WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcanic co2 emissions

  1. Volcanic CO2 Emissions and Glacial Cycles: Coupled Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J. M.; Huybers, P. J.; Katz, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Following the mid-Pleistocene transition, the dominant period of glacial cycles changed from 40 ka to 100 ka. It is broadly accepted that the 40 ka glacial cycles were driven by cyclical changes in obliquity. However, this forcing does not explain the 100 ka glacial cycles. Mechanisms proposed for 100 ka cycles include isostatic bed depression and proglacial lakes destabilising the Laurentide ice sheet, non-linear responses to orbital eccentricity, and Antarctic ice sheets influencing deep-ocean stratification. None of these are universally accepted. Here we investigate the hypothesis that variations in volcanic CO2 emissions can cause 100 ka glacial cycles. Any proposed mechanism for 100 ka glacial cycles must give the Earth's climate system a memory of 10^4 - 10^5years. This timescale is difficult to achieve for surface processes, however it is possible for the solid Earth. Recent work suggests volcanic CO2 emissions change in response to glacial cycles [1] and that there could be a 50 ka delay in that response [2]. Such a lagged response could drive glacial cycles from 40 ka cycles to an integer multiple of the forcing period. Under what conditions could the climate system admit such a response? To address this, we use a simplified climate model modified from Huybers and Tziperman [3]. Our version comprises three component models for energy balance, ice sheet growth and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The model is driven by insolation alone with other components varying according to a system of coupled, differential equations. The model is run for 500 ka to produce several glacial cycles and the resulting changes in global ice volume and atmospheric CO2 concentration.We obtain a switch from 40 ka to 100 ka cycles as the volcanic CO2 response to glacial cycles is increased. These 100 ka cycles are phase-locked to obliquity, lasting 80 or 120 ka. Whilst the MOR response required (in this model) is larger than plausible estimates based on [2], it illustrates the

  2. Geochemical signatures of the diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, F.; Bandomo, Z.; Barros, I.; Dias Fonseca, J.; Fernandes, P.; Rodrigues, J.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Padron, E.; Dionis, S.; Sonia, S.; Gonçalves, A.; Fernandes, A.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.

    2010-12-01

    Brava (67 km2) the smallest of the populated Cape Verde islands, lies at the southwestern end of the archipelagic crescent. Brava volcanic system has no documented historical eruptions, but its youthful volcanic morphology and the fact that earthquake swarms still occur indicate the potential for future eruptions. A geochemical survey of diffuse gas emissions was carried out in Brava island during February and March 2010. For this survey 228 sampling sites were selected all over the island to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements, using a portable accumulation chamber and an IR sensor, and soil temperature measurements at a depth of 30-50 cm. Soil gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth for chemical (He, H2, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and O2) and isotopic (δ13C-CO2) analysis in 32 selected sampling sites. CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 1.343 g m-2 d-1. To quantify the total diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system, a CO2 efflux map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). Most of the studied area showed background levels of CO2 efflux (˜2 g m-2 d-1), while peak levels (>1300 g m-2 d-1) were mainly identified at Vinagre and Baleia areas. The total diffuse CO2 output from Brava volcanic system was estimated about 41.6 t d-1. The analysis of the carbon isotopic signature of the CO2 in the soil atmosphere provides an insight for evaluating the origin of the diffuse CO2 emission. Observed δ13C-CO2 values ranged from -20.86 to -1.26 ‰. A binary plot of CO2 concentrations versus δ13C-CO2 values allows us to represent three major geochemical reservoirs (atmospheric air, volcanic gas, and biogenic gas) and their related mixing lines. The chemical and isotopic analysis of Brava soil gas samples suggest a mixing with deep-seated CO2 and biogenic gas for the diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system. The lack of visible volcanic gas emission in Brava highlights the importance of monitoring diffuse CO2 emission to improve its

  3. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    Approximately one tenth of the Earth's human population lives in direct reach of volcanic hazards. Being able to provide sufficiently early and scientifically sound warning is a key to volcanic hazard mitigation. Quantitative time-series monitoring of volcanic CO2 emissions will likely play a key role in such early warning activities in the future. Impending volcanic eruptions or any potentially disastrous activity that involves movement of magma in the subsurface, is often preceded by an early increase of CO2 emissions. Conventionally, volcanic CO2 monitoring is done either in campaigns of soil emission measurements (grid of one-time measuring points) that are labor intensive and slow, or by ground-based remote FTIR measurements in emission plumes. These methods are not easily available at all sites of potential activity and prohibitively costly to employ on a large number of volcanoes. In addition, both of these ground-based approaches pose a significant risk to the workers conducting these measurements. Some aircraft-based measurements have been conducted as well in the past, however these are limited by the usually meager funding situation of individual observatories, the hazard such flights pose to equipment and crew, and by the inaccessibility of parts of the plume due to ash hazards. The core motivation for this study is therefore to develop a method for volcanic CO2 monitoring from space that will provide sufficient coverage, resolution, and data quality for an application to quantitative time series monitoring and correlation with other available datasets, from a safe distance and with potentially global reach. In summary, the purpose of the proposed research is to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions using satellite-borne observations. Quantitative estimates will be useful for warning of impending volcanic eruptions, and assessing the contribution of volcanic CO2 to global GHG. Our approach encompasses method development and testing for the detection of

  4. Can satellite-based monitoring techniques be used to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kuze, Akihiko; Kataoka, Fumie; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki; Popp, Christoph; Ajiro, Masataka; Suto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Toru; Kanekon, Sayaka; Sealing, Christine; Flower, Verity

    2014-05-01

    Since 2010, we investigate and improve possible methods to regularly target volcanic centers from space in order to detect volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) point source anomalies, using the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Our long-term goals are: (a) better spatial and temporal coverage of volcano monitoring techniques; (b) improvement of the currently highly uncertain global CO2 emission inventory for volcanoes, and (c) use of volcanic CO2 emissions for high altitude, strong point source emission and dispersion studies in atmospheric science. The difficulties posed by strong relief, orogenic clouds, and aerosols are minimized by a small field of view, enhanced spectral resolving power, by employing repeat target mode observation strategies, and by comparison to continuous ground based sensor network validation data. GOSAT is a single-instrument Earth observing greenhouse gas mission aboard JAXA's IBUKI satellite in sun-synchronous polar orbit. GOSAT's Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been producing total column XCO2 data since January 2009, at a repeat cycle of 3 days, offering great opportunities for temporal monitoring of point sources. GOSAT's 10 km field of view can spatially integrate entire volcanic edifices within one 'shot' in precise target mode. While it doesn't have any spatial scanning or mapping capability, it does have strong spectral resolving power and agile pointing capability to focus on several targets of interest per orbit. Sufficient uncertainty reduction is achieved through comprehensive in-flight vicarious calibration, in close collaboration between NASA and JAXA. Challenges with the on-board pointing mirror system have been compensated for employing custom observation planning strategies, including repeat sacrificial upstream reference points to control pointing mirror motion, empirical individualized target offset compensation, observation pattern simulations to minimize view angle azimuth. Since summer 2010

  5. Delayed CO2 emissions from mid-ocean ridge volcanism as a possible cause of late-Pleistocene glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled 100,000 year variations in ice volume, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 during the late Pleistocene are generally considered to arise from a combination of orbital forcing, ice dynamics, and ocean circulation. Also previously argued is that changes in glaciation influence atmospheric CO2 concentrations through modifying subaerial volcanic eruptions and CO2 emissions. Building on recent evidence that ocean ridge volcanism responds to changes in sea level, here it is suggested that ocean ridges may play an important role in generating late-Pleistocene 100 ky glacial cycles. If all volcanic CO2 emissions responded immediately to changes in pressure, subaerial and ocean-ridge volcanic emissions anomalies would oppose one another. At ocean ridges, however, the egress of CO2 from the mantle is likely to be delayed by tens-of-thousands of years, or longer, owing to ascent time. A simple model involving temperature, ice, and CO2 is presented that oscillates at ∼100 ky time scales when incorporating a delayed CO2 contribution from ocean ridge volcanism, even if the feedback accounts for only a small fraction of total changes in CO2. Oscillations readily become phase-locked with insolation forcing associated with changes in Earth's orbit. Under certain parameterizations, a transition from ∼40 ky to larger ∼100 ky oscillations occurs during the middle Pleistocene in response to modulations in orbital forcing. This novel description of Pleistocene glaciation should be testable through ongoing advances in understanding the circulation of carbon through the solid earth.

  6. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, C.; Christenson, B.; Werner, C.; Leybourne, M.; Cole, J.; Gravley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow have been determined from the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand following 20a of production (116MW e). Soil CO2 degassing was quantified with 2663 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method, and 2563 soil temperatures were measured and converted to equivalent heat flow (Wm -2) using published soil temperature heat flow functions. Both CO2 flux and heat flow were analysed statistically and then modelled using 500 sequential Gaussian simulations. Forty subsoil CO 2 gas samples were also analysed for stable C isotopes. Following 20a of production, current CO2 emissions equated to 111??6.7T/d. Observed heat flow was 70??6.4MW, compared with a pre-production value of 122MW. This 52MW reduction in surface heat flow is due to production-induced drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows (61.5MW) and steam-heated pools (8.6MW) within the Ohaaki West thermal area (OHW). The drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows at Ohaaki means that the soil zone is now the major natural pathway of heat release from the high-temperature reservoir. On the other hand, a net gain in thermal ground heat flow of 18MW (from 25MW to 43.3??5MW) at OHW is associated with permeability increases resulting from surface unit fracturing by production-induced ground subsidence. The Ohaaki East (OHE) thermal area showed no change in distribution of shallow and deep soil temperature contours despite 20a of production, with an observed heat flow of 26.7??3MW and a CO 2 emission rate of 39??3T/d. The negligible change in the thermal status of the OHE thermal area is attributed to the low permeability of the reservoir beneath this area, which has limited production (mass extraction) and sheltered the area from the pressure decline within the main reservoir. Chemistry suggests that although alkali-Cl outflows once contributed significantly to the natural surface heat flow (~50%) they contributed little (99% of the original CO 2

  7. Diffuse CO2 emission from the NE volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): a 15 years geochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Shoemaker, Trevor; Loisel, Ariane; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The North East Rift (NER) volcanic zone of Tenerife Island is one of the three volcanic rift-zones of the island (210 km2). The most recent eruptive activity along the NER volcanic zone took place in the 1704-1705 period with the volcanic eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. The aim of this study was to report the results of a soil CO2 efflux survey undertaken in June 2015, with approximately 580 measuring sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of NER volcanic zone were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from NER volcanic zone, soil CO2 efflux contour maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CO2 emission rate was estimated in 1209 t d-1, with CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 123 g m-2 d-1, with an average value of 5.9 g m-2 d-1. If we compare these results with those obtained in previous surveys developed in a yearly basis, they reveal slightly variations from 2006 to 2015, with to pulses in the CO2 emission observed in 2007 and 2014. The main temporal variation in the total CO2 output does not seem to be masked by external variations. First peak precedes the anomalous seismicity registered in and around Tenerife Island between 2009 and 2011, suggesting stress-strain changes at depth as a possible cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission. Second peak could be related with futures changes in the seismicity. This study demonstrates the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool.

  8. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  9. Thermal effects of massive CO2 emissions associated with subduction volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Large volumes of CO₂ are emitted during volcanic activity at convergent plate boundaries, not only from volcanic centers. Their C isotopic signature indicates that this CO₂ is mainly derived from the decarbonation of subducted limestones or carbonated metabasalts, not as often admitted from magma

  10. Precursory volcanic CO2 signals from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kataoka, Fumie; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Identification of earliest signals heralding volcanic unrest benefits from the unambiguous detection of precursors that reflect deviation of magmatic systems from metastable background activity. Ascent and emplacement of new basaltic magma at depth may precede eruptions by weeks to months. Transient localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stemming from exsolution from depressurized magma are expected, and have been observed weeks to months ahead of magmatic surface activity. Detecting such CO2 precursors by continuous ground-based monitoring operations is unfortunately not a widely implemented method yet, save a handful of volcanoes. Detecting CO2 emissions from space offers obvious advantages - however it is technologically challenging, not the least due to the increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, against which a surface emission signal is hard to discern. In a multi-year project, we have investigated the feasibility of space-borne detection of pre-eruptive volcanic CO2 passive degassing signals using observations from the Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Since 2010, we have observed over 40 active volcanoes from space using GOSAT's special target mode. Over 72% of targets experienced at least one eruption over that time period, demonstrating the potential utility of space-borne CO2 observations in non-imaging target-mode (point source monitoring mode). While many eruption precursors don't produce large enough CO2 signals to exceed space-borne detection thresholds of current satellite sensors, some of our observations have nevertheless already shown significant positive anomalies preceding eruptions at basaltic volcanoes. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from the single-shot GOSAT instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath can slice

  11. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  12. Anomalous increase of diffuse CO_{2} emission from Brava (Cape Verde): evidence of volcanic unrest or increase gas release from a stationary magma body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Marta; García-Hernández, Rubén; Montrond, Eurico; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Silva, Sonia V.; Alfama, Vera; Cabral, Jeremías; Pereira, Jose M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Brava (67 km2) is the southwestern most and the smallest inhabited island of the Cape Verde archipelago. It is located 18 km west of Fogo Island and rises 976 m from the sea level. Brava has not any documented historical eruptions, but its Holocene volcanism and relatively high seismic activity clearly indicate that it is an active volcanic island. Since there have been no historic eruptions in Brava, volcanic hazard awareness among the population and the authorities is very low; therefore, its volcano monitoring program is scarce. With the aim of helping to provide a multidisciplinary monitoring program for the volcanic surveillance of the island, diffuse CO2 emission surveys have been carried out since 2010; approximately every 2 years. Soil CO2 efflux measurements are periodically performed at ˜ 275 observation sites all over the island and after taking into consideration their accessibility and the island volcano-structural characteristics. At each sampling site, soil CO2 efflux measurement was performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system, soil CO2 efflux maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). An increase trend of diffuse CO2 emission rate from 42 to 681 t d-1at Brava was observed; just one year prior the 2014-2015 Fogo eruption and almost three years before the anomalous seismic activity recorded on August 2016 with more than 1000 seismic events registered by the INMG on August 1st, 2016 (Bruno Faria, personal communication). Due to this anomalous seismic activity, a diffuse CO2 emission survey at Brava was performed from August 2 to 10, 2016, and the estimated degassing rate yield a value about 72 t d-1; typical background values. An additional survey was carried out from October 22 to November 6, 2016. For this last survey, the estimated diffuse CO2 emission from Brava showed the highest observed value with a

  13. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  14. Compositional variation in aging volcanic plumes - Analysis of gaseous SO2, CO2 and halogen species in volcanic emissions using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, Julian; Lukas, Tirpitz; Bobrowski, Nicole; Gutmann, Alexandra; Liotta, Marcello; de Moor, Maarten; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes are a large source for several reactive atmospheric trace gases including sulfur and halogen containing species. The detailed understanding of volcanic plume chemistry is needed to draw information from gas measurements on subsurface processes. This knowledge is essential for using gas measurements as a monitoring tool for volcanic activity. The reactive bromine species bromine monoxide (BrO) is of particular interest, because BrO as well as SO2 are readily measurable from safe distance by spectroscopic remote sensing techniques. BrO is not directly emitted, but is formed in the plume by a multiphase reaction mechanism. The abundance of BrO changes as a function of the distance from the vent as well as the spatial position in the plume. The precursor substance for the formation of BrO is HBr with Br2as an intermediate product. In this study we present the application of a UAV as a carrier for a remote-controlled sampling system for halogen species (Br2, HBr, BrCl, etc), based on the gas diffusion denuder technique, which allows speciation and enrichment by selective organic reactions. For the analysis of gaseous SO2 and CO2 an in-situ gas monitoring system was additionally mounted. This setup was deployed into the gas plumes of Stromboli Volcano (Italy), Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua) and Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) in 2016, to investigate the halogen chemistry at distant locations in the plume further downwind to the emission source, which are in most cases not accessible by other approaches. Flights into the plume were conducted with ascents of up to 1000 m. From telemetrically transmitted SO2 mixing ratios, areas of dense plume where localized to keep the UAV stationary for up to 10 minutes of sampling time. Additionally, ground based samples were taken at the crater rim (at Masaya and Turrialba) using alkaline traps, denuder and gas sensors for comparison with airborne-collected data. Herein we will present time and spatial resolved gas mixing ratio

  15. Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Fátima; Gaspar, João L; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the main soil gases released silently and permanently in diffuse degassing areas, both in volcanic and non-volcanic zones. In the volcanic islands of the Azores (Portugal) several villages are located over diffuse degassing areas. Lethal indoor CO2 concentrations (higher than 10 vol %) were measured in a shelter located at Furnas village, inside the caldera of the quiescent Furnas Volcano (S. Miguel Island). Hazardous CO2 concentrations were detected not only underground, but also at the ground floor level. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to the CO2 and environmental time series recorded between April 2008 and March 2010 at Furnas village. The results show that about 30% of the indoor CO2 variation is explained by environmental variables, namely barometric pressure, soil water content and wind speed. The highest indoor CO2 concentrations were recorded during bad weather conditions, characterized by low barometric pressure together with rainfall periods and high wind speed. In addition to the spike-like changes observed on the CO2 time series, long-term oscillations were also identified and appeared to represent seasonal variations. In fact, indoor CO2 concentrations were higher during winter period when compared to the dry summer months. Considering the permanent emission of CO2 in various volcanic regions of the world, CO2 hazard maps are crucial and need to be accounted by the land-use planners and authorities.

  16. Distinguishing contributions to diffuse CO2 emissions in volcanic areas from magmatic degassing and thermal decarbonation using soil gas 222Rn-δ13C systematics: Application to Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Berlo, Kim; Edmonds, Marie; Biggs, Juliet; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Raptakis, Costas

    2013-09-01

    Between January 2011 and April 2012, Santorini volcano (Greece) experienced a period of unrest characterised by the onset of detectable seismicity and caldera-wide uplift. This episode of inflation represented the first sizeable intrusion of magma beneath Santorini in the past 50 years. We employ a new approach using 222Rn-δ13C systematics to identify and quantify the source of diffuse degassing at Santorini during the period of renewed activity. Soil CO2 flux measurements were made across a network of sites on Nea Kameni between September 2010 and January 2012. Gas samples were collected in April and September 2011 for isotopic analysis of CO2 (δ13C), and radon detectors were deployed during September 2011 to measure (222Rn). Our results reveal a change in the pattern of degassing from the summit of the volcano (Nea Kameni) and suggest an increase in diffuse CO2 emissions between September 2010 and January 2012. High-CO2-flux soil gas samples have δ13C˜0‰. Using this value and other evidence from the literature we conclude that these CO2 emissions from Santorini were a mixture between CO2 sourced from magma, and CO2 released by the thermal or metamorphic breakdown of crustal limestone. We suggest that this mixing of magmatic and crustal carbonate sources may account more broadly for the typical range of δ13C values of CO2 (from ˜-4‰ to ˜+1‰) in diffuse volcanic and fumarole gas emissions around the Mediterranean, without the need to invoke unusual mantle source compositions. At Santorini a mixing model involving magmatic CO2 (with δ13C of -3±2‰ and elevated (222Rn)/CO2 ratios ˜105-106 Bqkg) and CO2 released from decarbonation of crustal limestone (with (222Rn)/CO2 ˜ 30-300 Bq kg-1, and δ13C of +5‰) can account for the δ13C and (222Rn)/CO2 characteristics of the 'high flux' gas source. This model suggests ˜60% of the carbon in the high flux deep CO2 end member is of magmatic origin. This combination of δ13C and (222Rn) measurements has

  17. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: Implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2016-09-01

    Active volcanoes at oceanic subduction zone have long been regard as important pathways for deep carbon degassed from Earth's interior, whereas those at continental subduction zone remain poorly constrained. Large-scale active volcanoes, together with significant modern hydrothermal activities, are widely distributed in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF) on convergent boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. They provide an important opportunity for studying deep carbon cycle at the ongoing intra-continent subduction zone. Soil microseepage survey based on accumulation chamber method reveals an average soil CO2 flux of ca. 280 g m-2 d-1 in wet season for the Rehai geothermal park (RGP). Combined with average soil CO2 flux in dry season (ca. 875 g m-2 d-1), total soil CO2 output of the RGP and adjacent region (ca. 3 km2) would be about 6.30 × 105 t a-1. Additionally, we conclude that total flux of outgassing CO2 from the TVF would range in (4.48-7.05) × 106 t a-1, if CO2 fluxes from hot springs and soil in literature are taken into account. Both hot spring and soil gases from the TVF exhibit enrichment in CO2 (>85%) and remarkable contribution from mantle components, as indicated by their elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.85-5.30 RA) and δ13C-CO2 values (-9.00‰ to -2.07‰). He-C isotope coupling model suggests involvement of recycled organic metasediments and limestones from subducted Indian continental lithosphere in formation of the enriched mantle wedge (EMW), which has been recognized as source region of the TVF parental magmas. Contamination by crustal limestone is the first-order control on variations in He-CO2 systematics of volatiles released by the EMW-derived melts. Depleted mantle and recycled crustal materials from subducted Indian continental lithosphere contribute about 45-85% of the total carbon inventory, while the rest carbon (about 15-55%) is accounted by limestones in continental crust. As indicated by origin and evolution of the TVF

  18. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  19. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  20. CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kundak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Global CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the past century are presented. Taking into consideration the total world production of more than 1,3 billion tons of steel, the steel industry produces over two billion tons of CO2. Reductions in CO2 emissions as a result of technological improvements and structural changes in steel production in industrialized countries during the past 40 years are described. Substantial further reductions in those emissions will not be possible using conventional technologies. Instead, a radical cutback may be achieved if, instead of carbon, hydrogen is used for direct iron ore reduction. The cost and the ensuing CO2 generation in the production of hydrogen as a reducing agent from various sources are analysed.

  1. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  2. Projecting human development and CO2 emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

  3. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y−1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y−1 and land use change (240 TgC y−1. Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y−1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y−1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y−1. The average amount of carbon (C emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  4. Explaining Dutch emissions of CO2; a decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Hoen; Machiel Mulder

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of CO2 data of the Netherlands shows that much progress has been made with reduction of CO2 emissions by changing to less CO2 intensive technologies. Moreover, demand shifted to products that are produced with less CO2 emission. Further, shifts in the inputs needed in the production process also managed to decrease the CO2 emissions. These effects, however, were more than compensated by increased CO2 emission due to economic growth. Especially growth in exports led to substantia...

  5. Research on the physical properties of supercritical CO2 and the log evaluation of CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baozhi; Lei, Jian; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Yuhang

    2017-10-01

    CO2-bearing reservoirs are difficult to distinguish from other natural gas reservoirs during gas explorations. Due to the lack of physical parameters for supercritical CO2, particularly neutron porosity, at present a hydrocarbon gas log evaluation method is used to evaluate CO2-bearing reservoirs. The differences in the physical properties of hydrocarbon and CO2 gases have led to serious errors. In this study, the deep volcanic rock of the Songliao Basin was the research area. In accordance with the relationship between the density and acoustic velocity of supercritical CO2 and temperature and pressure, the regularity between the CO2 density and acoustic velocity, and the depth of the area was established. A neutron logging simulation was completed based on a Monte Carlo method. Through the simulation of the wet limestone neutron logging, the relationship between the count rate ratio of short and long space detectors and the neutron porosity was acquired. Then, the nature of the supercritical CO2 neutron moderation was obtained. With consideration given to the complexity of the volcanic rock mineral composition, a volcanic rock volume model was established, and the matrix neutron and density parameters were acquired using the ECS log. The properties of CO2 were applied in the log evaluation of the CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin. The porosity and saturation of CO2 were obtained, and a reasonable application was achieved in the CO2-bearing reservoir.

  6. Development of a low cost and low power consumption system for monitoring CO_{2} soil concentration in volcanic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah Estévez, Shadia; Moure-García, David; Torres-González, Pedro; Acosta Sánchez, Leopoldo; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    Volatiles dissolved in magma are released as gases when pressure or stress conditions change. H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S are the most abundant gases involved in volcanic processes. Emission rates are related to changes in the volcanic activity. Therefore, in order to predict possible eruptive events, periodic measurements of CO2 concentrations from the soil should be carried out. In the last years, CO2 monitoring has been widespread for many reasons. A direct relationship between changes in volcanic activity and variations in concentration, diffuse flux and isotope ratios of this gas, have been observed prior to some eruptions or unrest processes. All these factors have pointed out the fact that CO2 emission data are crucial in volcanic monitoring programs. In addition, relevant instrumentation development has also taken place: improved accuracy, cost reduction and portability. Considering this, we propose a low cost and a low power consumption system for measuring CO2 concentration in the soil based on Arduino. Through a perforated pick-axe buried at a certain depth, gas samples are periodically taken with the aid of a piston. These samples are injected through a pneumatic circuit in the spectrometer, which measures the CO2 concentration. Simultaneously, the system records the following meteorological parameters: atmospheric pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and air and soil temperature. These parameters are used to correct their possible influence in the CO2 soil concentration. Data are locally stored (SD card) and transmitted via GPRS or WIFI to a data analysis center.

  7. CO2 emissions from Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2011-01-01

    rise to a substantial reduction of the CO2 emission in the construction phase. The present paper describes how the CO2 emission is reduced when using Super-light technology instead of traditional structural components. Estimations of the CO2 emissions from a number of projects using various...... construction methods suggest that building with Super-light structures may cut the CO2 emission in half, compared to traditional concrete structures, and reduce it to 25% compared to traditional steel structures....

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  9. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  10. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  11. Monitoring the NW volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: sixteen years of diffuse CO_{2} degassing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Halliwell, Simon; Butters, Damaris; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria, is the only one that has developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. At present, one of the most active volcanic structures in Tenerife is the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ), which has hosted two historical eruptions: Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909. Since the year 2000, 47 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been undertaken at the NWRZ of Tenerife Island to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. We report herein the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the NWRZ carried out in July 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. During 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 103 g m-2 d-1. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 403 ± 17 t d-1, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 143 t d-1. For all campaigns, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m-2 d-1, with the highest values measured in May 2005. Total CO2 output from the studied area ranged between 52 and 867 t d-1. Temporal variations in the total CO2 output showed a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the area during April 22-29, 2004. Spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux values also showed changes in magnitude and amplitude, with higher CO2 efflux values located along a trending WNW-ESE area. Subsurface magma movement is proposed as a cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission, as well as for the spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux

  12. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from −30.3 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (−3.39 kg C m−2 yr−1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (+2.6 kg C m−2 yr−1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding −32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential

  13. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in hydrothermal/volcanic environments has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t d-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t d-1; La Fossa crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in the hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at the global scale.

  14. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-08-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014) at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t day-1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  15. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pedone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece, Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy. At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day−1; Krýsuvík to moderate (524 ± 108 t day−1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano. Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  16. Volcanic CO2 mapping and flux measurements at Campi Flegrei by Tunable Diode Laser absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Maria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Grassa, Fausto; Chiodini, Giovanni; Valenza, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared room-temperature Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in Volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) to measurement of volcanic CO2 flux emissions. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei (near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy), where the GasFinder was used (during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013) to repeatedly measure the path-integrated concentrations of CO2 along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes of the two main fumarolic fields in the area (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using ad-hoc designed field-set-up and a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the 2 manifestations, the contour maps of CO2 concentrations in their atmospheric plumes, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained [1]. The so-calculated fluxes average of 490 tons/day, which agrees well with independent evaluations of Aiuppa et al. (2013) [2] (460 tons/day on average), and support a significant contribution of fumaroles to the total CO2 budget. The cumulative (fumarole [this study] +soil [2]) CO2 output from Campi Flegrei is finally evaluated at 1600 tons/day. The application of lasers to volcanic gas studies is still an emerging (though intriguing) research field, and requires more testing and validation experiments. We conclude that TDL technique may valuably assist CO2 flux quantification at a number of volcanic targets worldwide. [1] Pedone M. et al. (2013) Gold2013:abs:5563, Goldschmidt Conference, session 11a. [2] Aiuppa A. et al. (2013) Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20261. [3] Chiodini G. et al. (2010) Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 115, B03205. doi:10.1029/2008JB006258.

  17. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  18. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pHCO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  19. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  20. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  1. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended. A counter......-productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin...

  2. Forecasting CO2 emissions in the Persian Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Olabemiwo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.

  3. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a to

  4. Episodical CO2 emission during shoulder seasons in the arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Elberling, Bo; Hansen, Birger

    Carbon cycling and trace gas emissions from high latitude ecosystems has over the last decade received increasing attention due to the dramatic climate change experienced and predicted by GCM scenarios for the region, and the effect that such changes may have on the carbon stored in the arctic...... of CO2 during spring. The other example, from a study during late autumn and winter from high arctic Svalbard we found that episodical emissions of CO2 accounted for a significant part of the total CO2 emission form the site. The emission pattern could be associated with temperature variations...... at the site and show high emission rates the freeze-in periods, whereas shorter periods with temperatures above freezing point resulted in lower emission rates. In We interpret this as emission of CO2 is being decoupled from the biological production during the freeze-in period and is primarily linked...

  5. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  6. Compensation of CO2 emissions by air travels: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several aircraft companies launched awareness campaigns, offering to their passenger the opportunity to known and also calculate their own per-capita CO2 emissions related to the flight they are going to make. Such campaigns permits to the passenger to pay a volunteer contribution in order to compensate their CO2 emissions. In this short communication, some programs undertaken by airline companies are showed. These initiatives are all characterized by a common denominator: the achievement of concrete, proved and verifiable results to compensate the aircraft CO2 emissions. Moreover, also a concrete case is reported as example: it is useful to show which is the per capita CO2 emission for a sample flight in Europe and, quantitatively, the amount of compensation measurements. Finally, this communication highlights on how the estimates of such measurements are usually miscalculated, considering that the capability of forest ecosystems to store CO2 are often underestimated.

  7. Emission studies from a CO2 capture pilot plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.F. da; Kolderup, H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Hjarbo, K.W.; Huizinga, A.; Khakharia, P.M.; Tuinman, I.L.; Mejdell, T.; Zahlsen, K.; Vernstad, K.; Hyldbakk, A.; Holten, T.; Kvamsdal, H.M.; Os, P.J. van; Einbu, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of emissions from a pilot-plant for CO2 capture at Maasvlakte (in the Netherlands). Three contributions to emissions were identified and analyzed: Gas phase emission, aerosols (also referred to as mist or fog) and droplets of entrained solvents. For the emission campaig

  8. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-09-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2-the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption-has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest.

  9. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2011 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focusses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2011, and includes not only fossil fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates all other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. After a short description of the methods used (Chapter 2), we first present a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, by region and by country, and of the underlying trend of fossil fuel use, non-fossil energy and of other CO2 sources (Chapter 3). To provide a broader context of the global trends we also assess the cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade, i.e. since 2000, and compare it with scientific literature that analyse global emissions in relation to the target of 2C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations (Chapter 4). Compared to last year's report, Annex 1 includes a more detailed and updated discussion of the uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates.

  10. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy); Muntean, M. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2012 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focuses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2011 to 2012, and includes not only fossil-fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during gas and oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. The report clarifies the CO2 emission sources covered, and describes the methodology and data sources. More details are provided in Annex 1 over the 2010-2012 period, including a discussion of the degree of uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates. Chapter 2 presents a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, per main country or region, including a comparison between emissions per capita and per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and of the underlying trend in fossil-fuel production and use, non-fossil energy and other CO2 sources. Specific attention is given to developments in shale gas and oil production and oil sands production and their impact on CO2 emissions. To provide a broader context of global emissions trends, international greenhouse gas mitigation targets and agreements are also presented, including different perspectives of emission accounting per country. In particular, annual trends with respect to the Kyoto Protocol target and Cancun agreements and cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade are compared with scientific literature that analyses global emissions in relation to the target of 2{sup 0}C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations. In addition, we briefly discuss the rapid development and implementation of various emission trading schemes, because of their increasing importance as a cross-cutting policy instrument for mitigating

  11. Ground-based remote sensing of volcanic CO2 and correlated SO2, HF, HCl, and BrO, in safe-distance from the crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Andre; Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Kostinek, Julian; Fieber, Lukas; Fischerkeller, Constanze; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kuhn, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Tu, Qiansi

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing of CO2 enhancements in volcanic plumes can be a tool to estimate volcanic CO2 emissions and thereby, to gain insight into the geological carbon cycle and into volcano interior processes. However, remote sensing of the volcanic CO2 is challenged by the large atmospheric background concentrations masking the minute volcanic signal. Here, we report on a demonstrator study conducted in September 2015 at Mt. Etna on Sicily, where we deployed an EM27/SUN Fourier Transform Spectrometer together with a UV spectrometer on a mobile remote sensing platform. The spectrometers were operated in direct-sun viewing geometry collecting cross-sectional scans of solar absorption spectra through the volcanic plume by operating the platform in stop-and-go patterns in 5 to 10 kilometers distance from the crater region. We successfully detected correlated intra-plume enhancements of CO2 and volcanic SO2, HF, HCl, and BrO. The path-integrated volcanic CO2 enhancements amounted to about 0.5 ppm (on top of the ˜400 ppm background). Key to successful detection of volcanic CO2 was A) the simultaneous observation of the O2 total column which allowed for correcting changes in the CO2 column caused by changes in observer altitude and B) the simultaneous measurement of volcanic species co-emitted with CO2 which allowed for discriminating intra-plume and extra-plume observations. The latter were used for subtracting the atmospheric CO2 background. The field study suggests that our remote sensing observatory is a candidate technique for volcano monitoring in safe distance from the crater region.

  12. CO2 acclimation impacts leaf isoprene emissions: evidence from past to future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo; van der Laan, Annick; Dekker, Stefan; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted by many plant species as a side-product of photosynthesis. Once in the atmosphere, isoprene exhibits climate forcing through various feedback mechanisms. In order to quantify the climate feedbacks of biogenic isoprene emission it is crucial to establish how isoprene emissions are effected by plant acclimation to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. A promising development for modelling CO2-induced changes in isoprene emissions is the Leaf-Energetic-Status model (referred to as LES-model hereafter, see Harrison et al., 2013 and Morfopoulos et al., 2014). This model simulates isoprene emissions based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on the imbalance between the photosynthetic electron supply of reducing power and the electron demands of carbon fixation. The energetic imbalance is critically related to the photosynthetic electron transport capacity (Jmax) and the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax). Here we compare predictions of the LES-model with observed isoprene emission responses of Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) specimen that acclimated to CO2 growth conditions representative of the last glacial, the present and the end of this century (200, 400 and 800 ppm, respectively) for two growing seasons. These plants were grown in walk-in growth chambers with tight control of light, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetic biochemical parameters Vcmax and Jmax were determined with a Licor LI-6400XT photosynthesis system. The relationship between photosynthesis and isoprene emissions was measured by coupling the photosynthesis system with a Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Our empirical results support the LES-model and show that the fractional allocation of carbon to isoprene biosynthesis is reduced in response to both short-term and long-term CO2 increases. In the short term, an increase in CO2 stimulates photosynthesis through an increase in the leaf interior CO2

  13. Influence of travel behavior on global CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Vries, B. de

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand is rising steeply and its contribution to global CO2 emissions is increasing. Different studies have shown possible mitigation through technological options, but so far few studies have evaluated the implications of changing travel behavior on global travel demand, energy use and CO2 e

  14. Variations in Mid-Ocean Ridge CO2 Emissions Driven By Glacial Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J. M.; Katz, R. F.; Huybers, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial cycles impact continental volcanism through pressure changes associated with growth and retreat of ice sheets [e.g. Iceland - Jull, 1996]. Similarly, changes in sea level accompanying glacial cycles modulate mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanism by pressure changes and their influence on melt production [Crowley 2014; Lund 2011; Huybers 2009]. CO2 transport through the upper mantle is sensitive to mantle melting because CO2 partitions completely into the melt phase when present. Melt then transports CO2 to the ridge axis, where it enters the climate system. We present models of CO2 transport that investigate how sea level modulates the rate of CO2 emission from MORs. The total carbon reservoir in the mantle is circa 10^7 GtC [Dasgupta 2010], orders of magnitude more than the oceans (40,000 GtC) and atmosphere (600 GtC). Changes in the rate of CO2 emission from the solid Earth therefore have the potential to significantly affect the surface carbon system. We have developed an analytical model of CO2 transport from the depth of first silicate melting (~60km) to the ridge axis, enabling a calculation of CO2 emission rate for a generic section of MOR. The model assumes homogeneous mantle and energy-conserving melt production from a simplified 2-component mantle; CO2 is taken as a perfectly incompatible trace element. Pressure variations modulate the depth of initial silicate melting and hence the flux of CO2 into the melting regime. The model can also be applied to any species that is strongly partitioned into the melt (eg. Uranium, Thorium, Niobium, Barium, Rubidium). Results suggest that changing sea level over the past Myr could have altered the CO2 emissions from MOR by ~8%. The magnitude of variation in emissions is sensitive to the mantle permeability, the ridge spreading rate, and the rate of change of sea level. The travel time of melt through the mantle causes a delay between sea-level change and the CO2 response of the MOR. This delay is sensitive to plate

  15. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.

    2006-12-15

    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  16. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  17. CO2-emissions from Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field’s extraction declines...

  18. CO2-emissions form Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field's extraction declines...

  19. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Martinez, C.I. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota (Colombia); Silveira, S [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  20. Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    countries, such as financing a low-emission power plant in China. 7. See Joseph E. Aldy, Peter R. Orszag, and Joseph E. Stiglitz , “Cli- mate Change: An...tives—see Joseph E. Aldy, Peter R. Orszag, and Joseph E. Stiglitz , “Climate Change: An Agenda for Global Collective Action” (paper prepared for the...written by Terry Dinan of CBO’s Microeconomic Studies Division under the guidance of Joseph Kile and David Moore. Robert Dennis, Douglas Hamilton

  1. Impact of Biogas Stations on CO2 Emission from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of biogas stations on CO2 emissions produced within agricultural sector. In last years, owing to a positive policy of renewable energy resources a number of biogas stations in the CR has rapidly increased – actually over 350 agricultural biogas stations with the total installed power 365 MW are in operation. Concerning CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector, there is a presumption of decrease in produced emissions owing to decrease of influence of animal wastes which are processed just in the biogas stations. From the results it is obvious that CO2 emissions produced by agriculture in the CR decrease by 93.7 thousand tonnes annually. A presumption P1 that building of biogas stations will further support this trend is documented with results of a simple dynamic linear regression model. Further, elasticities of particular variables influencing the total emission from agriculture are investigated in the paper.

  2. Changes in soft coral Sarcophyton sp. abundance and cytotoxicity at volcanic CO2 seeps in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Indra Januar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relationship between benthic cover of Sarcophyton sp. living on coral reefs and their cytotoxicity (an assumption of soft coral allelochemical levels along acidification gradients caused by shallow water volcanic vent systems. Stations with moderate acidification (pH 7.87 ± 0.04, low acidification (pH 8.01 ± 0.04, and reference conditions (pH 8.2 ± 0.02 were selected near an Indonesian CO2 seep (Minahasa, Gunung Api Island, and Mahengetang Island. Cover of the dominant soft coral species (Sarcophyton sp. was assessed and tissue samples were collected at each site. The cytotoxicity tissue extracts were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolinon bromide (MTT method. Levels of cytotoxicity were strongly correlated with Sarcophyton sp. cover (p < 0.05; R2 = 0.60 at 30 ppm and 0.56 at 100 ppm, being highest at mean pH 8.01 where the soft corals were most abundant. This finding suggests that Sarcophyton sp. can be expected to survive ocean acidification near Indonesia in the coming decades. How the species might be adversely affected by further ocean acidification later in the century unless CO2 emissions are reduced remains a concern.

  3. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannara, A.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: http://tinyurl.com/6xgpkfa We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  4. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO2 emission outlines.

  5. Different regulation of CO2 emission from streams and lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Halbedel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It has become more and more evident that CO2 emission (FCO2 from freshwater systems is an important part in the global carbon cycle. Only few studies addressed the different mechanisms regulating FCO2 from lotic and lentic systems. In a comparative study we investigated how different biogeochemical and physical factors can affect FCO2 from streams and reservoirs. We examined the seasonal variability in CO2 concentrations and emissions from four streams and two pre-dams of a large drinking water reservoir located in the same catchment, and compared them with parallel measured environmental factors. All streams generally were supersaturated with CO2 over the whole year, while both reservoirs where CO2 sinks during summer stratification and sources after circulation. FCO2 from streams ranged from 23 to 355 mmol m–2 d–1 and exceeded the fluxes from the reservoirs (–24 to 97 mmol m–2 d–1. Both the generally high piston velocity (k and CO2 oversaturation were responsible for the higher FCO2 from streams in comparison to lakes. In both, streams and reservoirs FCO2 was mainly controlled by the CO2 concentration (r = 0.86 for dams, r = 0.90 for streams, which was clearly affected by metabolism and nutrients in both systems. Besides CO2 concentration, also physical factors control FCO2 in lakes and streams. During stratification FCO2 in both pre-dams was controlled by primary production in the epilimnion, which led to a decrease of FCO2. During circulation when CO2 from the hypolimnion was mixed with the epilimnion and the organic matter mineralisation was more relevant, FCO2 increased. FCO2 from streams was physically controlled especially by geomorphological and hydrological factors regulating k, which is less relevant in low wind lakes. We developed a schematic model describing the role of the different regulation mechanism on FCO2 from streams and lakes. Taken together, FCO2 is generally mostly controlled by CO2 concentration in the surface

  6. Volcanic CO2 flux measurement at Campi Flegrei by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Valenza, M.

    2014-04-01

    Near-infrared room temperature tunable diode lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 mixing ratios, and ultimately for estimating the volcanic CO2 flux. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy, where the GasFinder was used during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013 to repeatedly measure the path-integrated mixing ratios of CO2 along cross sections of the atmospheric plumes of two major fumarolic fields (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the two fields, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the atmosphere, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained. We evaluate a total CO2 output from the Campi Flegrei fumaroles of ˜490 Mg/day, in line with independent estimates based on in situ (Multi-GAS) observations. We conclude that TDL technique may enable CO2 flux quantification at other volcanoes worldwide.

  7. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  8. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  9. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  10. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  11. MODELLING CO2 EMISSIONS IMPACTS ON CROATIAN POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pašičko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's electrical energy landscape is characterized by new challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities, and demand to cut CO2 emissions. All mentioned challenges are calling for consideration of various options (like nuclear, coal, gas or renewable scenarios and for better understanding of energy systems modelling in order to optimize proper energy mix. Existing models are not sufficient any more and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. European emission trading scheme (EU ETS started in 2005 and it has great influence on power system short term and long term planning. Croatia is obliged to establish a national scheme for trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances from the year 2010, which will be focused on monitoring and reporting only until accession to EU when it will be linked with EU ETS. Thus, for Croatian power system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper was done by two different models: mathematical model, based on short run marginal costs (SRMC, relevant for fuel switch in existing power plant and merit order change and long run marginal costs (LRMC, relevant for new investment decisions; and electricity market simulation model PLEXOS, which was used for modelling Croatian power system during development of the Croatian energy strategy in 2008. Results of the analysis show important impacts that emission trading has on Croatian power system, such as influence of emission price rise on price of electricity and on emission quantity, and changes in power plants output that appear with emission price rise. Breakeven point after which gas power plant becomes more competitive than coal is 62 €/tCO2 for SRMC and 40 €/tCO2 for LRMC. With CO2 prices above 31 €/tCO2 wind is more competitive than gas or coal, which emphasizes

  12. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  13. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  14. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the near...... allenterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning theinstrument was found to be high and the system could be based...

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  16. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States decreased by ∼11% between 2007 and 2013, from 6,023 to 5,377 Mt. This decline has been widely attributed to a shift from the use of coal to natural gas in US electricity production. However, the factors driving the decline have not been quantitatively evaluated; the role of natural gas in the decline therefore remains speculative. Here we analyse the factors affecting US emissions from 1997 to 2013. Before 2007, rising emissions were primarily driven by economic growth. After 2007, decreasing emissions were largely a result of economic recession with changes in fuel mix (for example, substitution of natural gas for coal) playing a comparatively minor role. Energy-climate policies may, therefore, be necessary to lock-in the recent emissions reductions and drive further decarbonization of the energy system as the US economy recovers and grows.

  17. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    for own-price and cross-price elasticities of the individual fuels. Whereas elasticities for electricity and gas are found to be moderate, the own-price elasticity for oil, coal and waste is relatively high (-0.4 to -0.6), indicating that consumption of these fuels is relatively price elastic......This report shows that a decoupling between economic growth, expressed as gross value added, and CO2 emissions has been achieved in the period from 1990-2001 in many energy-intensive and less energy-intensive sectors across the Nordic countries. The report investigates the impact of prices...... and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates...

  18. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Wecht, K. J. [Harvard University; Yantosca, R. M. [Harvard University; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Matsueda, H [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure

  19. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Bowman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of global three-dimensional (3-D models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth's carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01 CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (~0.19 Pg C yr−1, 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (~0.16 Pg C yr−1, and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (~1.05 Pg C yr−1. Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May–June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (~3%, while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (~10% with a complex

  20. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Martin; Edmonds, James A.; Emori, S.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kainuma, M.; Keeling, Ralph; Kram, Tom; Manning, Andrew; Meinhausen, Malte; Moss, Richard H.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; Rose, Steven K.; Smith, Steven J.; Swart, Robert; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2010-06-01

    Estimates of recent fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been compared with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios that had been developed for analysis of future climate change, impacts and mitigation. In some cases this comparison uses averages across subgroups of SRES scenarios and for one category of greenhouse gases (industrial sources of CO2). That approach can be misleading and cause confusion as it is inconsistent with many of the papers on future climate change projections that are based on a specific subset of closely scrutinized SRES scenarios, known as illustrative marker scenarios. Here, we show that comparison between recent estimates of fossil fuel emissions trends and the SRES illustrative marker scenarios leads to the conclusion that recent trends are not outside the SRES range. Furthermore, the recent economic downturn appears to have brought actual emission back toward the middle of the SRES illustrative marker scenarios. We also note that SRES emission scenarios are designed to reflect potential alternative long-term trends in a world without climate policy intervention and the trend in the resulting climate change is not sensitive to short-term fluctuations.

  1. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Baker, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the impact of sub-annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration using a global tracer transport model. Four sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of three cyclic components (diurnal, weekly and monthly) and a complete cyclic component (the combination of the three) by comparing with a temporally "flat" fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory. A complete exploration of these impacts is quantified at annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal time scales of the CO2concentration for the surface, vertical profile and column-integral structure. Result shows an annual mean surface concentration difference varying from -1.35 ppm to 0.13 ppm at grid scale for the complete cyclic fossil fuel emissions, which is mainly driven by a large negative diurnal rectification and less positive seasonal rectification. The negative diurnal rectification is up to 1.45 ppm at grid scale and primarily due to the covariation of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions and diurnal variations of vertical mixing. The positive seasonal rectification is up to 0.23 ppm at grid scale which is mainly driven by the monthly fossil fuel CO2emissions coupling with atmospheric transport. Both the diurnal and seasonal rectifier effects are indicated at local-to-regional scales with center at large source regions and extend to neighboring regions in mainly Northern Hemisphere. The diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions is found to significantly affect the simulated diurnal CO2 amplitude (up to 9.12 ppm at grid scale), which is primarily contributed by the minima concentration differences around local sunset time. Similarly, large impact on the seasonal CO2 amplitude (up to 6.11 ppm) is found at regional scale for the monthly fossil fuel emissions. An impact of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated afternoon CO2 concentration is also identified by up to 1.13 ppm at local scales. The study demonstrates a large cyclic fossil fuel

  2. Sea level fall during glaciation stabilized atmospheric CO2 by enhanced volcanic degassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Knorr, Gregor; Rüpke, Lars H.; Köhler, Peter; Morgan, Jason; Garofalo, Kristin; Barker, Stephen; Lohmann, Gerrit; Hall, Ian R.

    2017-07-01

    Paleo-climate records and geodynamic modelling indicate the existence of complex interactions between glacial sea level changes, volcanic degassing and atmospheric CO2, which may have modulated the climate system's descent into the last ice age. Between ~85 and 70 kyr ago, during an interval of decreasing axial tilt, the orbital component in global temperature records gradually declined, while atmospheric CO2, instead of continuing its long-term correlation with Antarctic temperature, remained relatively stable. Here, based on novel global geodynamic models and the joint interpretation of paleo-proxy data as well as biogeochemical simulations, we show that a sea level fall in this interval caused enhanced pressure-release melting in the uppermost mantle, which may have induced a surge in magma and CO2 fluxes from mid-ocean ridges and oceanic hotspot volcanoes. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized negative feedback between glaciation and atmospheric CO2 predominantly controlled by marine volcanism on multi-millennial timescales of ~5,000-15,000 years.

  3. CO2 Emissions Generated by a Fall AGU Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    osborn, G.; Malowany, K. S.; Samolczyk, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The process of reporting on and discussing geophysical phenomena, including emissions of greenhouse gases, generates more greenhouse gases. At the 2010 fall meeting of the AGU, 19,175 delegates from 81 countries, including, for example, Eritrea, Nepal, and Tanzania, traveled a total of 156,000,000 km to congregate in San Francisco for five days. With data on home bases of participants provided by AGU, we estimated the CO2 emissions generated by travel and hotel stays of those participants. The majority of the emissions from the meeting resulted from air travel . In order to estimate the footprint of such travel, (a) distances from the largest airport in each country and American state (except Canada and California) to San Francisco were tabulated , (b) basic distances were converted to emissions using the TerraPass (TRX Travel Analytics) carbon calculator, (c) it was assumed that half the California participants would fly and half would drive, (d) it was assumed that half of Canadians would fly out of Toronto and half out of Vancouver, and (e) a fudge factor of 10% was added to air travel emissions to account for connecting flights made by some participants to the main airports in the respective countries (connecting flights are disproportionately significant because of high output during takeoff acceleration). Driving impacts were estimated with a Transport Direct/RAC Motoring Services calculator using a 2006 Toyota Corolla as a standard car. An average driving distance of 50 km to the departure airport, and from the airport upon return, was assumed. Train impacts were estimated using the assumption that all flying participants would take BART from SFO. Accomodation impacts were estimated using an Environmental Protection Agency calculator, an assumed average stay of 3 nights, and the assumption that 500 participants commuted from local residences or stayed with friends. The above assumptions lead to an estimate, which we consider conservative, of 19 million kg of

  4. 2-D tomography of volcanic CO2 from scanning hard-target differential absorption lidar: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Solfatara is part of the active volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy), a densely populated urban area where ground uplift and increasing ground temperature are observed, connected with rising rates of CO2 emission. A major pathway of CO2 release at Campi Flegrei is diffuse soil degassing, and therefore quantifying diffuse CO2 emission rates is of vital interest. Conventional in situ probing of soil gas emissions with accumulation chambers is accurate over a small footprint but requires significant time and effort to cover large areas. An alternative approach is differential absorption lidar, which allows for a fast and spatially integrated measurement. Here, a portable hard-target differential absorption lidar has been used to acquire horizontal 1-D profiles of column-integrated CO2 concentration at the Solfatara crater. To capture heterogenic features in the CO2 distribution, a 2-D tomographic map of the CO2 distribution has been inverted from the 1-D profiles. The scan was performed one-sided, which is unfavorable for the inverse problem. Nonetheless, the result is in agreement with independent measurements and furthermore confirms an area of anomalous CO2 degassing along the eastern edge as well as the center of the Solfatara crater. The method may have important implications for measurements of degassing features that can only be accessed from limited angles, such as airborne sensing of volcanic plumes. CO2 fluxes retrieved from the 2-D map are comparable, but modestly higher than emission rates from previous studies, perhaps reflecting an increase in CO2 flux or a more integrated measurement or both.

  5. Young People's Burden: Requirement of Negative CO2 Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina; Beerling, David J; Cao, Junji; Marcott, Shaun; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Prather, Michael J; Rohling, Eelco J; Shakun, Jeremy; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    The rapid rise of global temperature that began about 1975 continues at a mean rate of about 0.18 degC/decade, with the current annual temperature exceeding 1.25 degC relative to 1880-1920. Global temperature has just reached a level similar to the mean level in the prior interglacial (Eemian) period, when sea level was several meters higher than today, and if it long remains at this level, slow amplifying feedbacks will lead to greater climate change and consequences. The growth rate of climate forcing due to human-caused greenhouse gases (GHGs) increased over 20% in the past decade mainly due to resurging growth of CH4, thus making it increasingly difficult to achieve targets such as limiting global warming to 1.5 degC or reducing atmospheric CO2 below 350 ppm. Such targets now require "negative emissions", i.e., extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere. If rapid phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, most of the necessary CO2 extraction can take place via improved agricultural and forestry practices,...

  6. Quick scan prognosis of the CO2 emission of horticulture; Quick scan prognose CO2-emissie glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Velden, N.J.A.

    2010-06-15

    In close collaboration with the government, Dutch greenhouse horticulture is developing its own settlement system for CO2 emissions, the so-called CO2 sector system. Such a system should have a total emission space for cultivation (excluding electricity sales). An agreement is being established between the sector and the Dutch government covering the total CO2 emission for the period 2013-2020 (including electricity sales), supplementing the Covenant on Clean and Efficient Agricultural Sectors. This quick scan offers a prognosis of the future CO2 emission of greenhouse horticulture [Dutch] De glastuinbouw ontwikkelt in nauwe samenwerking met de overheid een eigen vereveningssysteem voor CO2-emissie, het zogeheten CO2-sectorsysteem. Bij een dergelijk systeem behoort een totale emissieruimte voor de teelt (exclusief verkoop elektriciteit). Voor de periode 2013-2020 is een afspraak tussen sector en rijksoverheid in de maak over de totale CO2-emissie (inclusief verkoop elektriciteit), in aanvulling op het Convenant Schone en Zuinige Agrosectoren. In deze quick scan wordt een prognose gemaakt van de toekomstige CO2-emissie door de glastuinbouw.

  7. Enhanced volcanic CO2 degassing at oceanic hotspots and mid-ocean ridges in response to falling sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Knorr, Gregor; Rüpke, Lars; Köhler, Peter; Morgan, Jason; Garofalo, Kristin; Barker, Stephen; Lohmann, Gerrit; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from paleo-climate proxy data as well as results from geodynamical and biogeochemical modelling point to complex interactions between sea level variations, pressure-release melting of oceanic mantle, associated volcanic degassing, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Ice core data shows that the orbital component in global temperature records gradually declined between ˜85,000-70,000 yr BP, while atmospheric CO2 - instead of continuing its long-term correlation with Antarctic temperatures - remained relatively stable for several thousand years. Based on 2-D and 3-D geodynamical models we show that the massive (60-100 m) sea level drop during this period of Earth history led to a significant increase in magma and possibly CO2 fluxes along mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and especially oceanic hotspot volcanoes. We assess the MOR magma and CO2 fluxes using 2-D thermo-mechanical models that solve for wet melting of the mantle and the partitioning of highly incompatible carbon dioxide into the melt. These models have been run at various MOR opening rates, and we integrate these results with the global distribution of spreading rates to compute baseline fluxes as well as enhanced fluxes during the sea level fall. Furthermore we conducted more than 120 3-D simulations of rising and melting mantle plumes to construct a four-dimensional parameter space that covers a wide range of plume buoyancy fluxes, plume excess temperatures, lithosphere thicknesses and plate speeds. Using published data on 43 oceanic hotspots and locating them in the parameter space we derive a global hotspot-melting model that predicts magma and CO2 fluxes before and during the sea level drop. We find that, during a 80 m sea level drop over 10 kyr, global degassing at MOR and oceanic hotspots increases by 26 % and 36 %, respectively. Biogeochemical carbon cycle modelling further shows that the combined predicted increase in volcanic emissions along the global mid-ocean ridge system and at oceanic

  8. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  9. Urban CO2 emissions metabolism: The Hestia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A central expression of urban metabolism is the consumption of energy and the resulting environmental impact, particularly the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Quantification of energy and emissions has been performed for numerous cities but rarely has this been done in explicit space/time detail. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing for the city of Los Angeles (Figure 1). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model which we constrain through lidar data, county assessor parcel data and GIS layers. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. Finally, all pointwise data in the Vulcan Project are transferred to our urban landscape and additional time distribution is performed. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban environment. Next steps in this research from the metabolism perspective is to consider the carbon footprint of material goods and their lateral transfer in addition to the connection between electricity consumption and production.

  10. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh.

  11. Statistical Modelling of CO2 Emissions in Malaysia and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Sze Hui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is an environmental problem which leads to Earth’s greenhouse effect. Much concerns with carbon dioxide emissions centered around the growing threat of global warming and climate  change. This paper, however, presents a simple model development using multiple regression with interactions for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in Malaysia and Thailand. Five indicators over the period 1971-2006, namely  energy use, GDP per capita, population density, combustible renewables and waste, and CO2 intensity are used in the analysis. Progressive model selections using forward selection, backward elimination and stepwise regression are used to remove insignificant variables, with possible interactions. Model selection techniques are compared against the performance of eight criteria model selection process. Global test, Coefficient test, Wald test and Goodnessof-fit test are carried out to ensure that the best regression model is selected for further analysis. A numerical illustration is included to enhance the understanding of the whole process in obtaining the final best model.

  12. Young people's burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina; Beerling, David J.; Cao, Junji; Marcott, Shaun; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Prather, Michael J.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Shakun, Jeremy; Smith, Pete; Lacis, Andrew; Russell, Gary; Ruedy, Reto

    2017-07-01

    Global temperature is a fundamental climate metric highly correlated with sea level, which implies that keeping shorelines near their present location requires keeping global temperature within or close to its preindustrial Holocene range. However, global temperature excluding short-term variability now exceeds +1 °C relative to the 1880-1920 mean and annual 2016 global temperature was almost +1.3 °C. We show that global temperature has risen well out of the Holocene range and Earth is now as warm as it was during the prior (Eemian) interglacial period, when sea level reached 6-9 m higher than today. Further, Earth is out of energy balance with present atmospheric composition, implying that more warming is in the pipeline, and we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The rapidity of ice sheet and sea level response to global temperature is difficult to predict, but is dependent on the magnitude of warming. Targets for limiting global warming thus, at minimum, should aim to avoid leaving global temperature at Eemian or higher levels for centuries. Such targets now require negative emissions, i.e., extraction of CO2 from the air. If phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content, may provide much of the necessary CO2 extraction. In that case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial (Holocene) could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions today place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction if they are to limit climate change and its consequences. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or air capture of CO2 have minimal estimated costs of

  13. A Neural Network Model for Forecasting CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gallo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is today a serious problem, caused mainly by human activity. Classical methods are not considered able to efficiently model complex phenomena as meteorology and air pollution because, usually, they make approximations or too rigid schematisations. Our purpose is a more flexible architecture (artificial neural network model to implement a short-term CO2 emission forecasting tool applied to the cereal sector in Apulia region – in Southern Italy - to determine how the introduction of cultural methods with less environmental impact acts on a possible pollution reduction.

  14. Young people's burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global temperature is a fundamental climate metric highly correlated with sea level, which implies that keeping shorelines near their present location requires keeping global temperature within or close to its preindustrial Holocene range. However, global temperature excluding short-term variability now exceeds +1 °C relative to the 1880–1920 mean and annual 2016 global temperature was almost +1.3 °C. We show that global temperature has risen well out of the Holocene range and Earth is now as warm as it was during the prior (Eemian interglacial period, when sea level reached 6–9 m higher than today. Further, Earth is out of energy balance with present atmospheric composition, implying that more warming is in the pipeline, and we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The rapidity of ice sheet and sea level response to global temperature is difficult to predict, but is dependent on the magnitude of warming. Targets for limiting global warming thus, at minimum, should aim to avoid leaving global temperature at Eemian or higher levels for centuries. Such targets now require negative emissions, i.e., extraction of CO2 from the air. If phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content, may provide much of the necessary CO2 extraction. In that case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial (Holocene could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions today place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction if they are to limit climate change and its consequences. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS or air capture of CO2

  15. Comparison and Analysis of CO2 Emissions Data for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Song-Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the CO2 emissions data for China provided by various international organizations and databases (namely IEA, BP, EDGAR/PBL/JRC, CDIAC, EIA and CAIT) and compares them with China’s official data and estimation. The difference among these data is due to different scopes, methods and underlying data, and particularly the difference in fossil fuel consumption. Compared with data from other databases, IEA and CAIT data have the best comparability with China’s official data. The paper recommends that China enhance its coal statistics, raise the frequency of official data publication and improve the inventory completeness.

  16. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Mills, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J [University of Maryland; Blasing, T J [ORNL; Hoffman, F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Devries, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Zhu, Z [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Kawa, S [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2008-01-01

    Monthly estimates of the global emissions of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with coefficients as a function of latitude, the annual fluxes are decomposed into monthly flux estimates based on data for the United States and applied globally. These monthly anthropogenic CO2 flux estimates are then used to model atmospheric CO2 concentrations using meteorological fields from the NASA GEOS-4 data assimilation system. We find that the use of monthly resolved fluxes makes a significant difference in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 in and near those regions where anthropogenic CO2 is released to the atmosphere. Local variations of 2-6 ppmv CO2 in the seasonal cycle amplitude are simulated; larger variations would be expected if smaller source-receptor distances could be more precisely specified using a more refined spatial resolution. We also find that in the midlatitudes near the sources, synoptic scale atmospheric circulations are important in the winter and that boundary layer venting and diurnal rectifier effects are more important in the summer. These findings have implications for inverse-modeling efforts that attempt to estimate surface source/sink regions especially when the surface sinks are colocated with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  17. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  18. PSO 7171 - Oxyfuel Combustion for below zero CO2 emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Hansen, Brian Brun

    for the continuous utilisation of the existing energy producing system in the transformation period. Oxyfuel combustion is one of the possible CCS technologies which show promising perspectives for implementation in industrial scale within a relatively short period of time. Oxyfuel combustion deviates from......) and mixtures thereof, formation and emission of pollutants, ash characteristics, flue gas cleaning for SO2 by wet scrubbing with limestone and for NOx by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), corrosion of boiler heat transfer surfaces, operation and control of large suspension-fired boilers......, and the perspectives for the implementation of oxyfuel combustion s a CO2 sequestration solution in the Danish power production system. Regarding the fundamental combustion characteristics (combustion, emissions, and ash), the project has not identified any disqualifying characteristics. On the contrary, oxyfuel has...

  19. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are t

  20. CO2 Emissions of PV in the Perspective of a Renewable Energy Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Reich, N.H.; Alsema, E.A.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The wide range of greenhouse gas emissions (30-300 g CO2-eq/kWh) quoted for PV generated electricity in life cycle assessment studies so far is shown to be mainly caused by the different CO2 emission of energy consumed in manufacture of PV modules. A better way of comparing the CO2-eq emissions woul

  1. Fleet-wide Emissions from Mobile CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H.; Thurlow, M. E.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Fung, I. Y.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    In response to regional and municipal policies, transportation agencies are increasingly integrating greenhouse gas considerations into decision making. At the local level, fuel-based methods suffer leakage, mandating a bottom-up approach based on emissions models driven by local activity data. However, high spatial and temporal resolution traffic datasets are in general scarce and subject to error. Emissions models too are based on limited data and often require inputs that are not directly measured. Here, we show that routine, on-road CO2 surface measurements can be used to improve uncertainties on both of these fronts. Using forty hours of surface concentration data collected on CA Highway 24 together with a simple atmospheric dispersion model, we simultaneously derive traffic density as a function of vehicle speed, composite vehicle parameters needed to map vehicle operation to fuel consumption, and baseline meteorological parameters such as wind speed and mixing height. We compare our results directly with traffic loop detector measurements made by California's Performance Measurement System (PeMS), with emissions predictions from EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and with weather station data included in NOAA's Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS). Using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, we measure the immediate rush-hour emissions reduction associated with congestion alleviation following the opening of the Caldecott Tunnel fourth bore. We use this example to argue that routine and distributed on-road measurements of this kind could serve as a much needed policy tool for testing the impact of traffic-related emissions reduction strategies.

  2. Quiescent Diffusive and Fumarolic Volcanic Bromocarbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Giźe, A. P.; Seward, T. M.; Hall, P. A.; Dietrich, V. J.

    2002-12-01

    Future scenarios of declining atmospheric burdens of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) such as halocarbons after phase-out following international regulation (Montreal Protocol) vary strongly depending on what contribution from natural sources is taken into account. In addition, current and pre-industrial global atmospheric budgets of ODS are poorly balanced by known natural and anthropogenic sources of halocarbons (Butler, 2000). Brominated halocarbons have a high Ozone Depletion Potential, Br is at least 40x as efficient as Cl in polar stratospheric ozone destruction (Solomon et al., 1992). CH3Br is the dominant Br carrier to the stratosphere with sources being ca.: 32% anthropogenic, 39% natural, but ca. 29% unaccounted for (WMO, 1998). Natural sources have been reviewed recently (Gribble, 2000, Butler, 2000), including magmatic inorganic (Bureau, 2000) and volcanic organic sources (Rassmussen et al., 1980; Schwandner et al., 2002). CH3Br and other bromocarbons have been reported in non-eruptive volcanic gases previously (Jordan et al., 2000; Schwandner et al., 2000). Due to its capability to extremely rapidly hydrolyse (Gan et al., 1995), CH3Br should not be sampled by the caustic soda bottle technique as used by Jordan et al. (2000) whose samples also show signs of air contamination, but by cryogenic separation of steam with subsequent sorbent trapping, as used by Isidorov (1990), Wahrenberger (1996) and Schwandner et al. (2000, 2001). To contribute significantly to the natural Br budget, volcanic gases would have to at least contain 2 ppmv (dry gas) CH3Br, scaled to a global CO2 emission of 66 Tgy-1 (Stoiber, 1995) based on CO2 flux to halocarbon concentration correlations (e.g. CFC-11: R2=0.91, Schwandner et al., 2002). However, CH3Br is not the only volcanogenic bromocarbon. Analysis of diffusive flank and crater degassing on Vulcano island (Italy) showed a strong diffusive component of CH3Br and C2H5Br emissions in 60-100°C hot pristine unvegetated

  3. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat......This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  4. Strategies for CO2 capture from different CO2 emission sources by vacuum swing adsorption technology☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghua Ling; Penny Xiao; Augustine Ntiamoah; Dong Xu; Paul Webley; Yuchun Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Different VSA (Vacuum Swing Adsorption) cycles and process schemes have been evaluated to find suitable process configurations for effectively separating CO2 from flue gases from different industrial sectors. The cycles were studied using an adsorption simulator developed in our research group, which has been suc-cessfully used to predict experimental results over several years. Commercial zeolite APGIII and granular ac-tivated carbon were used as the adsorbents. Three-bed VSA cycles with-and without-product purge and 2-stage VSA systems have been investigated. It was found that for a feed gas containing 15%CO2 (representing flue gas from power plants), high CO2 purities and recoveries could be obtained using a three-bed zeolite APGIII VSA unit for one stage capture, but with more stringent conditions such as deeper vacuum pressures of 1–3 kPa. 2-stage VSA process operated in series allowed us to use simple process steps and operate at more realistic vacuum pressures. With a vacuum pressure of 10 kPa, final CO2 purity of 95.3%with a recov-ery of 98.2%were obtained at specific power consumption of 0.55 MJ·(kg CO2)−1 from feed gas containing 15%CO2. These numbers compare very well with those obtained from a single stage process operating at 1 kPa vacuum pressure. The feed CO2 concentration was very influential in determining the desorption pressure necessary to achieve high separation efficiency. For feed gases containing N30%CO2, a single-stage VSA capture process operating at moderate vacuum pressure and without a product purge, can achieve very high product purities and recoveries.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m-2 d-1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  6. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  7. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  8. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  9. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size.

  10. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  11. Biogeochemical processes involving dissolved CO2 and CH4 at Albano, Averno, and Monticchio meromictic volcanic lakes (Central-Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Fiebig, Jens; Nocentini, Matteo; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Rouwet, Dmitri; Bicocchi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the chemical and isotopic features of dissolved gases (CH4 and CO2) from four meromictic lakes hosted in volcanic systems of Central-Southern Italy: Lake Albano (Alban Hills), Lake Averno (Phlegrean Fields), and Monticchio Grande and Piccolo lakes (Mt. Vulture). Deep waters in these lakes are characterized by the presence of a significant reservoir of extra-atmospheric dissolved gases mainly consisting of CH4 and CO2. The δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 values of dissolved gas samples from the maximum depths of the investigated lakes (from -66.8 to -55.6 ‰ V-PDB and from -279 to -195 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively) suggest that CH4 is mainly produced by microbial activity. The δ13C-CO2 values of Lake Grande, Lake Piccolo, and Lake Albano (ranging from -5.8 to -0.4 ‰ V-PDB) indicate a significant CO2 contribution from sublacustrine vents originating from (1) mantle degassing and (2) thermometamorphic reactions involving limestone, i.e., the same CO2 source feeding the regional thermal and cold CO2-rich fluid emissions. In contrast, the relatively low δ13C-CO2 values (from -13.4 to -8.2 ‰ V-PDB) of Lake Averno indicate a prevalent organic CO2. Chemical and isotopic compositions of dissolved CO2 and CH4 at different depths are mainly depending on (1) CO2 inputs from external sources (hydrothermal and/or anthropogenic); (2) CO2-CH4 isotopic exchange; and (3) methanogenic and methanotrophic activity. In the epilimnion, vertical water mixing, free oxygen availability, and photosynthesis cause the dramatic decrease of both CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In the hypolimnion, where the δ13C-CO2 values progressively increase with depth and the δ13C-CH4 values show an opposite trend, biogenic CO2 production from CH4 using different electron donor species, such as sulfate, tend to counteract the methanogenesis process whose efficiency achieves its climax at the water-bottom sediment interface. Theoretical values, calculated on the basis of δ13C-CO2 values, and

  12. Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons of the business as usual (BAU rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code, there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG. The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG, accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%. In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation

  13. Empirical Study of Decomposition of CO2 Emission Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Ning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s CO2 emissions increase has attracted world’s attention. It is of great importance to analyze China’s CO2 emission factors to restrain the CO2 rapid growing. The CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors in China during 1980–2010 were calculated in this paper. The expanded decomposition model of CO2 emissions was set up by adopting factor-separating method based on the basic principle of the Kaya identities. The results showed that CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors increase year after year, and the scale effect of GDP is the most important factor affecting CO2 emissions of industrial sector. Decreasing the specific gravity of secondary industry and energy intensity is more effective than decreasing the primary industry and tertiary industry. The emissions reduction effect of structure factor is better than the efficiency factor. For residential consumption sector, CO2 emissions increase rapidly year after year, and the economy factor (the increase of wealthy degree or income is the most important factor. In order to slow down the growth of CO2 emissions, it is an important way to change the economic growth mode, and the structure factor will become a crucial factor.

  14. Sources of and processes controlling CO2 emissions change with the size of streams and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, E. R.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Sponseller, R. A.; Butman, D.; Klaminder, J.; Laudon, H.; Rosvall, M.; Karlsson, J.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from streams and rivers to the atmosphere represents a substantial flux in the global carbon cycle. The proportions of CO2 emitted from streams and rivers that come from terrestrially derived CO2 or from CO2 produced within freshwater ecosystems through aquatic metabolism are not well quantified. Here we estimated CO2 emissions from running waters in the contiguous United States, based on freshwater chemical and physical characteristics and modelled gas transfer velocities at 1463 United States Geological Survey monitoring sites. We then assessed CO2 production from aquatic metabolism, compiled from previously published measurements of net ecosystem production from 187 streams and rivers across the contiguous United States. We find that CO2 produced by aquatic metabolism contributes about 28% of CO2 evasion from streams and rivers with flows between 0.0001 and 19,000 m3 s-1. We mathematically modelled CO2 flux from groundwater into running waters along a stream-river continuum to evaluate the relationship between stream size and CO2 source. Terrestrially derived CO2 dominates emissions from small streams, and the percentage of CO2 emissions from aquatic metabolism increases with stream size. We suggest that the relative role of rivers as conduits for terrestrial CO2 efflux and as reactors mineralizing terrestrial organic carbon is a function of their size and connectivity with landscapes.

  15. Factors Affecting Transportation Sector CO2 Emissions Growth in China: An LMDI Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China has now become the largest country in carbon emissions all over the world. Furthermore, with transportation accounting for an increasing proportion of CO2 emissions year by year, the transportation sector has turned out to be one of the main sectors which possesses a high growth speed in CO2 emissions. To accurately analyze potentially influencing factors which accelerate the process of CO2 emissions of transportation sector in China, based on carbon accounting by the checklists method of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC, in this paper, we propose a decomposition model using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI decomposition analysis technology and modified fixed growth rate method. Then effects of six influencing factors including energy structure, energy efficiency, transport form, transportation development, economic development and population size from 2001 to 2014 were quantitatively analyzed. Consequently, the results indicate that: (1 economic development accounts most for driving CO2 emissions growth of the transportation sector, while energy efficiency accounts most for suppressing CO2 emissions growth; (2 the pulling effects of natural gas, electricity and other clean energy consumption on CO2 emissions growth offset the inhibitory effects of traditional fossil fuels, making energy structure play a significant role in promoting CO2 emissions growth; (3 the inhibitory effects of railways and highways lead to inhibitory effects of transport form on CO2 emissions growth; (4 transportation development plays an obvious role in promoting CO2 emissions, while the effects of population size is relatively weaker compared with those of transportation development. Furthermore, the decomposition model of CO2 emissions factors in transport industry constructed in this paper can also be applied to other countries so as to provide guidance and reference for CO2 emissions analysis of transportation industry.

  16. Influencing Factors of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in China: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guokui Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest CO2 emitter in the world and is still reliant on energy consumption for economic growth. Research has focused on effective approaches of reducing and mitigating CO2 emissions. This paper undertakes a decomposition study of energy-related CO2 emissions from the industrial and household sectors during the period 1996–2012, with the objectives of investigating trends of the changes in energy-related CO2 emissions, the driving forces of these changes, and approaches of mitigating CO2 emission. Results show the following: (1 the expansion of economic activity is the dominant stimulatory factor of the increase of CO2 emissions in China and that a sustained increase in CO2 emissions can be expected; (2 the decline in energy intensity and the adjustment of energy mix and industrial structure effectively mitigate CO2 emissions; and (3 the government should give more attention to enhancing the energy utility efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions in rural households.

  17. A projected turning point in China's CO2 emissions - an Environmental Kuznets Curve analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bo; Wennersten, Ronald; Brandt, Nils; Sun, Qie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the possible existence fan Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship between China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita (CO2/capita) and GDP per capita (GDP/capita) during the period 1980-2008. The timing of the turning point in China's CO2/capita can be further estimated if an EKC relationship exists. In regression results, a natural logarithm-quadratic relationship was found between CO2/capita and GDP/capita, which supports the EKC hypothesis. However, China'...

  18. Complexity and anomalous diffusion of the Florina (Greece) microseismic activity associated with CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognized that the diffusion of pressurized fluids in the Earth's crust can induce earthquakes. Characteristic cases can be drawn from earthquake swarm sequences associated with volcanic activity, oil and gas injections and extractions and CO2 emissions in the crust. Such sequences are typically characterized by strong variations and clustering effects in time and space and can neither be described by a dominant earthquake nor by any simple scaling relation, as the Omori scaling known for aftershock sequences. In 2013-2014 such a sequence occurred in northern Greece, in the area of Florina and has been associated with CO2 gases emissions through the fault and fracture network below the Florina basin (Mesimeri et al., 2017). A detailed microseismic analysis reveals the structure of the seismic cloud that is distributed in two clusters, the first of a N-S direction dipping to the north and the second of an E-W direction and almost vertical, gently dipping to the south. Furthermore, the two clusters present distinct periods of activation, which may be associated with different phases of CO2 emissions. The spatiotemporal properties of the earthquake activity inside the two clusters indicate correlated sequences in time and space, with asymptotic power-law distributions of the time and distance intervals between their successive events (e.g., Vallianatos et al., 2016). Moreover, the mean squared displacement of the earthquake activity with time for the two clusters indicate the slow migration of microseismicity. The latter process corresponds to slow sub-diffusion inside the fault segments, which may act as pathways for the migration of CO2 gases towards the surface. References Mesimeri, M., Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Tsaklidis, G., Tsapanos, T., 2017. Detailed microseismicity study in the area of Florina (Greece): Evidence for fluid driven seismicity. Tectonophysics, 694, 424-435. Vallianatos F., Papadakis G., Michas G., 2016. Generalized

  19. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  20. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  1. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  2. Emission Mitigation of CO2 in Steel Industry:Current Status and Future Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; CHEN Li-yun; ZHANG Chun-xia; QI Yuan-hong; YIN Rui-yu

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable development against global warming is a challenge faced by societies at global level. For steel industry, the pressure of reducing CO2 emission is likely to last many years. During the past decades, the CO2 emission per ton steel has been reduced mainly due to the improvement of energy efficiency. Entering the 21st century, the steel manufacturing route must have three functions, namely, production of high performance steel products, conversion of energy, and treatment of waste. In the near future, it is expected that existing BF-BOF and EAF routes will be improved, in order to produce high performance steels, increase the use of scrap, and integrate steel industry with other industries for mitigating CO2 emission. In the long term, using carbon-free energy, reducing agents, and storing CO2 securely or converting CO2 into a harmless substance can be presumed for tremendous reduction in CO2 emission.

  3. Estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions using satellite measurements of "proxy" species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Berezin, Evgeny V.; Ciais, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Zhuravlev, Ruslan V.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2016-11-01

    Fossil-fuel (FF) burning releases carbon dioxide (CO2) together with many other chemical species, some of which, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are routinely monitored from space. This study examines the feasibility of estimation of FF CO2 emissions from large industrial regions by using NO2 and CO column retrievals from satellite measurements in combination with simulations by a mesoscale chemistry transport model (CTM). To this end, an inverse modeling method is developed that allows estimating FF CO2 emissions from different sectors of the economy, as well as the total CO2 emissions, in a given region. The key steps of the method are (1) inferring "top-down" estimates of the regional budget of anthropogenic NOx and CO emissions from satellite measurements of proxy species (NO2 and CO in the case considered) without using formal a priori constraints on these budgets, (2) the application of emission factors (the NOx-to-CO2 and CO-to-CO2 emission ratios in each sector) that relate FF CO2 emissions to the proxy species emissions and are evaluated by using data of "bottom-up" emission inventories, and (3) cross-validation and optimal combination of the estimates of CO2 emission budgets derived from measurements of the different proxy species. Uncertainties in the top-down estimates of the NOx and CO emissions are evaluated and systematic differences between the measured and simulated data are taken into account by using original robust techniques validated with synthetic data. To examine the potential of the method, it was applied to the budget of emissions for a western European region including 12 countries by using NO2 and CO column amounts retrieved from, respectively, the OMI and IASI satellite measurements and simulated by the CHIMERE mesoscale CTM, along with the emission conversion factors based on the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory. The analysis was focused on evaluation of the uncertainty levels for the top-down NOx and CO emission

  4. Characterizing Uncertainties in Atmospheric Inversions of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, K. J.; Graven, H. D.; Manning, A.; Arnold, T.; Fischer, M. L.; Jeong, S.; Cui, X.; Parazoo, N.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006 California passed a law requiring greenhouse gas emissions be reduced to 1990 levels by 2020, equivalent to a 20% reduction over 2006-2020. Assessing compliance with greenhouse gas mitigation policies requires accurate determination of emissions, particularly for CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion (ffCO2). We found differences in inventory-based ffCO2 flux estimates for California total emissions of 11% (standard deviation relative to the mean), and even larger differences on some smaller sub-state levels. Top-down studies may be useful for validating ffCO2 flux estimates, but top-down studies of CO2 typically focus on biospheric CO2 fluxes and they are not yet well-developed for ffCO2. Implementing top-down studies of ffCO2 requires observations of a fossil fuel combustion tracer such as 14C to distinguish ffCO2 from biospheric CO2. However, even if a large number of 14C observations are available, multiple other sources of uncertainty will contribute to the uncertainty in posterior ffCO2 flux estimates. With a Bayesian inverse modelling approach, we use simulated atmospheric observations of ffCO2 at a network of 11 tower sites across California in an observing system simulation experiment to investigate uncertainties. We use four different prior ffCO2 flux estimates, two different atmospheric transport models, different types of spatial aggregation, and different assumptions for observational and model transport uncertainties to investigate contributions to posterior ffCO2 emission uncertainties. We show how various sources of uncertainty compare and which uncertainties are likely to limit top-down estimation of ffCO2 fluxes in California.

  5. Methodology and framework architecture for the evaluation of effects of ICT measures on CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, E.; Klunder, G.; Mahmod, M.; Benz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Applications of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been identified to have a significant contribution to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the field of transport. The mechanisms by which ICT have an impact on CO2 emissions can be very complex, and calculating this imp

  6. Analysis of CO2 emission in traffic flow and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the carbon dioxide emission rate in traffic flow analytically and numerically. The emission model was derived based on Bando’s optimal velocity model with a consideration of slope. Simulations were conducted to examine the relationship between the CO2 emission rate of vehicles and slope of road, traffic density, and road length. Analysis of the results shows that some original laws of CO2 emission in traffic flow with congestion were exhibited.

  7. Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965–2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests based on an error-correction model are presented. Three important findings emerge from the investigation. First, there is bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth, which suggests that the Philippines should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption to achieve economic growth. Second, bi-directional causality between oil consumption and CO2 emissions is found, which implies that the Philippines needs to improve efficiency in oil consumption in order not to increase CO2 emissions. Third, uni-directional causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth is detected, which means that growth can continue without increasing CO2 emissions.

  8. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  9. Analysis of gaseous SO2, CO2 and halogen species in volcanic plumes using a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, J.; de Moor, M. J.; Tirpitz, L.; Bobrowski, N.; Gutmann, A.; Hoffmann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes are a large source for several reactive atmospheric trace gases including sulfur and halogen containing species. The detailed understanding of volcanic plume chemistry is needed to draw information from gas measurements on subsurface processes. This knowledge is essential for using gas measurements as a monitoring tool for volcanic activity. The reactive bromine species bromine monoxide (BrO) is of particular interest, because BrO as well as SO2 are readily measurable from safe distance by spectroscopic remote sensing techniques. BrO is not directly emitted, but is formed in the plume by a multiphase reaction mechanism. The abundance of BrO changes as a function of the distance from the vent as well as the spatial position in the plume. The precursor substance for the formation of BrO is HBr with Br2 as an intermediate product. In this study we present the application of a UAV as a carrier for a remote-controlled sampling system for halogen species (Br2, HBr, BrCl, etc), based on the gas diffusion denuder technique, which allows speciation and enrichment by selective organic reactions. For the analysis of gaseous SO2 and CO2 an in-situ gas monitoring system was additionally mounted. This setup was deployed into the gas plumes of Stromboli Volcano (Italy) and Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua) in 2016, to investigate the halogen chemistry at distant locations in the plume further downwind to the emission source, which are in most cases not accessible by other approaches. The used quadrocopter (0.75 m in diameter) weighs 2.45 kg and lifts a payload of 1.3 kg. Flights into the plume were conducted with ascents of up to 900 m, starting at 500 to 800 m altitude. From telemetrically transmitted SO2 mixing ratios, areas of dense plume were localized to keep the UAV stationary for up to 10 minutes of sampling time. Herein we will present time and spatial resolved gas mixing ratio data for SO2, CO2 and halogen species for a downwind plume age of about 3 to 5 minutes.

  10. 钢铁生产CO2过程排放分析%Analysis of CO2 emissions of iron and steel making process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫; 白皓; 赵立华; 李宁; 李洪福

    2012-01-01

    钢铁生产成为大气中温室气体CO2的一大来源,准确测算钢铁生产CO2过程排放量是评估企业或行业减排的保障.建立基于CO2排放模块的CO2排放模型,选定国内典型钢铁生产企业进行分析,发现炼铁工序的CO2排放占总流程的60%左右,同时进一步分析了整体CO2排放强度与吨钢能耗的关系及工序CO2排放强度的分布.%The iron and steel making process has become one of the main sources of greenhouse gas CO2 in atmosphere, and the accurate calculation of CO2 emission in iron and steel making process will be the foundation to evaluate the emission reduction of specific enterprise and industry. With the CO2 emission model based on the CO2 emission module and the data from the selective typical iron and steel making plants in China, it was found that the CO2 emission of iron making process account for about 60% of total emission. Further, the relationship between total CO2 emission intensity and energy consumption intensity and the distribution of different process CO2 emission were analyzed.

  11. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D; Norris, Margaret W; Wiltshire, Rachael M

    2016-09-13

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 ((14)CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric (14)CO2 These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions.

  12. Airborne Measurement of CO2, SO2, and H2S Emission Rates During the 2004-2005 Eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, M. P.; McGee, K. A.; Gerlach, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanic gas measurements by helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft began on 27 September 2004 during the initial unrest. Target gases included CO2, SO2, and H2S measured by remote (COSPEC, FLYSPEC) and extraction (LI-COR, Interscan) techniques. These measurements defined periods of negligible, wet, and dry volcanic degassing. Measurements during the period of early seismic unrest on September 2-30 showed little or no CO2 above atmospheric levels; SO2 and H2S were absent. These results suggest involvement of degassed magma, confinement of gases because of reduction in permeability since the 1980-86 dome eruptions, or almost complete gas scrubbing at high water to gas mass ratios. Following the first steam and ash explosion on October 1, a large increase in the number of fumaroles on the 1980-86 dome and frequent detection of CO2 above atmospheric levels together with more frequent detection of H2S characterized the period of wet volcanic degassing. Wet degassing of CO2 and H2S included observed emission by ejection of large bubbles through pools of water, however the few CO2 emission rates available for this period were rose, steaming increased, and rock adjacent to the invading magma dried out. These conditions enabled a buoyant plume to rise above the crater and enter higher elevation winds, facilitating airborne measurements of gas emission rates. Gas emission rates have been notably low and declined gradually throughout the eruption. Emission rates of CO2 were mostly in the 500-1000 t/d range until early February 2005, when they fell to 150-500 t/d and remained there. Emission rates of SO2 rose to 240 t/d during 2004 then declined and remained below 100 t/d (often CO2) and 100 t/d (SO2).

  13. Comparative Study on Different IGCC Systems with Quasi-Zero CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Yang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies different IGCC systems with CO2 recovery. In order to effectively reduce CO2 emissions from the IGCC system, several kinds of IGCC systems with quasizero CO2 emissions have been studied in this paper. The key parameters affecting the IGCC systems’ performance have been analyzed and compared. The systems’ performances have been investigated based on comparison of different IGCC systems. The obtained results show that integrating the IGCC system with an advanced thermal cycle is an effective and feasible way. The performances of the IGCC systems with O2/CO2 cycle and syngas separation are better than that with a simple semi-closed O2/CO2 cycle. The research achievements will provide valuable information for further study on IGCC systems with low CO2 emissions.

  14. Synergistic control of CO2 emissions by fish and nutrients in a humic tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Humberto; Duarte, Carlos M; Guimarães-Souza, Breno A; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Using experimental mesocosms, we tested the strength of bottom-up controls by nutrients and top-down controls by an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus; family Characidae), and the interaction between them on the CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the surface waters of a tropical humic lake (Lake Cabiúnas, Brazil). The experiment included the addition of nutrients and fish to the mesocosms in a factorial design. Overall, persistent CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere, supported by an intense net heterotrophy, were observed in all treatments and replicates over the 6-week study period. The CO(2) efflux (average ± standard error) integrated over the experiment was similar among the control mesocosms and those receiving only fish or only nutrients (309 ± 2, 303 ± 16, and 297 ± 17 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1), respectively). However, the addition of nutrients in the presence of fish resulted in a high algal biomass and daytime net autotrophy, reducing the CO(2) emissions by 35% (by 193 ± 7 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1)). These results indicate that high CO(2) emissions persist following the eutrophication of humic waters, but that the magnitude of these emissions might depend on the structure of the food web. In conclusion, fish and nutrients may act in a synergistic manner to modulate persistent CO(2) emissions from tropical humic lakes.

  15. Quantification of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in a tropical urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Kishore; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Indian cities are the hotspots of human population with population densities as high as 66,135 persons/sq km and are hence emerging as one of the significant CO2 emitters on par with cities of the developed nations. In this regard, quantification of Indian urban CO2 emissions at a finer resolution of space and time is becoming a crucial prerequisite for the implementation of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change. This paper presents the quantification of CO2 emissions of Chennai city at a fine spatial (1 km × 1 km) and temporal (diurnal, weekday-weekend, seasonal) resolution. In the present study, data sets of residential, industrial, commercial, traffic and waste management sectors were considered and bottom up approach was used for quantifying the CO2 emissions. Results indicated that the total annual CO2 emission of Chennai city was 2.12 Mt. Domestic (45.7%) and transportation (29.7%) sectors were identified as the larger CO2 emitters followed by power generation sector (17.4%). The average grid wise anthropogenic CO2 emission was found to be 0.01 ± 0.02 Mt/yr with peak CO2 emissions observed from the grids with point sources and minimal CO2 emissions from the grids overlaying on the urban forest of the city. The average per capita CO2 emission of Chennai was found to be 0.45 tons/yr which is less than the national per capita CO2 emission of 1.6 tons/year. The estimated CO2 fluxes due to anthropogenic emissions were in the range of 0-8.5 × 10-6 kg/m2/s with an average flux of 0.36 × 10-6 kg/m2/s. CO2 emissions during weekdays and weekends in summer season (5862.6 and 6235.58 tons/day) were slightly higher than in winter season (5540.8 and 5929.6 tons/day). Grids overlaying on commercial and residential zones showed higher CO2 emissions during morning (07:00-10:00 AM) and evening rush hours (07:00-09:00 PM) of a day.

  16. EFFECTS OF WATER TABLE AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON CO2 EMISSION FROM WETLAND SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-song; LIU Jing-shuang; YU Jun-bao; WANG Jin-da; QIN Sheng-jin; LI Xin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is a main dynamic process of carbon cycle in wetland. It is important to contribute to global climate changes. Water table and nutritious availability are significant impact factors to influence responses of CO2 emission from wetland soil to climate changes. Twenty-four wetland soil monoliths at 4 water-table positions and in 3 nitrogen status have been incubated to measure rates of CO2 emission from wetland soils in this study.Three static water-table controls and a fluctuant water-table control, with 3 nitrogen additions in every water-table control,were carried out. In no nitrogen addition treatment, high CO2 emissions were found at a static low water table ( Ⅰ )and a fluctuant water table (Ⅳ),averaging 306.7mg/(m2·h) and 307.89mg/(m2·h), respectively, which were 51%-57% higher than that at static high water table ( Ⅱ and Ⅲ). After nitrogen addition, however, highest CO2 emission was found at Ⅱ and lowest emission at Ⅲ. The results suggested that nutritious availability of wetland soil might be important to influence the effect of water table on the CO2 emission from the wetland soil. Nitrogen addition led to enhancing CO2 emissions from wetland soil, while the highest emission was found in 1N treatments other than in 2N treatments. In 3 nutritious treatments,low CO2 emissions at high water tables and high CO2 emissions at low water tables were also observed when water table fluctuated. Our results suggested that both water table changes and nutritious imports would effect the CO2 emission from wetland.

  17. Aerosol-based emission, solvent degradation, and corrosion in post combustion CO2 capture

    OpenAIRE

    Khakharia, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions, especially of CO2, have been increasing tremendously over the past century. This is known to cause not only an increase of temperature, but also a change in our climate. Along with a shift to renewable sources of energy, Carbon Capture and Storage is necessary to mitigate climate change. Power plants are the largest point source of CO2 emissions and therefore, capture of CO2 from such sources is a must. Post Combustion CO2 Capture (PCCC), and specifically abso...

  18. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  19. CO2 emissions from organic soils under agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The organic soils of peatlands represent a major global sink for terrestrial carbon. Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage, changing conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, the organic carbon that had been accumulated often over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils then are no longer a sink but become a source of CO2. The aim of our study is to analyse the amount and origin of CO2 emitted from organic soils under three land-use types (forest, arable cropland and grassland). Our study area is located in the Bernese Lakeland (CH). The peatlands of this region were drained in the 1870ies, and the site as well as the surrounding area are now managed by a state prison. Since decades our study site is under the same land-use. In Oktober 2013 we took 4 replicate soil cores of all land-uses with respect to a certain distance from a major drainage ditch. Each core was analysed for its bulk density and carbon content. 9 soil samples from a depth of 20-30 cm were analysed for their F14C and δ13C values and later divided into 18 subsamples. Half of them were mixed with 0.2-0.4 g of labelled corn stalk enriched in δ13C (δ13C=2000) in order to mimic plant residue inputs in the field. The moisture content of these samples was equilibrated at a pF-value of 2 before incubating the samples in a Respicond VII analyser for several weeks at 20° C. By trapping the respired CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3 we were able to analyse its F14C and δ13C value. This enabled us to determine to what extent the CO2 originated from old peat, young plant residues or the added maize stalk. Generally the cropland samples showed the highest respiration rates, lowest F14C values and highest carbon stocks. The organic soils under the forest were degraded the most and showed low respiration rates. Analyzing the F14C values of the CO2 revealed that peat contributes most to the respiration and its degradation is fastest in the cropland

  20. Reduction of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 emission trading principles be applied to debris reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit

    In the past years global pollution and the specific situation of global warming changes have been strongly influencing public opinion and thus obliged politicians to initiate/ negotiate in-ternational agreements to control, avoid or at least reduce the impact of CO2 emissions e.g. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the International Copenhagen conference on Climate Change (2009). In the orbital debris area the collision between the Iridium33 and Cosmos 2251 satel-lites in 2009 has again pushed to the forefront the discussion of the space pollution by space debris and the increasing risk of critical and catastrophic events during the nominal life time of space objects. It is shown by simulations that for Low Earth Orbits the critical debris situation is already achieved and the existing space objects will probably produce sufficient space debris elements -big enough -to support the cascade effect (Kessler Syndrome). In anal-ogy with CO2 emissions, potential recommendations / regulations to reduce the production of Space Debris or its permanence in orbit, are likely to open new markets involving Miti-gation and Removal of Space Debris. The principle approach for the CO2 emission trading model will be investigated and the applicability for the global space debris handling will be analysed. The major differences of the two markets will be derived and the consequences in-dicated. Potential alternative solutions will be proposed and discussed. For the example of the CO2 emission trading principles within EU and worldwide legal conditions for space debris (national / international laws and recommendations) will be considered as well as the commer-cial approach from the controlled situation of dedicated orders to a free / competitive market in steps. It is of interest to consider forms of potential industrial organisations and interna-tional co-operations to react on a similar architecture for the debris removal trading including incentives and penalties for the different

  1. Tracking and verifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Plateau is the densely populated and industrialized part of Switzerland producing more than 90% of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions. Verification of the efficacy of emission mitigation measures in a post Kyoto Protocol era will require several levels of scrutiny at local and regional scales. We present a measurement and modeling system, which quantifies anthropogenic CO2 emissions at a regional scale using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART driven by output from a high-resolution regional scale atmospheric model (COSMO) and observations from two tall tower sites. These rural measurement sites are situated between the largest cities of Switzerland (Zürich, Geneva, Basel and Bern). We present methods used to discretize the anthropogenic CO2 signal from atmospheric CO2 measurements. First, we perform high resolution, time-inverted simulations of air transport combined with a new high quality Swiss CO2 emissions inventory to determine a model-estimated anthropogenic portion of the measured CO2. Second, we assess the utility of CO measurements and the relationship between CO2 and CO in combustion processes as a proxy to quantify the anthropogenic CO2 fraction directly from the measurements. We then compare these two methods in their ability to determine the anthropogenic portion of CO2 measurements at a high temporal resolution (hours). Finally, we assess the quality of the simulated atmospheric transport by comparing CO concentrations obtained with the same atmospheric transport model and a high resolution CO emission inventory with the measured CO concentrations. This comparison of methods for determining anthropogenic CO2 emissions provides information on how to independently certify reported CO2 emissions. This study is a first step towards a prototype GHG monitoring and verification system for the regional scale in a complex topographic setting, which constitutes a necessary component of emissions reporting.

  2. Direct space-based observations of anthropogenic CO2 emission areas from OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, J.; Ialongo, I.; Tamminen, J.

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have large impacts on climate. In order to monitor the increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, accurate spaceborne observations—as available from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)—are needed. This work provides the first direct observation of anthropogenic CO2 from OCO-2 over the main pollution regions: eastern USA, central Europe, and East Asia. This is achieved by deseasonalizing and detrending OCO-2 CO2 observations to derive CO2 anomalies. Several small isolated emission areas (such as large cities) are detectable from the anomaly maps. The spatial distribution of the CO2 anomaly matches the features observed in the maps of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 tropospheric columns, used as an indicator of atmospheric pollution. The results of a cluster analysis confirm the spatial correlation between CO2 and NO2 data over areas with different amounts of pollution. We found positive correlation between CO2 anomalies and emission inventories. The results demonstrate the power of spaceborne data for monitoring anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  3. Spatiotemporal assessment of CO2 emissions and its satellite remote sensing over Pakistan and neighboring regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and spatiotemporal variability of mid-tropospheric CO2 has been discussed using EDGAR database and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite observations. The EDGAR data indicate an increase of 147% in anthropogenic CO2 emissions from 66,101 to 163,737 Gg for Pakistan during the period of 1990-2008. Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan) is found with the highest increase of 260% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions followed by Delhi (India) 153%, Karachi (Pakistan) 66% and Lahore (Pakistan) 59% whereas a decreasing trend of -53% is observed for Kabul (Afghanistan) during 1990-2008. Industrial activities, road transportation, open field crop-waste burning, and energy production have been identified as major anthropogenic emission sources of CO2 in the studied region. AIRS CO2 retrievals over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India and Afghanistan show an averaged CO2 to be 383±5 ppm with a positive trend of 5.05% during December 2002 to February 2012. An elevated value of CO2 has been observed over northern mountainous and high human settlement regions. The seasonal analysis shows a spring maximum 385±5 ppm with a secondary peak in late autumn, and the highest increasing trend of 5.5% associated with winter. May and August showed maximum and minimum mean monthly values of 385±5 ppm and 382±5 ppm respectively. HYSPLIT trajectories of air masses movement have been drawn to track CO2 transport.

  4. Exploring the impact of determining factors behind CO2 emissions in China: A CGE appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bowen; Niu, Dongxiao; Wu, Han

    2017-03-01

    Along with the arrival of the post-Kyoto Protocol era, the Chinese government faces ever greater pressure to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Hence, this paper aims to discuss the drivers of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their impact on society as a whole. First, we analyzed the background and overall situations of CO2 emissions in China. Then, we reviewed previous studies to explore the determinants behind China's CO2 emissions. It is widely acknowledged that energy efficiency, energy mix, and economy structure are three key factors contributing to CO2 emissions. To explore the impacts of those three factors on the economy and CO2 emissions, we established a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The following results were found: (1) The decline of a secondary industry can cause an emission reduction effect, but this is at the expense of the gross domestic product (GDP), whereas the development of a tertiary industry can boost the economy and help to reduce CO2 emissions. (2) Cutting coal consumption can contribute significantly to emission reduction, which is accompanied by a great loss in the whole economy. (3) Although the energy efficiency improvement plays a positive role in promoting economic development, a backfire effect can weaken the effects of emission reduction and energy savings.

  5. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Kejun; HU; Xiulian

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO2 emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO2 emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO2 emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO2 emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO2 emissions.This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO2 emissions control and mitigation.

  6. Comparison between mechanisms of CO2 degassing from El Chichon volcanic lake, México, and Specchio di Venere lake, Pantelleria, Italia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome Paz, M. P.; Taran, Y.; Inguaggiato, S.; Collard, N.; Vita, F.; Pecoraino, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of the CO2 diffuse emission from the surface of two volcanic lakes: El Chichón (EC) in Mexico and Specchio di Venere (SV) on Pantelleria Island, Italy. Both lakes are drainless, have similar sizes (~2x105 m2) and similar input-output dynamics. However, they are drastically different in water chemistry. The SV lake is alkaline (pH >9) and of a high near constant salinity, whereas EC lake is acidic (pH 2.3) and of a low variable salinity. In the vicinity of both lakes there are thermal grounds with steam vents and hot springs and a high CO2 soil flux. The SV lake has high alkalinity (~70 meq/L), whereas the EC lake is characterized by high concentration of dissolved CO2. CO2 flux measurements from the surface of both lakes were made with the "floating" accumulation chamber. During the flux measuring, gas samples were taken for carbon isotopic analysis. Soil flux measurements were also made in the crater of El Chichon volcano and on the area adjacent to the SV lake. The preliminary results of CO2 fluxes indicate EC lake has a high CO2 flux with a mean value of 3500 g m-2 d-1, with the highest values alignment across NW-SE and NE-SW faults and a high degassing by bubbling gases, especially near the strongest NE fumarolic field. While SV has a mean value of the CO2 flux ~ 10 g m-2 d-1 and limited bubbling on the lake surface. High CO2 flux was measured from the soil near the lake at the Mofeta place. A net mean diffusion flux (without bubbles) from EC lake is about 350 times higher than that from SV lake (3500 g m-2 d-1 vs 10 g m-2 d-1). SV has the total CO2 flux by diffusion of ~3 ton d-1 from an area of 0.3 km2 and the total flux of 0.44 ton d-1 by bubbling areas at SW and S zones. The EC lake has the total CO2 flux of 840 ton d-1 from an area of 0.24 km2. The total CO2 output from SV is nevertheless about two times higher taking into account the seepage from the lake (~ 8 kg s-1) of highly carbonated water.

  7. 150 Years of Italian CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Bennato, Anna Rita; Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in Italy considering the developments in a 150-year time span. Using several statistical techniques, we find that GDP growth and carbon dioxide emissions are strongly interrelated, with a dramatic change of ...

  8. Pathways for balancing CO2 emissions and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Riahi, Keywan; Rydzak, Felicjan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In December 2015 in Paris, leaders committed to achieve global, net decarbonization of human activities before 2100. This achievement would halt and even reverse anthropogenic climate change through the net removal of carbon from the atmosphere. However, the Paris documents contain few specific prescriptions for emissions mitigation, leaving various countries to pursue their own agendas. In this analysis, we project energy and land-use emissions mitigation pathways through 2100, subject to best-available parameterization of carbon-climate feedbacks and interdependencies. We find that, barring unforeseen and transformative technological advancement, anthropogenic emissions need to peak within the next 10 years, to maintain realistic pathways to meeting the COP21 emissions and warming targets. Fossil fuel consumption will probably need to be reduced below a quarter of primary energy supply by 2100 and the allowable consumption rate drops even further if negative emissions technologies remain technologically or economically unfeasible at the global scale.

  9. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CO2-loads from combustible waste are important inputs for national CO2 inventories and life-cycle assessments (LCA). CO2 emissions from waste incinerators are often expressed by emission factors in kg fossil CO2 emitted per GJ energy content of the waste. Various studies have shown considerable...... variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... of this study was to quantify the importance of source separation for determination of emission factors for incineration of residual household waste. This was done by mimicking various source separation scenarios and based on waste composition data calculating resulting emission factors for residual waste...

  10. Does export product quality matter for CO2 emissions? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2017-01-01

    This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in China. To this end, it uses the unit root tests with structural breaks and the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) estimations over the period 1971-2010. The special role is given to the impact of export product quality on CO2 emissions in the empirical models. The paper finds that the EKC hypothesis is applicable in China. It also observes the positive effect from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. In addition, it finds that the export product quality is negatively associated with CO2 emissions. The paper also argues potential implications.

  11. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I; Donat, Markus G; Pitman, Andy J; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L

    2016-01-28

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.

  12. Pruning removal from orchards for energetic use: impacts on SOC and CO2-emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Lanza, Giacomo; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Nogues, Fernando Sebastian; Kern, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Prunings of orchards are usually burnt or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to remove prunings for energetic use. Effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics are expected rather in the long term. Under certain circumstances, however, soil characteristics as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might change on the short term as our literature review revealed. The main objective of this research was to determine if pruning removal from orchards changes soil organic carbon content and CO2-emission from soils in the short-term. We compared six different study sites in Spain, France and Germany in terms of impacts on soil chemistry (total and organic carbon) and four sites for impacts on CO2-emissions during 2 years. A block design was set up over two rows each with two parcels where we removed prunings and two parcels where prunings were chipped and left on the soil (n=4). As soil characteristics may vary between tree rows and interrows of orchards, we sampled both positions separately. To assess the relative contribution of CO2 emissions from carbonate and organic material, the isotopic signature of CO2 (δ 13CO_2) was analyzed for one orchard. Our results show that pruning removal could significantly decrease soil organic carbon in the tree row after 2 years of pruning removal, as found for one German orchard. No treatment effects were detected on CO2-emissions. We found, however, differences in CO2 emissions according to the sampling position in tree rows and interrows. More CO2 emission was found for that row position per orchard with higher soil organic carbon. Isotopic CO2 signature indicated that elevated CO2 emissions were rather linked to higher microbial decomposition or root respiration than to the release from carbonates. As no pruning wood decomposition effect on CO2 emissions were apparent, but soil with higher organic carbon released more CO2, it is expected

  13. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  14. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  15. Influence of Tillage Practices and Crop Type on Soil CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Bilandžija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsustainable agricultural practices often lead to soil carbon loss and increased soil carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. A research study was conducted on arable fields in central lowland Croatia to measure soil respiration, its seasonal variability, and its response to agricultural practices. Soil C-CO2 emissions were measured with the in situ static chamber method during corn (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growing seasons (2012 and 2013, n = 288 in a field experiment with six different tillage treatments. During corn and winter wheat growing season, average monthly soil C-CO2 emissions ranged, respectively, from 6.2–33.6 and 22.1–36.2 kg ha−1 day−1, and were decreasing, respectively, from summer > spring > autumn and summer > autumn > spring. The same tillage treatments except for black fallow differed significantly between studied years (crops regarding soil CO2 emissions. Significant differences in soil C-CO2 emissions between different tillage treatments with crop presence were recorded during corn but not during winter wheat growing season. In these studied agroecological conditions, optimal tillage treatment regarding emitted C-CO2 is plowing to 25 cm along the slope, but it should be noted that CO2 emissions involve a complex interaction of several factors; thus, focusing on one factor, i.e., tillage, may result in a lack of consistency across studies.

  16. Factor Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tianjin is the largest coastal city in northern China with rapid economic development and urbanization. Energy-related CO2 emissions from Tianjin’s production and household sectors during 1995–2012 were calculated according to the default carbon-emission coefficients provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We decomposed the changes in CO2 emissions resulting from 12 causal factors based on the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index. The examined factors were divided into four types of effects: energy intensity effect, structure effect, activity intensity effect, scale effect and the various influencing factors imposed differential impacts on CO2 emissions. The decomposition outcomes indicate that per capita GDP and population scale are the dominant positive driving factors behind the growth in CO2 emissions for all sectors, while the energy intensity of the production sector is the main contributor to dampen the CO2 emissions increment, and the contributions from industry structure and energy structure need further enhancement. The analysis results reveal the reasons for CO2 emission changes in Tianjin and provide a solid basis upon which policy makers may propose emission reduction measures and approaches for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

  17. Trends in CO2 Emissions from China-Oriented International Marine Transportation Activities and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for marine transportation and its associated CO2 emissions are growing rapidly as a result of increasing international trade and economic growth. An activity-based approach is developed for forecasting CO2 emissions from the China-oriented international seaborne trade sector. To accurately estimate the aggregated emissions, CO2 emissions are calculated individually for five categories of vessels: crude oil tanker, product tanker, chemical tanker, bulk carrier, and container. A business-as-usual (BAU scenario was developed to describe the current situation without additional mitigation policies, whilst three alternative scenarios were developed to describe scenarios with various accelerated improvements of the key factors. The aggregated CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 419.97 Mt under the BAU scenario, and 258.47 Mt under the optimal case, AD3. These predictions are 4.5 times and 2.8 times that of the aggregated emissions in 2007. Our analysis suggests that regulations for monitoring, reporting, and verifying the activities of vessels should be proposed, in order to quantify the CO2 emissions of marine transportation activities in Chinese territorial waters. In the long-term future, mitigation policies should be employed to reduce CO2 emissions from the marine trade sector and to address the climatic impact of shipping.

  18. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  19. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Khan Tanveer

    Full Text Available A two year (2010-2012 study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage, T2: (zero-tillage, T3: (rotary tillage and T4: (mold board plow tillage, 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch and M1 (application of corn residue mulch and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha. A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  20. Development of new measuring technique using sound velocity for CO2 concentration in Cameroonian volcanic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanemasa, M.; Saiki, K.; Kaneko, K.; Ohba, T.; Kusakabe, M.; Tanyileke, G.; Hell, J.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Limnic eruptions at Lakes Monoun and Nyos in Cameroon, which are sudden degassing of magmatic CO2 dissolved in the lake water, occurred in 1984 and 1986, respectively. The disasters killed about 1800 people around the lakes. Because of ongoing CO2 accumulation in the bottom water of the lakes, tragedy of limnic eruptions will possibly occur again. To prevent from further disasters, artificial degassing of CO2 from the lake waters has been undergoing. Additionally, CO2 monitoring of the lake waters is needed. Nevertheless, CO2 measurement is done only once or twice a year because current methods of CO2 measurement, which require chemical analysis of water samples, are not suitable for frequent measurement. In engineering field, on the other hand, a method to measure salt concentration using sound velocity has been proposed (Kleis and Sanchez, 1990). This method allows us to evaluate solute concentration fast. We applied the method to dissolved CO2 and examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration in laboratory experiment. Furthermore, using the obtained correlation, we tried to estimate the CO2 concentration of waters in the Cameroonian lakes. 2. Laboratory experiment We examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration. A profiler (Minos X, made by AML oceanography) and pure water were packed in cylindrical stainless vessel and high-pressure CO2 gas was injected to produce carbonated water. The profiler recorded temperature, pressure and sound velocity. Change of sound velocity was defined as difference of sound velocity between carbonated water and pure water under the same temperature and pressure conditions. CO2 concentration was calculated by Henry's law. The result indicated that the change of sound velocity [m s-1] is proportional to CO2 concentration [mmol kg-1], and the coefficient is 0.021 [m kg s-1 mmol-1]. 3. Field application Depth profiles of sound velocity, pressure, and temperature of Lakes

  1. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  2. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-06-02

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  3. Estimating the Reduction of Generating System CO2 Emissions Resulting from Significant Wind Energy Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Pineda, Ivan; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. The paper discusses pitfalls in methodology and proposes appropriate methods to perform the calculations. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. This paper is an international collaboration of IEA Wind Task 25 on wind integration.

  4. Reduction of CO2 Emissions in Houses of Historic and Visual Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.; Dulski, B.; Postel, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘Climate Programme’ the municipality of Amsterdam has the ambition to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city limits by 40% in the year 2025 compared to the year 1990. To realize this ambition substantial CO2 savings have to be realized at the 375,000 current houses in the city. A

  5. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  6. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  7. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO2 emissions and to implement CO2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several in

  8. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  9. Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Tuttle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2 emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 resolution using nighttime lights data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS. A regression model, Model 1, was initially developed based on carbon emissions from five sectors of the Vulcan data produced by the Purdue University and a nighttime satellite image of the U.S. The coefficient derived through Model 1 was applied to the global nighttime image but it resulted in underestimation of CO2 emissions for most of the world’s countries, and the states of the U.S. Thus, a second model, Model 2 was developed by allocating the distributed CO2 emissions (excluding emissions from utilities using a combination of DMSP-OLS nighttime image and population count data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE LandScan grid. The CO2 emissions were distributed in proportion to the brightness of the DMSP nighttime lights in areas where lighting was detected. In areas with no DMSP detected lighting, the CO2 emissions were distributed based on population count, with the assumption that people who live in these areas emit half as much CO2 as people who live in the areas with DMSP detected lighting. The results indicate that the relationship between satellite observed nighttime lights and CO2 emissions is complex, with differences between sectors and variations in lighting practices between countries. As a result it is not possible to make independent estimates of CO2 emissions with currently available coarse

  10. Emission trade balances CO2 emission. The benefits of investing in foreign environmental projects; Emissiehandel brengt CO2-uitstoot in balans. Investeren in buitenlands milieuproject loont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    2000-02-17

    Several plans to trade CO2 emission certificates are developed by companies and institutes such as BP Amoco, Shell and the World Bank. One can make the most advantageous choice to invest in the reduction of greenhouse gases. A brief overview is given of the developments so far. 3 refs.

  11. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  12. Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyoung-Min Lim; Seul-Ye Lim; Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2014-01-01

      This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual...

  13. Economic Growth, Foreign Direct Investment and CO2 Emissions in China: A Panel Granger Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of province-level panel data, this paper investigates the Granger causality associations among economic growth (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI and CO2 emissions in China. By applying the bootstrap Granger panel causality approach (Kónya, 2006, we consider both cross-sectional dependence and homogeneity of different regions in China. The empirical results support that the causality direction not only works in a single direction either from GDP to FDI (in Yunnan or from FDI to GDP (in Beijing, Neimenggu, Jilin, Shanxi and Gansu, but it also works in both directions (in Henan. Moreover, we document that GDP is Granger-causing CO2 emissions in Neimenggu, Hubei, Guangxi and Gansu while there is bidirectional causality between these two variables in Shanxi. In the end, we identify the unidirectional causality from FDI to CO2 emissions in Beijing, Henan, Guizhou and Shanxi, and the bidirectional causality between FDI and CO2 emissions in Neimenggu.

  14. Generation Capacity Expansion with CO2 Emission and Transmission Constraints in an Oligopolistic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A.K. Abeygunawardana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is committed to cut Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHGs by 30% of 1990 levels by 2020; other countries are committed to make similar reductions under a global agreement. Some technical options are available on the supply side, to reduce GHG and other harmful emissions by the power sector. Therefore, it is important to analyze what type of power generation technologies will be chosen by companies under different CO2 mitigation targets. Several models look into Generation Expansion Planning in oligopolistic markets; however, they do not consider the impact of CO2 reduction targets and the transmission constraints together. This study presents a Generation Expansion planning model with transmission constraints for analyzing the implications of CO2 emission mitigation constraints for investment decisions in oligopolistic electricity markets. The results of the model are presented with reference to the Italian power sector, responsible for 32% of national CO2 emissions.

  15. Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases 1990-2020

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data in these Appendices to the Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (1990-2020) report provide historical and projected estimates of...

  16. CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and FDI in Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinh Hong Linh; Shih-Mo Lin

    2014-01-01

      This study examines the dynamic relationships between co2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI and economic growth for Vietnam IN the period from 1980 to 2010 based on Environmental Kuznets Curve (ekc...

  17. Allowable CO2 emissions based on projected changes in regional extremes and related impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Donat, Markus; Pitman, Andy; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted 2°C and 1.5° limits, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions. Translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because they resonate better with national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean. Linking cumulative CO2 emission targets to regional consequences, such as changing climate extremes, would be of particular benefit for political decision making, both in the context of climate negotiations and adaptation.

  18. Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Panel Data for MENA Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Farhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. It performs a key for sustainable development. Hence, many studies have attempted to look for the direction of causality between energy consumption (EC, economic growth (GDP and CO2 emissions. This paper, therefore, applies the panel unit root tests, panel cointegration methods and panel causality test to investigate the relationship between EC, GDP and CO2 emissions for 15 MENA countries covering the annual period 1973-2008. The finding of this study reveals that there is no causal link between GDP and EC; and between CO2 emissions and EC in the short run. However, in the long run, there is a unidirectional causality running from GDP and CO2 emissions to EC. In addition, to deal with the heterogeneity in countries and the endogeneity bias in regressors, this paper applies respectively the FMOLS and the DOLS approach to estimate the long-run relationship between these three factors.

  19. Understanding aerosol based emissions in a post combustion CO2 capture process: parameter testing and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.M.; Brachert, L.; Mertens, J.; Anderlohr, C.; Huizinga, A.; Fernandez, E.S.; Schallert, B.; Schaber, K.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent emissions from a Post Combustion CO2 Capture (PCCC) process can lead to environmental hazards and higher operating cost. Aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been reported from PCCC plants. These emissions are attributed to the presence of particles such as sulphuric ac

  20. Depth of volcanic basalt degassing forecasted from CO2 fluid inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have recorded the history of degassing in basalt. Some fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts of basalt were analyzed by micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy in this paper. The experimental results showed that many inclusions are present almost in a pure CO2 system. The densities of some CO2 inclusions were computed in terms of Raman spectroscopic characteristics of CO2 Fermi resonance at room temperature. Their densities change over a wide range, but mainly between 0.044 g/cm3 and 0.289 g/cm3. Their micro-thermometric measurements showed that the CO2 inclusions examined reached homogenization between 1145.5℃ and 1265℃. The mean value of homogenization temperatures of CO2 inclusions in basalts is near 1210℃. The trap pressures (depths) of inclusions were computed with the equation of state and computer program. Distribution of the trap depths makes it know that the degassing of magma can happen over a wide pressure (depth) range, but mainly at the depth of 0.48 km to 3.85 km. This implicates that basalt magma experienced intensive degassing and the CO2 gas reservoir from the basalt magma also may be formed in this range of depths. The results of this study showed that the depth of basalt magma degassing can be forecasted from CO2 fluid inclusions, and it is meaningful for understanding the process of magma degassing and constraining the inorganogenic CO2 gas reservoir.

  1. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  2. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.; Brouwer, A.S.; Kuramochi, T.; van den Broek, M.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate o

  3. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P...

  4. The impact of grassland conversion on CO2 emission and CH4 uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erda, L.Y.L. [Agrometeorology Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2000-07-01

    With the increase of population and the demand for food and fiber, some natural grassland was reclaimed to farmland in China. CO2 emission and CH4 uptake fluxes were measured during the growing season of natural grass, Erect milkvtch grassland, maize and potato during 1997-1998. The results indicate that the conversion of native grassland to agricultural uses has increased the CO2 emission from soils and decreased CH4 uptake from the atmosphere. 14 refs.

  5. Expert Elicitations of 2100 Emission of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily; Bosetti, Valentina; Budescu, David; Keller, Klaus; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Emission scenarios such as Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are used intensively for climate research (e.g. climate change projections) and policy analysis. While the range of these scenarios provides an indication of uncertainty, these scenarios are typically not associated with probability values. Some studies (e.g. Vuuren et al, 2007; Gillingham et al., 2015) took a different approach associating baseline emission pathways (conditionally) with probability distributions. This paper summarizes three studies where climate change experts were asked to conduct pair-wise comparisons of possible ranges of 2100 greenhouse gas emissions and rate the relative likelihood of the ranges. The elicitation was performed under two sets of assumptions: 1) a situation where no climate policies are introduced beyond the ones already in place (baseline scenario), and 2) a situation in which countries have ratified the voluntary policies in line with the long term target embedded in the 2015 Paris Agreement. These indirect relative judgments were used to construct subjective cumulative distribution functions. We show that by using a ratio scaling method that invokes relative likelihoods of scenarios, a subjective probability distribution can be derived for each expert that expresses their beliefs in the projected greenhouse gas emissions range in 2100. This method is shown to elicit stable estimates that require minimal adjustment and is relatively invariant to the partition of the domain of interest. Experts also rated the method as being easy and intuitive to use. We also report results of a study that allowed participants to choose their own ranges of greenhouse gas emissions to remove potential anchoring bias. We discuss the implications of the use of this method for facilitating comparison and communication of beliefs among diverse users of climate science research.

  6. Quantification and modelling of on-road CO2 emissions and its impacts on ambient CO2 concentrations in an Indian coastal city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhipatla, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of CO2 emission inventory, monitoring of CO2 concentrations and modelling of on road CO2 emissions in an Indian coastal city. Bottom up approach was adopted for quantifying the grid wise on road CO2 emissions of Chennai city at a finer resolution of 1Km x 1Km using the real time traffic data of 56 major roads. In addition, monitoring of ground level CO2 concentrations and vehicular traffic were carried out at a residential site in Chennai to understand the impact of vehicular emissions on the ambient CO2 levels. Further, AERMOD, a US EPA regulatory model, was deployed to find the spatial variation of CO2 concentrations due to the emissions from 38 major corridors of Chennai. Results indicated that a total emission of 0.65 Tg/year of CO2 was emitted by the vehicular traffic from the major roads of Chennai. Cars were identified as the larger emitters of CO2 with a contribution of 25% of the total emissions followed by three wheelers (21%), trucks (16%), buses (15%), two wheelers (13%) and Light Commercial Vehicles (9%). Ground level CO2 concentrations at the study area were in the range 391.52 to 666.37 ppm, with a mean hourly concentration of 448 ± 33.45 ppm. It was observed that the CO2 concentrations were high during the morning and evening peak hours and low during the afternoons and further vehicular emissions were found to have a significant effect on the ambient CO2 concentrations during the morning peak hours (R2=0.78) and afternoons (R2=0.50). But, contrastingly, a weak correlation was observed between the vehicular emissions and CO2 concentrations during the evening peak hours (R2=0.02). In addition, night time CO2 concentrations were observed higher in the weekends corresponding to high vehicular traffic during the late evenings. From the modelling results, it was found that the considered 38 major corridors contribute 0.12 ppm of CO2 per year to the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengkang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Shan; Qin, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China's steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%-45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

  8. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) and the CO2 emission trade. NOx balancing method also useful for CO2; VROM klaar voor CO2-emissiehandel. NOx-verveningsmethode ook bruikbaar voor kooldioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    2000-09-07

    Although officially the Dutch government has not yet decided to trade internal CO2 emissions, a representative of VROM presented an emission trading concept which at the moment is under development at VROM in cooperation with the US-based company ACE (Automated Credit Exchange). The concept aims at balancing cost for NOx reduction, but can also be applied as a solution to CO2 emission. The emission of Dutch electric power plants is used as an example for calculation.

  9. Application of Space Borne CO2 and Fluorescence Measurements to Detect Urban CO2 Emissions and Anthropogenic Influence on Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, Johannes C.; Chen, Jia; Ruisinger, Veronika

    2017-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) is a NASA satellite mission dedicated to make global, space-based observations of atmospheric, column-averaged carbon dioxide (XCO2). In addition, the OCO-2 also measures Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF). In our research we have studied the combination of OCO-2's XCO2 and SIF measurements for numerous urban areas on the different continents. Applying GIS and KML visualization techniques as well as statistical approaches we are able to reliably detect anthropogenic CO2 emissions in CO2 column concentration enhancements over urban areas. Moreover, we detect SIF decreases over urban areas compared to their rural vicinities. We are able to obtain those findings for urban areas on different continents, of diverse sizes, dissimilar topographies and urban constructions. Our statistical analysis finds robust XCO2 enhancements of up to 3 ppm for urban areas in Europe, Asia and North America. Furthermore, the analysis of SIF indicates that urban construction, population density and seasonality influence urban vegetation, which can be observed from space. Additionally, we find that OCO-2's SIF measurements have the potential to identify and approximate green areas within cities. For Berlin's Grunewald Forest as well as Mumbai's Sanjay Gandhi and Tungareshwar National Parks we observe enhancements in SIF measurements at sub-city scales.

  10. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  11. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  12. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  14. Empirically Analysis of the CO2 Emissions Embodied in Exports of China%Empirically Analysis of the CO2 Emissions Embodied in Exports of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Qirong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, using the input-output model, the author first calculated the CO2 emissions embodied in exports of China in 2002 and 2007. Then, the author empirically analyzed problems existing in the composition of exported products and analyzed its possible reasons. The research results of this paper are as follows: Since China's entry into WTO, the CO2 emissions embodied in exports of China have been increasing rapidly; the value of exported products of high-carbon emissions industries accounts for a relatively higher proportion to China's total exports value because China's carbon intensive products have a certain competitive advantage. Additionally, this paper has put forward relevant suggestions based on these results.

  15. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P; Butler, Harry J; Strong, Craig L; McTainsh, Grant H; Leys, John F; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A

    2013-10-01

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and transporting C dust quickly offshore; augmenting the net loss of C from terrestrial systems. However, the contribution of wind erosion to rates of C release and sequestration is poorly understood. Here, we describe how SOC dust emission is omitted from national C accounting, is an underestimated source of CO(2) and may accelerate SOC decomposition. Similarly, long dust residence times in the unshielded atmospheric environment may considerably increase CO(2) emission. We developed a first approximation to SOC enrichment for a well-established dust emission model and quantified SOC dust emission for Australia (5.83 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)) and Australian agricultural soils (0.4 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)). These amount to underestimates for CO(2) emissions of ≈10% from combined C pools in Australia (year = 2000), ≈5% from Australian Rangelands and ≈3% of Australian Agricultural Soils by Kyoto Accounting. Northern hemisphere countries with greater dust emission than Australia are also likely to have much larger SOC dust emission. Therefore, omission of SOC dust emission likely represents a considerable underestimate from those nations' C accounts. We suggest that the omission of SOC dust emission from C cycling and C accounting is a significant global source of uncertainty. Tracing the fate of wind-eroded SOC in the dust cycle is therefore essential to quantify the release of CO(2) from SOC dust to the atmosphere and the contribution of SOC deposition to downwind C sinks.

  16. Soil CO2 Emissions as Affected by 20-Year Continuous Cropping in Mollisols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Meng-yang; YUAN Ya-ru; LI Lu-jun; XU Yan-li; HAN Xiao-zeng

    2014-01-01

    Long-term continuous cropping of soybean (Glycine max), spring wheat (Triticum aesativum) and maize (Zea mays) is widely practiced by local farmers in northeast China. A ifeld experiment (started in 1991) was used to investigate the differences in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions under continuous cropping of the three major crops and to evaluate the relationships between CO2 lfuxes and soil temperature and moisture for Mollisols in northeast China. Soil CO2 emissions were measured using a closed-chamber method during the growing season in 2011. No remarkable differences in soil organic carbon were found among the cropping systems (P>0.05). However, signiifcant differences in CO2 emissions from soils were observed among the three cropping systems (Pcontinuous wheat ((629±22) g CO2 m-2)>continuous soybean ((474±30) g CO2 m-2). Soil temperature explained 42-65% of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 flux, with a Q10 between 1.63 and 2.31; water-filled pore space explained 25-47% of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 lfux. A multiple regression model including both soil temperature (T, °C) and water-iflled pore space (W,%), log(f)=a+bT log(W), was established, accounting for 51-66%of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 lfux. The results suggest that soil CO2 emissions and their Q10 values under a continuous cropping system largely depend on crop types in Mollisols of Northeast China.

  17. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  18. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  19. Temporal Variability in Soil CO2 Emission in an Orchard Forest Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-Lin; D.OTIENO; K.OWEN; ZHANG Yun; J.TENHUNEN; RAO Xing-Quan; LIN Yong-Biao

    2008-01-01

    Temporal variability in soil CO2 emission from an orchard was measured using a dynamic open-chamber system for measuring soil CO2 efflux in Heshan Guangdong Province,in the lower subtropical area of China.Intensive measurements were conducted for a period of 12 months.Soil COs emissions were also modeled by multiple regression analysis from dally air temperature,dry-bulb saturated vapor pressure,relative humidity,atmospheric pressure,soil moisture,and soil temperature.Data was analyzed based on soil moisture levels and air temperature with annual data being grouped into either hot-humid season or relatively cool season based on the precipitation patterns.This was essential in order to acquire simplified exponential models for parameter estimation.Minimum and maximum daily mean soil CO2 efflux rates were observed in November and July,with respective rates of 1.98 ± 0.66 and 11.04 ± 0.96/μmol m-2 s-1 being recorded.Annual average soil CO2 emission (FCO2) was 5.92/μmol m-2 s-1.Including all the weather variables into the model helped to explain 73.9% of temporal variability in soil CO2 emission during the measurement period.Soil CO2 efflux increased with increasing soil temperature and soil moisture.Preliminary results showed that Q10,which is defined as the difference in respiration rates over a 10 ℃ interval,was partly explained by fine root biomass.Soil temperature and soil moisture were the dominant factors controlling soil CO2 efflux and were regarded as the driving variables for CO2 production in the soil.Including these two variables in regression models could provide a useful tool for predicting the variation of CO2 emission in the commercial forest soils of South China.

  20. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  1. The Strategy and Technology Selection for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-Min; FENG Yong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The emission control of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is conducive to slowing down global warming. It is also helpful in controlling environmental pollution, and beneficial in improving the local health benefits. This paper aims at six kinds of non-CO2 greenhouse gases under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). This paper analyzes the emission status and trend of China’s non-CO2 greenhouse gases, and provides some technology selections for non-CO2 emission reduction. Through strategic policy arrangements and appropriate technology choices, China can gain environmental protection and greenhouse gas control.

  2. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  3. Increased N2O emission by inhibited plant growth in the CO2 leaked soil environment: Simulation of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; He, Wenmei; Ko, Daegeun; Chung, Haegeun; Yoo, Gayoung

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO2 emission. However, the possibility of CO2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO2. Cabbage, which has been reported to be vulnerable to high soil CO2, was grown under BI (no injection), NI (99.99% N2 injection), and CI (99.99% CO2 injection). Mean soil CO2 concentration for CI was 66.8-76.9% and the mean O2 concentrations in NI and CI were 6.6-12.7%, which could be observed in the CO2 leaked soil from the pipelines connected to the CCS sites. The soil N2O emission was increased by 286% in the CI, where NO3(-)-N concentration was 160% higher compared to that in the control. This indicates that higher N2O emission from CO2 leakage could be due to enhanced nitrification process. Higher NO3(-)-N content in soil was related to inhibited plant metabolism. In the CI treatment, chlorophyll content decreased and chlorosis appeared after 8th day of injection. Due to the inhibited root growth, leaf water and nitrogen contents were consistently lowered by 15% under CI treatment. Our results imply that N2O emission could be increased by the secondary effects of CO2 leakage on plant metabolism. Hence, monitoring the environmental changes in rhizosphere would be very useful for impact assessment of CCS technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How Much CO2 Emissions Can Be Reduced in China’s Heating Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s heating industry is a coal-fired industry with serious environmental issues. CO2 emissions from the heating industry accounted for an average 6.1% of China’s carbon emissions during 1985–2010. The potential for reducing emissions in China’s heating industry is evaluated by co-integration analysis and scenario analysis. The results demonstrate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions and the influencing factors, including energy intensity, industrial scale, labor productivity, and energy productivity. Monte Carlo technique is adopted for risk analysis. It is found that the CO2 emissions reduction potential of the heating industry will be 26.7 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce in 2020 and 64.8 Mtce in 2025 under the moderate scenario, compared with 50.6 Mtce in 2020 and 122.1 Mtce in 2025 under the advanced scenario. Policy suggestions are provided accordingly.

  5. The contribution of aquatic metabolism to CO2 emissions from New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Snyder, L. E.; McDowell, W. H.; Hunt, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Fluvial networks represent a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Recent evidence has highlighted the ubiquity of CO2 supersaturation in streams, rivers, and lakes worldwide, yet our understanding of how the source of this CO2 flux (e.g. in situ aquatic production versus soil and groundwater sources within the catchment) varies in time and across different aquatic systems remains limited. In this study we used continuous, high-frequency measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) and CO2 to model stream metabolism and CO2 emissions for five stream sites across New Hampshire that vary in size, nutrient loading, and landscape context, with the goal of quantitatively partitioning the aquatic CO2 flux into catchment and aquatic sources, respectively. Spectral analysis of the DO and CO2 time series indicates that these gases often deviated from the pure inverse behavior that would be expected if CO2 flux originated solely from in-stream biological activity. Across all streams, the estimated contribution of aquatic net ecosystem production (NEP) to stream CO2 flux varied from approximately 0% to 50%. For each site, the proportion of CO2 flux supported by aquatic NEP was lower at higher discharge, perhaps due to increased CO2 transport from soils to streams during wetter periods, and/or due to effects of scouring flows and carbon removal on stream metabolism. Our data provides evidence that catchment sources represent substantial contributions to aquatic CO2 flux across temperate streams, but that the proportion of CO2 flux originating from net in situ production and carbon transformation is variable throughout the growing season.

  6. Impact of warming on CO2 emissions from streams countered by aquatic photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, Benoît O. L.; Gíslason, Gísli M.; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Manson, J. Russell; Friberg, Nikolai; Hood, James M.; Thompson, Joshua J. D.; Freitag, Thomas E.

    2016-10-01

    Streams and rivers are an important source of CO2 emissions. One important control of these emissions is the metabolic balance between photosynthesis, which converts CO2 to organic carbon, and respiration, which converts organic carbon into CO2 (refs ,). Carbon emissions from rivers could increase with warming, independently of organic carbon inputs, because the apparent activation energy is predicted to be higher for respiration than photosynthesis. However, physiological CO2-concentrating mechanisms may prevent the increase in photorespiration, limiting photosynthesis with warming. Here we report the thermal response of aquatic photosynthesis from streams located in geothermal areas of North America, Iceland and Kamchatka with water temperatures ranging between 4 and 70 °C. Based on a thermodynamic theory of enzyme kinetics, we show that the apparent activation energy of aquatic ecosystem photosynthesis is approximately 0.57 electron volts (eV) for temperatures ranging from 4 to 45 °C, which is similar to that of respiration. This result and a global synthesis of 222 streams suggest that warming will not create increased stream and river CO2 emissions from a warming-induced imbalance between photosynthesis and respiration. However, temperature could affect annual CO2 emissions from streams if ecosystem respiration is independent of gross primary production, and may be amplified by increasing organic carbon supply.

  7. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  8. Regional estimates of the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Martin; Matthews, H. Damon; de Elía, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts.

  9. Inter-annual variability in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions due to temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréon, F.-M.; Boucher, O.; Brender, P.

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that short-term (i.e. interannual) variations in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are closely related to the evolution of the national economies. Nevertheless, a fraction of the CO2 emissions are linked to domestic and business heating and cooling, which can be expected to be related to the meteorology, independently of the economy. Here, we analyse whether the signature of the inter-annual temperature anomalies is discernible in the time series of CO2 emissions at the country scale. Our analysis shows that, for many countries, there is a clear positive correlation between a heating-degree-person index and the component of the CO2 emissions that is not explained by the economy as quantified by the gross domestic product (GDP). Similarly, several countries show a positive correlation between a cooling-degree-person (CDP) index and CO2 emissions. The slope of the linear relationship for heating is on the order of 0.5-1 kg CO2 (degree-day-person)-1 but with significant country-to-country variations. A similar relationship for cooling shows even greater diversity. We further show that the inter-annual climate anomalies have a small but significant impact on the annual growth rate of CO2 emissions, both at the national and global scale. Such a meteorological effect was a significant contribution to the rather small and unexpected global emission growth rate in 2014 while its contribution to the near zero emission growth in 2015 was insignificant.

  10. Tree-ring 14C and CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain and Yellowstone, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; McGeehin, J. P.; King, J.; Heasler, H.; Evans, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    A large pulse of magmatic CO2 began venting through soils on the flanks of Mammoth Mountain CA within months of a local seismic swarm in 1989. Previous workers have shown that the CO2 efflux rate was large enough to kill ~0.5 km2 of forest and cause substantial depletion of 14C in the wood of surviving trees at the edges of the kill zones. CO2 efflux at Mammoth Mountain continues to be well-studied, in part because of the obvious link between the seismic swarm and the onset of outgassing. A somewhat similar event apparently occurred a decade previously in the Yellowstone caldera, where we see a record of 14C depletion of 10-25% in a tree at Cooking Hillside in the Mud Volcano area. The 14C levels in tree core data show that CO2 emissions began to increase during a local seismic swarm in 1978. A huge drop in 14C in the 1979 growth ring suggests that CO2 emissions increased about 5-fold over values earlier in the decade. The emissions spike persisted into 1980 but at greatly reduced levels. This event at Mud Volcano occurred in a thermal area long known to emit CO2 gas and was associated with a substantial increase in surface heating and steam emission, in contrast to the case of Mammoth Mountain. However, the two events share some important similarities: increased CO2 emissions began within months of the onset of shallow (emissions peaked within 1-2 years later, and peak emissions are estimated at ~1000 tonnes of CO2 per day. Seismicity in both cases was likely driven by CO2-rich hydrous fluids; intrusion of magma into the shallow crust seems unlikely, particularly at Yellowstone where the youngest intra-caldera lavas are 70 ka. These similarities imply that, while each event has unique attributes, both are more likely variants on a process that may be fairly common in areas of magmatism. Additional tree coring at Mammoth Mountain will allow a direct comparison between 14C depletion and annual CO2 flux surveys. Ongoing tree-core 14C studies at Yellowstone focus on

  11. Impact of Transit Priority on CO2 Emissions%公交优先政策对CO2排放的影响评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志高; 王江燕; 何东全

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨公交优先政策对CO2排放的影响及其敏感性,进行影响评估研究.首先探讨了城市公共交通与CO2排放的关系,提出公共交通CO2排放量的4个影响因素.对近年来公交优先政策的实施效果进行分析,推断其与CO2排放存在的关联性.估算2000--2008年公共交通CO2排放量,发现其与公交平均载客量呈反比、与平均出行距离呈正比:假设6神情境,计算不同能源结构、公交分担率提高比例情况下的CO2减排量阈值,并对影响因素进行敏感性分析.在此基础上,探讨公交优先政策可能导致的CO2排放削减的量级.最后,从节能减排的角度针对公交优先政策提出建议.%To investigate how transit priority policies affect CO2 emissions, this paper conducts an impact assessment and sensitivity analysis. By discussing the relationship between urban public transit and CO2 emissions, the paper presents four elements that influence CO2 emissions of public transit system. Based on an evaluation of transit priority implemented in recent years, the paper discusses the relationship between the policies and CO2 emissions. It is estimated that the amounts of CO2 emissions from transit vehicles between 2000 and 2008 have a negative correlation with average passenger load and a positive correlation with average travel distance. The study calculates the CO2 emission by different fuel structure and percentage increase in public transit shares for six proposed hypothetical scenarios. Based on the analysis results, the paper discusses the CO2 emissions reduction possibly by transit priority. Finally, the paper suggests various public transit priorities polices from the perspective of energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  12. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  13. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In

  14. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In additi

  15. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing.

  16. The dynamic relationship between structural change and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: a cointegrating approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wajahat; Abdullah, Azrai; Azam, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    The current study investigates the dynamic relationship between structural changes, real GDP per capita, energy consumption, trade openness, population density, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions within the EKC framework over a period 1971-2013. The study used the autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) approach to investigate the long-run relationship between the selected variables. The study also employed the dynamic ordinary least squared (DOLS) technique to obtain the robust long-run estimates. Moreover, the causal relationship between the variables is explored using the VECM Granger causality test. Empirical results reveal a negative relationship between structural change and CO2 emissions in the long run. The results indicate a positive relationship between energy consumption, trade openness, and CO2 emissions. The study applied the turning point formula of Itkonen (2012) rather than the conventional formula of the turning point. The empirical estimates of the study do not support the presence of the EKC relationship between income and CO2 emissions. The Granger causality test indicates the presence of long-run bidirectional causality between energy consumption, structural change, and CO2 emissions in the long run. Economic growth, openness to trade, and population density unidirectionally cause CO2 emissions. These results suggest that the government should focus more on information-based services rather than energy-intensive manufacturing activities. The feedback relationship between energy consumption and CO2 emissions suggests that there is an ominous need to refurbish the energy-related policy reforms to ensure the installations of some energy-efficient modern technologies.

  17. An analysis of China's CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for China's resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the developed countries. It is a necessity that the non-fossil energy supplies be able to meet all the increased energy demand for achieving CO2 emission peaking. Given that China's potential GDP annual increasing rate will be more than 4%, and China's total energy demand will continue to increase by approximately 1.0%–1.5% annually around 2030, new and renewable energies will need to increase by 6%–8% annually to meet the desired CO2 emission peak. The share of new and renewable energies in China's total primary energy supply will be approximately 20% by 2030. At that time, the energy consumption elasticity will decrease to around 0.3, and the annual decrease in the rate of CO2 intensity will also be higher than 4% to ensure the sustained growth of GDP. To achieve the CO2 emission peaking target and substantially promote the low-carbon development transformation, China needs to actively promote an energy production and consumption revolution, the innovation of advanced energy technologies, the reform of the energy regulatory system and pricing mechanism, and especially the construction of a national carbon emission cap and trade system.

  18. CO2 Emissions and Cost by Floor Types of Public Apartment Houses in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jae Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In each country in the world, there is a strong need for all industries to reduce CO2 emissions for sustainable development as a preparation for climatic change. The biggest issue in many developed countries, including the United States, is to reduce CO2 emissions for the upcoming implementation of Carbon Emissions Trading. The construction industry, in particular, which accounts for up about 30% of CO2 emissions, will need studies on the amount of CO2 emissions. The purpose of this study is to present the most environmentally friendly and economical apartment house plan types according to the increasing number of layers by evaluating the amount of CO2 emissions and economic efficiency. The results indicated that flat and Y-shaped types are more eco-friendly and economical in lower levels of less than 20 stories. However, the L-shaped type is more highly eco-friendly and economically efficient in higher levels of more than 20 stories. The results of this paper would help to make a decision on the building types and the number of stories in the early stages of construction.

  19. Potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO(2) reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO(2) emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO(2) with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China's greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  20. Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Ashwin K

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

  1. Analysis of Transport Policy Effect on CO2 Emissions Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission from the transport sector attracts the attention of both transport and climate change policymakers because of its share in total green house gas emissions and the forecast of continuous growth reported in many countries. This paper takes the urban transport in Beijing as a case and builds a system dynamics model for analysis of the motorization trend and the assessment of CO2 emissions mitigation policy. It is found that the urban transport condition and CO2 emissions would be more serious with the growth of vehicle ownership and travel demand. Compared with the baseline do-nothing scenario, the CO2 emissions could be reduced from 3.8% to 24.3% in 2020 by various transport policies. And the policy of controlling the number of passenger cars which has been carried out in Beijing and followed by some cities could achieve good results, which may help to increase the proportion of public transit to 55.6% and reduce the CO2 emission by 18.3% compared with the baseline scenario in 2020.

  2. Changing Urban Form and Transport CO2 Emissions: An Empirical Analysis of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization development and changing urban form will increase the mobility and contribute to global CO2 emissions, in particular for developing countries which are experiencing rapid economic growth and urban expansion. In this paper, an integrated analytical framework, which can quantify the impact of changing urban form on commuting CO2 emissions, is presented. This framework simultaneously considers two emission dependent factors, commuting demand and modal share based on the concept of excess commuting and accessibility analysis, and ensures its applicability to other cities where the detailed individual travel data is not available. A case study of Beijing from 2000 to 2009 is used to illustrate this framework. The findings suggest that changing urban form in Beijing did have a significant impact on commuting CO2 emission increase. Changing to a more decentralized urban form in Beijing had a larger impact on commuting distance and increased usage of cars, which resulted in a significant rise in CO2 emissions. There is a larger space and an urgent need for commuting CO2 emission reduction, in 2009 in Beijing, by planning and by strategic measures in order to promote sustainable transport.

  3. Carbon flow from volcanic CO2 into soil microbial communities of a wetland mofette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beulig, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Effects of extremely high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on soil microbial communities and associated processes are largely unknown. We studied a wetland area affected by spots of subcrustal CO2 degassing (mofettes) with focus on anaerobic autotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis because...... hypoxia and acidic pH. Anoxic incubations revealed enhanced formation of acetate and methane (CH4) from hydrogen (H2) and CO2 consistent with elevated CH4 and acetate levels in the mofette soil. 13CO2 mofette soil incubations showed high label incorporations with ~512 ng 13C g (dry weight (dw)) soil−1 d−1...... into the bulk soil and up to 10.7 ng 13C g (dw) soil−1 d−1 into almost all analyzed bacterial lipids. Incorporation of CO2-derived carbon into archaeal lipids was much lower and restricted to the first 10 cm of the soil. DNA-SIP analysis revealed that acidophilic methanogens affiliated with Methanoregulaceae...

  4. Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Liu, Xuyi; Bae, Junghan

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO2 emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO2 emissions but also to boost their growth.

  5. CO2 Emisyonu ve Ekonomik Büyüme: Panel Veri Analizi(CO2 Emission and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe ARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis by investigating the relationship between per capita income and carbon dioxide (CO2 emission. In accordance with this aim, The Mediterranian Countries have been analysed with the panel data method over the period 2000-2005. The empirical results displayed an N-shaped relationship between per capita GDP and CO2 emission. Thereby, it has seen that CO2 emission can also increase at the high levels of per capita income. Furthermore, the effects of the population density and energy consumption on the environmental pollution have also been searched in this study. The obtained empirical results indicated that the population density and energy consumption effect CO2 emission positively.

  6. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  7. CO2 emissions trading in the EU : Models and policy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Arnold Jan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, several CO2 emissions trading schemes have been introduced around the world. The first, and by far largest scheme, is the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Despite early hopes that the scheme could seriously trigger investments in greenhouse gas reduction techno

  8. Transition paths towards CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Berend Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    Radiative forcing, better known as the Greenhouse Effect, is probably the major 21st century environmental problem. Its probable cause is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. The Kyoto agreement enforces considerable reductions of the GHG emissions in 2010, with 6 to 8% of

  9. Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlingstein, P.; Andrew, R. M.; Rogelj, J.; Peters, G. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Knutti, R.; Luderer, G.; Raupach, M. R.; Schaeffer, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Le Quéré, C.

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to limit climate change below a given temperature level require that global emissions of CO2 cumulated over time remain below a limited quota. This quota varies depending on the temperature level, the desired probability of staying below this level and the contributions of other gases. In spite of this restriction, global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production have continued to grow by 2.5% per year on average over the past decade. Two thirds of the CO2 emission quota consistent with a 2 °C temperature limit has already been used, and the total quota will likely be exhausted in a further 30 years at the 2014 emissions rates. We show that CO2 emissions track the high end of the latest generation of emissions scenarios, due to lower than anticipated carbon intensity improvements of emerging economies and higher global gross domestic product growth. In the absence of more stringent mitigation, these trends are set to continue and further reduce the remaining quota until the onset of a potential new climate agreement in 2020. Breaking current emission trends in the short term is key to retaining credible climate targets within a rapidly diminishing emission quota.

  10. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  11. The Influence of Various Operation Modes on Diesel Passenger Cars CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.

  12. Method for Calculating CO2 Emissions from the Power Sector at the Provincial Level in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Cui-Mei; GE Quan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the detailed origins of each province’s electricity consumption, a new method for calculating CO2 emissions from the power sector at the provincial level in China is proposed. With this so-called consumer responsibility method, the emissions embodied in imported electricity are calculated with source-specific emission factors. Using the new method, we estimate CO2 emissions in 2005 and 2010. Compared with those derived from the producer responsibility method, the power exporters’ emissions decreased sharply. The emissions from the power sector in Inner Mongolia, the largest power exporter of China, decreased by 109 Mt in 2010. The value is equivalent to those from Shaanxi’s power production and Canada’s power and heat production. In contrast, the importers’ emissions increased substantially. The emissions from the power sector in Hebei, the largest power importer of China, increased by 74 Mt. Emissions of Beijing, increased by 60 Mt (320%), in 2010. Thus, we suggest that the Chinese government should take the emissions, as calculated from the consumption perspective, into account when formulating and assessing local CO2 emission reduction targets.

  13. IGCC系统减排CO2的性能比较和分析%PERFORMANCE COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF IGCC WITH CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范江; 刘姝玮; 马素霞

    2012-01-01

    Gas producing ratio and energy consumption rate were computed respectively in the IGCC system, the IGCC system with pre-combustion CO2 capturing and that with oxy-combustion CO2 recycling. It was showed from the computed results that when coal and the gasification were in the same condition, the steam and gas turbine's work declined and the IGCC system thermal efficiency reduced by 5. 851%, which was due to the capturing of CO2 gas. When CO2 reduction rate was 86. 55% , the thermal efficiency was 42% and conducive to the operating of IGCC efficiently and cleanly. If adopting the CO2 recycling combustion technology, the system thermal efficiency was lower than that of the pre-combustion CO2 capturing system, but in which zero CO2 emission could be achieved.%分别对IGCC系统、IGCC燃烧前捕捉CO2系统以及CO2循环利用的纯氧燃烧系统的产气率和能耗进行了计算.结果表明,当煤种和气化条件不变时,燃烧前捕捉CO2会使IGCC系统的燃气轮机和蒸汽轮机做功量减少,热效率降低5.851%.当减排86.55%的CO2时,系统热效率为42%,有利于IGCC清洁高效运行.若采用CO2循环的纯氧燃烧技术,其系统热效率比未循环CO2的燃烧前捕捉系统低,但可以实现CO2的零排放.

  14. Negative CO2 emissions via subsurface mineral carbonation in fractured peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Uptake of CO2 from surface water via mineral carbonation in peridotite can be engineered to achieve negative CO2 emissions. Reaction with peridotite, e.g., CO2 + olivine (A), serpentine (B) and brucite (C), forms inert, non-toxic, solid carbonates such as magnesite. Experimental studies show that A can be 80% complete in a few hours with 30 micron powders and elevated P(CO2) [1,2,3]. B is slower, but in natural systems the rate of B+C is significant [4]. Methods for capture of dilute CO2 via mineral carbonation [4,5,6,7] are not well known, though CO2 storage via mineral carbonation has been discussed for decades [8,9]. Where crushed peridotite is available, as in mine tailings, increased air or water flow could enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost [4,5]. Here we focus on enhancing subsurface CO2 uptake from surface water flowing in fractured peridotite, in systems driven by thermal convection such as geothermal power plants. Return of depleted water to the surface would draw down CO2 from the air [6,7]. CO2 uptake from water, rate limited by flow in input and output wells, could exceed 1000 tons CO2/yr [7]. If well costs minus power sales were 0.1M to 1M and each system lasts 10 years this costs < 10 to 100 per ton CO2. As for other CCS methods, upscaling requires infrastructure resembling the oil industry. Uptake of 1 Gt CO2/yr at 1000 t/well/yr requires 1M wells, comparable to the number of producing oil and gas wells in the USA. Subsurface CO2 uptake could first be applied in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling. Sub-seafloor peridotite is extensive off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, with smaller amounts off Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. This would be a regional contribution, used in parallel with other methods elsewhere. To achieve larger scale is conceivable. There is a giant mass of seafloor peridotite along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Could robotic drills enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost, while fabric chimneys

  15. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino;

    2010-01-01

    ) by covering the vegetation during the night (Warming treatment) and during rain events (Drought treatment). Soil CO2 effluxes were monitored in the treatments and compared to a control over a 3-year period. Along with soil respiration measurements, we recorded soil temperature at 5 cm depth by a soil...... temperature probe. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). The Warming treatment did not change SR fluxes at any sampling date. The Drought treatment decreased soil CO2 emissions...

  16. Dissociative excitation of vacuum ultraviolet emission features by electron impact on molecular gases. 3: CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, M. J.; Borst, W. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet multiplets of C I, C II, and O I were produced by electron impact on CO2. Absolute emission cross sections for these multiplets were measured from threshold to 350 eV. The electrostatically focused electron gun used is described in detail. The atomic multiplets which were produced by dissociative excitation of CO2 and the cross sections at 100 eV are presented. The dependence of the excitation functions on electron energy shows that these multiplets are produced by electric-dipole-allowed transitions in CO2.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  18. Analysis of Zero CO2 Emission SOFC Hybrid Power System%CO2零排放的SOFC复合动力系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潇元; 段立强

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Aspen-plus soft, SOFC stack model is established. The SOFC hybrid power system without CO2 capture is designed. Then, the zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system is proposed. The performances of these two systems are compared and analyzed. With the mode of pure oxygen combustion, the outlet gas of zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system is composed of only CO2 and steam, so it is easy to get CO2 with higher concentration by means of condensation. Compared with the conventional power system with CO2 capture, the energy consumption of CO2 capture in the new system decreases a lot. This paper also analyzes the effects of the main parameters on the performance of the hybrid power system. Above research achievements will provide the useful guide for further study on zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system.%基于Aspen-Plus软件建立了SOFC电池堆的模型,设计了不回收CO2的SOFC复合动力系统,针对系统特点,提出了CO2零排放的SOFC复合动力系统,对这两种系统的性能进行了详细的比较和分析.CO2零排放系统利用纯氧燃烧方式得到的燃烧产物只有CO2和水蒸气,通过冷凝得到高浓度的CO2.与带CO2脱除的常规电厂相比,极大地降低了回收CO2的能耗.通过对主要参数(燃料利用率、蒸汽/碳比、运行压力等)进行优化,详细分析了各主要参数对系统性能的影响.本文研究成果将为进一步研究高效的CO2零排放SOFC复合动力系统提供有益的参考.

  19. The Analysis of CO2 Emissions and Reduction Potential in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s transport sector is responsible for approximately 10% of national CO2 emissions. In the process of industrialization and urbanization of China, emissions from transport sector would continuously increase. In order to investigate the emissions and reduction potential and provide the policy guidance for policymakers in China’s transport sector, this study decomposed the CO2 emissions using the Kaya identity, calculated the contribution based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI method to explore the underlying determinants of emissions change, and then constructed different scenarios to predict the emissions and estimate the potential of emission reduction in the future. Results indicated that carbon emissions in China’s transport sector have increased from 123.14 Mt in 1995 to 670.76 Mt in 2012. Income effect is the dominant factor that results in the increase of emissions while energy intensity effect is the main driving force to lower carbon emissions. The transportation modal shifting, transportation intensity change, and population growth have the positive but relatively minor impact on emissions. The accumulated emission reduction is expected to be 1825.97 Mt, which is 3 times more than the emissions in 2010. Policy recommendations are thus put forward for future emission reduction.

  20. Evidence of wintertime CO2 emission from snow-covered grounds in high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方精云; 唐艳鸿KOIZUMI; Hiroshi(Division; of; Plant; Ecology; National; Institute; of; Agro-Environmental; Sciences; Tsukuba; 305; Japan)BEKKU; Yukiko(National; Polar; Institute; Tokyo; 192; Japan)

    1999-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 flux in wintertime arctic ecosystems, CO2 gas was sampled from various snow-covered grounds by using a closed chamber method during the First China Arctic Scientific Expedition from March to May in 1995. The CO2 gas samples were measured by using an infra-red analyzer (IRGA). The results showed that (ⅰ) CO2 emission was detected from all kinds of the snow-covered grounds, which provides direct evidence that the arctic tundra is functioning as a source of atmospheric CO2; (ⅱ) CO2 release was also detected from the permanent ice profile and icecap, and (ⅲ) CO2 evolution from terrestrial ecosystems in higher latitudes increased with an increase of surface temperature in accordance with the exponential function. This indicates a close coincidence with that under normal temperature conditions, and provides a useful method for predicting change in CO2 flux in the arctic ecosystems with the global climate change.

  1. Estimation of China's Embodied CO2 Emissions during 2000-2009%Estimation of China's Embodied CO2 Emissions during 2000-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuzhong Ma; Ying Chen

    2011-01-01

    The problem of CO2 embodied in international trade has attracted increasing attention in China. To analyze this issue, the present paper directly calculates emission factors for 15 industries in 2002, 2005 and2007. We then examine a consumption-based system and a single-region input-output model to estimate China's embodied emissions during 2000- 2009. Our results show that, when a consumption-based system is adopted, China's emissions are lower than those reported by some international organizations. The rapid growth in China 's exports' is a key determinant of China's rising total emissions. All countries shouM strengthen their cooperation in improving their current greenhouse gas inventories. Furthermore, China needs to encourage trade in low-carbon products and technology.

  2. Commercial Reclaiming Recovery of CO2 Emission%CO2排放的商业回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉倩

    2008-01-01

    CO2是最主要的温室气体,其减排和回收利用关系到可持续发展.世界CO2排放185亿~242亿t/a,只有1亿t/a得到利用.主要产品是液体CO2.我国CO2排放已超过30亿t/a,只有80万t/a得到有效利用.利用方式是干冰和液体CO2.液体CO2需求量增长速度为15%~20%,未来5年后年需量达到200万t以上.

  3. Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wösten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia store at least 42 000 Million metric tonnes (Mt of soil carbon. Human activity and climate change threatens the stability of this large pool, which has been decreasing rapidly over the last few decades owing to deforestation, drainage and fire. In this paper we estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions resulting from drainage of lowland tropical peatland for agricultural and forestry development which dominates the perturbation of the carbon balance in the region. Present and future emissions from drained peatlands are quantified using data on peatland extent and peat thickness, present and projected land use, water management practices and decomposition rates. Of the 27.1 Million hectares (Mha of peatland in Southeast Asia, 12.9 Mha had been deforested and mostly drained by 2006. This latter area is increasing rapidly because of increasing land development pressures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emission caused by decomposition of drained peatlands was between 355 Mt y−1 and 855 Mt y−1 in 2006 of which 82% came from Indonesia, largely Sumatra and Kalimantan. At a global scale, CO2 emission from peatland drainage in Southeast Asia is contributing the equivalent of 1.3% to 3.1% of current global CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuel. If current peatland development and management practices continue, these emissions are predicted to continue for decades. This warrants inclusion of tropical peatland CO2 emissions in global greenhouse gas emission calculations and climate mitigation policies. Uncertainties in emission calculations are discussed and research needs for improved estimates are identified.

  4. The Emission Reduction Potential of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in China and Its Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delin; HUANG; Songfeng; CAI; Zhen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Using the improved Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model (GTAP-E) and the sixth version of emission database of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, we simulate the emission reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in China and its policy implications. The results show that at present, China is a country with the greatest emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the world, and the emission will account for about 20% of the world’s total emission in 2020. The proportion of emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector reaches 73%. In the next 10 years, the emission of non-CO2 gases from cattle and sheep, industry and service industry will experience the highest growth rate; the growth rate of emission from service industry will be higher than that of emission from industry, and the emission from service industry will exceed that from industry after 2010. China can implement emission reduction policy of non-CO2 greenhouse gases to ease the international pressure of CO2 emission reduction. Although the high carbon tax collected can reduce considerable non-CO2 emission, there is little difference in policy efficiency between high carbon tax and low carbon tax. So, in the implementation of emission reduction carbon tax policy of non-CO2 gases, it is necessary to control the carbon tax at a low level.

  5. Plant acclimation impacts carbon allocation to isoprene emissions: evidence from past to future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; van der Laan, Annick; Dekker, Stefan C.; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is produced in plant leaves as a side product of photosynthesis, whereby approximately 0.1-2.0% of the photosynthetic carbon uptake is released back into the atmosphere via isoprene emissions. Isoprene biosynthesis is thought to alleviate oxidative stress, specifically in warm, dry and high-light environments. Moreover, isoprene biosynthesis is influenced by atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the short term (weeks) via acclimation in photosynthetic biochemistry. In order to understand the effects of CO2-induced climate change on carbon allocation in plants it is therefore important to quantify how isoprene biosynthesis and emissions are effected by both short-term responses and long-term acclimation to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. A promising development for modelling CO2-induced changes in isoprene emissions is the Leaf-Energetic-Status model (referred to as LES-model hereafter, see Harrison et al., 2013 and Morfopoulos et al., 2014). This model simulates isoprene emissions based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on the imbalance between the photosynthetic electron supply of reducing power and the electron demands of carbon fixation. In addition to environmental conditions, this imbalance is determined by the photosynthetic electron transport capacity (Jmax) and the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (V cmax). Here we compare predictions of the LES-model with observed isoprene emission responses of Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) specimen that acclimated to CO2 levels representative of the last glacial, the present and the end of this century (200, 400 and 800 ppm, respectively) for two growing seasons. Plants were grown in walk-in growth chambers with tight control of light, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetic biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax were determined with a Licor LI-6400XT photosynthesis system. The relationship between photosynthesis and isoprene emissions was measured by coupling

  6. Basin scale controls on CO2 and CH4 emissions from the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stets, Edward G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-03-01

    The Upper Mississippi River, engineered for river navigation in the 1930s, includes a series of low-head dams and navigation pools receiving elevated sediment and nutrient loads from the mostly agricultural basin. Using high-resolution, spatially resolved water quality sensor measurements along 1385 river kilometers, we show that primary productivity and organic matter accumulation affect river carbon dioxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. Phytoplankton drive CO2 to near or below atmospheric equilibrium during the growing season, while anaerobic carbon oxidation supports a large proportion of the CO2 and CH4 production. Reductions of suspended sediment load, absent of dramatic reductions in nutrients, will likely further reduce net CO2 emissions from the river. Large river pools, like Lake Pepin, which removes the majority of upstream sediments, and large agricultural tributaries downstream that deliver significant quantities of sediments and nutrients, are likely to persist as major geographical drivers of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-11-01

    Arctic sea ice is retreating rapidly, raising prospects of a future ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer. Because climate-model simulations of the sea-ice loss differ substantially, we used a robust linear relationship between monthly-mean September sea-ice area and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to infer the future evolution of Arctic summer sea ice directly from the observational record. The observed linear relationship implies a sustained loss of 3 ± 0.3 square meters of September sea-ice area per metric ton of CO2 emission. On the basis of this sensitivity, Arctic sea ice will be lost throughout September for an additional 1000 gigatons of CO2 emissions. Most models show a lower sensitivity, which is possibly linked to an underestimation of the modeled increase in incoming longwave radiation and of the modeled transient climate response.

  8. A Simple Approach to Estimate Soil Organic Carbon and Soil CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOC (Soil Organic Carbon and soil CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO 2 emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO 2 emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies.

  9. Urbanization impact on energy demand and CO2 emission in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaorenWEI; HiroshiYAGITA; AtsushiINABA; MasayukiSAGISAKA

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization has been believed a driving force of GDP growth in China. In the other hand, urbanization will atso impose some impact on energy demand and CO2 emissions. The calculation method of this impact is presented in this paper. It has been assumed that in 2003 the urbanization rate in China will have a unit (1 %) growth, GDP growth and its partition in agriculture, secondary industry and tertiary industry are calculated. The corresponding energy demand for GDP growth, household and transportation and CO2 emissions are further calculated. The calculation has been carried out by a computer program NICE Ⅲ developed in LCA Research Center AIST Japan. It has been found that 1 % increase of urbanization rate will cause 1 % of total energy demand and 1.2 % CO2 emissions in China in 2003.

  10. An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An optimization system that supports the production of concrete while minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions or costs is presented that incorporates an evolution algorithm for the materials’ mix design stage, a trigonometric function for the transportation stage, and a stochastic model for the manufacturing stage. A case study demonstrates that applying the optimization system reduced CO2 emissions by 34% compared to the standard concrete production processes typically used. When minimizing the cost of concrete production was prioritized, the cost dropped by 1% compared to the cost of conventional concrete production. These findings confirm that this optimization system helps with the design of the concrete mix and the choice of a material supplier, thus reducing both CO2 emissions and costs.

  11. Improved Fossil/Industrial CO2 Emissions Modeling for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Seib, B.; Mendoza, D.; Knox, S.; Fischer, M.; Murtishaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions has implications for a wide variety of scientific and policy- related questions. Improvement in inverse-estimated carbon fluxes, country-level carbon budgeting, analysis of regional emissions trading systems, and targeting of observational systems are all important applications better served by improvements in understanding where and when fossil fuel/industrial CO2 is emitted. Traditional approaches to quantifying fossil/industrial CO2 emissions have relied on national sales/consumption of fossil fuels with secondary spatial footprints performed via proxies such as population. This approach has provided global spatiotemporal resolution of one degree/monthly. In recent years the need has arisen for emission estimates that not only achieve higher spatiotemporal scales but include a process- level component. This latter attribute provides dynamic linkages between energy policy/decisionmaking and emissions for use in projecting changes to energy systems and the implications these changes may have on climate change. We have embarked on a NASA-funded research strategy to construct a process-level fossil/industrial CO2 emissions model/database for North America that will resolve fossil/industrial CO2 emissions hourly and at 36 km. This project is a critical component of the North American Carbon Program. Our approach builds off of many decades of air quality monitoring for regulated pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and CO that has been performed by regional air quality managers, states, and the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. By using the highly resolved monitoring data supplied to the EPA, we have computed CO2 emissions for residential, commercial/industrial, transportation, and biogenic sources. This effort employs a new emissions modeling system (CONCEPT) that spatially and temporally distributes the monitored emissions across the US. We will provide a description of the methodology we have employed, the

  12. A Practical Method for Assessing the Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Mass Haulers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanean S. H. Jassim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass hauling operations play central roles in construction projects. They typically use many haulers that consume large amounts of energy and emit significant quantities of CO2. However, practical methods for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of such operations during the project planning stage are scarce, while most of the previous methods focus on construction stage or after the construction stages which limited the practical adoption of reduction strategy in the early planning phase. This paper presents a detailed model for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of mass haulers that integrates the mass hauling plan with a set of predictive equations. The mass hauling plan is generated using a planning program such as DynaRoad in conjunction with data on the productivity of selected haulers and the amount of material to be hauled during cutting, filling, borrowing, and disposal operations. This plan is then used as input for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the selected hauling fleet. The proposed model will help planners to assess the energy and environmental performance of mass hauling plans, and to select hauler and fleet configurations that will minimize these quantities. The model was applied in a case study, demonstrating that it can reliably predict energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and hauler productivity as functions of the hauling distance for individual haulers and entire hauling fleets.

  13. Detecting fossil fuel emissions patterns from subcontinental regions using North American in situ CO2 measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yoichi P; Michalak, Anna M; Gourdji, Sharon M; Mueller, Kim L; Yadav, Vineet

    2014-06-28

    The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales.

  14. Sensitivity of global biogenic isoprenoid emissions to climate variability and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Delire, Christine; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2004-03-01

    Isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) are the most dominant class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and have been shown to significantly affect global tropospheric chemistry and composition, climate, and the global carbon cycle. In this study we assess the sensitivity of biogenic isoprene and monoterpene emissions to combined and isolated fluctuations in observed global climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the period 1971-1990. We integrate surface emission algorithms within the framework of a dynamic global ecosystem model, the Integrated Biospheric Simulator (IBIS), to simulate biogenic fluxes of isoprenoids as a component of the climate-vegetation dynamics. IBIS predicts global land surface isoprene emissions of 454 Tg C and monoterpenes of 72 Tg C annually and captures the spatial and temporal patterns well. The combined fluctuations in climate and atmospheric CO2 during 1971-1990 caused significant interannual and seasonal variability in global biogenic isoprenoid fluxes that was somewhat related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Furthermore, an increasing trend in the simulated emissions was seen during this period that is attributed partly to the warming trend and partly to CO2 fertilization effect. The isolated effect of increasing CO2 during this period was to steadily increase emissions as a result of increases in foliar biomass. These fluctuations in biogenic emissions could have significant impacts on regional and global atmospheric chemistry and the global carbon budget.

  15. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  16. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  17. Future land-use change emissions: CO2, BVOC and wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Knorr, W.; Hantson, S.; Anthoni, P.; Szogs, S.

    2015-12-01

    Historical land-use (LUC) change is known to have been a large source of CO2 emissions, mostly from deforestation: the equivalent of around 1/3 of today's CO2 in the atmosphere arises from LUC. And LUC will continue into the future, although the expected area change, the type of LUC (deforestation vs. afforestation/reforestation) and regions where the LUC will take place will differ greatly, depending on the future scenario. But LUC is not only of importance for projecting emissions of CO2. It also affects greatly emissions of biogenic volatile organic carbon, and from wildfires - all of which are important for the quantification of precursor substances relevant to air quality, and interactions with climate change. We show here that accounting for future socio-economic developments and LUC scenarios has the potential to override climate change and effects of CO2 fertilisation on fire and BVOC emission, regionally and in some cases also globally. Simulation experiments with the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS will be performed, covering the 20th and 21st century, and assessing a rage of future population growth, LUC and climate change scenarios. For wildfire emissions, we find that burned area and emissions depend greatly on the type of population growth scenario, and on the distribution of urban vs rural population. BVOC emissions depend greatly on the amount and location of deforestation vs the region and magnitude of forest expansion in response to warming, such as through expansion of vegetation in the northern hemisphere, and via reforestation/afforestation. LUC so far has not been given sufficient attention for simulations of future air quality-climate interactions. In terms of terrestrial precursor emissions of atmospherically reactive substances our simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of including LUC in combination with vegetation that responds dynamically to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 levels.

  18. CO2BOLD assessment of moyamoya syndrome: Validation with single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellaton, Alain; Bijlenga, Philippe; Bouchez, Laurie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure, Isabelle; Garibotto, Valentina; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) using CO2BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vs positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as reference standard. METHODS Ten consecutive patients (8 women, mean age of 41 ± 26 years) with moyamoya syndrome underwent 14 pre-surgical evaluations for external-internal carotid artery bypass surgery. CVR was assessed using CO2BOLD and PET (4)/SPECT (11) with a maximum interval of 36 d, and evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists. RESULTS The inter-rater agreement was 0.81 for SPECT (excellent), 0.43 for PET (fair) and 0.7 for CO2BOLD (good). In 9/14 cases, there was a correspondence between CO2BOLD and PET/SPECT. In 4/14 cases, CVR was over-estimated in CO2BOLD, while in 1/14 case, CVR was underestimated in CO2BOLD. The sensitivity of CO2BOLD was 86% and a specificity of 43%. CONCLUSION CO2BOLD can be used for pre-surgical assessment of CVR in patients with moyamoya syndrome and combines the advantages of absent irradiation, high availability of MRI and assessment of brain parenchyma, cerebral vessels and surrogate CVR in one stop. PMID:27928470

  19. Direct reduction process using fines and with reduced CO2 emission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morrison, A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available ferroalloy CO2 emissions from 3.0 to 2.5 Mt/year. However, the cost of biocarbon is about double that of fossil fuel. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol requires signatories to reduce CO2 emissions to 7% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012 and methods.... 8. ‘Gmelin handbook’, Mn-C8, Compounds, 145–147; 1982. 9. BHP Billiton/Samancor Chrome, personal communication. 10. ‘Materials technology annual report’, Sintef, 1998 (www.sintef.no). 11. Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC, Dec. 1997, Agenda Item 5. 12...

  20. Magmatic CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California, tracked by 14C in tree core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B.; Mangan, M.; McGeehin, J. P.; King, J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Magmatic CO2 efflux to the atmosphere causes persistent depletion of 14C in the wood of trees that grow in areas of strong emissions. The record of 14C depletion in core from a surviving tree at the Horseshoe Lake tree-kill area, on the S flank of Mammoth Mountain volcano, has been updated to cover the time period 1984 to 2010. The amount of depletion was reasonably stable in annual growth rings for years 1995-2009 and indicates that the magmatic CO2 component in air at canopy height was 31±7 ppmv. Depletion increased sharply in the 2010 ring, yielding a magmatic CO2 concentration of 56 ppmv. This observation is consistent with accumulation chamber and eddy covariance measurements from the area, which indicate that magmatic CO2 effluxes and near-surface atmospheric concentrations increased during 2010. The agreement between tree-core and direct gas measurements suggests that the selected tree may be suitable for constraining the long-term record of CO2 emission strength at Horseshoe Lake, but the ability of a single tree to constrain total CO2 discharge from a broad region of diffuse emissions needs investigation. New concentration source-area modeling based on local atmospheric data measured by a 3-m tall eddy covariance tower suggests that the 13-m tall tree cored may provide a weighted integration of CO2 emission strength over an area at least as large as the Horseshoe Lake gas anomaly (0.3 km2). If the tree-core record accurately reflects total CO2 discharge, then emission strength in 2010 approached that in 1990, when anomalous gas efflux began in the aftermath of a 6-month seismic swarm linked to upflow of magmatic fluids. The apparent increase in emission strength in 2010 may correlate with a recent resurgence in seismicity beneath Mammoth Mountain and an increase in the 3He/4He ratio in fumarolic emissions near the summit, both of which began in 2009. If so, a correlative increase in 14C depletion is likely to exist in trees at other areas around the

  1. Estimation of the CO2 flux from Furnas volcanic Lake (São Miguel, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Viveiros, Fátima; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Coutinho, Rui; Silva, Catarina

    2016-04-01

    A study on diffuse CO2 degassing was undertaken at Furnas lake (São Miguel island, Azores) in order to estimate the total diffuse CO2 output and identify anomalous degassing areas over the lake. Furnas lake is located in Furnas Volcano, the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes of the São Miguel island. The lake has an area of 1.87 km2 and a maximum length and width equal to 2025 and 1600 m, respectively. The maximum depth of the water column is 15 m and the estimated water storage is 14 × 106 m3. Lake water temperature is cold, with temperature values between 13 °C and 15 °C in the winter period and 18.9 °C to 19.3 °C in early autumn, and the variation along the water column suggests a monomictic character. The major-ion relative composition is in decreasing order Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2 + for cations and HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- for anions, and conductivity and pH measurements, respectively in the range of 152 to 165 μS cm- 1 and 5.3 to 8.7, suggests that Furnas has neutral-diluted waters and can be classified as a non-active lake. Diffuse CO2 flux measurements were made using the accumulation chamber method with a total of 1537 and 2577 measurements performed in two different sampling campaigns. The total amount of diffuse CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated between 28 and 321 t km- 2 d- 1, respectively, in the second and first sampling campaigns, corresponding to ~ 52 and ~ 600 t d- 1. The main anomalous degassing area identified over the Furnas lake during both surveys is probably associated to a WNW-ESE trending tectonic structure. Other secondary areas are also suggested to be tectonically influenced. Identified anomalous areas showed similarities to the ones observed during previous soil CO2 degassing studies.

  2. Peaking China’s CO2 Emissions: Trends to 2030 and Mitigation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China has submitted its nationally determined contribution to peak its energy-related emissions around 2030. To understand how China might develop its economy while controlling CO2 emissions, this study surveys a number of recent modeling scenarios that project the country’s economic growth, energy mix, and associated emissions until 2050. Our analysis suggests that China’s CO2 emissions will continue to grow until 2040 or 2050 and will approximately double their 2010 level without additional policy intervention. The alternative scenario, however, suggests that peaking CO2 emissions around 2030 requires the emission growth rate to be reduced by 2% below the reference level. This step would result in a plateau in China’s emissions from 2020 to 2030. This paper also proposed a deep de-carbonization pathway for China that is consistent with China’s goal of peaking emissions by around 2030, which can best be achieved through a combination of improvements in energy and carbon intensities. Our analysis also indicated that the potential for energy intensity decline will be limited over time. Thus, the peaking will be largely dependent on the share of non-fossil fuel energy in primary energy consumption.

  3. Atmospheric inversion for cost effective quantification of city CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.; Bellassen, V.; Vogel, F.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Wang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Cities, currently covering only a very small portion (market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we propose a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. We examine the cost-effectiveness and the performance of such a tool. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive. However, cheaper sensors are currently developed and should be useable for the monitoring of CO2 emissions from a megacity in the near-term. Our assessment of the inversion method is thus based on the use of several types of hypothetical networks, with a range of numbers of sensors sampling at 25 m a.g.l. The study case for this assessment is the monitoring of the emissions of the Paris metropolitan area (~ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 Tg C emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. The performance of the inversion is evaluated in terms of uncertainties in the estimates of total and sectoral CO2 emissions. These uncertainties are compared to a notional ambitious target to diagnose annual total city emissions with an uncertainty of 5 % (2-sigma). We find that, with 10 stations only, which is the typical size of current pilot networks that are deployed in some cities, the uncertainty for the 1-month total city CO2 emissions is significantly reduced by the inversion by ~ 42 % but still corresponds to an annual uncertainty that is two times larger than the target of 5 %. By extending the network from 10 to 70 stations, the inversion can meet this requirement. As for major sectoral CO2 emissions, the uncertainties in the inverted emissions using 70 stations are reduced significantly over that obtained using 10 stations by 32 % for commercial and residential buildings, by 33 % for

  4. Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Newman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008 ground campaign of 15 May–15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA. This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations and WRF-STILT (Weather Research and Forecasting model – Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model predictions, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to anthropogenic or biogenic origin over the entire diurnal cycle. During CalNex-LA, local fossil fuel combustion contributed up to ~50% of the observed CO2 enhancement overnight, and ~100% of the enhancement near midday. This suggests that sufficiently accurate total column CO2 observations recorded near midday, such as those from the GOSAT or OCO-2 satellites, can potentially be used to track anthropogenic emissions from the LA megacity.

  5. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  6. Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan E. Hustad

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration of oxygen, the combustion process will be affected. The lower oxygen concentration decreases the stability and the increased amount of CO2, H2O and N2 will decrease the combustion temperature and thus, the NOx emissions. Testing has been performed on a 65 kW gas turbine combustor, to investigate the effect of adding N2, CO2 and O2 in the combustion process, with focus on stability and emissions of NOx. Results show that adding N2 and CO2 decreases the NOx emissions, whereas O2 addition increases the NOx emissions. The tests have been performed both in a diffusion flame (pilot burner and a premixed flame (main burner, and for additives being injected with the fuel or with the air stream. Addition into the fuel stream is proven to affect the NOx emissions the most. The stability limits of the flames are indicated with respect to mass-based additive-to-fuel ratios.

  7. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  8. Regional Heterogeneity in the Rates of Warming from CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    While it is commonly understood that the magnitudes of global warming from anthropogenic emissions are and will be spatially heterogeneous, little work has been done exploring heterogeneity in the timing of effects from an emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). Using the results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project v5 (CMIP5) abrupt4xco2 experiment, we explore regional differences in the timing, as opposed to magnitude, of the warming from emissions of CO2. Our analysis reveals a surprisingly high amount of regional diversity in the pace of realization of the warming effect of a CO2 emission, with relatively accelerated warming for areas such as the eastern United States and Central Asia and a relatively long lag between emission and warming effect for Australia and Amazonia. Figure 1 shows the ratio of the ensemble median rate of warming in the first decade after a change in CO2 concentration to the rate of warming for the remainder of the first century. Because estimates of social cost of carbon implicitly assume similar timing of warming for all regions, the observed effects have important implications for climate policy.

  9. Estimating Potential and Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Lithuanian Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaraminienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU is considering increasing the GHG emissions reduction target by 2020 from 20% to 30% by committing each member state to tighten up its emission reduction goals. According to the recent study such decision could cost some 2 365 million LTL to Lithuanian economy. Evaluation and comparison of CO2 abatement costs incurred by the state implementing a variety of measures in different sectors allow choosing a most cost effective policy scenario. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions related to energy use in buildings. First, this paper reviews the role of the Lithuanian building stock in overall GHG emissions. Then the paper examines the existing studies on the CO2 mitigation potential and cost in buildings. Given the limitations of existing evaluation and lack of comprehensive modelling in the existing studies, this paper proposes a framework for examining the technology options aimed to inform policy making on the options to reduce CO2 emissions in Lithuanian housing and service sectors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.680

  10. Constraining sector-specific CO2 and CH4 emissions in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scot M.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2017-03-01

    This review paper explores recent efforts to estimate state- and national-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from individual anthropogenic source sectors in the US. Nearly all state and national climate change regulations in the US target specific source sectors, and detailed monitoring of individual sectors presents a greater challenge than monitoring total emissions. We particularly focus on opportunities to synthesize disparate types of information on emissions, including emission inventory data and atmospheric greenhouse gas data.We find that inventory estimates of sector-specific CO2 emissions are sufficiently accurate for policy evaluation at the national scale but that uncertainties increase at state and local levels. CH4 emission inventories are highly uncertain for all source sectors at all spatial scales, in part because of the complex, spatially variable relationships between economic activity and CH4 emissions. In contrast to inventory estimates, top-down estimates use measurements of atmospheric mixing ratios to infer emissions at the surface; thus far, these efforts have had some success identifying urban CO2 emissions and have successfully identified sector-specific CH4 emissions in several opportunistic cases. We also describe a number of forward-looking opportunities that would aid efforts to estimate sector-specific emissions: fully combine existing top-down datasets, expand intensive aircraft measurement campaigns and measurements of secondary tracers, and improve the economic and demographic data (e.g., activity data) that drive emission inventories. These steps would better synthesize inventory and top-down data to support sector-specific emission reduction policies.

  11. A Cluster of CO2 Change Characteristics with GOSAT Observations for Viewing the Spatial Pattern of CO2 Emission and Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can be used to detect the changes of CO2 concentration at global and regional scales. With the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (Xco2 data derived from satellite observations, the issue is how to extract and assess these changes, which are related to anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions. We propose a k-means cluster analysis to extract the temporally changing features of Xco2 in the Central-Eastern Asia using the data from 2009 to 2013 obtained by Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, and assess the effects of anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions on CO2 changes combining with the data of emission and vegetation net primary production (NPP. As a result, 14 clusters, which are 14 types of Xco2 seasonal changing patterns, are obtained in the study area by using the optimal clustering parameters. These clusters are generally in agreement with the spatial pattern of underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions. According to correlation analysis with emission and NPP, these 14 clusters are divided into three groups: strong emission, strong absorption, and a tendency of balancing between emission and absorption. The proposed clustering approach in this study provides us with a potential way to better understand how the seasonal changes of CO2 concentration depend on underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions.

  12. Enhanced electron field emission from NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Khare, Ruchita T.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; More, Mahendra A.; Thapa, Ranjit; Late, Dattatray J.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays grown on Ni foam have been studied. The work function of NiCo2O4 was calculated by density functional theory using the plane-wave basis set and used to estimate the field enhancement factor. The NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays exhibited a low turn-on field of 1.86 V μm-1 at 1 μA cm-2 and current density of 686 μA cm-2 at 3.2 V μm-1, with field enhancement factor β = 1460 and good field emission current stability. The field emission properties of the NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays showed enhanced performance compared to chemically prepared NiCo2O4 nanosheets. Hence, the nanosheet arrays have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications.

  13. Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Experimental work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. Soil CO2 emission is a key issue because of the potential impacts of this process on the greenhouse effect. The amount of organic carbon stored in soils worldwide is about 1600 gigatons (Gt) compared to 750 Gt in the atmosphere mostly in the form of CO2. Thus, if soil respiration increased slightly so that just 10% of the soil carbon pool was converted to CO2, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere could increase by one-fifth. General circulation model predictions indicate atmosphere warming between 2 and 5°C (IPCC 2007) and precipitation changes ranging from about -15 to +30%. Traditionally, release of CO2 was thought to occur only in an intracellular environment; however, recently CO2 emissions have been in irradiated soil, in the absence of microorganisms (Maire et al., 2013). Moreover, soil plays a role in the stabilization of respiration enzymes promoting CO2 release after microorganism death. Here, we propose to improve CO2 emission experiments commonly used in soil biology to investigate: 1) effects of climatic factors on soil CO2 emissions, and 2) rates of extracellular respiration in soils and how these rates are affected by environmental factors. Experiment designed to assess the effect of climate change can be conducted either in field conditions under different ecosystems (forest, grassland, cropland) or in a greenhouse using simple soil chambers. The interactions of climate change in CO2 emissions are investigated using climate-manipulation experiment that can be adapted to field or greenhouse conditions (e.g. Mc Daniel et al., 2013). The experimental design includes a control plot (without soil temperature and rain manipulation) a warming treatment as well as wetting and/or drying treatments. Plots are warmed to the target temperature by procedures such as infrared heaters (field) or radiant cable (greenhouse). To analyze extracellular respiration, rates of CO2

  14. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the dynamics of CO2 emissions from chernozems soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syabruk, Olesia

    2017-04-01

    Twentieth century marked a significant expansion of agricultural production. Soil erosion caused by human activity, conversion of forests and grasslands to cropland, desertification, burning nutrient residues, drainage, excessive cultivation led to intense oxidation of soil carbon to the atmosphere and allocation of additional amounts of CO2. According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, agriculture is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. The thesis reveals main patterns of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on CO2 emissions in the chernozems typical and podzolized in a Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, seasonal and annual dynamics. New provisions for conducting monitoring CO2 emissions from soil were developed by combining observations in natural and controlled conditions, which allows isolating the impact of hydrological, thermal and trophic factors. During the research, the methods for operational monitoring of emission of carbon losses were improved, using a portable infrared gas analyzer, which allows receiving information directly in the field. It was determined that the volumes of emission losses of carbon chernozems typical and podzolized Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine during the growing season are 480-910 kg/ha and can vary depending on the soil treatment ±( 4,0 - 6,0) % and fertilizer systems ± (3,8 - 7,1) %. The significant impact of long application of various fertilizer systems and soil treatment on the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions was investigated. It was found that most emission occurs in organic- mineral fertilizers systems with direct seeding. The seasonal dynamics of the potential capacity of the soil to produce CO2 were researched. Under identical conditions of humidity and temperature it has maximum in June and July and the gradual extinction of the autumn. It was determined that the intensity of the CO2 emission from the surface of chernozem fluctuates daily from

  15. COMPARISON OF CO2-EMISSIONS OF HOUSEHOLDS HEATED BY NATURAL GAS AND FIREWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA PALÁDI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate protection, one of the most important questions is the reduction of the GHG emission. In this study, I compared CO2 -emission of households heated by natural gas and firewood, which had similar heated area and volume of air, considering the carbon-dioxide absorbing of forests of the households heated by firewood. Natural gas is a fossil fuel; however, the firewood (solid biomass is a renewable energy resource. One of the main features of renewable energy sources is to get into the atmosphere less CO2 than fossil fuels. The renewable energy resources emit into the air just as much CO2 as they absorb during their life cycle.

  16. Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S. A.; Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Van Bloemen Waanders, B.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present a method to estimate spatially resolved fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions from sparse measurements of time-varying CO2 concentrations. It is based on the wavelet-modeling of the strongly non-stationary spatial distribution of ffCO2 emissions. The dimensionality of the wavelet model is first reduced using images of nightlights, which identify regions of human habitation. Since wavelets are a multiresolution basis set, most of the reduction is accomplished by removing fine-scale wavelets, in the regions with low nightlight radiances. The (reduced) wavelet model of emissions is propagated through an atmospheric transport model (WRF) to predict CO2 concentrations at a handful of measurement sites. The estimation of the wavelet model of emissions i.e., inferring the wavelet weights, is performed by fitting to observations at the measurement sites. This is done using Staggered Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), which first identifies (and sets to zero) the wavelet coefficients that cannot be estimated from the observations, before estimating the remaining coefficients. This model sparsification and fitting is performed simultaneously, allowing us to explore multiple wavelet-models of differing complexity. This technique is borrowed from the field of compressive sensing, and is generally used in image and video processing. We test this approach using synthetic observations generated from emissions from the Vulcan database. 35 sensor sites are chosen over the USA. FfCO2 emissions, averaged over 8-day periods, are estimated, at a 1 degree spatial resolutions. We find that only about 40% of the wavelets in emission model can be estimated from the data; however the mix of coefficients that are estimated changes with time. Total US emission can be reconstructed with about ~5% errors. The inferred emissions, if aggregated monthly, have a correlation of 0.9 with Vulcan fluxes. We find that the estimated emissions in the Northeast US are the most accurate. Sandia

  17. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  18. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

  19. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Yukiko

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

  20. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-10-25

    Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

  1. Outline for the Rotterdam Climate Initiative. CO2 emissions up to 2030; Verkenning voor Rotterdam Climate Initiative. CO2-emissies tot 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, A.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Kroon, P [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The Rotterdam Climate Initiative (RCI) aims to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city and port of Rotterdam by 50% in 2025 as compared to 1990. This target translates into a total emission of 12 Mton of CO2. In this study, Rotterdam's CO2 emissions have been estimated for the future years 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 based on autonomous developments combined with a policy framework that is assumed to be fixed. This study only explores the sectors Energy and Industry and Freight transport within Rotterdam. The results demonstrate that: (a) CO2 emissions resulting from the sector Energy and Industry increase from 26.5 Mton CO2 in 2011 to 33.8 Mton CO2 in 2020, and slightly decrease afterwards to 29.4 Mton CO2 in 2025 and 2030; and (b) CO2 emissions resulting from Freight transport increase from 1.0 Mton CO2 in 2011 to 1.4 Mton CO2 in 2025 and increase further to 1.6 Mton in 2030. This means that these sectors alone already exceed the emission target, and that substantial additional effort will be needed to attain the 50% CO2 reduction target. The estimated CO2 emissions are lower than those reported in the previous study that was published in 2010. Differences are mainly due to lower CO2 emissions from power plants as compared to the study in 2010. These are influenced by many different developments, such as high gas prices, low electricity prices and low CO2 prices. These estimates have been calculated bottom-up as much as possible and with the help of sector models. The realisation of Maasvlakte 2 has been taken into account in these results, which means more space for chemical plants and substantially more freight transfer and transport in Rotterdam [Dutch] Het Rotterdam Climate Initiative (RCI) heeft als doel om de CO2-emissie van de gemeente Rotterdam, inclusief de haven, in 2025 met 50% te reduceren ten opzichte van het basisjaar 1990. Deze doelstelling betekent een emissieniveau van 12 Mton CO2 in 2025 binnen de gemeente Rotterdam. In deze studie is de CO2

  2. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  3. Accelerating CO2-Emission Reductions via Corporate Programmes; Analysis of an Existing Corporate Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manser, J.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Schubert, R.; Gsottbauer, E.; Cornielje, M.; Lede, E.

    2013-01-01

    This working paper analyzes and assesses the COYou2 Program of the company Swiss Re. This corporate program allows employees to claim subsidies for the realization of various activities reducing their energy consumption and CO2-emissions at home. Examples of such activities are the purchase of a hyb

  4. Accelerating CO2-Emission Reductions via Corporate Programmes; Analysis of an Existing Corporate Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manser, J.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Schubert, R.; Gsottbauer, E.; Cornielje, M.; Lede, E.

    2013-01-01

    This working paper analyzes and assesses the COYou2 Program of the company Swiss Re. This corporate program allows employees to claim subsidies for the realization of various activities reducing their energy consumption and CO2-emissions at home. Examples of such activities are the purchase of a

  5. Passenger transport and CO 2 emissions: What does the French transport survey tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; David, Damien

    The aim of this article is to analyse CO 2 emissions caused by passenger transport in France: which socio-demographic groups travel, for what kinds of journey (local or long distance), how and why? Research focusing on the analysis of individual travel can improve the understanding of CO 2 emissions by identifying upstream socio-economic factors, and also enable a better assessment of the potential social impact of measures introduced to limit greenhouse gases due to transport. Calculations are based on the latest French national transport survey (1994). Distances covered and CO 2 emissions were estimated for each journey and for each surveyed individual. A socio-demographic characteristic typology was built and results were obtained through this analysis. If equity and accessibility issues are to be taken into account, planned policies cannot be of the same type if linked to mobility segments. An environmental tax system to limit CO 2 emission increases appears appropriate for long-distance trips. Results are more varied for local journeys, which are often more of a necessity. Nevertheless, income brackets, and measures concerning urban planning or the growth of new car fleets, seem more pertinent.

  6. Monetary valuation of the social cost of CO2 emissions : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J. C J M; Botzen, W. J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297620584

    2015-01-01

    An expanding branch of research has estimated the potential costs of climate change, which are often expressed as the "Social Cost of Carbon" (SCC) or the costs of an additional ton of CO2 emissions. Estimates of the SCC can be used by policy makers to evaluate climate change policies and greenhouse

  7. Macroeconomic effects of CO2 emission limits : A computable general equilibrium analysis for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    1998-01-01

    The study analyzes the macroeconomic effects of limiting China's CO2 emissions by using a time-recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. The baseline scenario for the Chinese economy over the period to 2010 is first developed under a set of assumptions abou

  8. Assessing industrial energy use and CO2 emissions : Opportunities for energy efficiency, biomass and CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature deals with issues related to monitoring of industrial energy use and CO2 emissions, assessment of the potentials of low-carbon technologies and the development of long term scenarios. However, in these assessments knowledge gaps and large uncertainties continue to exist. M

  9. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-13

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

  10. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated

  11. Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedlingstein, P.; Andrew, R.M.; Rogelj, J.; Schaeffer, M.; Vuuren, van D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to limit climate change below a given temperature level require that global emissions of CO2 cumulated over time remain below a limited quota. This quota varies depending on the temperature level, the desired probability of staying below this level and the contributions of other gases. In sp

  12. Basic petrochemicals from natural gas, coal and biomass: energy use and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2009-01-01

    While high-value basic petrochemicals (HVCs) are mostly produced through conventional naphtha and ethane-based process routes, it is also possible to produce them through coal and biomass-based routes. In this paper, we compared these routes in terms of energy use and CO2 emissions per ton of HVCs.

  13. Support for the revision of regulation on CO2 emissions from light commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smokers, R.; Fraga, F.; Verbeek, M.; Willems, F.; Massink, R.; Spreen, J. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Norris, J.; Martinez, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Kampman, B.; Brinke, L.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Schilling, S.; Gruhlke, A.; Sander, K. [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik Oekopol, Hamburg (Netherlands); Breemersch, T.; De Ceuster, G.; Vanherle, K.; Heyndrickx, C. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Wrigley, S.; O' Brien, S.; Johnson, A. [Ricardo UK, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Buttigieg, D.; Sima, L.; Pagnac, J.; Dhaene, G. [IHS Global Insight, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Road vehicles make a major contribution to transport sector CO2 emissions and the European Union has several policies in place to reduce their emissions. One of these is the regulation to reduce the CO2 emissions of light commercial vehicles (LCVs or vans), Regulation (EU) 510/2011, often referred to as the vans regulation. This contains a number of review clauses, which require the European Commission to carry out an impact assessment on the 2020 target of 147 gCO2/km, and to assess a number of further issues. The ensuing study addresses a wide range of topics relating to this regulation, and includes the development of cost curves for different LCV segments, the evaluation of different utility parameters, a comparison with the effort needed to reduce the CO2 emissions of passenger cars, an assessment of the impact of electric vehicle penetration and calculation of the effects on the total cost of ownership and the societal abatement costs associated with the 2020 target. CE Delft contributed to this study by developing scenarios for the market uptake of electric vehicles in this vehicle segment, and by providing support to the Commission regarding the economic aspects of the Impact Analysis.

  14. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  15. PERSPECTIVES OF BIOFUEL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO CO2 EMISSION STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Żak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels for transport belong to a sector, which functions in a volatile global environment (macro. Until the end of 2010, European Union had promoted the production and development of vegetable based biofuels for transport as a way to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (nonobligatory Directive 2003/30/EC, with indicator of replacing 5.75% of all transport fossil fuels with biofuels in 2010, reached in about 80%. Currently, bio-components with high CO2 emission reduction and biofuels produced from inedible plants and raw material waste are being promoted. The Directive 2009/28/EC, which has been in force since 2011, has imposed mandatory obligation on all subjects, who participate in the cycle of biofuels and bioliquid production, to fulfill criteria of sustainable production, including CO2 emission reduction to at least the threshold level (e.g. at least 50% reduction by 2017. In the article, rating method for CO2 reduction in the international law setting have been presented – BIOGRACE 4 calculator and value of CO2 emission reduction in five plants, where biofuels are produced with use of three methods.

  16. Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peylin, P.; Houweling, S.; Krol, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Karstens, U.; Pieterse, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840858; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel

  17. Applying Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Agents in Intelligent Transport Systems to reduce CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L. de; Avila Garcez, A.S. d; Lamb, L.C.; Stuiver, A.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Providing personalized feedback in Intelligent Transport Systems is a powerful tool for instigating a change in driving behaviour and the reduction of CO2 emissions. This requires a system that is capable of detecting driver characteristics from real-time vehicle data. In this paper, we apply the

  18. Aerosol-based emission, solvent degradation, and corrosion in post combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions, especially of CO2, have been increasing tremendously over the past century. This is known to cause not only an increase of temperature, but also a change in our climate. Along with a shift to renewable sources of energy, Carbon Capture and Storage is necessary to

  19. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated methodolo

  20. Aerosol-based emission, solvent degradation, and corrosion in post combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions, especially of CO2, have been increasing tremendously over the past century. This is known to cause not only an increase of temperature, but also a change in our climate. Along with a shift to renewable sources of energy, Carbon Capture and Storage is necessary to mit

  1. Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedlingstein, P.; Andrew, R.M.; Rogelj, J.; Schaeffer, M.; Vuuren, van D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to limit climate change below a given temperature level require that global emissions of CO2 cumulated over time remain below a limited quota. This quota varies depending on the temperature level, the desired probability of staying below this level and the contributions of other gases. In

  2. Aerosol-based Emission, Solvent Degradation, and Corrosion in Post Combustion CO2 Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions, especially of CO2, have been increasing tremendously over the past century. This is known to cause not only an increase of temperature, but also a change in our climate. Along with a shift to renewable sources of energy, Carbon Capture and Storage is necessary to mit

  3. Approaches to the Design of Sustainable Housing with Low CO2 Emission in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, M.-A.; Ring Hansen, H.T.; Brunsgaard, C.

    2009-01-01

    places around the world in recent years. This has resulted in an increasing challenge in terms of the planning, design and building of more sustainable buildings in order to reduce the use of energy for heating and cooling in new housing projects by bringing down the emission of CO2 by reducing...

  4. The Impact of CO2 Emission Contraints on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. electric power sector’s reliance on water makes it vulnerable to increased water temperature and drought resulting from climate change. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumpti...

  5. What would dense atmospheric observation networks bring to the quantification of city CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Vogel, Felix; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Remy, Irène; Wang, Yilong

    2016-06-01

    Cities currently covering only a very small portion ( global energy-related CO2, but they are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we analyze the potential of a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. This monitoring tool is configured for the quantification of the total and sectoral CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area (˜ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 TgC emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. Its performances are evaluated in terms of uncertainty reduction based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). They are analyzed as a function of the number of sampling sites (measuring at 25 m a.g.l.) and as a function of the network design. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive (typically ˜ EUR 50 k per sensor), which has limited the few current pilot city networks to around 10 sites. Larger theoretical networks are studied here to assess the potential benefit of hypothetical operational lower-cost sensors. The setup of our inversion system is based on a number of diagnostics and assumptions from previous city-scale inversion experiences with real data. We find that, given our assumptions underlying the configuration of the OSSEs, with 10 stations only the uncertainty for the total city CO2 emission during 1 month is significantly reduced by the inversion by ˜ 42 %. It can be further reduced by extending the network, e.g., from 10 to 70 stations, which is

  6. Evaluating CO2 emissions, cost, and service quality trade-offs in an urban delivery system case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Wygonik

    2011-07-01

    The results demonstrate there is not a trade-off between CO2 emissions and cost, but that these two metrics trend together. This suggests the most effective way to encourage fleet operators to limit emissions is to increase the cost of fuel or CO2 production, as this is consistent with current incentives that exist to reduce cost, and therefore emissions.

  7. Riverine CO2 emissions in the Wuding River catchment on the Loess Plateau: Environmental controls and dam impoundment impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Lishan; Li, Lingyu; Tian, Mingyang; Yang, Xiankun; Yu, Ruihong; Zhao, Ji; Wang, Lixin; Lu, X. X.

    2017-06-01

    River ecosystems contribute significantly to CO2 emissions. However, estimates of global riverine CO2 emissions remain greatly uncertain owing to the absence of a comprehensive and spatially resolved CO2 emission measurement. Based on intensive field measurements using floating chambers, riverine CO2 evasion in the Wuding River catchment on the Loess Plateau was investigated. Lateral carbon derived from soil respiration and chemical weathering played a central role in controlling the variability of riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). In addition, in-stream processing of allochthonous organic carbon was an also important source of CO2 excess, modulating the influence of lateral carbon inputs. All the surveyed streams were net CO2 sources, exhibiting pronounced spatial and seasonal variabilities. The mean CO2 efflux was 172, 116, and 218 mmol m-2 d-1 in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. Unlike the commonly observed strongest CO2 emissions in headwater streams, the increasing CO2 efflux with stream order in the Wuding River catchment reflects its unique geomorphologic landscape in controlling CO2 emissions. While in reservoirs, the pCO2 was more controlled by primary production with aquatic photosynthetic assimilation constraining it to a lower level. Both the magnitude and direction of CO2 evasion from reservoirs have been greatly altered. Contrast to streams with large CO2 effluxes, reservoirs were small carbon sources and even carbon sinks, due primarily to greatly reduced turbulence and enhanced photosynthesis. In view of the large number of reservoirs on the Loess Plateau, assessing the resulting changes to CO2 emissions and their implications for regional carbon budgets warrants further research.

  8. Responses of CO2 emission and pore water DOC concentration to soil warming and water table drawdown in Zoige Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Liu, Liangfeng; Wu, Ning; Zhu, Dan; Tian, Jianqing; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; He, Yixin

    2017-03-01

    Peatlands in Zoige Plateau contains more than half of peatland carbon stock in China. This part of carbon is losing with climate change through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, both of which are vulnerable to the environmental changes, especially on the Zoige Plateau with a pace of twice the observed rate of global climate warming. This research aimed to understand how climate change including soil warming, rainfall reduction and water table change affect CO2 emissions and whether the trends of changes in CO2 emission are consistent with those of pore water DOC concentration. A mesocosm experiment was designed to investigate the CO2 emission and pore water DOC during the growing seasons of 2009-2010 under scenarios of passive soil warming, 20% rainfall reduction and changes to the water table levels. The results showed a positive relationship between CO2 emission and DOC concentration. For single factor effect, we found no significant relationship between water table and CO2 emission or DOC concentration. However, temperature at 5 cm depth was found to have positive linear relationship with CO2 emission and DOC concentration. The combined effect of soil warming and rainfall reduction increased CO2 emission by 96.8%. It suggested that the drying and warming could stimulate potential emission of CO2. Extending this result to the entire peatland area in Zoige Plateau translates into 0.45 Tg CO2 emission per year over a growing season. These results suggested that the dryer and warmer Zoige Plateau will increase CO2 emission. We also found the contribution rate of DOC concentration to CO2 emission was increased by 12.1% in the surface layer and decreased by 13.8% in the subsurface layer with combined treatment of soil warming and rainfall reduction, which indicated that the warmer and dryer environmental conditions stimulate surface peat decomposition process.

  9. [County scale characteristics of CO2 emission's spatial-temporal evolution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-Cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    CO2 emission spatial distribution is characterized by stages. The study on regional distribution characteristics and evolution can supply important evidence for CO2 emission reduction. Based on CO2 emission data of 128 county areas in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (BTHMR) from 1990 to 2009, the spatial pattern and spatial dependence of CO2 emission were discussed by using cartogram and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods. The results show that the total emission of CO2 increased year by year. Average annual growth of CO2 emission after 2002 was 3.7 times higher than before. Different cities have different emission growth trends which can be categorized into three types. The spatial pattern of CO2 emission appeared to be the layered cluster. The Global Moran'I decreased from 1.44 in 1990 to 0.09 in 1998 and then increased slowly to 0.10 in 2009. The spatial distribution of high CO2 emission area changed from 'Double Centers' into 'Four Centers' and the spatial distribution of low CO2 emission area changed less. There were four different change types of local spatial autocorrelation: remaining unchanged or weakening in most regions, enhancing in some regions of Tangshan, transforming in some regions of Tianjin and Xuanhua county. Since the spatial pattern and autocorrelation in low/high CO2 emission area bear different evolution process, the local conditions and interactions with perimeter zones should be considered when formulating emission reduction plan. The discussion of spatial pattern and autocorrelation is very important for understanding spatial evolution pattern of CO2 emission and developing strategic emission reduction planning, and also provides a base for the study on low carbon development in metropolitan area.

  10. How Well Do We Know the Future of CO2 Emissions? Projecting Fleet Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle Technology Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Niall P D; Bishop, Justin D K; Boies, Adam M

    2017-03-07

    While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonization can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology using vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g., mass, engine size, and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5.6 L/100 km in 2014 to 3.0 L/100 km by 2030. The change in vehicle efficiency coupled with increases in vehicle numbers and fleet-wide activity result in a total fleet-wide reduction of 41 ± 10% in 2030, relative to 2012. Concerted internal combustion engine improvements result in a 48 ± 10% reduction of CO2 emissions, while efforts to increase the number of diesel vehicles within the fleet had little additional effect. Increasing plug-in and all-electric vehicles reduced CO2 emissions by less (42 ± 10% reduction) than concerted internal combustion engines improvements. However, if the grid decarbonizes, electric vehicles reduce emissions by 45 ± 9% with further reduction potential to 2050.

  11. Comparative study on CO2 emissions from different types of alpine meadows during grass exuberance period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUQiwu; CAOGuangmin; WUQin; LIDong; WANGYuesi

    2004-01-01

    Potentilla fruticosa scrub, Kobresia humilis meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the grass exuberance period from 3 July to 4 September, based on close chamber-GC method, a study on CO2 emissions from different treatments was conducted in these meadows at Haibei research station, CAS. Results indicated that mean CO2 emission rates from various treatments were 672.09±152.37 mgm-2h-1 for FC (grass treatment); 425.41±191.99 mgm-2h-1 for FJ (grass exclusion treatment); 280.36±174.83 mgm-2h-1 for FL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); 838.95±237.02 mgm-2h-1 for GG (scrub+grass treatment); 528.48±205.67 mgm-2h-1 for GC (grass treatment); 268.97±99.72 mgm-2h-1 for GL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); and 659.20±94.83 mgm-2h-1 for LC (grass treatment), respectively (FC, FJ, FL, GG, GC, GL, LC were the Chinese abbreviation for various treatments). Furthermore, Kobresia humilis meadow, Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow differed greatly in average CO2 emission rate of soil-plant system, in the order of GG>FC>LC>GC. Moreover, in Kobresia hurnilis meadow,heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 42% and 58% of the total respiration of soil-plant system respectively, whereas, in Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 32% and 68% of total system respiration from GG; 49% and 51% from GC. In addition, root respiration from Kobresia humilis meadow approximated 145 mgCO2m-2h-1,contributed 34% to soil respiration. During the experiment period, Kobresia humilis meadow and Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow had a net carbon fixation of 111.11 gm-2 and 243.89 gm-2 respectively. Results also showed that soil temperature was the main factor which influenced CO2 emission from alpine meadow ecosystem, significant correlations were found between soil temperature at 5 cm depth and CO2 emission from GG, GC, FC and FJ treatments

  12. Experimental study on soil CO2 emission in the alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xianzhou; SHI Peili; LIU Yunfen; OUYANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the Roof of the World, is the highest plateau with a mean elevation of 4000 m. It is characterized by high levels of solar radiation, low air temperature and low air pressure compared to other regions around the world. The alpine grassland, a typical ecosystem in the Tibetan Plateau, is distributed across regions over the elevation of 4500 m. Few studies for carbon flux in alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau were conducted due to rigorous natural conditions. A study of soil respiration under alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau from October 1999 to October 2001 was conducted at Pangkog County, Tibetan Plateau (31.23°N, 90.01°E, elevation 4800 m). The measurements were taken using a static closed chamber technique, usually every two weeks during the summer and at other times at monthly intervals. The obvious diurnal variation of CO2 emissions from soil with higher emission during daytime and lower emission during nighttime was discovered. Diurnal CO2 flux fluctuated from minimum at 05:00 to maximum at 14:00 in local time. Seasonal CO2 fluxes increased in summer and decreased in winter, representing a great variation of seasonal soil respiration. The mean soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine grassland ecosystem were 21.39 mgCO2 · m-2 · h-1, with an average annual amount of soil respiration of 187.46 gCO2 · m-2 · a-1. Net ecosystem productivity is also estimated, which indicated that the alpine grassland ecosystem is a carbon sink.

  13. The Decomposition Analysis of CO2 Emission and Economic Growth in Pakistan India and China

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Sumayya Nasim Attaria

    2011-01-01

    The conflict between economic growth and keeping greenhouse gases (GHG) at controllable levels is one of the ultimate challenges of this century. The aim of Kyoto Protocol is to keep the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) below a certain threshold level. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of CO2 emission on economic growth by conducting the regional analysis of PIC nations i.e. Pakistan, India and China. The study also provides the detail information regarding the atmospheric emissio...

  14. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  15. Understanding changes in the UK's CO2 emissions: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Giovanni; Minx, Jan C

    2010-02-15

    The UK appears to be a leading country in curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Unlike many other developed countries, it has already met its Kyoto obligations and defined ambitious, legally binding targets for the future. Recently this achievement has been called into question as it ignores rapidly changing patterns of production and international trade. We use structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to investigate the drivers behind annual changes in CO(2) emission from consumption in the UK between 1992 and 2004. In contrast with previous SDA-based studies, we apply the decomposition to a global, multiregional input-output model (MRIO), which accounts for UK imports from all regions and uses region-specific production structures and CO(2) intensities. We find that improvements from "domestic" changes in efficiency and production structure led to a 148 Mt reduction in CO(2) emissions, which only partially offsets emission increases of 217 Mt from changes in the global supply chain and from growing consumer demand. Recent emission reductions achieved in the UK are not merely a reflection of a greening of the domestic supply chain, but also of a change in the international division of labor in the global production of goods and services.

  16. The Decomposition Analysis of CO2 Emission and Economic Growth in Pakistan India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conflict between economic growth and keeping greenhouse gases (GHG at controllable levels is one of the ultimate challenges of this century. The aim of Kyoto Protocol is to keep the level of carbon dioxide (CO2 below a certain threshold level. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of CO2 emission on economic growth by conducting the regional analysis of PIC nations i.e. Pakistan, India and China. The study also provides the detail information regarding the atmospheric emission by applying decomposition analysis. It is suggested that environmental policies need more attention in the region by keeping the differences aside. So, the emission trading is considered to be the new concept. The approach should be introduced to tackle down the global warming in the region. Now it is time to respond because the low Carbon Economy is the reality.

  17. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P...

  18. Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Seya, H.

    2010-12-01

    The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people’s behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at realizing low-carbon city are progressing on a number of fronts, including city planning and transportation planning. With respect to the low-carbon city, compact city is expected to reduce CO2 emission from transportation sector. Hence many studies have been conducted with scenario analysis considering modal share change, for instance, increase of public transportation use and reduction of trip length by car. On the other hand, it is important that CO2 emission from not only transportation sector but also residential sector can be reduced by a move from a detached house to a condominium, the change of family composition types and so on. In regard to residential sector, it has been founded that CO2 emission units differ among family composition types, for example, the single-person household emit more CO2 in general. From the viewpoint of an urban climate prediction, the possible range of future land use change should be recognized as the input parameters for the climate models. In addition to CO2 emission, the anthropogenic heat emission is also important as an input data of climate models in order to evaluate the social and economic impacts of urban land use change. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a compact city scenario and a dispersion scenario in Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in the world, and to examine future climate change mitigation policies including land use for realization of low-carbon city. We have created two scenarios of population distribution by using an urban economic model. In these scenarios we have assumed extreme cases in order to show the

  19. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  20. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months. Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  1. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  2. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  3. The spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and the influential factors: A case study in Xi'an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the transport sector is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, the effect of urbanization on transport CO2 emissions in developing cities has become a key issue under global climate change. Examining the case of Xi'an, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and influencing factors in the new, urban industry zones and city centers considering Xi'an's transition from a monocentric to a polycentric city in the process of urbanization. Based on household survey data from 1501 respondents, there are obvious differences in commuting CO2 emissions between new industry zones and city centers: City centers feature lower household emissions of 2.86 kg CO2 per week, whereas new industry zones generally have higher household emissions of 3.20 kg CO2 per week. Contrary to previous research results, not all new industry zones have high levels of CO2 emissions; with the rapid development of various types of industries, even a minimum level of household emissions of 2.53 kg CO2 per week is possible. The uneven distribution of commuting CO2 emissions is not uniformly affected by spatial parameters such as job–housing balance, residential density, employment density, and land use diversity. Optimum combination of the spatial parameters and travel pattern along with corresponding transport infrastructure construction may be an appropriate path to reduction and control of emissions from commuting.

  4. Variações de curto prazo nas emissões de CO2 do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo do cafeeiro Short-term variations of soil CO2 emissions in coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fonseca D'Andréa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 emissions represent an important component of carbon global cycle. However, information about short-term alterations of CO2 fluxes in soils of tropical regions are scarce. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate such variations in coffee plantations in Latosol (Oxisol. The CO2 emissions were not affected by environmental abiotic factors, such as temperature and soil water evaporation, but they were significantly correlated with the carbon content of microbial biomass (R=0.90, P<0.05. It happens a close relationship between root activity and soil CO2 emission in coffee plantations.

  5. Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of carbon in the model nearly eightfold from US$15 per tCO2 to US$116 per tCO2. Furthermore, passing some tipping points increases the likelihood of other tipping points occurring to such an extent that it abruptly increases the social cost of carbon. The corresponding optimal policy involves an immediate, massive effort to control CO2 emissions, which are stopped by mid-century, leading to climate stabilization at industrial levels.

  6. An estimation of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pu; SHI Peihua

    2011-01-01

    In 2009,nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide.A global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment.In this contribution,five major aspects such as the change of LUCC and the use of energy and its associated impacts had been recognized.Recently,the impact of tourism on environment and climate attracts the attention of international organizations and societies in pace with rapid development of tourism industry.Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector are becoming a hot spot of international tourism research in recent five years.The use of energy for tourism can be divided according to transport-related purposes (travel to,from and at the destination) and destination-related purposes excluding transports (accommodation,food,tourist activities,etc.).In addition,the transports,accommodation and foods are related to many other industries which are dependent on energy.Thus,the estimations of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector have become a worldwide concern.Tourism in China grows rapidly,and the number of domestic tourists was 1902 million in 2009.Energy use and its impact on the environment increase synchronously with China's tourism.It is necessary to examine the relationship between energy use and CO2 emissions.In this article,a preliminary attempt was applied to estimate the energy consumption and CO2 emissions from China's tourism sector in 2008.Bottom-up approach,literature research and mathematical statistics technology were also adopted.According to the calculations,Chinese tourism-related may have consumed approximately 428.30 PJ of energy in 2008,or about 0.51% of the total energy consumptions in China.It is estimated that CO2 emissions from tourism sector amounted to 51.34 Mt,accounting for 0.86% of the total in China.The results show that tourism is a low-carbon industry and also a pillar industry coping with global climate change,energy-saving and CO

  7. Monitoring fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions from a closed landfill at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Tompkins, Mitchell R. K.; Turtle, Lara A. K.; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Rodrígez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Solid waste must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices. One of the ways to manage this huge problem is to systematic dispose waste materials in locations such as landfills. However, landfills could face possible threats to the environment such as groundwater pollution and the release of landfill gases (CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) to the atmosphere. These structures should be carefully filled, monitored and maintained while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed. Even after years of being closed, a systematically amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface in a diffuse and fugitive form. During the period 1999-2016, we have studied the spatial-temporal distribution of the surface fugitive emission of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere in a cell in the Arico's municipal landfill (0.3 km2) at Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This cell was operative until 2004, when it was filled and closed. Monitoring these diffuse landfill emissions provides information of how the closed landfill is degassing. To do so, we have performed 9 gas emission surveys during the period 1999-2016. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at around 450 sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases taken in the chamber were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. CH4 efflux measurements were computed combining CO2 efflux measurements and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. In general, a decrease in the CO2 emission is observed since the cell was closed (2004) to the present. The total CO2 and CH4 diffuse emissions estimated in the 2016 survey were 4.54 ± 0.14 t d-1 and 268.65 ± 17.99 t d-1, respectively

  8. Remote sensing of volcanic CO2, HF, HCl, SO2, and BrO in the downwind plume of Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, André; Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Kostinek, Julian; Fieber, Lukas; Fischerkeller, Constanze; Giuffrida, Giovanni Bruno; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kuhn, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Tu, Qiansi

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing of the gaseous composition of non-eruptive, passively degassing volcanic plumes can be a tool to gain insight into volcano interior processes. Here, we report on a field study in September 2015 that demonstrates the feasibility of remotely measuring the volcanic enhancements of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and bromine monoxide (BrO) in the downwind plume of Mt. Etna using portable and rugged spectroscopic instrumentation. To this end, we operated the Fourier transform spectrometer EM27/SUN for the shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range together with a co-mounted UV spectrometer on a mobile platform in direct-sun view at 5 to 10 km distance from the summit craters. The 3 days reported here cover several plume traverses and a sunrise measurement. For all days, intra-plume HF, HCl, SO2, and BrO vertical column densities (VCDs) were reliably measured exceeding 5 × 1016, 2 × 1017, 5 × 1017, and 1 × 1014 molec cm-2, with an estimated precision of 2.2 × 1015, 1.3 × 1016, 3.6 × 1016, and 1.3 × 1013 molec cm-2, respectively. Given that CO2, unlike the other measured gases, has a large and well-mixed atmospheric background, derivation of volcanic CO2 VCD enhancements (ΔCO2) required compensating for changes in altitude of the observing platform and for background concentration variability. The first challenge was met by simultaneously measuring the overhead oxygen (O2) columns and assuming covariation of O2 and CO2 with altitude. The atmospheric CO2 background was found by identifying background soundings via the co-emitted volcanic gases. The inferred ΔCO2 occasionally exceeded 2 × 1019 molec cm-2 with an estimated precision of 3.7 × 1018 molec cm-2 given typical atmospheric background VCDs of 7 to 8 × 1021 molec cm-2. While the correlations of ΔCO2 with the other measured volcanic gases confirm the detection of volcanic CO2 enhancements, correlations were found of variable

  9. A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2) and toxic trace metals (e.g., mercury). It is also a required input for atmospheric chemistry and climate models, since it impacts the tropospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, a major climate-forcing species. Despite its significance, an inventory of passive volcanic degassing is very difficult to produce, due largely to the patchy spatial and temporal coverage of ground-based SO2 measurements. We report here the first volcanic SO2 emissions inventory derived from global, coincident satellite measurements, made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite in 2005-2015. The OMI measurements permit estimation of SO2 emissions from over 90 volcanoes, including new constraints on fluxes from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. On average over the past decade, the volcanic SO2 sources consistently detected from space have discharged a total of ~63 kt/day SO2 during passive degassing, or ~23 ± 2 Tg/yr. We find that ~30% of the sources show significant decadal trends in SO2 emissions, with positive trends observed at multiple volcanoes in some regions including Vanuatu, southern Japan, Peru and Chile.

  10. Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Production of Porous Fired Clay Bricksks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plan to reduce CO2 emissions is a priority these days. Brick industry contributes to the increase of these emissions mainly through the use of combustible pore-forming agents such as sawdust, cellulose, and coal sludge. These agents are used to improve the thermal insulation properties of brick products, and the suppliers regularly increase the prices of these agents based on their high consumption. Therefore, in an effort to reduce raw material expenses and CO2 emissions, brick manufacturers are looking for new possibilities while maintaining the quality of their products. This article discusses the possibility of using industrially manufactured product Vuppor as an additive as a replacement for combustible pore-forming agents. The presence of this additive in the fired clay body increases the proportion of pores, especially with a size range between 0.1 and 5 µm, having a positive impact on the reduction of its thermal conductivity. With a 0.5 wt.% dose of Vuppor additive, the brick production costs and thermal conductivity can be reduced by 20 % and 12 %, respectively, while also achieving reductions in CO2 emissions over 60 %. Consequently, the combustible pore-forming agents can be used in a more environmentally friendly manner, for example in the furniture industry, the biogas production, and the like.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15103

  11. Analysis of CO2 Emission Characteristics of Concrete Used at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the greenhouse gas reduction goal of 37% below business-as-usual (BAU by 2030, the construction industry is recognized as an anti-environment industry for mass consumption/mass waste; thus, members of the industry are requested to make efforts to transform it into an environment-friendly industry. Concrete, a common construction material, is known to emit large amounts of environmentally hazardous waste during the processes related to its production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. The amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the product is specified in a ready-mixed concrete report whenever concrete is sold commercially. Hence, there have been many studies addressing the quantitative evaluation and reduction of the environmental effects of concrete. This study aims to introduce a method for assessing the amount of carbon dioxide emission from the processes of producing concrete. Moreover, we measured the quantities of CO2 emission of about 10 under-construction projects, including office buildings, apartment buildings, and high-rise residential buildings in South Korea. Using the assessment result, we analyzed the CO2 reduction performance of an office building in South Korea and drew conclusions about measures for reducing CO2 emission.

  12. Desacoplamento entre as Emissões de CO2 e o PIB

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    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a variação das taxas de emissão de CO2 e do PIB per capita, identificando as possíveis interações existentes entre eles. Para isto, foram utilizados dados da Agência Internacional de Energia de dois países, Brasil e Estados Unidos, país com o maior PIB mundial. Assim, foi possível observar que as emissões de CO2, por muitos anos, acompanharam o crescimento econômico dos países. Porém, nos Estados Unidos, o desacoplamento destes dois indicadores já ocorreu em 2007, enquanto no Brasil isto só acontece em 2011. Além disso, são feitas projeções para o futuro das emissões de CO2 até o ano de 2040, considerando 6 cenários distintos. Com isso, verificou-se que ainda que o preço do petróleo diminuísse, se o crescimento econômico não for desacelerado, a queda das taxas de emissão não seria significativa.

  13. Assessing the potential of utilisation and storage strategies for post-combustion CO2 emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStyring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture are considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS, enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a 'cradle to grave approach' where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the 'cradle to gate' approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  14. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed.

  15. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driving Forces of CO2 Emissions in Emerging Countries: LMDI Decomposition Analysis on China and India’s Residential Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongjun Yeo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the key drivers behind changes of CO2 emissions in the residential sectors of the emerging economies, China and India. For the analysis, we investigate to what extent changes in residential emissions are due to changes in energy emissions coefficients, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, household income, and population size. We decompose the changes in residential CO2 emissions in China and India into these five contributing factors from 1990 to 2011 by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI method. Our results show that the increase in per capita income level was the biggest contributor to the increase of residential CO2 emissions, while the energy intensity effect had the largest effect on CO2 emissions reduction in residential sectors in both countries. This implies that investments for energy savings, technological improvements, and energy efficiency policies were effective in mitigating CO2 emissions. Our results also depict that the change in CO2 emission coefficients for fuels which include both direct and indirect emission coefficients slowed down the increase of residential emissions. Finally, our results demonstrate that changes in the population and energy consumption structure drove the increase in CO2 emissions.

  17. Analysis of GHG Emission Reduction in South Korea Using a CO2 Transportation Network Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a few scenarios of Korean CCS projects with a CO2 pipeline transportation network optimization model for minimizing the total facility cost and pipeline cost. Our scenarios are based on the “2030 asic roadmap for reducing greenhouse gases” established by the government. The results for each scenario demonstrate that the effective design and implementation of CO2 pipeline network enables the lowering of CO2 units cost. These suggest that CO2 transportation networks, which connect the capture and sequestration parts, will be more important in the future and can be used to substitute and supplement the emission reduction target in case the execution of other reduction options faces uncertainty. Our mathematical model and scenario designs will be helpful for various countries which plan to introduce CCS technology.

  18. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  19. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Cynthia; Bergfeld, Deborah; Farrar, Christopher D.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain, California, is a dacitic volcano that has experienced several periods of unrest since 1989. The onset of diffuse soil CO2 emissions at numerous locations on the flanks of the volcano began in 1989-1990 following an 11-month period of heightened seismicity. CO2 emission rates were measured yearly from 1995 to 2013 at Horseshoe Lake (HSL), the largest tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain, and measured intermittently at four smaller degassing areas around Mammoth from 2006 to 2013. The long-term record at HSL shows decadal-scale variations in CO2 emissions with two peaks in 2000-2001 and 2011-2012, both of which follow peaks in seismicity by 2-3 years. Between 2000 and 2004 emissions gradually declined during a seismically quiet period, and from 2004 to 2009 were steady at ~ 100 metric tonnes per day (t d- 1). CO2 emissions at the four smaller tree-kill areas also increased by factors of 2-3 between 2006 and 2011-2012, demonstrating a mountain-wide increase in degassing. Delays between the peaks in seismicity and degassing have been observed at other volcanic and hydrothermal areas worldwide, and are thought to result from an injection of deep CO2-rich fluid into shallow subsurface reservoirs causing a pressurization event with a delayed transport to the surface. Such processes are consistent with previous studies at Mammoth, and here we highlight (1) the mountain-wide response, (2) the characteristic delay of 2-3 years, and (3) the roughly decadal reoccurrence interval for such behavior. Our best estimate of total CO2 degassing from Mammoth Mountain was 416 t d- 1 in 2011 during the peak of emissions, over half of which was emitted from HSL. The cumulative release of CO2 between 1995 and 2013 from diffuse emissions is estimated to be ~ 2-3 Mt, and extrapolation back to 1989 gives ~ 4.8 Mt. This amount of CO2 release is similar to that produced by the mid-sized (VEI 3) 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska (~ 2.3 Mt over 11 months), and

  20. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  1. Decomposition of Energy-related CO2 Emissions from Shanghai's Industries and Policy Implications%Decomposition of Energy-related CO2 Emissions from Shanghai's Industries and Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhu Dajian

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies a decomposition analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions in the industrial sectors of Shanghai over the period 1994-2007.The Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method is applied to this study in terms of six factors: labor force, labor mobility, gross labor productivity, energy intensity, fuel mix, and emission coefficient. In addition, the decoupling effect be- tween industrial economic growth and CO2 emissions is analyzed to evaluate CO2 mitigation strategies for Shanghai. The results show that all labor productivity has the largest positive effect on CO2 emission changes in the industrial sectors, whereas labor mo- bility and energy intensity are the main components for decreasing CO2 emissions. Other factors have different effects on CO2 mitiga- tion in different sub-periods. Although a relative decoupling of industrial CO2 emissions from the economic growth in Shanghai has been found, Shanghai should keep pace with the industrial CO2 emissions reduction by implementing low-carbon technology. These results have important policy implications: Plan C is the reasonable choice for Shanghai.

  2. CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and FDI in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Hong Linh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI and economic growth for Vietnam IN the period from 1980 to 2010 based on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC approach, cointegration, and Granger causality tests. The empirical results do not support the EKC theory in Vietnam. However, the cointegration and Granger causality test results indicate a dynamic relationship among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI and economic growth. The short run bidirectional relationship between Vietnam’s income and FDI inflows implies that the increase in Vietnam’s income will attract more capital from overseas. Inversely, FDI inflow is also driver of national income growth. The existence of bidirectional relationships in the long-run provides important policy implications. We recommend implementing a dual strategy of increasing investment in energy infrastructure and promulgating energy conservation policies to increase energy efficiency and reduce wastage of energy.

  3. Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  4. CO2 emission optimization for a blast furnace considering plastic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Liu, Xiaoyong Qin, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization model based on mass balance and energy balance for a blast furnace process is established by using a nonlinear programming method. The model takes the minimum CO2 emission of a blast furnace as optimization objective function, and takes plastic injection or pulverized coal injection into account. The model includes sixteen optimal design variables, six linear equality constraints, one linear inequality constraint, six nonlinear equality constraints, one nonlinear inequality constraint, and thirteen upper and lower bound constraints of optimal design variables. The optimization results are obtained by using the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP method. Comparative analyses for the effects of plastic injection and pulverized coal injection on the CO2 emission of a blast furnace are performed.

  5. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia—Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830–2000. The drivers of CO2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920–2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian “eco-efficiency” nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO2 emissions to a sustainable level. PMID:21461052

  6. Long-term changes in CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K

    2011-02-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO(2) emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO(2) emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO(2) throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO(2) emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO(2) emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO(2) emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian "eco-efficiency" nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO(2) emissions to a sustainable level.

  7. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO2 emission changes during 1997–2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO2 emissions, during 2002–2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO2 emissions, during 2007–2012, the carbon intensity of Yunnan’s economy decreased substantially because the province vigorously developed hydropower and improved energy efficiency in energy-intensive sectors. Construction investments not only carbonized the GDP composition, but also formed a carbon-intensive production structure because of high-carbon supply chains. To further mitigate CO2 emissions in Yunnan, measures should promote the development and application of clean energy and the formation of consumption-based economic growth.

  8. Does winter warming enhance cold CO2 emission from temperate continental soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganova, Irina; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Khoroshaev, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In subboreal and temperate regions, the cold season generally lasts more than 3 months of the year, influencing the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. The permanent snow pack plays an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem, especially in temperate continental regions, preventing frost penetration into the soil. The extent and duration of the permanent snow pack are predicted to decrease markedly in transitional seasons for many boreal and subboreal regions during the next 50 years. This study focused on: (i) assessment of current winter climate trends in the Moscow region pertaining to the continental temperate region, (ii) comparison of soil temperature regimes at different snow pack depths, (iii) estimation of cold CO2 fluxes from soils under various frozen regime and vegetation cover, and (iv) the contribution of freezing-thawing events to the total cold CO2 emission from soils in the temperate continental region. An experiment with regulated snow cover was established on grassland and bare soil (Luvisols Haplic, Moscow region, 54o50'N, 37o36'E; continental temperate climate). The following winter scenarios were foreseen: (1) reference plot, designated "Ref", with natural depth of snow cover, (2) no-frost, "NoFr" (simulation of deep snow cover using artificial heat insulation material), and (3) no-snow, "NoSn" (without snow cover). We observed inverse trends as the air temperature increased and precipitation decreased, which resulted in a 1-month prolongation of the snow-free period and a decrease in the snow pack over the last 20 years. Soil freezing significantly reduced the cold CO2 fluxes from soils: by 10-70% in the bare areas and by up to double that amount in the grass plots. There were six freezing-thawing cycles (FTC; 1-7 weeks' duration) from October 2014 to early April 2015, which induced CO2 emission pulses of varying intensity. The highest peaks of CO2 emission rate (3-30-fold increase compared to the pre-thawing period) were

  9. Seasonal Variation of Cumulative CO2 Emission from a Vertisol Under Apricot Orchard in Semi-Arid Southeast Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting the CO2 emission from agricultural practices is crucial for global warming.A study was performed in an apricot orchard field in the experimental farm of the Harran University,Southeast Turkey,to i) quantify weekly and seasonal variations of the CO2 emissions from a Vertisol under apricot orchard; ii) evaluate the difference in CO2 emission between the area under trees and rows; and iii) assess the relationships between the amounts of CO2 emissions and environmental parameters for better use and management of the soils from the view point of carbon balance and flux in a semi-arid environment under drip irrigation.Soil CO2 emission measurements were performed during May 2008 and May 2010,from both under tree crowns (CO2-UC) and between tree rows (CO2-BR),on a weekly basis in southeast Turkey with a semi-arid climate.CO2 emissions were statistically correlated with weather and soil parameters such as air temperature,relative humidity,rainfall,soil water content,and soil temperature at various depths from 5 to 100 cm.The weekly emissions ranged from 82 to 1 110 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 and from 96 to 782 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 in CO2-UC and CO2-BR,respectively.Increase in CO2 emission in the second year was due to increases in mean air and soil temperatures.The weekly and monthly cumulative CO2 emissions were positively correlated with the air and soil temperatures.Multiple linear regression analysis explained 35% and 83% variations in average weekly and monthly CO2 emissions,by using meteorological data.Including the interaction effects of meteorological parameters in regression equations nearly doubled the variance explained by the regression models.According to stepwise regression analysis,soil and air temperatures were found to have the most significant impact on the temporal variability of the soil CO2 emission.

  10. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bréon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  11. CO2 Emissions from Central Canadian Agriculture: Meeting Kyoto Targets and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Manaloor, Varghese

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture sectors dependence on fossil fuel use (both direct and indirect) has increased dramatically over the past decades. Productivity increases have been achieved using technological improvements which use considerable amounts of energy inputs. Concerns about global environmental quality resulted in several countries signing the Kyoto protocol, which came into effect internationally, on February 16, 2005. Canada has made a commitment to the international community to stabilize CO2 emiss...

  12. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Styring, P.; Armstrong, K.

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination a...

  13. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  14. A hybrid study of multiple contributors to per capita household CO2 emissions (HCEs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Jingjing; Bian, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Given the large expenditures by households on goods and services that contribute a large proportion of global CO2 emissions, increasing attention has been paid to household CO2 emissions (HCEs). However, compared with industrial CO2 emissions, efforts devoted to mitigating HCEs are relatively small. A good understanding of the effects of some driving factors (i.e., urbanization rate, per capita GDP, per capita income/disposable income, Engel coefficient, new energy ratio, carbon intensity, and household size) is urgently needed prior to considering policies for reducing HCEs. Given this, in the study, the direct and indirect per capita HCEs were quantified in rural and urban areas of China over the period 2000-2012. Correlation analysis and gray correlation analysis were initially used to identify the prime drivers of per capita HCEs. Our results showed that per capita income/disposable income, per capita GDP, urbanization rate, and household size were the most significantly correlated with per capita HCEs in rural areas. Moreover, the conjoint effects of the potential driving factors on per capita HCEs were determined by performing principal component regression analysis for all cases. Based on the combined analysis strategies, alternative polices were also examined for controlling and mitigating HCEs growth in China.

  15. Scenario Formation of Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions for Sustainable China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baoren; Yagita Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Co-integration theory has been employed in this paper and Granger causes are found between urbanization rate and GDP, between capital stock and GDP. Scenario analysis of GDP is performed using the GDP model established in the paper. The energy consumptions in Germany, Japan and other developed countries are analyzed and compared with the energy consumption in China. Environmental friendly scenario of energy demand and CO2 emissions for sustainable China has been formed based on the results of comparison. Under environmental friendly scenario, the primary energy consumption will be 4.31 billion ton coal equivalence (tee) and CO2 emissions will be 1.854 billion t-c in 2050; energy per capital will be 3.06 tce that is 1.8 times of energy consumed in 2005 in China and 51% of consumed energy per capital in Japan in 2003. In 2050, the energy requirement of unit GDP will be 20% lower than that of Germany in 2003, but will be still 37% higher than that in Japan in 2003. It is certain that to fulfill the environmental friendly Scenario of energy demand and CO 2 emissions is a difficult task and it needs long term efforts of the whole society, not only in production sectors but also in service and household sectors.

  16. CO2-MEGAPARIS: Quantification of CO2 emissions from Paris megacity and their spread out to the neightbouring Centre region. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, I.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing of more than 30% since the pre-industrial era due to human activities, and is very likely involved in the recent global temperature increase [IPCC, 2007]. Although we have good estimates of the CO2 fluxes on a global basis, and have a relatively well-established system to detect the large-scale trends, regional information (10-500km) is needed if society is ever to manage or verify carbon emissions. We must improve our understanding of regional variations in the sources and sinks of CO2 because they help identify possible sequestration or emission management options. New programs are needed to improve our understanding of meso-scale carbon fluxes, and to discriminate between the anthropogenic and biospheric sources which are very strongly overlapped in European countries. In this context we need to monitor the emissions originating from the megalopolis such as Paris and its agglomeration, and the way they are spreading in the background atmosphere. Nowadays, inventories (CITEPA, AIRPARIF) based on statistical information provide CO2 emissions from Ile de France and all others regions of France, but no independent verification based on CO2 measurements has been done yet. Atmospheric measurements coupled to a meso-scale model can be used to provide such verification, especially to detect the interannual and decadal trends which could result from regional management strategy. The CO2-MEGAPARIS project (2009-2012) objective is to develop four independent methods to verify the emission inventories, and to monitor the daily to monthly CO2 emissions from Ile de France as well as their spreading to neighbouring regions with a scale up to 2x2 km2. The first method consists in developing a synergy between a mesoscale model (CHIMERE/MM5), inventories and observations using a top-down approach based on an inversion technique to retrieve surface fluxes (3 new observing stations are developed among which the top of the Eiffel

  17. Basalt-Limestone and Andesite-Limestone Interaction in the Arc Crust - Implications for Volcanic Degassing of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. B.; Dasgupta, R.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanically emitted CO2 is generally mantle-derived, but high degassing rates at some arcs (e.g. Merapi [1] and Colli Albani Volcanic District [2]) are thought to be affected by magma-carbonate interaction in the upper plate. However, the effects of depth, temperature, and composition on this process are poorly known. We experimentally simulated magma (50%)-limestone (50%) wallrock interactions at 0.5-1.0 GPa, 1100-1200 °C using pure calcite and a hydrous (~3-5 wt.% H2O) melt (basalt, andesite, or dacite). At 1.0 GPa, 1200 °C starting melts are superliquidus, whereas in the presence of calcite, Ca-rich cpx ± Ca-scapolite are produced. With increasing T, basalt-calcite interaction causes the melt, on a volatile-free basis, to become silica-poor and Ca-rich with alumina decreasing as cpx becomes more CaTs-rich. The same trend is seen with all starting melt compositions as P decreases at a constant T (1200 °C), producing melts similar to ultracalcic (CaO/Al2O3>>1) melt inclusions found in arc settings. Shifting from basalt to andesite has little effect on SiO2 and CaO of the reacted melt (e.g. 37 wt.% SiO2, 42 wt.% CaO at 0.5 GPa, 1200 °C), whereas Al2O3 of andesite-derived reacted melt is lower, likely a result of lower alumina in the starting andesite. Wall-rock calcite consumption is observed to increase with increasing T, decreasing P, and increasing melt XSiO2. At 0.5 GPa between 1100 and 1200 °C, our basalt experiments yield carbonate assimilation from 22 to 48 wt.%. This decreases to 20 wt.% at 1.0 GPa, 1200 °C, whereas an andesitic composition assimilates 59 to 52 wt.% from 0.5 to 1.0 GPa at 1200 °C. The higher assimilation in andesite-added runs at high-T is because of lower silicate liquidus as evidenced by lower modal proportion or absence of cpx ± scapolite. Using a magma flux rate estimated for Mt. Vesuvius [3], we obtain a CO2 outflux for a single such volcano experiencing arc magma-calcite reaction [4] of at least 2-4% of the present

  18. Cleaner fuel for maritime transport. Effect on air pollution, cost and CO2 emission from refineries; Schonere Zeevaartbrandstof; effect op luchtverontreiniging, kosten en raffinage CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; De Wilde, H.P.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In order to limit air pollution from sea-going vessels the sulphur content of sea shipping fuels will be lowered to maximally 0.5% in 2020. By means of investments of approximately 1.5 to 2 billion euro Dutch refineries can convert the heavy sea shipping fuel, which is made from refining residue, into a lighter and cleaner product. This conversion will lead to extra energy use of up to approximately 1 million tons of oil and the corresponding extra CO2 emission will amount to approximately 4 million tons. On balance, the cleaner sea shipping fuel will not lead to higher CO2 emissions because of lower emissions. [mk]. [Dutch] Om de luchtverontreiniging door zeeschepen te beperken zal het zwavelgehalte van zeevaartbrandstoffen worden verlaagd van gemiddeld 2,7% nu tot maximaal 0,5% in 2020. Met investeringen van ongeveer 1,5 tot 2 miljard euro kunnen de Nederlandse raffinaderijen de zware zeevaartbrandstof, die gemaakt wordt uit raffinageresiduen, omzetten in een lichter en schoner product. Deze omzetting resulteert wel in een extra energiegebruik van circa 1 miljoen ton olie en een bijbehorende extra CO2-uitstoot van ongeveer 4 miljoen ton. Per saldo zal de schonere zeevaartbrandstof echter niet leiden tot een hogere CO2-uitstoot door lagere emissies.

  19. Sensitivity of projected long-term CO2 emissions across the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; Bosetti, V.; Borgonovo, E.; Capros, P.; Fricko, O.; Gernaat, D. E. H. J.; Guivarch, C.; Havlik, P.; Huppmann, D.; Johnson, N.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Keppo, I.; Krey, V.; Ó Broin, E.; Price, J.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Scenarios showing future greenhouse gas emissions are needed to estimate climate impacts and the mitigation efforts required for climate stabilization. Recently, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) have been introduced to describe alternative social, economic and technical narratives, spanning a wide range of plausible futures in terms of challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Thus far the key drivers of the uncertainty in emissions projections have not been robustly disentangled. Here we assess the sensitivities of future CO2 emissions to key drivers characterizing the SSPs. We use six state-of-the-art integrated assessment models with different structural characteristics, and study the impact of five families of parameters, related to population, income, energy efficiency, fossil fuel availability, and low-carbon energy technology development. A recently developed sensitivity analysis algorithm allows us to parsimoniously compute both the direct and interaction effects of each of these drivers on cumulative emissions. The study reveals that the SSP assumptions about energy intensity and economic growth are the most important determinants of future CO2 emissions from energy combustion, both with and without a climate policy. Interaction terms between parameters are shown to be important determinants of the total sensitivities.

  20. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Towles

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b, we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  1. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of passive and eruptive volcanic SO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Prata, Fred; Telling, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Periodic injections of sulfur gas species (SO2, H2S) into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions are among the most important, and yet unpredictable, drivers of natural climate variability. However, passive (lower tropospheric) volcanic degassing is the major component of total volcanic emissions to the atmosphere on a time-averaged basis, but is poorly constrained, impacting estimates of global emissions of other volcanic gases (e.g., CO2). Stratospheric volcanic emissions are very well quantified by satellite remote sensing techniques, and we report ongoing efforts to catalog all significant volcanic SO2 emissions into the stratosphere and troposphere since 1978 using measurements from the ultraviolet (UV) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS; 1978-2005), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI; 2004 - present) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS; 2012 - present) instruments, supplemented by infrared (IR) data from HIRS, MODIS and AIRS. The database, intended for use as a volcanic forcing dataset in climate models, currently includes over 600 eruptions releasing a total of ~100 Tg SO2, with a mean eruption discharge of ~0.2 Tg SO2. Sensitivity to SO2 emissions from smaller eruptions greatly increased following the launch of OMI in 2004, but uncertainties remain on the volcanic flux of other sulfur species other than SO2 (H2S, OCS) due to difficulty of measurement. Although the post-Pinatubo 1991 era is often classified as volcanically quiescent, many smaller eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 3-4) since 2000 have injected significant amounts of SO2 into the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS), peaking in 2008-2011. We also show how even smaller (VEI 2) tropical eruptions can impact the UTLS and sustain above-background stratospheric aerosol optical depth, thus playing a role in climate forcing on short timescales. To better quantify tropospheric volcanic degassing, we use ~10 years of operational SO2 measurements by OMI to identify the

  2. 绿色建筑集中热水系统 CO2排放量的阈值研究%On threshold value research of CO2 emission in integrated hot-water system of green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2014-01-01

    The paper undertakes the quantitative study on CO2 emission in integrated hot-water system by adopting the emission coefficient meth-od,calculates the CO2 emission of various water heaters with different resources,identifies the CO2 emission in the resource consumption process,so as to achieve the threshold value of CO2 emission in the centralized hot-water supply system.%采用排放系数法对集中热水系统排放的CO2进行了量化,分别对采用不同能源的水加热器进行CO2排放量的计算,确定了各种能源消耗过程CO2排放量,最终确定了集中热水供应系统CO2排放阈值。

  3. Reduction of CO2 emissions by reduction of paper use for publication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Reek, J.A.

    1999-10-01

    The main research question of this study is as follows: What is the technical potential for reducing paper use in the field of publication applications in Western Europe within a time frame of 10-20 years, and what will the consequences for CO2 emissions be? To answer this central question we have defined the next four subquestions, all related to Western Europe: (1) How were the historical trends for the consumption figures of publication papers?; (2) What will be the expected publication paper consumption the next 10-20 years based on the historical trends, and what will be the influence on the related CO2 emissions?; (3) What technical opportunities do we see to reduce the future paper consumption trend for publication applications and what will be the individual and cumulative technical potential of these innovations?; (4) Does implementation of the technical opportunities lead to a significant dematerialization effect? Chapter 2 describes the chosen research method. In Chapter 3 we will introduce and define the paper types studied. Furthermore, Chapter 3 describes the detailed division of publication papers we have used in this study and the relationship with pulp and papermaking. After reading this chapter it has to be clear which paper production methods and paper types are (per ton) responsible for how much CO2 emissions. To get an overall-impression of the relevance of certain papers for CO2 emission numbers it is important to have insight into the historical consumption patterns of publication papers. Chapter 4 pays attention to these consumption patterns. Chapter 5 describes the most important trend factors that may influence future paper consumption patterns and in Chapter 6 this is translated into three possible consumption growth scenarios. The first and second growth scenarios are only based on extrapolations from historical figures, the third scenario is based on some of the most significant potential reduction measures. Furthermore, Chapter 6 gives

  4. Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Delage

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission inventories with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40 % and ~80 % for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak and annual country totals differ by 10 % on average and up to 40 % for some countries (i.e., the Netherlands. These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (−1 ppm at HUN than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN than in summer (~5 ppm. The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8 ppm and ~0.4 (0.3 ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5 % while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 % GtC yr−1 are only

  5. Carbon cycling of Lake Kivu (East Africa: net autotrophy in the epilimnion and emission of CO2 to the atmosphere sustained by geogenic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto V Borges

    Full Text Available We report organic and inorganic carbon distributions and fluxes in a large (>2000 km2 oligotrophic, tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa, acquired during four field surveys, that captured the seasonal variations (March 2007-mid rainy season, September 2007-late dry season, June 2008-early dry season, and April 2009-late rainy season. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in surface waters of the main basin of Lake Kivu showed modest spatial (coefficient of variation between 3% and 6%, and seasonal variations with an amplitude of 163 ppm (between 579±23 ppm on average in March 2007 and 742±28 ppm on average in September 2007. The most prominent spatial feature of the pCO2 distribution was the very high pCO2 values in Kabuno Bay (a small sub-basin with little connection to the main lake ranging between 11,213 ppm and 14,213 ppm (between 18 and 26 times higher than in the main basin. Surface waters of the main basin of Lake Kivu were a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere at an average rate of 10.8 mmol m(-2 d(-1, which is lower than the global average reported for freshwater, saline, and volcanic lakes. In Kabuno Bay, the CO2 emission to the atmosphere was on average 500.7 mmol m(-2 d(-1 (∼46 times higher than in the main basin. Based on whole-lake mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC bulk concentrations and of its stable carbon isotope composition, we show that the epilimnion of Lake Kivu was net autotrophic. This is due to the modest river inputs of organic carbon owing to the small ratio of catchment area to lake surface area (2.15. The carbon budget implies that the CO2 emission to the atmosphere must be sustained by DIC inputs of geogenic origin from deep geothermal springs.

  6. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: motivation, model description and initial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P; Pinto, Joseph P; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by the question of whether and how a state-of-the-art regional chemical transport model (CTM) can facilitate characterization of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and verify CO2 fossil-fuel emissions, we for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate CO2. This paper presents methods, input data, and initial results for CO2 simulation using CMAQ over the contiguous United States in October 2007. Modeling experiments have been performed to understand the roles of fossil-fuel emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and meteorology in regulating the spatial distribution of CO2 near the surface over the contiguous United States. Three sets of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes were used as input to assess the impact of uncertainty of NEE on CO2 concentrations simulated by CMAQ. Observational data from six tall tower sites across the country were used to evaluate model performance. In particular, at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO), a tall tower site that receives urban emissions from Denver CO, the CMAQ model using hourly varying, high-resolution CO2 fossil-fuel emissions from the Vulcan inventory and Carbon Tracker optimized NEE reproduced the observed diurnal profile of CO2 reasonably well but with a low bias in the early morning. The spatial distribution of CO2 was found to correlate with NO(x), SO2, and CO, because of their similar fossil-fuel emission sources and common transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the potential of using a regional CTM to help interpret CO2 observations and understand CO2 variability in space and time. The ability to simulate a full suite of air pollutants in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of their use as tracers for CO2 source attribution. This work serves as a proof of concept and the foundation for more comprehensive examinations of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and various uncertainties in the future. Atmospheric CO2 has long been modeled

  7. Effects of moisture and carbonate additions on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJie DONG; Miao CAI; JianBin ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Calcareous soil contains organic and inorganic carbon (C) pools, which both contribute to CO2 emission during closed-jar incubation. The mineralization of organic C and dissolution of inorganic C are both related to soil moisture, but the exact effect of water content on CO2 emission from calcareous soil is unclear. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of soil water content (air-dried, 30%, 70%, and 100%water-holding capacity (WHC)), carbonate type (CaCO3 or MgCO3), and carbonate amount (0.0, 1.0%, and 2.0%) on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation. Soil CO2 emission increased significantly as the water content in-creased to 70%WHC, regardless of whether or not the soil was amended with carbonates. Soil CO2 emission re-mained the same or increased slowly as the soil water content increased from 70%WHC to 100%WHC. When the water content was≤30%WHC, soil CO2 emission from soil amended with 1.0%inorganic C was greater than that from unamended soil. When the soil water content was 70%or 100%WHC, CO2 emission from CaCO3 amended soil was greater than that from the control. Furthermore, CO2 emission from soil amended with 2.0%CaCO3 was greater than that from soil amended with 1.0%CaCO3. Soil CO2 emission was higher in the MgCO3 amended soil than from the unamended soil. Soil CO2 emission decreased as the MgCO3 content increased. Cumulative CO2 emission was 3-6 times higher from MgCO3 amended soil than from CaCO3 amended soil. There was significant interaction effect between soil moisture and carbonates on CO2 emission. Soil moisture plays an important role in CO2 emission from calcareous soil because it affects both biotic and abiotic processes during the closed-jar incu-bation.

  8. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  9. Variations in mid-ocean ridge CO2 emissions driven by glacial cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Burley, Jonathan M A

    2015-01-01

    The geological record shows links between glacial cycles and volcanic productivity, both subaerially and at mid-ocean ridges. Sea-level-driven pressure changes could also affect chemical properties of mid-ocean ridge volcanism. We consider how changing sea-level could alter the \\cotwo{} emissions rate from mid-ocean ridges, on both the segment and global scale. We develop a simplified transport model for a highly incompatible element through a homogenous mantle; variations in the melt concentration the emission rate of the element are created by changes in the depth of first silicate melting. The model predicts an average global mid-ocean ridge \\cotwo{} emissions-rate of $53$~Mt/yr, in line with other estimates. We show that falling sea level would cause an increase in ridge \\cotwo{} emissions with a lag of about $100$~kyrs after the causative sea level change. The lag and amplitude of the response are sensitive to mantle permeability and plate spreading rate. For a reconstructed sea-level time series of the ...

  10. A biorefinery from Nannochloropsis sp. microalga - energy and CO2 emission and economic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ribeiro, Lauro A; Batista, Ana P; Marques, Paula A S S; Nobre, Beatriz P; Palavra, António M F; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira; Gouveia, Luísa; Silva, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Are microalgae a potential energy source for biofuel production? This paper presents the laboratory results from a Nannochloropsis sp. microalga biorefinery for the production of oil, high-value pigments, and biohydrogen (bioH2). The energy consumption and CO2 emissions involved in the whole process (microalgae cultivation, harvest, dewater, mill, extraction and leftover biomass fermentation) were evaluated. An economic evaluation was also performed. Oil was obtained by soxhlet (SE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The bioH2 was produced by fermentation of the leftover biomass. The oil production pathway by SE shows the lowest value of energy consumption, 177-245 MJ/MJ(prod), and CO2 emissions, 13-15 kgCO(2)/MJ(prod). Despite consuming and emitting c.a. 20% more than the SE pathway, the oil obtained by SFE, proved to be more economically viable, with a cost of 365€/kg(oil) produced and simultaneously extracting high-value pigments. The bioH2 as co-product may be advantageous in terms of product yield or profit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Jiang, L.; Arneth, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather events that promote wildfire will become more common. However, even though a few studies have found that the inclusion of CO2 fertilisation of photosynthesis and changes in human population patterns will tend to somewhat lower predictions of future wildfire emissions, no such study has included full ensemble ranges of both climate predictions and population projections, including the effect of different degrees of urbanisation.Here, we present a series of 124 simulations with the LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE global dynamic vegetation-wildfire model, including a semi-empirical formulation for the prediction of burned area based on fire weather, fuel continuity and human population density. The simulations use Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate predictions from eight Earth system models. These were combined with two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and five scenarios of future human population density based on the series of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) to assess the sensitivity of emissions to the effect of climate, CO2 and humans. In addition, two alternative parameterisations of the semi-empirical burned-area model were applied. Contrary to previous work, we find no clear future trend of global wildfire emissions for the moderate emissions and climate change scenario based on the RCP 4.5. Only historical population change introduces a decline by around 15 % since 1900. Future emissions could either increase for low population growth and

  12. Isoprene and Monoterpene Emissions from Duke Forest: A Comparison of Ambient and Elevated CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, B. C.; Varner, R. K.; Neilsen, C.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; White, M. L.; Csakai, A.; Beckman, P.; Ambrose, J.; Wingenter, O. W.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    A three week field campaign was conducted at the Duke Forest FACTS-1 Research Facility in Chapel Hill, NC, from September 8 through 28, 2004. A suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), organic and inorganic aerosols, CO2, O3, and NO were measured above the forest canopy under two different CO2 scenarios: (1) present day (Ring 1, 370 ppmv) and (2) elevated conditions (Ring 2, 570 ppmv). This study was conducted in order to determine how biogenic emissions may change in an elevated CO2 environment and what impact this will have on future air quality predictions. Approximately 700, 2-liter electropolished stainless steel canisters (University of California, Irvine) were filled hourly at both ambient CO2 (Ring 1) and elevated CO2 (Ring 2) of the FACTS-1 Research Facility. Two Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) systems were also deployed at Duke Forest for on-line monitoring of VOCs, one was located at the Ameriflux tower (Ring 1) while the other was at the Ring 2 tower. Both PTR-MS systems continuously stepped through a series of 30 masses for VOC measurements. Each PTR-MS measured a suite of VOCs from two sampling heights (16 m and 20 m) at each ring. Both the canister samples and PTR-MS measurements revealed that isoprene levels were generally higher in Ring 2 than in Ring 1, and typically ranged from ~0-2 ppbv. On September 22 in Ring 2, levels of isoprene above the canopy from the PTR-MS measurements showed a maximum of ~6.3 ppbv. Isoprene mixing ratios in Ring 1 ranged from ~0.003 to 4.9 ppbv with mean and median values of 0.395 and 0.280 ppbv, respectively, while they varied over a wider range of 0.004-6.3 ppbv in Ring 2 with mean and median values of 0.459 and 0.287 pptv. Daily peaks appeared between 1500-2300 UT (11 AM - 7 PM LT) when the temperature and solar radiation intensity were highest. The daily maximum levels in Ring 2 were generally higher than in Ring 1, indicating enhanced isoprene emissions at the

  13. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  14. The cost of reducing CO2 emissions - methodological approach, illustrated by the Danish energy plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    available. One of the tools available for this purpose is the construction of cost-reduction curves, relating the marginal cost of CO2 reduction and the quantity of the reduced emission to specific technology options. This paper outlines different approaches for establishing cost-reduction curves for CO2...... those technological options that have the highest reduction potential and the lowest marginal costs, and vice versa. Based on the case of the Danish energy plan, the results of the analyses show that a number of reduction options with significant reduction potentials are available at relatively low...... marginal costs. Among others can be mentioned increased use of combined heat and power (CHP), substituting conventional coal-fired CHP plants with biomass ones and the development of offshore wind turbines: (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Peatland CO2 emissions: Using 13C to quantify responses to land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Helen; Robinson, David; Midwood, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon reservoir and annually soils emit about 98 billion tonnes of CO2which is derived from plant root and rhizosphere respiration (autotrophically fuelled by photosynthesis) and microbial degradation of soil organic carbon (heterotrophic respiration). These two processes are intrinsically linked by complex physical and biochemical interactions. In order to meet its GHG reductions targets the Scottish Government plans to increase woodland cover from 17 to 25% by the second half of this century which will inevitably lead to significant tree planting on peatland soils. Tree roots and associated mycorrhiza will alter physical and biological conditions in the soil which may affect the heterotrophic contribution to CO2 emissions and consequently the long term landscape-scale carbon balance since the difference between net primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration defines the terrestrial CO2 sink. Significant uncertainties surround the response of peatlands to tree planting and predicted climate changes. At a field site in eastern Scotland we used natural abundance stable isotopes of carbon to partition soil CO2 efflux into its heterotrophic and autotrophic components to determine whether young Scots pine plantations affect heterotrophic respiration rates in peatland soil. Rate and isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux was measured in plantation areas and in unforested heather moorland; soil and roots were then excavated and separately incubated to establish the isotopic end members of a simple linear mixing model. Isotopic composition of soil efflux varies temporally and spatially across the site; young Scots pine trees do not increase the heterotrophic flux from soil and therefore do not lead to a net loss of soil carbon from these landscapes.

  16. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  17. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  18. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.

  19. A comprehensive carbon dioxide analysis system for estimating CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, A.; Parazoo, N.; Lokupitiya, R. S.; Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to combustion of fossil fuel can be estimated from observations of variations in atmospheric trace gases in time and space. Quantitative interpretation of these variations requires accounting for stronger changes due to other processes such as ecosystem metabolism, biomass burning, and air-sea gas exchange that operate on global scales. We have developed and tested an analysis system for assimilation of CO2 variations measured by a combination of sampling, in-situ, and remotely-sensed observations. The system combines existing models of CO2 exchanges due to hourly photosynthesis and respiration, daily air-sea gas exchange, biomass burning, fossil fuel emissions, and atmospheric transport. This comprehensive system allows direct comparison to the observed record of both in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric CO2 at hourly timescales. By design, we decompose surface fluxes of CO2 into the atmosphere into “fast processes” that are well-understood and modeled using mechanistic algorithms, and more slowly-varying fluxes due to land use change, incorrect specification of decomposing carbon pools, and other persistent biases in the forward component models. These slowly varying components are then estimated from atmospheric obervations by the Maximum Likelihood Ensembe Filter, a data assimilation framework. The system is operated on a 0.5° x 0.67° grid, providing global mesoscale coverage, and has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. It is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products.

  20. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  1. Relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions depends on income level and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, Diego; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate empirically how national-level CO2 emissions are affected by urbanization and environmental policy. We use statistical modeling to explore panel data on annual CO2 emissions from 80 countries for the period 1983-2005. Random- and fixed-effects models indicate that, on the global average, the urbanization-emission elasticity value is 0.95 (i.e., a 1% increase in urbanization correlates with a 0.95% increase in emissions). Several regions display a statistically significant, positive elasticity for fixed- and random-effects models: lower-income Europe, India and the Sub-Continent, Latin America, and Africa. Using two proxies for environmental policy/outcomes (ratification status for the Kyoto Protocol; the Yale Environmental Performance Index), we find that in countries with stronger environmental policy/outcomes, urbanization has a more beneficial (or, a less negative) impact on emissions. Specifically, elasticity values are -1.1 (0.21) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with strong environmental policy, versus 0.65 (1.3) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with weak environmental policies. Our finding that the urbanization-emissions elasticity may depend on the strength of a country's environmental policy, not just marginal increases in income, is in contrast to the idea of universal urban scaling laws that can ignore local context. Most global population growth in the coming decades is expected to occur in urban areas of lower-income countries, which underscores the importance of these findings.

  2. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  3. Technology priorities for transport in Asia: assessment of economy-wide CO2 emissions reduction for Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Marpaung, Charles O. P.

    2015-01-01

    mitigations actions (NAMA) given their strong contribution for development and therefore a methodology based on in-put out-put decomposition analysis is proposed for analysing economy wide CO2 emissions reductions. The methodology has been applied for the transport sector of Lebanon where alternative fuels......,improvement to cars (private and taxis) and buses for public transport were prioritized by stakeholders. The economy-wide CO2 emission reduce by 2,269 thousand tons by 2020 if the prioritized technologies are implemented in Lebanon. Fuel mix effect and structural effect would reduce CO2 emission by 2,611 thousand...

  4. Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of CO2-Emission Free Power Processes in Modelica using the CombiPlant Library

    OpenAIRE

    Selimovic, Faruk; Eborn, Jonas; Sundén, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    The need to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel based power production creates the need for new power plant solutions where the CO2 is captured and stored or reused. Different concepts to capture CO2 fall into the three main categories: 1. Precombustion decarbonization 2. Oxy-fuel combustion 3. Post-combustion removal of carbon. In the first two types of processes Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) is the key component, as pure oxygen is usually required to proces...

  5. Evaluating the CO2 Emission of the Milk Supply Chain in Italy: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, Italian dairy farms, which gather, process and sell milk at the national level, have strengthened their leading market position at the detriment of dairy cooperatives, operating within regional borders. Moreover, decreasing milk prices and increasing production costs have recently induced many farmers to open automatic vending machines, dispensing raw milk for direct sale to local consumers. In order to contribute to the environmental assessment of alternative systems, this study estimated CO2 emissions related to the transport from production farms to point of sale, for three brands of fresh milk currently sold in the Umbria region (Italy, starting from the food miles indicator as a simple concept, easily understood by consumers. These brands differ in the origin of milk (national, regional and local and distribution channels (large-scale retail channels for national and regional brands and vending machines for the local one. Thus, we estimated the emissions generated by the transport of the fresh milk consumed by regional households. In agreement with previous studies about CO2 emissions of foreign milk supply chains, the analysis showed that the production system of regional-branded milk, sold by retail channels, is the most efficient in terms of the environmental impact of transport.

  6. Stochastic Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Emissions: Evidence from OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu OZCAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the validity of stochastic convergence hypothesis in relative per capita CO2 emissions in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries for the period 1960-2013. In other words, it is aimed to reveal the nature of shocks to relative per capita CO2 emissions. As such, divergence holds if shocks are permanent, whereas convergence holds if shocks are temporary. To that aim, the two-break LM (Lagrange multiplier and three-step RALS-LM (residual augmented least squares Lagrange multiplier unit root tests are employed. The results mostly provide evidence of convergence in case of two breaks. However, when structural breaks are not taken into consideration, divergence gains empirical validity. From the viewpoint of government policy, these results indicate that energy usage or environmental protection policies of OECD countries have not long-run impacts on the relative per capita emissions series of the sample countries. Concerning the break dates, the first breaks mostly cumulated around the two energy crises period, whereas the second breaks generally occurred in the 1990s

  7. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio. PMID:28045111

  8. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio.

  9. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-03

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13-0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio.

  10. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to domestic and international drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Peters, G.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to address extensive deforestation to reduce climate change and save primary forests are taking place on a global scale. Whilst several studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation in large rainforests, few studies have investigated the domestic and international drivers sustaining and increasing the deforestation rates. Brazil, having the largest rainforest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates, is also currently one of the world's largest exporters of soybeans and beef. In this case study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and cattle and soybean production, and further attribute emissions to countries and economic sectors through export and import of Brazilian commodities. The emissions from deforestation can therefore be allocated to the countries and sectors consuming goods and services produced on deforested land in Brazil. A land-use change model and deforestation data is coupled with a carbon cycle model to create yearly emission estimates and different emission allocation schemes, depending on emission amortizations and discounting functions for past deforestation. We use an economic multi-regional input-output model (with 112 regions and 57 sectors) to distribute these emissions along agricultural trade routes, through domestic and international consumption in 2004. With our implementation we find that around 80 % of emissions from deforested land is due to cattle grazing, while agricultural transition effects suggests soy beans are responsible for about 20 % of the emissions occurring in 2004. Nearly tree quarters of the soy beans are consumed outside Brazil, of which China, Germany and France are the biggest consumers. Soy beans are consumed by a variety of sectors in the food industry. Brazil exports about 30 % of the cattle it produces, where Russia, USA and Germany are among the largest consumers. Cattle consumption mainly occurs in the meat sectors. In this study we estimate the CO2

  11. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements: CCS Applications, Principles, Instrumentation and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rod; Feese, Kristin

    2013-04-01

    The Eddy Covariance method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases, heat, and momentum between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are carefully characterized from single-point in-situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Since the early 1990s, this technique has been widely used by micrometeorologists across the globe for quantifying CO2 emission rates from various natural, urban and agricultural ecosystems [1,2], including areas of agricultural carbon sequestration. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries. In the last 3-5 years, advancements in instrumentation and software have reached the point when they can be effectively used outside the area of micrometeorology, and can prove valuable for geological carbon capture and sequestration, landfill emission measurements, high-precision agriculture and other non-micrometeorological industrial and regulatory applications. In the field of geological carbon capture and sequestration, the magnitude of CO2 seepage fluxes depends on a variety of factors. Emerging projects utilize eddy covariance measurement to monitor large areas where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to detect and quantify CO2 leakage, and to assure the efficiency of CO2 geological storage [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Although Eddy Covariance is one of the most direct and defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup, execution and data processing tailor-fit to a specific site and a project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created to introduce a novice to the conventional Eddy Covariance technique [9], and to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as graduate-level textbooks, flux networks guidelines, journals

  12. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  13. The relationship between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: a three-way linkage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S

    2017-09-19

    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.

  14. Long-term drainage reduces CO2 uptake and increases CO2 emission on a Siberian floodplain due to shifts in vegetation community and soil thermal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Luus, Kristina A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey A.; Göckede, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    With increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns forecast for the Arctic over the coming decades, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost is expected to increasingly alter hydrological conditions by creating mosaics of wetter and drier areas. The objective of this study is to investigate how 10 years of lowered water table depths of wet floodplain ecosystems would affect CO2 fluxes measured using a closed chamber system, focusing on the role of long-term changes in soil thermal characteristics and vegetation community structure. Drainage diminishes the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of organic soil, leading to warmer soil temperatures in shallow layers during the daytime and colder soil temperatures in deeper layers, resulting in a reduction in thaw depths. These soil temperature changes can intensify growing-season heterotrophic respiration by up to 95 %. With decreased autotrophic respiration due to reduced gross primary production under these dry conditions, the differences in ecosystem respiration rates in the present study were 25 %. We also found that a decade-long drainage installation significantly increased shrub abundance, while decreasing Eriophorum angustifolium abundance resulted in Carex sp. dominance. These two changes had opposing influences on gross primary production during the growing season: while the increased abundance of shrubs slightly increased gross primary production, the replacement of E. angustifolium by Carex sp. significantly decreased it. With the effects of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production combined, net CO2 uptake rates varied between the two years, which can be attributed to Carex-dominated plots' sensitivity to climate. However, underlying processes showed consistent patterns: 10 years of drainage increased soil temperatures in shallow layers and replaced E. angustifolium by Carex sp., which increased CO2 emission and reduced CO2 uptake rates. During the non-growing season, drainage

  15. Energy Conservation and CO2 Emission Reduction Using Cogeneration Based on Gas Microturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Khalili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily increasing propagation of environmental pollutants, such as CO2 as the most prevailing greenhouse gas, has resulted in global warming and climate changes in the past decades. Therefore, essentiality of the optimum utilization of limited sources of energy which in turn leads to emission abatement in energy conversion process is being widely under consideration. Cogeneration, regarding energy conservation and efficiency enhancement, is known to be a noticeable and overriding strategy in substantiation of energy consumption management goal. This study deals with performance evaluation of a microturbine-based cogeneration plant and its effects on efficiency and environmental aspects by using a simulator code.

  16. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues. 2) Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 - 2020 and subsequent decline. 3) Renewable energy supply technologies such as bioenergy, wind and solar. 4) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 5) Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects for the various regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use. 9) Energy savings. (au)

  17. Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D

    2015-10-27

    Rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions are anticipated to drive change to ocean ecosystems, but a conceptualization of biological change derived from quantitative analyses is lacking. Derived from multiple ecosystems and latitudes, our metaanalysis of 632 published experiments quantified the direction and magnitude of ecological change resulting from ocean acidification and warming to conceptualize broadly based change. Primary production by temperate noncalcifying plankton increases with elevated temperature and CO2, whereas tropical plankton decreases productivity because of acidification. Temperature increases consumption by and metabolic rates of herbivores, but this response does not translate into greater secondary production, which instead decreases with acidification in calcifying and noncalcifying species. This effect creates a mismatch with carnivores whose metabolic and foraging costs increase with temperature. Species diversity and abundances of tropical as well as temperate species decline with acidification, with shifts favoring novel community compositions dominated by noncalcifiers and microorganisms. Both warming and acidification instigate reduced calcification in tropical and temperate reef-building species. Acidification leads to a decline in dimethylsulfide production by ocean plankton, which as a climate gas, contributes to cloud formation and maintenance of the Earth's heat budget. Analysis of responses in short- and long-term experiments and of studies at natural CO2 vents reveals little evidence of acclimation to acidification or temperature changes, except for microbes. This conceptualization of change across whole communities and their trophic linkages forecast a reduction in diversity and abundances of various key species that underpin current functioning of marine ecosystems.

  18. Closing the gap? Top-down versus bottom-up projections of China's regional energy use and CO2 emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy; Xie, Xuxuan

    2016-01-01

    As the world's largest CO2 emitter, China is a prominent case study for scenario analysis. This study uses two newly developed global top-down and bottom-up models with a regional China focus to compare China's future energy and CO2 emission pathways toward 2050. By harmonizing the economic...

  19. The trade-off between CO2 emissions and logistics costs based on multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a decision-support tool for estimating the balanced market shares of given freight transport systems operating in a given network, satisfying both the minimum costs and the Carbon-Dioxide (CO2) emission requirements. Since CO2 constraints in logistics markets need to be realized

  20. The trade-off between CO2 emissions and logistics costs based on multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a decision-support tool for estimating the balanced market shares of given freight transport systems operating in a given network, satisfying both the minimum costs and the Carbon-Dioxide (CO2) emission requirements. Since CO2 constraints in logistics markets need to be realized

  1. Simulating the integrated summertime Δ14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhinova, D.; van der Molen, M. K.; van der Velde, I. R.; Krol, M. C.; van der Laan, S.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Peters, W.

    2014-01-01

    Radiocarbon dioxide (14CO2, reported in Δ14CO2) can be used to determine the fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil fuel CO2 no longer contains any 14C. After the release of CO2 at the source, atmospheric transport causes dilution of strong local signals into the background and det

  2. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.;

    2011-01-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from t...

  3. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  4. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.

    2016-06-01

    Increasing human population and the rapid growth of Malaysia's economy are often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been contributing to depletion of natural resources and climate change. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestation. The study was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia, which currently has about 5.9 million ha of forests. Phased array type L-band SAR (Palsar) and Palsar-2 images over the years 2010 and 2015, respectively were used to identify forest cover and deforestation occurrences resulted from various conversion of forests to other land uses. Forests have been identified from horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization and then classified into three major categories, which are inland, peat swamp and mangrove. Pixel subtraction technique was used to determine areas that have been changing from forests to other land uses. Forest areas have been found declined from about 6.1 million ha in year 2010 to some 5.9 million ha in 2015 due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Causes of deforestation have been identified and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been emitted due to the deforestation activity has been determined in this study. Oil palm and rubber plantations expansion has been found the most prominent factor that caused deforestation in Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the states of Pahang, Terengganu, Johor and Kelantan. The rate of deforestation in the period was at 0.66% yr-1, which amounted a total of about 200,225 ha over the five years. Carbon loss was estimated at about 30.2 million Mg C, which has resulted in CO2 emission accounted at about 110.6 million Mg CO2. The rate of CO2 emission that has been resulted from deforestation was estimated at 22.1 million Mg CO2 yr-1. The study found that the use of a series of Palsar and Palsar-2 images, with a consistent, cloud-free images, are the most appropriate sensors to be used for

  5. Altered epiphyte community and sea urchin diet in Posidonia oceanica meadows in the vicinity of volcanic CO2 vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Califano, Gianmaria; Tavares, Ana Mafalda; Santos, Rui; Martínez-Crego, Begoña

    2017-06-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) predicted for 2100 is expected to shift seagrass epiphyte communities towards the dominance of more tolerant non-calcifying taxa. However, little is known about the indirect effects of such changes on food provision to key seagrass consumers. We found that epiphyte communities of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in two naturally acidified sites (i.e. north and south sides of a volcanic CO2 vent) and in a control site away from the vent at the Ischia Island (NW Mediterranean Sea) significantly differed in composition and abundance. Such differences involved a higher abundance of non-calcareous crustose brown algae and a decline of calcifying polychaetes in both acidified sites. A lower epiphytic abundance of crustose coralline algae occurred only in the south side of the vents, thus suggesting that OA may alter epiphyte assemblages in different ways due to interaction with local factors such as differential fish herbivory or hydrodynamics. The OA effects on food items (seagrass, epiphytes, and algae) indirectly propagated into food provision to the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, as reflected by a reduced P. oceanica exploitation (i.e. less seagrass and calcareous epiphytes in the diet) in favour of non-calcareous green algae in both vent sites. In contrast, we detected no difference close and outside the vents neither in the composition of sea urchin diet nor in the total abundance of calcareous versus non-calcareous taxa. More research, under realistic scenarios of predicted pH reduction (i.e. ≤ 0.32 units of pH by 2100), is still necessary to better understand cascading effects of this altered urchin exploitation of food resources under acidified conditions on ecosystem diversity and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atmospheric and environmental impacts of volcanic ash particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Globally, at any one time, there may be 20 volcanoes erupting that collectively emit a constant flux of gases and aerosol, including silicate particles (tephra), to the atmosphere which influences processes including cloud microphysics, heterogeneous chemistry and radiative balance. The nature and impact of atmospheric volcanic particle fluxes depend on total mass erupted, emission rate, emission source location, physical and chemical properties of the particles, and the location and residence time of the particles in the atmosphere. Removal of ash particles from the atmosphere through sedimentation is strongly influenced by particle aggregation through hydrometeor formation, and convective instabilities such as mammatus. I will address the following questions: What are the atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash emissions? What controls the residence time of volcanic particles in the atmosphere? What affects particle accumulation at the surface? And what are the human and environmental impacts of ash fallout?

  7. Linking gene expression to productivity to unravel long- and short-term responses of seagrasses exposed to CO2 in volcanic vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Irene; Silva, João; Lauritano, Chiara; Costa, Monya M.; Ruocco, Miriam; Procaccini, Gabriele; Santos, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification is a major threat for marine life but seagrasses are expected to benefit from high CO2. In situ (long-term) and transplanted (short-term) plant incubations of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were performed near and away the influence of volcanic CO2 vents at Vulcano Island to test the hypothesis of beneficial effects of CO2 on plant productivity. We relate, for the first time, the expression of photosynthetic, antioxidant and metal detoxification-related genes to net plant productivity (NPP). Results revealed a consistent pattern between gene expression and productivity indicating water origin as the main source of variability. However, the hypothesised beneficial effect of high CO2 around vents was not supported. We observed a consistent long- and short-term pattern of gene down-regulation and 2.5-fold NPP decrease in plants incubated in water from the vents and a generalized up-regulation and NPP increase in plants from the vent site incubated with water from the Reference site. Contrastingly, NPP of specimens experimentally exposed to a CO2 range significantly correlated with CO2 availability. The down-regulation of metal-related genes in C. nodosa leaves exposed to water from the venting site suggests that other factors than heavy metals, may be at play at Vulcano confounding the CO2 effects.

  8. 中国省际CO2排放与科技创新的研究%Research on CO2 Emission and Technological Innovation in Chinese Provincial Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝亚杰; 薛坤

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission is more and more conspicuous, and science and technology innovation can solve the problem of CO2 emissions. In this paper, the articles about CO2 emission and the impact of technological innovation on CO2 emission are re-viewed. It provides an important enlightenment that we can study CO2 emission, while studying the relationship between CO2 shadow prices and technological innovation.%CO2排放问题越来越引人注目,而科技创新可以解决CO2排放问题。笔者通过对研究CO2排放问题以及科技创新对CO2排放影响的文献进行整理分析,从而从这些文章中寻找启发,为进一步研究奠定基础。分析发现:可以在全面研究CO2排放情况的同时,研究CO2影子价格与科技创新的关系。

  9. Automatic semi-continuous accumulation chamber for diffuse gas emissions monitoring in volcanic and non-volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Norelli, Francesco; Virgili, Giorgio; Continanza, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Since various decades the accumulation chamber method is intensively used in monitoring activities of diffuse gas emissions in volcanic areas. Although some improvements have been performed in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility of the detectors, the equipment used for measurement of gas emissions temporal variation usually requires expensive and bulky equipment. The unit described in this work is a low cost, easy to install-and-manage instrument that will make possible the creation of low-cost monitoring networks. The Non-Dispersive Infrared detector used has a concentration range of 0-5% CO2, but the substitution with other detector (range 0-5000 ppm) is possible and very easy. Power supply unit has a 12V, 7Ah battery, which is recharged by a 35W solar panel (equipped with charge regulator). The control unit contains a custom programmed CPU and the remote transmission is assured by a GPRS modem. The chamber is activated by DataLogger unit, using a linear actuator between the closed position (sampling) and closed position (idle). A probe for the measure of soil temperature, soil electrical conductivity, soil volumetric water content, air pressure and air temperature is assembled on the device, which is already arranged for the connection of others external sensors, including an automatic weather station. The automatic station has been tested on the field at Lipari island (Sicily, Italy) during a period of three months, performing CO2 flux measurement (and also weather parameters), each 1 hour. The possibility to measure in semi-continuous mode, and at the same time, the gas fluxes from soil and many external parameters, helps the time series analysis aimed to the identification of gas flux anomalies due to variations in deep system (e.g. onset of volcanic crises) from those triggered by external conditions.

  10. Multiannual changes of CO2 emissions in China: indirect estimates derived from satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beekmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-annual satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 columns are used for evaluation of CO2 emission changes in China in the period from 1996 to 2008. Indirect annual top-down estimates of CO2 emissions are derived from the satellite NO2 columns measurements by means of a simple inverse modeling procedure involving simulations performed with the CHIMERE mesoscale chemistry transport model and the CO2 to NOx emission ratios from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGAR v4.2 global anthropogenic emission inventory. Exponential trends in the normalized time series of annual emission are evaluated separately for the periods from 1996 to 2001 and from 2001 to 2008. The results indicate that the both periods manifest strong positive trends in the CO2 emissions, and that the trend in the second period was significantly larger than the trend in the first period. Specifically, the trends in the first and second periods are estimated to be in the range from 3.7 to 8.0 and from 9.5 to 13.0 percent per year, respectively, taking into account both statistical and probable systematic uncertainties. Comparison of our top-down estimates of the CO2 emission changes with the corresponding bottom-up estimates provided by EDGAR v4.2 and Global Carbon Project (GCP emission inventories reveals that while acceleration of the CO2 emission growth in the considered period is a common feature of the both kinds of estimates, nonlinearity in the CO2 emission changes may be strongly exaggerated in the emission inventories. Specifically, the atmospheric NO2 observations do not confirm the existence of a sharp bend in the emission inventory data time series in the period from 2000 to 2002. A significant quantitative difference is revealed between the bottom-up and top-down estimates of the CO2 emission trend in the period from 1996 to 2001 (specifically, the trend was not positive according to the emission inventories, but is strongly

  11. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liza I Díaz-Isaac; Riley M Duren; Marc L Fischer; Kevin R Gurney; Charles E Miller; Stanley P Sander; Kam W Wong; Yuk L Yung

    2016-01-01

      Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes...

  12. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  13. Natural gas consumption, income, urbanization, and CO2 emissions in China and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.

  14. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy...... generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise thefossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEP’s is expected...... to have a significant influence on the electricity spot price. However, the expected pricelevel of TEP’s are met with great uncertainty and a study of a number of economical studies shows a price span between zero and 270 USD per ton of CO2 depending on the participation or non-participation of countries...