis; V. Kanakaris

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) and the Internet of Things (IOT) are widely used in providing decision support systems which solve many problems in the real-world. This paper presents IoT as the best way to solve the agricultural problems, related to seedbed resources optimization, decision making support and seed breeding monitoring. This case study provides real-time information about the seedbed that will help agriculturists make the right decisions during the seed...

  6. Blockchain for the IoT: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Gowri Sankar; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Blockchain technology has been transforming the financial industry and has created a new crypto-economy in the last decade. The foundational concepts such as decentralized trust and distributed ledger are promising for distributed, and large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) applications. However, the applications of Blockchain beyond cryptocurrencies in this domain are few and far between because of the lack of understanding and inherent architectural challenges. In this paper, we describe the ...

  7. Augmented communication with haptic I/O in mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Haverinen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is a very important part of face to face communication. Both explicit and implicit additions to verbal communication augment the information content of communication. Before telephones did not provide any means for adding nonverbal information to the communication, but now, as the technology has advanced, it is possible to start augmenting also the communication on the phone. Adding a haptic I/O device to a regular mobile phone opens possibilities to add value to commu...

  8. Volcanic hazards and public response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1988-05-01

    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  9. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  10. IoT Service Clustering for Dynamic Service Matchmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Yu, Le; Cheng, Bo; Chen, Junliang

    2017-07-27

    As the adoption of service-oriented paradigms in the IoT (Internet of Things) environment, real-world devices will open their capabilities through service interfaces, which enable other functional entities to interact with them. In an IoT application, it is indispensable to find suitable services for satisfying users' requirements or replacing the unavailable services. However, from the perspective of performance, it is inappropriate to find desired services from the service repository online directly. Instead, clustering services offline according to their similarity and matchmaking or discovering service online in limited clusters is necessary. This paper proposes a multidimensional model-based approach to measure the similarity between IoT services. Then, density-peaks-based clustering is employed to gather similar services together according to the result of similarity measurement. Based on the service clustering, the algorithms of dynamic service matchmaking, discovery, and replacement will be performed efficiently. Evaluating experiments are conducted to validate the performance of proposed approaches, and the results are promising.

  11. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-28

    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  12. IoT: Their Conveniences, Security Challenges and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davar Pishva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The build-in internet-controlled functions of smart devices such as smart phone, smart television, home healthcare gadget, etc., have made them quite attractive to many segments of consumers. In recent years mankind has witnessed an upsurge usage of such devices for numerous purposes. In this paper, the author is going to show how previously forecasted security challenges of these devices are becoming realities in the present day life. The paper initially provides some introductory information about the topic, mostly by means of survey and citations of previous work. It then highlights the devastating effects of October 21, 2016 DDoS attack which mainly utilized IoT devices. It emphasizes the danger of recently revealed Mirai IoT botnet which serves as the basis for the DDoS-for-hire ‘booter’/ ‘stresser’ service. In terms of counter measures, after highlighting IoT security implementation challenges, numerous approaches are presented. As a long-term solution, an architecture wherein security issues are managed through universal home gateway by network operators in a product based fashion is emphasized. The author shows its technical feasibility and demonstrates its partial materialization in proprietary manners. It then explains why and how numerous stake holders are needed to get together for its wide range commercial implementation. Some immediate necessary safeguard actions and intermediate schemes which include soft infrastructures are also presented for the purpose of risk reduction.

  13. IoT real time data acquisition using MQTT protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmoko, R. A.; Riantini, R.; Hasin, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides ease to monitor and to gain sensor data through the Internet [1]. The need of high quality data is increasing to the extent that data monitoring and acquisition system in real time is required, such as smart city or telediagnostic in medical areas [2]. Therefore, an appropriate communication protocol is required to resolve these problems. Lately, researchers have developed a lot of communication protocols for IoT, of which each has advantages and disadvantages. This study proposes the utilization of MQTT as a communication protocol, which is one of data communication protocols for IoT. This study used temperature and humidity sensors because the physical parameters are often needed as parameters of environment condition [3]. Data acquisition was done in real-time and stored in MySQL database. This study is also completed by interface web-based and mobile for online monitoring. This result of this study is the enhancement of data quality and reliability using MQTT protocol.

  14. QAaaS in a Cloud IoT Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current transition state of the global society, both from economic and (mostly technological perspective, goes – again – into overtime. Borrowed from fundamental domains and applied into science and research, the latest technological developments are built on graphene, silicene, phosphorene and stanene. The fourth industrial revolution changes perceptions and redefines the status of the individual, transforming him from con-sumer into pro-sumer of energy. Spintronics stimulates the production of accessories specific to the Internet of Things (IoT, like smart clothes connected to internet and implanted phones. Additionally, technology influences software development methodologies facing us with paradigms that transcend philosophies like green, grid, cloud computing and advance toward a superior manifestation of computer programming: Fog Computing (with the next level being presumably Rainbow Computing. Within this avalanche of transformations, technologies and paradigms, one aspect that has to evolve continuously is the quality assurance (QA. Hidden under various concept or methodology encapsulations, quality assurance in all fields and mostly in technological development and software paradigm play a key role. In an ecosystem defined by the context of Cloud IoT, quality assurance as service becomes a real challenge. In this paper we highlight the ways the ecosystem engages in its development not only things, beings, energies, sensors or objects but also technologies. One such popular technology is cloud computing which, in the context of IoT, sees a spectacular development of its own cluster of services, a potential such service being QAaaS.

  15. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Cratering histories of the intercrater plains. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon are defined, in part, by their high densities of small craters. The crater size frequency statistics presented in this chapter may help constrain the relative ages and origins of these surfaces. To this end, the effects of common geologic processes on crater frequency statistics are compared with the diameter frequency distributions of the intercrater regions of the Moon and Mercury. Such analyses may determine whether secondary craters dominate the distribution at small diameters, and whether volcanic plains or ballistic deposits form the intercrater surface. Determining the mass frequency distribution and flux of the impacting population is a more difficult problem. The necessary information such as scaling relationships between projectile energy and crater diameter, the relative fluxes of solar system objects, and the absolute ages of surface units is model dependent and poorly constrained, especially for Mercury.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  17. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  18. Cross-Layer Energy Optimization for IoT Environments: Technical Advances and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshna Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a significant characteristic of battery-run devices such as sensors, RFID and mobile phones. In the present scenario, this is the most prominent requirement that must be served while introducing a communication protocol for an IoT environment. IoT network success and performance enhancement depend heavily on optimization of energy consumption that enhance the lifetime of IoT nodes and the network. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive review on energy efficiency techniques used in IoT environments. The techniques proposed by researchers have been categorized based on five different layers of the energy architecture of IoT. These five layers are named as sensing, local processing and storage, network/communication, cloud processing and storage, and application. Specifically, the significance of energy efficiency in IoT environments is highlighted. A taxonomy is presented for the classification of related literature on energy efficient techniques in IoT environments. Following the taxonomy, a critical review of literature is performed focusing on major functional models, strengths and weaknesses. Open research challenges related to energy efficiency in IoT are identified as future research directions in the area. The survey should benefit IoT industry practitioners and researchers, in terms of augmenting the understanding of energy efficiency and its IoT-related trends and issues.

  19. UMAMI: A Recipe for Generating Meaningful Metrics through Holistic I/O Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Glenn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yoo, Wucherl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Nicholas J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Snyder, Shane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harms, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nault, Zachary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carns, Philip [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-12

    I/O efficiency is essential to productivity in scientific computing, especially as many scientific domains become more data-intensive. Many characterization tools have been used to elucidate specific aspects of parallel I/O performance, but analyzing components of complex I/O subsystems in isolation fails to provide insight into critical questions: how do the I/O components interact, what are reasonable expectations for application performance, and what are the underlying causes of I/O performance problems? To address these questions while capitalizing on existing component-level characterization tools, we propose an approach that combines on-demand, modular synthesis of I/O characterization data into a unified monitoring and metrics interface (UMAMI) to provide a normalized, holistic view of I/O behavior. We evaluate the feasibility of this approach by applying it to a month-long benchmarking study on two distinct largescale computing platforms. We present three case studies that highlight the importance of analyzing application I/O performance in context with both contemporaneous and historical component metrics, and we provide new insights into the factors affecting I/O performance. By demonstrating the generality of our approach, we lay the groundwork for a production-grade framework for holistic I/O analysis.

  20. Student Moon Observations and Spatial-Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Merryn; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Yang, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between sixth grade students' moon journaling and students' spatial-scientific reasoning after implementation of an Earth/Space unit were examined. Teachers used the project-based Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning curriculum. We used a regression model to analyze the relationship between the students' Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) post-test score variables and several predictors, including moon journal score, number of moon journal entries, student gender, teacher experience, and pre-test score. The model shows that students who performed better on moon journals, both in terms of overall score and number of entries, tended to score higher on the LPCI. For every 1 point increase in the overall moon journal score, participants scored 0.18 points (out of 20) or nearly 1% point higher on the LPCI post-test when holding constant the effects of the other two predictors. Similarly, students who increased their scores by 1 point in the overall moon journal score scored approximately 1% higher in the Periodic Patterns (PP) and Geometric Spatial Visualization (GSV) domains of the LPCI. Also, student gender and teacher experience were shown to be significant predictors of post-GSV scores on the LPCI in addition to the pre-test scores, overall moon journal score, and number of entries that were also significant predictors on the LPCI overall score and the PP domain. This study is unique in the purposeful link created between student moon observations and spatial skills. The use of moon journals distinguishes this study further by fostering scientific observation along with skills from across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines.

  1. MIGRATION OF SMALL MOONS IN SATURN's RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  2. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  3. VisIO: enabling interactive visualization of ultra-scale, time-series data via high-bandwidth distributed I/O systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jun [UCF

    2010-10-15

    Petascale simulations compute at resolutions ranging into billions of cells and write terabytes of data for visualization and analysis. Interactive visuaUzation of this time series is a desired step before starting a new run. The I/O subsystem and associated network often are a significant impediment to interactive visualization of time-varying data; as they are not configured or provisioned to provide necessary I/O read rates. In this paper, we propose a new I/O library for visualization applications: VisIO. Visualization applications commonly use N-to-N reads within their parallel enabled readers which provides an incentive for a shared-nothing approach to I/O, similar to other data-intensive approaches such as Hadoop. However, unlike other data-intensive applications, visualization requires: (1) interactive performance for large data volumes, (2) compatibility with MPI and POSIX file system semantics for compatibility with existing infrastructure, and (3) use of existing file formats and their stipulated data partitioning rules. VisIO, provides a mechanism for using a non-POSIX distributed file system to provide linear scaling of 110 bandwidth. In addition, we introduce a novel scheduling algorithm that helps to co-locate visualization processes on nodes with the requested data. Testing using VisIO integrated into Para View was conducted using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) on TACC's Longhorn cluster. A representative dataset, VPIC, across 128 nodes showed a 64.4% read performance improvement compared to the provided Lustre installation. Also tested, was a dataset representing a global ocean salinity simulation that showed a 51.4% improvement in read performance over Lustre when using our VisIO system. VisIO, provides powerful high-performance I/O services to visualization applications, allowing for interactive performance with ultra-scale, time-series data.

  4. Origin of the Moon new concept geochemistry and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galimov, Erik M

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the Moon remains an unsolved problem of the planetary science. Researchers engaged in celestial dynamics, geophysics, and geochemistry are still discussing various models of creation of our closest cosmic neighbour. The most popular scenario, the impact hypothesis involving a collision early in the Earth's history, has been substantially challenged by the new data. The birth and development of a planet-moon system always play a role in the formation of an entire planetary system around our Sun or around another star. This way, the story of our Moon acquires broader ramifications

  5. The evolution of the Earth-Moon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The tidally-induced couple acting on the Moon, due to friction between the oceans and their beds, is calculated as a function of the Earth-Moon separation. The function is found to be proportional to 1 +d/R 3 , and not the previously used 1/R 6 . By use of this new function it is found that the present rate of lunar recession gives an acceptable history for the system if it is assumed the Moon was initially in a close geo-stationary orbit 4 billion years ago, when perturbed by the condensation of the Earth's core. (Auth.)

  6. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  7. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  8. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  9. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  10. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  11. Half Moon Cove Tidal Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The proposed Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Project would be located in a small cove in the northern part of Cobscook Bay in the vicinity of Eastport, Maine. The project would be the first tidal electric power generating plant in the United States of America. The basin impounded by the barrier when full will approximate 1.2 square miles. The average tidal range at Eastport is 18.2 feet. The maximum spring tidal range will be 26.2 feet and the neap tidal range 12.8 feet. The project will be of the single pool-type single effect in which generation takes place on the ebb tide only. Utilizing an average mean tidal range of 18.2 feet the mode of operation enables generation for approximately ten and one-half (10-1/2) hours per day or slightly in excess of five (5) hours per tide. The installed capacity will be 12 MW utilizing 2 to 6 MW units. An axial flow, or Bulb type of turbine was selected for this study.

  12. Evolution of the Moon: the 1974 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The interpretive evolution of the Moon can be divided now into seven major stages beginning sometime near the end of the formation of the solar system. These stages and their approximate durations are as follows: 1. The Beginning - 4.6 billion years ago. 2. The Melted Shell-4.6-4.4 billion years ago. 3. The Cratered Highlands -4.4-4.1 billion years ago. 4. The Large Basins-4.1-3.9 billion years ago. 5. The Light-Coloured Plains-3.9-3.8 billion years ago 6. The Basaltic Maria -3.8-3.0 billion years ago. 7. The Quiet Crust-3.0 billion years ago to the present. The Apollo and Luna explorations that permit the study of these stages of evolution have each contributed in progressive and significant ways. Through them the early differentiation of the Earth, the nature of the Earth's protocrust, the influence of the formation of large impact basins in that crust, the effects of early partial melting of the protomantle and possibly the earliest stages of the breakup of the protocrust into continents and ocean basins can now be looked at with new insight. (Auth.)

  13. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  14. Spectral Photometric Properties of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, D.; Vilas, F.

    2005-01-01

    We modeled the solar phase curves of the moon at a series of wavelengths using the full disk telescopic observations [1]. We endeavored to keep the database self-contained, that is, to use the values derived for the solar magnitude and phase curves of the disk-integrated [1]. These observations were made in a suite of 10 narrowband filters between 0.315 microns and 1.06 microns, and in the broad band Johnson UBV filters, as part of a larger program to obtain photoelectric photometry of the larger planets. Two aspects of the lunar observations are unique. First, the observations cover phase angles from 6deg through 120deg. More importantly, the observers used a special 20-mm diameter f/15 fused quartz lens constructed solely for this purpose. The lens reduced the whole lunar image in the focal plane to a size comparable to the planets observed as part of the same program. This image was fed directly into the photometer. Thus, these observations constitute the only existing set of phase curves of the entire lunar disk over a range of wavelengths. Table 1 lists the values of the Hapke model parameters which fit the data. Figure 1 is an example of the model fits to the data.

  15. True Story of the Moon Rock Heist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, three NASA Co-op students along with a colleague from the University of Utah stole lunar samples from the Johnson Space Center. Three members of the "gang" removed a 600 pound safe containing lunar, meteorite and Martian samples from Dr. Gibson s laboratory. The thieves offered the samples for sale using the internet. They were arrested by undercover FBI and OIG agents. Three guilty pleas along with a conviction yielded sentences as long as 90 months in federal prison. Two of the thieves went to federal prison and have now been released. One of the thieves told his story to the popular author Ben Mezrich who released the book "Sex on the Moon" in July. Hollywood has "picked-up" the rights to their caper. The stolen lunar samples were not "trash". The loss of 30 years of Dr. Gibson s research records occurred along with contaminating and breaking the chain-of-custody for the lunar samples. The ring-leader has displayed no remorse for his crimes and is currently on the motivational speaker s lecture circuit. Investigators commented "they were the gang, who may have had the highest IQ but the least common sense in history." Previous unreleased information about the crime will be discussed by Dr. Gibson along with information about the forthcoming National Geographic Society s television special on the crime.

  16. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  17. Conflict Detection Algorithm to Minimize Locking for MPI-IO Atomicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Saba; Wang, Jun; Thakur, Rajeev

    Many scientific applications require high-performance concurrent I/O accesses to a file by multiple processes. Those applications rely indirectly on atomic I/O capabilities in order to perform updates to structured datasets, such as those stored in HDF5 format files. Current support for atomicity in MPI-IO is provided by locking around the operations, imposing lock overhead in all situations, even though in many cases these operations are non-overlapping in the file. We propose to isolate non-overlapping accesses from overlapping ones in independent I/O cases, allowing the non-overlapping ones to proceed without imposing lock overhead. To enable this, we have implemented an efficient conflict detection algorithm in MPI-IO using MPI file views and datatypes. We show that our conflict detection scheme incurs minimal overhead on I/O operations, making it an effective mechanism for avoiding locks when they are not needed.

  18. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  19. Transits of extrasolar moons around luminous giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R.

    2016-04-01

    Beyond Earth-like planets, moons can be habitable, too. No exomoons have been securely detected, but they could be extremely abundant. Young Jovian planets can be as hot as late M stars, with effective temperatures of up to 2000 K. Transits of their moons might be detectable in their infrared photometric light curves if the planets are sufficiently separated (≳10 AU) from the stars to be directly imaged. The moons will be heated by radiation from their young planets and potentially by tidal friction. Although stellar illumination will be weak beyond 5 AU, these alternative energy sources could liquify surface water on exomoons for hundreds of Myr. A Mars-mass H2O-rich moon around β Pic b would have a transit depth of 1.5 × 10-3, in reach of near-future technology.

  20. MRS2016: Rigid Moon Rotation Series in the Relativistic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The rigid Moon rotation problem is studied for the relativistic (kinematical) case, in which the geodetic perturbations in the Moon rotation are taken into account. As the result of this research the high-precision Moon Rotation Series MRS2016 in the relativistic approximation was constructed for the first time and the discrepancies between the high-precision numerical and the semi-analytical solutions of the rigid Moon rotation were investigated with respect to the fixed ecliptic of epoch J2000, by the numerical and analytical methods. The residuals between the numerical solution and MRS2016 in the perturbing terms of the physical librations do not exceed 80 mas and 10 arc seconds over 2000 and 6000 years, respectively.