WorldWideScience

Sample records for volcanic ash deposit

  1. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  2. Reconnaissance map showing thickness of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the thickness and distribution of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii, as a step toward evaluating their susceptibility to failure during earthquake shaking. On several occasions their instability has resulted in serious damage. For example, the 1868 earthquake (m=7+), following a prolonged rainy period, caused a debris flow of hillside ash deposits that killed 31 people in Wood Valley (Bringham, 1869). The 1973 Honomu earthquake (m=6.2) resulted in more damage from shaking to areas underlain by ash deposits in the older part of Hilo than in other areas, and soil slips in ash, as well as rockfalls, were common along the roads north of town (Nielsen and others, 1977). 

  3. MAFALDA: An early warning modeling tool to forecast volcanic ash dispersal and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2008-12-01

    Forecasting the dispersal of ash from explosive volcanoes is a scientific challenge to modern volcanology. It also represents a fundamental step in mitigating the potential impact of volcanic ash on urban areas and transport routes near explosive volcanoes. To this end we developed a Web-based early warning modeling tool named MAFALDA (Modeling and Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere) able to quantitatively forecast ash concentrations in the air and on the ground. The main features of MAFALDA are the usage of (1) a dispersal model, named VOL-CALPUFF, that couples the column ascent phase with the ash cloud transport and (2) high-resolution weather forecasting data, the capability to run and merge multiple scenarios, and the Web-based structure of the procedure that makes it suitable as an early warning tool. MAFALDA produces plots for a detailed analysis of ash cloud dynamics and ground deposition, as well as synthetic 2-D maps of areas potentially affected by dangerous concentrations of ash. A first application of MAFALDA to the long-lasting weak plumes produced at Mt. Etna (Italy) is presented. A similar tool can be useful to civil protection authorities and volcanic observatories in reducing the impact of the eruptive events. MAFALDA can be accessed at http://mafalda.pi.ingv.it.

  4. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of finely laminated silty sand and gravel lenses. ... undulating upper contact following the pre-existing ... The ash material is light with its specific .... negative Eu-anomaly, area enclosed within blue line indicates compositional range of the distal ...

  5. FALL3D: A computational model for transport and deposition of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2009-06-01

    FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic ashes and lapilli. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equation on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order finite differences (FD) explicit scheme. Different parameterizations for the eddy diffusivity tensor and for the particle terminal settling velocities can be used. The code, written in FORTRAN 90, is available in both serial and parallel versions for Windows and Unix/Linux/Mac X operating systems (OS). A series of pre- and post-process utility programs and OS-dependent scripts to launch them are also included in the FALL3D distribution package. Although the model has been designed to forecast volcanic ash concentration in the atmosphere and ash loading at ground, it can also be used to model the transport of any kind of airborne solid particles. The model inputs are meteorological data, topography, grain-size distribution, shape and density of particles, and mass rate of particle injected into the atmosphere. Optionally, FALL3D can be coupled with the output of the meteorological processor CALMET, a diagnostic model which generates 3-D time-dependent zero-divergence wind fields from mesoscale forecasts incorporating local terrain effects. The FALL3D model can be a tool for short-term ash deposition forecasting and for volcanic fallout hazard assessment. As an example, an application to the 22 July 1998 Etna eruption is also presented.

  6. FALL3D: A Computational Model for Trans-port and Deposition of Volcanic Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2008-01-01

    FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of 8 volcanic ash. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equa- 9 tion on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order Finite Differences 10 (FD) explicit scheme. Different parameterizations for the eddy diffusivity tensor 11 and for the particle terminal settling velocities can be used. The code, written 12 in FORTRAN 90, is available in both serial and parallel ver...

  7. Spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits of 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Patagonia as measured by a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easdale, M. H.; Bruzzone, O.

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash fallout is a recurrent environmental disturbance in forests, arid and semi-arid rangelands of Patagonia, South America. The ash deposits over large areas are responsible for several impacts on ecological processes, agricultural production and health of local communities. Public policy decision making needs monitoring information of the affected areas by ash fallout, in order to better orient social, economic and productive aids. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits from the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in 2011, by identifying a sudden change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) temporal dynamics, defined as a perturbation located in the time series. We applied a sparse-wavelet transform using the Basis Pursuit algorithm to NDVI time series obtained from the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, to identify perturbations at a pixel level. The spatial distribution of the perturbation promoted by ash deposits in Patagonia was successfully identified and characterized by means of a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics. Results are encouraging for the future development of a new platform, in combination with data from forecasting models and tracking of ash cloud trajectories and dispersion, to inform stakeholders to mitigate impact of volcanic ash on agricultural production and to orient public intervention strategies after a volcanic eruption followed by ash fallout over a wide region.

  8. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  9. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using

  10. Correlation and stratigraphic eruption age of the pyroclastic flow deposits and wide spread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Pliocene-Pleistocene strata, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2000-01-01

    Three pyroclastic flow deposits in the Takayama and Omine area, central Honshu, are correlated to the distal widespread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Plio-Pleistocene boundary strata in central Japan. The correlation is based on these stratigraphic relationships, facies, magnetostratigraphy, petrographic properties such as mineral assemblage, refractive index and chemical composition of the volcanic glasses and orthopyroxene. As the result of these correlation, the eruption age of the proximal pyroclastic flow deposits have become clear. And precise correlation between proximal eruption units and distal depositional units is now possible. Ho-Kd 39 Tephra erupted at about 1.76 Ma, forming a co-ignimbrite ash, which deposited in the Kanto sedimentary basin. Eb-Fukuda Tephra erupted at about 1.75 Ma, and distal volcaniclastic deposit sedimented in the Kinki, Niigata and Kanto sedimentary basins. The eruptional and depositional phase are divided into the stage 1, stage 2 (early), stage 2 (late) and stage 3. Stage 1 is phreato-plinian type eruption phase, forming distal ash fall deposit. Stage 2 (early) is plinian pumice fall, intra-plinian pyroclastic flow and plinian pumice fall eruption phase, forming distal ash fall. Stage 2 (late) is final eruptional phase of the biggest pyroclastic flow of the Eb-Fukuda Tephra, forming a co-ignimbrite ash fall. Stage 3 is resedimented stage after the end of the explosive eruption. It is notable that resedimented volcaniclastic deposit reached Osaka sedimentary basin 300 km away from the eruption center. Om-SK110 Tephra erupted at about 1.65 Ma, divided into the stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3. Stage 1 is eruption phase of the plinian pumice fall and first pyroclastic flow. Stage 2 is pauses in eruption activity. Stage 3 is second pyroclastic flow phase, it is inferred that the pyroclastic flow of the stage 3 directly entered the Niigata sedimentary basin and simultaneously formed a co-ignimbrite ash. (author)

  11. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  12. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  13. Volcanic Ash Data Assimilation System for Atmospheric Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Shimbori, T.; Sato, E.; Tokumoto, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has two operations for volcanic ash forecasts, which are Volcanic Ash Fall Forecast (VAFF) and Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA). In these operations, the forecasts are calculated by atmospheric transport models including the advection process, the turbulent diffusion process, the gravitational fall process and the deposition process (wet/dry). The initial distribution of volcanic ash in the models is the most important but uncertain factor. In operations, the model of Suzuki (1983) with many empirical assumptions is adopted to the initial distribution. This adversely affects the reconstruction of actual eruption plumes.We are developing a volcanic ash data assimilation system using weather radars and meteorological satellite observation, in order to improve the initial distribution of the atmospheric transport models. Our data assimilation system is based on the three-dimensional variational data assimilation method (3D-Var). Analysis variables are ash concentration and size distribution parameters which are mutually independent. The radar observation is expected to provide three-dimensional parameters such as ash concentration and parameters of ash particle size distribution. On the other hand, the satellite observation is anticipated to provide two-dimensional parameters of ash clouds such as mass loading, top height and particle effective radius. In this study, we estimate the thickness of ash clouds using vertical wind shear of JMA numerical weather prediction, and apply for the volcanic ash data assimilation system.

  14. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  15. Meteorological Controls on Local and Regional Volcanic Ash Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P; Phillips, Jeremy C; Renfrew, Ian A; Barclay, Jenni; Hogg, Andrew; Jenkins, Susanna F; Robertson, Richard; Pyle, David M

    2018-05-02

    Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows. We focus on an archetypal volcanic setting, Soufrière, St Vincent, and use the exceptional historical records of the 1902 and 1979 eruptions to challenge our simulations. We find that the evolution and characteristics of ash deposition on St Vincent and nearby islands can be accurately simulated when the wind shear associated with the trade wind inversion and topographically-forced flows are represented. The wind shear plays a primary role and topographic flows a secondary role on ash distribution on local to regional scales. We propose a new explanation for the downwind ash deposition maxima, commonly observed in volcanic eruptions, as resulting from the detailed forcing of mesoscale meteorology on the ash plume.

  16. Volcanic ash deposition, eelgrass beds, and inshore habitat loss from the 1920s to the 1990s at Chignik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Kinsman, Nicole; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.

    2018-03-01

    We quantified the shallowing of the seafloor in five of six bays examined in the Chignik region of the Alaska Peninsula, confirming National Ocean Service observations that 1990s hydrographic surveys were shallower than previous surveys from the 1920s. Castle Bay, Chignik Lagoon, Hook Bay, Kujulik Bay and Mud Bay lost volume as calculated from Mean Lower Low Water (Chart Datum) to the deepest depths and four of these sites lost volume from Mean High Water to the deepest depths. Calculations relative to each datum were made because tidal datum records exhibited an increase in tidal range in this region from the 1920s to the 1990s. Our analysis showed that Mud Bay is quickly disappearing while Chignik Lagoon is being reduced to narrow channels. Anchorage Bay was the only site that increased in depth over time, perhaps due to erosion. Volcanoes dominate the landscape of the Chignik area. They have blanketed the region in deep ash deposits before the time frame of this study, and some have had smaller ash-producing eruptions during the time frame of this study. Remobilization of land-deposited ash and redeposition in marine areas - in some locations facilitated by extensive eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds (covering 54% of Chignik Lagoon and 68% of Mud Bay in 2010) - is the most likely cause of shallowing in the marine environment. Loss of shallow water marine habitat may alter future abundance and distribution of several fish, invertebrate and avian species.

  17. Delineation of a volcanic ash body using electrical resistivity profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Ludvigson, Greg; Miller, Richard D; Mayer, Lindsay; Haj, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Four lines of electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) were performed to define the extent of a shallow Quaternary volcanic ash deposit being mined in the United States. Inversion results of ERP proved suitable for defining the thickness and lateral extent of the volcanic ash deposit at this testing site. These interpretations were confirmed by shallow borehole drilling. The model sensitivity information indicates that inverted models possess sufficient resolving power down to a depth of 7 m and are fairly consistent in terms of horizontal resolution along the four ERP lines. The bottom of most of the volcanic ash deposit in the study area is less than 7 m in depth. Based on synthesis of the ERP and drill information, the limits of the mineable ash bed resources were clearly defined. Moreover, by integrating the ERP results with a minimal number of optimally placed borings, the volume of the volcanic ash deposit was established at a lesser cost, and with greater accuracy than would be possible with a traditionally designed grid drilling programme

  18. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  19. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  20. The aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can discharge large amounts of very small sized pyroclasts (under 0.090 mm) into the atmosphere that may cause problems to people, infrastructures and environment. The transport and deposition of fine ash are ruled by aggregation that causes premature settling of fine ash and, as consequence, significantly reduces the concentration of airborne material over long distances. Parameterizing the aggregation potential of fine ash is then needed to provide accurate modelling of ash transport and deposition from volcanic plumes. Here we present the first results of laboratory experiments investigating the aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic particles. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that collision kinetic and relative humidity provide the strongest effect on aggregation behaviour but were only limited to particles with size > 0.125 mm. In our work, we focus on natural volcanic ash at ambient humidity with particles size aggregation potential. Two types of ash were used in our experiments: fresh ash, collected during fall-out from a recent plume-forming eruption at Sakurajima (Japan -July 2013) and old ash, collected from fall-out tephra deposits at Campi Flegrei (Italy, ca. 10 ka), to account for the different chemical composition and morphoscopic effects of altered ash on aggregation efficiency. Total samples were hand sieved to obtain three classes with unimodal grain size distributions (sieved from the top of a transparent tank where a fan, placed at the bottom, allows turbulent dispersion of particles. Collision and sticking of particles on a vertical glass slide were filmed with a high speed cameras at 6000 fps. Our lenses arrangement provide high image resolution allowing to capture particles down to 0.005 mm in diameter. Video sequences of particles motion and collision were then processed with image analysis and particle tracking tools to determine i) the particle number density and ii) the grain size distribution

  1. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-08-03

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  2. The Effect of Volcanic Ash Composition on Ice Nucleation Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cloer, S.; Primm, K.; Woods, T.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the role that volcanic ash plays in ice nucleation is important for knowledge of lightning generation in both volcanic plumes and in clouds developing downwind from active volcanoes. Volcanic ash has long been suggested to influence heterogeneous ice nucleation following explosive eruptions, but determining precisely how composition and mineralogy affects ice nucleation affinity (INA) is poorly constrained. For the study presented here, volcanic ash samples with different compositions and mineral/glass contents were tested in both the deposition and immersion modes, following the methods presented in Schill et al. (2015). Bulk composition was determined with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size distribution was determined with laser diffraction particle size analysis (LDPSA), and mineralogy was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the deposition-mode experiments reveal that there is no relationship between ice saturation ratios (Sice) and either mineralogy or bulk ash composition, as all samples have similar Sice ratios. In the immersion-mode experiments, frozen fractions were determined from -20 °C to -50 °C using three different amounts of ash (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt% of slurry). Results from the immersion freezing reveal that the rhyolitic samples (73 wt% SiO2) nucleate ice at higher temperatures compared to the basaltic samples (49 wt% SiO2). There is no observed correlation between frozen fractions and mineral content of ash samples, but the two most efficient ice nuclei are rhyolites that contain the greatest proportion of amorphous glass (> 90 %), and are enriched in K2O relative to transition metals (MnO and TiO2), the latter of which show a negative correlation with frozen fraction. Higher ash abundance in water droplets increases the frozen fraction at all temperatures, indicating that ash amount plays the biggest role in ice nucleation. If volcanic ash can reach sufficient abundance (

  3. Ash production by attrition in volcanic conduits and plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T J; Russell, J K

    2017-07-17

    Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions. Our experimental results indicate that fine ash production and surface area generation is fast (eruption column stability, tephra dispersal, aggregation, volcanic lightening generation, and has concomitant effects on aviation safety and Earth's climate.

  4. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  5. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  6. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  7. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-21

    Oct 21, 2008 ... fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ... the main mineral in volcanic ash responsible for causing silicosis. The F ... volcanic ash with little or no attention to the < 4 µm.

  8. Volcanic ash in ancient Maya ceramics of the limestone lowlands: implications for prehistoric volcanic activity in the Guatemala highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Anabel; Rose, William I.

    1995-07-01

    In the spirit of collaborative research, Glicken and Ford embarked on the problem of identifying the source of volcanic ash used as temper in prehistoric Maya ceramics. Verification of the presence of glass shards and associated volcanic mineralogy in thin sections of Maya ceramics was straightforward and pointed to the Guatemala Highland volcanic chain. Considering seasonal wind rose patterns, target volcanoes include those from the area west of and including Guatemala City. Joint field research conducted in 1983 by Glicken and Ford in the limestone lowlands of Belize and neighboring Guatemala, 300 km north of the volcanic zone and 150 km from the nearest identified ash deposits, was unsuccessful in discovering local volcanic ash deposits. The abundance of the ash in common Maya ceramic vessels coupled with the difficulties of long-distance procurement without draft animals lead Glicken to suggest that ashfall into the lowlands would most parsimoniously explain prehistoric procurement; it literally dropped into their hands. A major archaeological problem with this explanation is that the use of volcanic ash occurring over several centuries of the Late Classic Period (ca. 600-900 AD). To accept the ashfall hypothesis for ancient Maya volcanic ash procurement, one would have to demonstrate a long span of consistent volcanic activity in the Guatemala Highlands for the last half of the first millennium AD. Should this be documented through careful petrographic, microprobe and tephrachronological studies, a number of related archaeological phenomena would be explained. In addition, the proposed model of volcanic activity has implications for understanding volcanism and potential volcanic hazards in Central America over a significantly longer time span than the historic period. These avenues are explored and a call for further collaborative research of this interdisciplinary problem is extended in this paper.

  9. X-ray microanalysis of volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, S L; Buse, B

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated the disruptive nature of high-level volcanic ash emissions to the world's air traffic. The chemistry of volcanic material is complex and varied. Different eruptions yield both compositional and morphological variation. Equally a single eruption, such as that in Iceland will evolve over time and may potentially produce a range of volcanic products of varying composition and morphology. This variability offers the petrologist the opportunity to derive a tracer to the origins both spatially and temporally of a single particle by means of electron microbeam analysis. EPMA of volcanic ash is now an established technique for this type of analysis as used in tephrachronology. However, airborne paniculate material may, as in the case of Eyjafjallajökull, result in a particle size that is too small and too dispersed for preparation of standard EPMA mounts. Consequently SEM-EDS techniques are preferred for this type of quantitative analysis . Results of quantitative SEM-EDS analysis yield data with a larger precision error than EPMA yet sufficient to source the original eruption. Uncoated samples analyzed using variable pressure SEM yield slightly poorer results at modest pressures.

  10. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  11. Detecting Volcanic Ash Plumes with GNSS Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Larson, K. M.; Palo, S. E.; Mattia, M.; Rossi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Roesler, C.; Fee, D.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are commonly placed near volcanic sites to measure ground deformation. In addition to the carrier phase data used to measure ground position, these receivers also record Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) data. Larson (2013) showed that attenuations in SNR data strongly correlate with ash emissions at a series of eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. This finding has been confirmed at eruptions for Tongariro, Mt Etna, Mt Shindake, and Sakurajima. In each of these detections, very expensive geodetic quality GNSS receivers were used. If low-cost GNSS instruments could be used instead, a networked array could be deployed and optimized for plume detection and tomography. The outputs of this sensor array could then be used by both local volcanic observatories and Volcano Ash Advisory Centers. Here we will describe progress in developing such an array. The sensors we are working with are intended for navigation use, and thus lack the supporting power and communications equipment necessary for a networked system. Reliably providing those features is major challenge for the overall sensor design. We have built prototypes of our Volcano Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR), with solar panels, lithium-ion batteries and onboard data storage for preliminary testing. We will present results of our field tests of both receivers and antennas. A second critical need for our array is a reliable detection algorithm. We have tested our algorithm on data from recent eruptions and have incorporated the noise characteristics of the low-cost GNSS receiver. We have also developed a simulation capability so that the receivers can be deployed to optimize vent crossing GNSS signals.

  12. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  13. Estimating Losses from Volcanic Ash in case of a Mt. Baekdu Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    We will present the preliminary result of economic losses in South Korea in case of a Mt. Baedu eruption. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption to South Korea and help government prepare for the volcanic disasters. In particular, the economic impact from volcanic ash is estimated given the distance from Mt. Baedu to South Korea. In order to scientifically estimate losses from volcanic ash, we need volcanic ash thickness, inventory database, and damage functions between ash thickness and damage ratios for each inventory item. We use the volcanic ash thickness calculated by other research groups in Korea, and they estimated the ash thickness for each eruption scenario using average wind fields. Damage functions are built using the historical damage data in the world, and inventory database is obtained from available digital maps in Korea. According to the preliminary results, the economic impact from volcanic ash is not significant because the ash is rarely deposited in South Korea under general weather conditions. However, the ash can impact human health and environment. Also worst case scenarios can have the significant economic impacts in Korea, and may result in global issues. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  14. Size limits for rounding of volcanic ash particles heated by lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W.; Genareau, Kimberly; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-03-01

    Volcanic ash particles can be remelted by the high temperatures induced in volcanic lightning discharges. The molten particles can round under surface tension then quench to produce glass spheres. Melting and rounding timescales for volcanic materials are strongly dependent on heating duration and peak temperature and are shorter for small particles than for large particles. Therefore, the size distribution of glass spheres recovered from ash deposits potentially record the short duration, high-temperature conditions of volcanic lightning discharges, which are hard to measure directly. We use a 1-D numerical solution to the heat equation to determine the timescales of heating and cooling of volcanic particles during and after rapid heating and compare these with the capillary timescale for rounding an angular particle. We define dimensionless parameters—capillary, Fourier, Stark, Biot, and Peclet numbers—to characterize the competition between heat transfer within the particle, heat transfer at the particle rim, and capillary motion, for particles of different sizes. We apply this framework to the lightning case and constrain a maximum size for ash particles susceptible to surface tension-driven rounding, as a function of lightning temperature and duration, and ash properties. The size limit agrees well with maximum sizes of glass spheres found in volcanic ash that has been subjected to lightning or experimental discharges, demonstrating that the approach that we develop can be used to obtain a first-order estimate of lightning conditions in volcanic plumes.

  15. High-precision zircon U-Pb geochronology of astronomically dated volcanic ash beds from the Mediterranean Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn Frederik; Hüsing, Silja K.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Several orbitally tuned Miocene sedimentary sequences around the Mediterranean contain abundant intercalated volcanic ash beds. These sequences provide the rare opportunity to directly compare radioisotopic dating methods with independent and accurate deposition ages derived from astrochronology. We

  16. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  17. Solid State Multiwavelength LIDAR for Volcanic Ash Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, multiwavelength LIDAR with polarization analysis capability that will be able to identify volcanic ash clouds...

  18. eVADE: Volcanic Ash Detection Raman LIDAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aircraft engine and electronics and has caused damage to unwary aircraft and disrupted air travel for thousands of travelers,...

  19. Volcanic Ash Detection Using Raman LIDAR: "VADER", Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aircraft engine and electronics and has caused damage to unwary aircraft and disrupted air travel for thousands of travelers,...

  20. Geotechnical properties of ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Jibson, R.W.; Wilson, R.C.; Buchanan-Banks, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two holes were hand augered and sampled in ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii. Color, water content and sensitivity of the ash were measured in the field. The ash alternated between reddish brown and dark reddish brown in color and had water contents as high as 392%. A downhole vane shear device measured sensitivities as high as 6.9. A series of laboratory tests including grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction analysis, total carbon determination, vane shear, direct shear and triaxial tests were performed to determine the composition and geotechnical properties of the ash. The ash is very fine grained, highly plastic and composed mostly of gibbsite and amorphous material presumably allophane. The ash has a high angle of internal friction ranging from 40-43? and is classified as medium to very sensitive. A series of different ash layers was distinguished on the basis of plasticity and other geotechnical properties. Sensitivity may be due to a metastable fabric, cementation, leaching, high organic content, and thixotropy. The sensitivity of the volcanic ash deposits near Hilo is consistent with documented slope instability during earthquakes in Hawaii. The high angles of internal friction and cementation permit very steep slopes under static conditions. However, because of high sensitivity of the ash, these slopes are particularly susceptible to seismically-induced landsliding.

  1. Impact of Volcanic Ash on Road and Airfield Surface Skid Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Blake

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash deposited on paved surfaces during volcanic eruptions often compromises skid resistance, which is a major component of safety. We adopt the British pendulum test method in laboratory conditions to investigate the skid resistance of road asphalt and airfield concrete surfaces covered by volcanic ash sourced from various locations in New Zealand. Controlled variations in ash characteristics include type, depth, wetness, particle size and soluble components. We use Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA for most road surface experiments but also test porous asphalt, line-painted road surfaces, and a roller screed concrete mix used for airfields. Due to their importance for skid resistance, SMA surface macrotexture and microtexture are analysed with semi-quantitative image analysis, microscopy and a standardised sand patch volumetric test, which enables determination of the relative effectiveness of different cleaning techniques. We find that SMA surfaces covered by thin deposits (~1 mm of ash result in skid resistance values slightly lower than those observed on wet uncontaminated surfaces. At these depths, a higher relative soluble content for low-crystalline ash and a coarser particle size results in lower skid resistance. Skid resistance results for relatively thicker deposits (3–5 mm of non-vesiculated basaltic ash are similar to those for thin deposits. There are similarities between road asphalt and airfield concrete, although there is little difference in skid resistance between bare airfield surfaces and airfield surfaces covered by 1 mm of ash. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for maintaining road safety and effective cleaning techniques in volcanic ash environments.

  2. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, A. J.; Prata, A. J.; Villarosa, G.; Rose, W. I.; Delmelle, P.; Viramonte, J.

    2012-04-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2-0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were 3 consistent particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which suggests that aggregation influenced particle settling. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Some evidence for winnowing was identified through comparison of samples collected at the time of deposition to bulk samples collected months after deposition. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. XPS analyses revealed strong surface Fe enrichments (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate analyses), which indicates that surface analysis techniques should be applied to investigate potential influences on ocean productivity in response to volcanic ash fallout over oceans. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ~42 % of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition.

  3. Improved prediction and tracking of volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Webley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the past 30??years, more than 100 airplanes have inadvertently flown through clouds of volcanic ash from erupting volcanoes. Such encounters have caused millions of dollars in damage to the aircraft and have endangered the lives of tens of thousands of passengers. In a few severe cases, total engine failure resulted when ash was ingested into turbines and coating turbine blades. These incidents have prompted the establishment of cooperative efforts by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the volcanological community to provide rapid notification of eruptive activity, and to monitor and forecast the trajectories of ash clouds so that they can be avoided by air traffic. Ash-cloud properties such as plume height, ash concentration, and three-dimensional ash distribution have been monitored through non-conventional remote sensing techniques that are under active development. Forecasting the trajectories of ash clouds has required the development of volcanic ash transport and dispersion models that can calculate the path of an ash cloud over the scale of a continent or a hemisphere. Volcanological inputs to these models, such as plume height, mass eruption rate, eruption duration, ash distribution with altitude, and grain-size distribution, must be assigned in real time during an event, often with limited observations. Databases and protocols are currently being developed that allow for rapid assignment of such source parameters. In this paper, we summarize how an interdisciplinary working group on eruption source parameters has been instigating research to improve upon the current understanding of volcanic ash cloud characterization and predictions. Improved predictions of ash cloud movement and air fall will aid in making better hazard assessments for aviation and for public health and air quality. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Variational data assimilation of satellite observations to estimate volcanic ash emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of volcanic ash, which can pose hazard to human and animal health, land transportation, and aviation safety. Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion (VATD) models are critical tools to provide advisory information and timely volcanic ash forecasts. Due to the

  5. Bubbles and Dust: Dissolution Rates of Unhydrated Volcanic Ash as a Function of Morphology, Composition, and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygel, C. M.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are natural hazards due to their explosive nature and widespread transportation and deposition of ash particles. After deposition and subsequent leaching in soils or water bodies, ash deposition positively (nutrients) and negatively (contaminants) impacts the health of flora and fauna, including humans. The effects of ash leachates have been difficult to replicate in field and laboratory studies due to the many complexities and differences between ash particles. Ash morphology is characteristic for each eruption, dependent upon eruption energy, and should play a critical role in determining leaching rates. Morphology reflects overall particle surface area, which is strongly influenced by the presence of surface dust. In addition, ash composition, which in part controls morphology and particle size, may also affect leaching rates. This study determines the extent to which ash morphology, surface area, composition, and particle size control ash dissolution rates. Further, it is necessary to determine whether compound vesicular ash particles permit water into their interior structures to understand if both the internal and external surface areas are available for leaching. To address this, six fresh, unhydrated ash samples from diverse volcanic environments and a large range in morphology, from Pele's spheres to vesicular compound ash, are tested in the laboratory. Ash morphology was characterized on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) before and after leaching and surface area was quantified by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) analysis and with geometric calculations. Column Leachate Tests (CLT) were conducted to compare leaching rates over a range of basaltic to silicic ashes as a function of time and surface area, to recreate the effects of ash deposition in diverse volcanic environments. After the CLT, post-leaching water analyses were conducted by Ion Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC). We find that leaching

  6. Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image

  7. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  8. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  9. Evaluation of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casas G, L.; Urbinsa P, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils (Andepts) was studied. Two phosphate retention solution were used; one of them labeled with 32 P carrier free. The phosphate retention solution (25 ml) was added to 5 gr of air dry soil. The remainder phosphorus in solution was measured through colorimetry and liquid scintillation. Over 85% phosphorus retention was measured in five soils. A phosphate retention solution labeled with 32 P carrier free proved to be efficient for the determination of phosphorus retention rates in the volcanic ash soils studied. (Author)

  10. STABILIZATION OF GRANULAR VOLCANIC ASH IN SANA'A AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBHI A. ALI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of compaction and strength characteristics of a Granular Volcanic Ash from Sana'a city center, which was mixed with various percentages of two binders to form a stabilized material namely; fine soil and Portland cement. The study showed a significant improvement of the Volcanic Ash properties. The maximum dry density and California bearing ration (CBR were considerably increased by addition of stabilizers at different rates for different binder contents. Optimum fine soil content for the maximum dry density and CBR is determined. A relationship between the optimum moisture content and the binder combination content for different fine soil percentages was established.

  11. A robust method to forecast volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Pavolonis, Mike; Sieglaff, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Ash clouds emanating from volcanic eruption columns often form trails of ash extending thousands of kilometers through the Earth's atmosphere, disrupting air traffic and posing a significant hazard to air travel. To mitigate such hazards, the community charged with reducing flight risk must accurately assess risk of ash ingestion for any flight path and provide robust forecasts of volcanic ash dispersal. In response to this need, a number of different transport models have been developed for this purpose and applied to recent eruptions, providing a means to assess uncertainty in forecasts. Here we provide a framework for optimal forecasts and their uncertainties given any model and any observational data. This involves random sampling of the probability distributions of input (source) parameters to a transport model and iteratively running the model with different inputs, each time assessing the predictions that the model makes about ash dispersal by direct comparison with satellite data. The results of these comparisons are embodied in a likelihood function whose maximum corresponds to the minimum misfit between model output and observations. Bayes theorem is then used to determine a normalized posterior probability distribution and from that a forecast of future uncertainty in ash dispersal. The nature of ash clouds in heterogeneous wind fields creates a strong maximum likelihood estimate in which most of the probability is localized to narrow ranges of model source parameters. This property is used here to accelerate probability assessment, producing a method to rapidly generate a prediction of future ash concentrations and their distribution based upon assimilation of satellite data as well as model and data uncertainties. Applying this method to the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, we show that the 3 and 6 h forecasts of ash cloud location probability encompassed the location of observed satellite-determined ash cloud loads, providing an

  12. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  13. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Heemink, A.; Lu, S.; Segers, A.; Weber, K.; Lin, H.X.

    2016-01-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain,

  14. Tephra stratification of volcanic ash soils in Nothern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; Hageman, J.A.; Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We combined proxies traditionally used in stratigraphic research (mineral assemblages, grain size distribution, and element ratios) with soil organic carbon contents and radiocarbon dating both at a high vertical resolution, to unravel the tephra stratigraphy in volcanic ash soils. Our results show

  15. Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne C.; Tupper, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The risks to safe and efficient air travel from volcanic-ash hazards are well documented and widely recognized. Under the aegis of the International Civil Aviation Organization, globally coordinated mitigation procedures are in place to report explosive eruptions, detect airborne ash clouds and forecast their expected movement, and issue specialized messages to warn aircraft away from hazardous airspace. This mitigation framework is based on the integration of scientific and technical capabilities worldwide in volcanology, meteorology, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, which led to a nearly week-long shutdown of air travel into and out of Europe, has prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve how hazardous airspace is defined and communicated. Volcanic ash will continue to threaten aviation and scientific research will continue to influence the risk-mitigation framework.

  16. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  17. Risks associated with volcanic ash fallout from Mt.Etna with reference to industrial filtration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Ancione, Giuseppa; Salzano, Ernesto; Maschio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The recent eruption of the Icelandic volcano has focused the worldwide attention on volcanic ash effects for the population, road, rail and air traffic and production activities. This paper aims to study of technological (industrial) accidental scenarios triggered by ash fallout and, more specifically, to define and quantify the potential damage on filtration systems. Malfunctions due to the filter clogging and service interruptions caused by the rupture of the filtering surface have been analysed in order to define the vulnerability of the equipment to such damages. Results are given in terms of threshold values of deposit on the filtering surface and exceedance probability curves of ash concentrations and the duration of the ash emission. This data can be easily implemented in the standard risk assessment with the aim to include the estimation of Natural-Technological (Na-Tech) hazards

  18. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma composition and mineralogy will directly relate to the increased dissolved element concentration of exposed waters. The measured effects on aqueous solutions will aid in evaluation of impacts to marine and freshwater systems exposed to volcanic deposits.

  19. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic ash, generated in the long-lived eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, is shown to contain respirable (sub-4 μm) particles and the crystalline silica polymorph, cristobalite. Respirable particles of cristobalite can cause silicosis, raising the possibility that volcanic ash is a respiratory health hazard. This study considers some of the main factors that affect human exposure to volcanic particles: the composition, proportions and surface reactivity of respirable ash and the composition and concentrations of re-worked and airborne suspended particulates. Dome-collapse ash-fall deposits are significantly richer in respirable particles (12 weight %) than the other tephra samples, in particular the matrices of dome-collapse pyroclastic-flow deposits (3 weight %). Within the respirable fraction, dome-collapse ash contains the highest proportion of crystalline silica particles (20-27 number %, of which 97 % is cristobalite), compared with other primary tephra types (0.4-5.6 number %). The results are explained by significant fractionation during fragmentation of pyroclastic flows due to the size and strength of particles and the selective elutriation of fines into the lofting ash plume. This result in a fines-depleted dome-collapse matrix and a fines-rich dome-collapse ash deposit. For all sample types, the sub-4 μm fraction comprises 45-55 weight % of the sub-10 μm fraction. Re-worked and airborne samples show enrichment of crystalline silica in the respirable fraction (10-18 number %) but have low proportions of respirable ash (∼ 3 weight %) compared to primary ash samples. The concentration of ash particles re-suspended by road vehicles on Montserrat is found to decrease exponentially with height above the ground, indicating higher exposure for children compared with adults: PM 4 concentration at 0.9 m (height of two year old child) is three times that at 1.8m (adult height). Surface- and free-radical production has been closely linked

  20. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-07-01

    Volcanic ash, generated in the long-lived eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, is shown to contain respirable (sub-4 {mu}m) particles and the crystalline silica polymorph, cristobalite. Respirable particles of cristobalite can cause silicosis, raising the possibility that volcanic ash is a respiratory health hazard. This study considers some of the main factors that affect human exposure to volcanic particles: the composition, proportions and surface reactivity of respirable ash and the composition and concentrations of re-worked and airborne suspended particulates. Dome-collapse ash-fall deposits are significantly richer in respirable particles (12 weight %) than the other tephra samples, in particular the matrices of dome-collapse pyroclastic-flow deposits (3 weight %). Within the respirable fraction, dome-collapse ash contains the highest proportion of crystalline silica particles (20-27 number %, of which 97 % is cristobalite), compared with other primary tephra types (0.4-5.6 number %). The results are explained by significant fractionation during fragmentation of pyroclastic flows due to the size and strength of particles and the selective elutriation of fines into the lofting ash plume. This result in a fines-depleted dome-collapse matrix and a fines-rich dome-collapse ash deposit. For all sample types, the sub-4 {mu}m fraction comprises 45-55 weight % of the sub-10 {mu}m fraction. Re-worked and airborne samples show enrichment of crystalline silica in the respirable fraction (10-18 number %) but have low proportions of respirable ash ({approx} 3 weight %) compared to primary ash samples. The concentration of ash particles re-suspended by road vehicles on Montserrat is found to decrease exponentially with height above the ground, indicating higher exposure for children compared with adults: PM{sub 4} concentration at 0.9 m (height of two year old child) is three times that at 1.8m (adult height). Surface- and free-radical production has been

  1. WSR-88D observations of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J.; Scott, C.; Schneider, D.

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions that may impact operations are summarized below: ??? Current VCPs may not be optimal for the scharacterization of volcanic events. Therefore, the development of a new VCP that combines the enhanced low level elevation density and increased temporal resolution of VCP 12 with the enhanced sensitivity of VCP 31. ??? Given currently available scan strategies, this preliminary investigation would suggest that it is advisable to use VCP 12 during the initial explosive phase of an eruptive event. Once the maximum reflectivity has dropped below 30 dBZ, VCP 31 should be used. ??? This study clearly indicates that WSR-88D Level II data offers many advantages over Level III data currently available in Alaska. The ability to access this data would open up greater opportunities for research. Given the proximity of WSR-88D platforms to active volcanoes in Alaska, as well as in the western Lower 48 states and Hawaii, radar data will likely play a major operational role when volcanic eruptions again pose a threat to life and property. The utilization of this tool to its maximum capability is vital.

  2. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenco F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA, has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  3. Using Volcanic Ash to Remove Dissolved Uranium and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cuero, Raul G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have shown that significant fractions of uranium, lead, and possibly other toxic and/or radioactive substances can be removed from an aqueous solution by simply exposing the solution, at ambient temperature, to a treatment medium that includes weathered volcanic ash from Pu'u Nene, which is a cinder cone on the Island of Hawaii. Heretofore, this specific volcanic ash has been used for an entirely different purpose: simulating the spectral properties of Martian soil. The treatment medium can consist of the volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitosan, which is a natural polymer that can be produced from seafood waste or easily extracted from fungi, some bacteria, and some algae. The medium is harmless to plants and animals and, because of the abundance and natural origin of its ingredient( s), is inexpensive. The medium can be used in a variety of ways and settings: it can be incorporated into water-filtration systems; placed in contact or mixed with water-containing solids (e.g., soils and sludges); immersed in bodies of water (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, rivers, or wells); or placed in and around nuclear power plants, mines, and farm fields.

  4. Volcanic ash modeling with the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model: quantification of offline modeling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash modeling systems are used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of volcanic ash and to generate forecasts that quantify the impacts from volcanic eruptions on infrastructures, air quality, aviation, and climate. The efficiency of response and mitigation actions is directly associated with the accuracy of the volcanic ash cloud detection and modeling systems. Operational forecasts build on offline coupled modeling systems in which meteorological variables are updated at the specified coupling intervals. Despite the concerns from other communities regarding the accuracy of this strategy, the quantification of the systematic errors and shortcomings associated with the offline modeling systems has received no attention. This paper employs the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model to quantify these errors by employing different quantitative and categorical evaluation scores. The skills of the offline coupling strategy are compared against those from an online forecast considered to be the best estimate of the true outcome. Case studies are considered for a synthetic eruption with constant eruption source parameters and for two historical events, which suitably illustrate the severe aviation disruptive effects of European (2010 Eyjafjallajökull) and South American (2011 Cordón Caulle) volcanic eruptions. Evaluation scores indicate that systematic errors due to the offline modeling are of the same order of magnitude as those associated with the source term uncertainties. In particular, traditional offline forecasts employed in operational model setups can result in significant uncertainties, failing to reproduce, in the worst cases, up to 45-70 % of the ash cloud of an online forecast. These inconsistencies are anticipated to be even more relevant in scenarios in which the meteorological conditions change rapidly in time. The outcome of this paper encourages operational groups responsible for real-time advisories for aviation to consider employing computationally

  5. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2 gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21–28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  6. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Fred; Woodhouse, Mark; Huppert, Herbert E.; Prata, Andrew; Thordarson, Thor; Carn, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  7. MODIS volcanic ash retrievals vs FALL3D transport model: a quantitative comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Folch, A.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite retrievals and transport models represents the key tools to monitor the volcanic clouds evolution. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, the real-time tracking and forecasting of volcanic clouds is key for aviation safety. Together with the security reasons also the economical consequences of a disruption of airports must be taken into account. The airport closures due to the recent Icelandic Eyjafjöll eruption caused millions of passengers to be stranded not only in Europe, but across the world. IATA (the International Air Transport Association) estimates that the worldwide airline industry has lost a total of about 2.5 billion of Euro during the disruption. Both security and economical issues require reliable and robust ash cloud retrievals and trajectory forecasting. The intercomparison between remote sensing and modeling is required to assure precise and reliable volcanic ash products. In this work we perform a quantitative comparison between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of volcanic ash cloud mass and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with the FALL3D ash dispersal model. MODIS, aboard the NASA-Terra and NASA-Aqua polar satellites, is a multispectral instrument with 36 spectral bands operating in the VIS-TIR spectral range and spatial resolution varying between 250 and 1000 m at nadir. The MODIS channels centered around 11 and 12 micron have been used for the ash retrievals through the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm and MODTRAN simulations. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles that outputs, among other variables, cloud column mass and AOD. Three MODIS images collected the October 28, 29 and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the

  8. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  9. Considerations on comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation planning of volcanic ash-fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshida, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic ash-fall is inevitable hazard throughout Japan, and causes wide range of effects due to its physical and chemical properties. Nuclear power plants in Japan face the necessity to assess the risk from volcanic ash-fall. Risk assessment of the volcanic ash-fall should include engineering solution and mitigation planning as well as the ash-fall hazard. This report points out the characteristics for reducing the various effects of volcanic ash-fall as follows. Large-scale eruptions produce prominent volcanic ash-falls that can approach power plants at a great distance. Aftermath hazards of ash-fall events, such as remobilization of fine ash particles and generation of lahars, require further assessments. The kind and extent of damages becomes greater whenever ash is wet. Wet ash requires separate assessments in contrast to dry ash. The mitigation and recovery measures at power plants involve quick cleanup operations of volcanic ash. Those operations should be prepared through comprehensive risk assessment, and by cooperation with authorities, during pre-eruption repose period. The comprehensive assessment for volcanic ash-fall hazards, however, has yet to be conducted. Development of risk communication method may result in increased implementation mitigation planning. Numerical analysis of the ash-fall hazards provides quantitative data on particle motions that can be used in the risk assessment. In order to implement the quantitative assessment method, the verification on the effect of ambient air condition to the altitude of volcanic ash cloud is necessary. We need to develop a three-dimensional model of volcanic ash cloud, and calculate motions of ash clouds under multiple conditions of ambient air. (author)

  10. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  11. Hydraulics of subaqueous ash flows as deduced from their deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2012-09-01

    Subaqueous ash flows are gravity currents consisting of a mixture of sea water and ash particles. Also called volcaniclastic turbidity currents (VTCs), they can be generated because of remobilization of pyroclastic fall deposits, which are emplaced into the sea around a volcanic island, as well as far away, during an explosive eruption. The VTC upper part is the turbulent transport system for the flow, whereas the viscous basal one is the depositional system. Typical sequences of VTC deposits are characterized by cross-laminations, planar and convolute laminations, and massive beds, which reflect the stratified nature of the flow. Here, the analysis of some VTC hydraulic parameters is presented in order to depict flow behavior and sedimentation during deposition. A reverse engineering approach is proposed, which consists of calculating hydraulic parameters by starting from deposit features. The calculated values show that a VTC is homogeneously-turbulent for most of the thickness, but is viscous at its base. First, cross-laminations are directly acquired over the rough pre-existing seafloor, then planar or convolute laminations aggrade over the newly formed substrate. Finally, fine-grained suspended particles gently settle and cap the flow deposit.

  12. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s(-1) in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s(-1). Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m(-1) during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m(-1) hr(-1) for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions.

  13. An Early-Warning System for Volcanic Ash Dispersal: The MAFALDA Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2006-12-01

    Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash is a fundamental goal in order to mitigate its potential impact on urbanized areas and transport routes surrounding explosive volcanoes. To this aim we developed an early- warning procedure named MAFALDA (Modeling And Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere). Such tool is able to quantitatively forecast the atmospheric concentration of ash as well as the ground deposition as a function of time over a 3D spatial domain.\\The main features of MAFALDA are: (1) the use of the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code VOL-CALPUFF able to describe both the rising column phase and the atmospheric dispersal as a function of weather conditions, (2) the use of high-resolution weather forecasting data, (3) the short execution time that allows to analyse a set of scenarios and (4) the web-based CGI software application (written in Perl programming language) that shows the results in a standard graphical web interface and makes it suitable as an early-warning system during volcanic crises.\\MAFALDA is composed by a computational part that simulates the ash cloud dynamics and a graphical interface for visualizing the modelling results. The computational part includes the codes for elaborating the meteorological data, the dispersal code and the post-processing programs. These produces hourly 2D maps of aerial ash concentration at several vertical levels, extension of "threat" area on air and 2D maps of ash deposit on the ground, in addition to graphs of hourly variations of column height.\\The processed results are available on the web by the graphical interface and the users can choose, by drop-down menu, which data to visualize. \\A first partial application of the procedure has been carried out for Mt. Etna (Italy). In this case, the procedure simulates four volcanological scenarios characterized by different plume intensities and uses 48-hrs weather forecasting data with a resolution of 7 km provided by the Italian Air Force.

  14. Spain as an emergency air traffic hub during volcanic air fall events? Evidence of past volcanic ash air fall over Europe during the late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Ortiz, José E.; Torres, Trino; Lowe, John J.; Menzies, Martin A.

    2010-05-01

    Past volcanic eruptions often leave visible ash layers in the geological record, for example in marine or lake sedimentary sequences. Recent developments, however, have shown that non-visible volcanic ash layers are also commonly preserved in sedimentary deposits. These augment the record of past volcanic events by demonstrating that past ash dispersals have been more numerous and widely disseminated in Europe than previously appreciated. The dispersal ‘footprints' of some large late Pleistocene European eruptions are examined here in the light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For example, the Vedde Ash which was erupted from Iceland around 12 thousand years ago, delivered distal (and non-visible) glass deposits as far south as Switzerland and as far east as the Ural Mountains in Russia, with an overall European distribution remarkably similar to the dominant tracks of the recent Eyjafjallajökull plumes. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption has demonstrated that relatively small amounts of distal volcanic ash in the atmosphere can seriously disrupt aviation activity, with attendant economic and other consequences. It has raised fundamental questions about the likelihood of larger or more prolonged volcanic activity in the near future, and the possibility of even more serious consequences than those experienced recently. Given that there are several other volcanic centres that could cause such disruption in Europe (e.g. Campania and other volcanic centres in Italy; Aegean volcanoes), a key question is whether there are parts of Europe less prone to ash plumes and which could therefore operate as emergency air traffic hubs during times of ash dispersal. Although not generated to answer this question, the recent geological record might provide a basis for seeking the answer. For example, four palaeo-records covering the time frame of 8 - 40 Ka BP that are geographically distributed across Spain have been examined for non-visible distal ash content. All four have

  15. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  16. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  17. Long term exposure to respirable volcanic ash on Montserrat: a time series simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. K.; Aspinall, W. P.; Baxter, P. J.; Searl, A.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Woo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent ash fallout from long-lived eruptions (with active phases greater than 5 years) may lead to local populations experiencing unacceptably high cumulative exposures to respirable particulate matter. Ash from Montserrat has been shown to contain significant levels of cristobalite and other reactive agents that are associated with an increased risk of developing pneumoconiosis (including silicosis) and other long-term health problems. There are a number of difficulties associated with estimating risks in populations due to uncertain and wide ranging individual exposures, change in behaviour with time and the natural variation in individual response. Present estimates of risk in workers and other population groups are simplifications based on a limited number of exposure measurements taken on Montserrat (1996-1999), and exposure-response curves from epidemiological studies of coal workers exposed to siliceous dust. In this paper we present a method for calculating the long-term cumulative exposure to cristobalite from volcanic ash by Monte Carlo simulation. Code has been written to generate synthetic time series for volcanic activity, rainfall, ash deposition and erosion to give daily ash deposit values and cristobalite fraction at a range of locations. The daily mean personal exposure for PM10 and cristobalite is obtained by sampling from a probability distribution, with distribution parameters dependent on occupation, ground deposit depth and daily weather conditions. Output from multiple runs is processed to calculate the exceedance probability for cumulative exposure over a range of occupation types, locations and exposure periods. Results are interpreted in terms of current occupational standards, and epidemiological exposure-response functions for silicosis are applied to quantify the long-term health risk. Assuming continuing volcanic activity, median risk of silicosis (profusion 1/0 or higher) for an average adult after 20 years continuous exposure is

  18. Phosphorus dynamics of representative volcanic ash soils through the use of conventional and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Parada, A.M.; Luzio, W.

    2002-01-01

    In Chile, the total extension covered by volcanic ash soils including recent and old volcanic deposits is around 5,244,400 ha. This study was carried out in 'La Araucania and Los Lagos' regions (IX and X Regions of Chile respectively), which cover approximately 2,350,000 ha. The main chemical characteristics of these soils are: very low available P (Olsen); a high P retention capacity and a high quantity of aluminum (Al) associated to a high amount of short-range order minerals. The main objective of this study was the characterization of the P dynamics of representative volcanic soils through the use of conventional and isotopic techniques. In the X Region (Los Lagos) of Chile samples from the arable layer (0-20 cm) of eleven soils (Ultisols and Andisols) were collected. Four entire soil profiles were sampled in the IX Region (Araucania). The characterization of soils was made utuilising conventional and isotopic analyses. The P retention was over 85% in all soils, except for the Metrenco soil series (Paleudult). Nevertheless, the P retention of this soil, from 72% to 79% can be also considered high for a non-volcanic ash soil. In the same way, the Al+1/2 Fe (ox) in all profiles showed high values for non-volcanic ash soils. These results indicate the great difficulty in increasing the available P in these soils, even when high rates of phosphate fertilizers are applied. The principal P-limiting factor in both regions was the P intensity factor. (author)

  19. Thermoluminescence dating. Application to the chronology of volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilleyre, T.

    1991-09-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) dating is generally used for minerals heated in the past and can be used for absolute chronology of volcanic ashes but seems limited to less than 15.000 years. The aim of the thesis is the study of thermoluminescent properties of quartz for high doses and long irradiations using the red TL peak of quartz which is situated at high temperature (about 370 deg. C) to extend the method for higher ages. A theory, based on spatial correlation between electron and hole created during the same ionization, is developed. A chapter is devoted to dosimetry because of its importance in TL dating, especially alpha scintillation counting and the influence of humidity on the determination of annual dose. Volcanic samples are dated from 10.000 to 80.000 years before present

  20. The influence of using volcanic ash and lime ash as filler on compressive strength in self compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, Rahmi; Panatap Simanjuntak, Murydrischy

    2018-03-01

    Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a technology which is developing today in which concrete solidifies by itself without using vibrator. Casting conventional concrete which has a lot of reinforcement bars sometimes finds difficulty in achieving optimal solidity. The method used to solve this problem is by using SCC technology. SCC was made by using filler, volcanic ash, and lime ash as the filling materials so that the concrete became more solid and hollow space could be filled up. The variation of using these two materials was 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the cementitious mass and using 1% of superplasticizer from cementitious material. The supporting testing was done by using the test when the concrete was still fluid and when it was solid. Malleable concrete was tested by using EFNARC 2002 standard in slump flow test, v-funnel test, l-shaped box test, and j-ring test to obtain filling ability and passing ability. In this malleable lime concrete test, there was the decrease, compared with normal SCC concrete without adding volcanic ash and lime ash. Testing was also done in solid concrete in compressive strength, tensile strength, and concrete absorption. The result of the testing showed that the optimum tensile strength in Variation 1, without volcanic ash and lime ash – with 1% of superplasticizer was 39.556 MPa, the optimum tensile strength in Variation 1, without volcanic ash and lime ash- with 1% of super-plasticizer was 3.563 MPa, while the value of optimum absorption which occurred in Variation 5 (25% of volcanic ash + 25% of lime ash + 50% of cement + 1% of superplasticizer) was 1.313%. This was caused by the addition of volcanic ash and lime ash which had high water absorption.

  1. Iron dissolution from volcanic ash in low-pH atmospheric water: a key control on volcanic iron input to the surface ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, E.; Delmelle, P.; Ayris, P. M.; Opfergelt, S.

    2012-12-01

    A low concentration of dissolved iron (Fe) limits phytoplankton growth in approximately 30% of the ocean. The input of soluble Fe to these High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions has the potential to boost primary production and thereby enhance the drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Over geological timescales, volcanic activity may alter the flux of Fe to the surface ocean and so contribute to modulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations, ultimately impacting the global climate. Ocean Fe fertilisation has also recently been found to contribute to century-scale carbon sequestration via the export of biomass to the seafloor. Atmospherically deposited volcanic ash is now increasingly seen as an intermittent source of Fe to the surface ocean. Understanding the process of Fe release from ash in solution is key for assessing the potential for ash, particularly that produced by large but rare explosive eruptions or during sustained periods of intense volcanism, to fertilise the marine environment. Previous studies have measured the release of Fe from ash in near-neutral pH solution, but the influence of interaction between ash and acidic cloud- or rainwater during transport on Fe release is poorly understood. In this study, seven volcanic ash samples ranging from tephrite to rhyolite (49-74 wt.% SiO2) were leached in pH 1 H2SO4 in batch reactors for 336 h, at a 1:500 ash-to-solution ratio, to investigate Fe release under acidic conditions. Major element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) across a time series of ash leachates. Changes in ash surface composition induced by contact with acid solution were assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in ash leachates was also determined for the first time, using the Ferrozine method. The ash samples released 42 to 411 μmol m-2 of Fe over 336 h of leaching. High initial Fe release rates (>1 μmol m-2 h-1) sustained for up

  2. Volcanic ash supply to the surface ocean – remote sensing of biological responses and their wider biogeochemical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Browning

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient micronutrient enrichment of the surface ocean can enhance phytoplankton growth rates and alter microbial community structure with an ensuing spectrum of biogeochemical feedbacks. Strong phytoplankton responses to micronutrients supplied by volcanic ash have been reported recently. Here we: (i synthesize findings from these recent studies; (ii report the results of a new remote sensing study of ash fertilization; and (iii calculate theoretical bounds of ash-fertilized carbon export. Our synthesis highlights that phytoplankton responses to ash do not always simply mimic that of iron amendment; the exact mechanisms for this are likely biogeochemically important but are not yet well understood. Inherent optical properties of ash-loaded seawater suggest rhyolitic ash biases routine satellite chlorophyll-a estimation upwards by more than an order of magnitude for waters with 0.5 mg chlorophyll-a m-3. For this reason post-ash-deposition chlorophyll-a changes in oligotrophic waters detected via standard Case 1 (open ocean algorithms should be interpreted with caution. Remote sensing analysis of historic events with a bias less than a factor of 2 provided limited stand-alone evidence for ash-fertilization. Confounding factors were poor coverage, incoherent ash dispersal, and ambiguity ascribing biomass changes to ash supply over other potential drivers. Using current estimates of iron release and carbon export efficiencies, uncertainty bounds of ash-fertilized carbon export for 3 events are presented. Patagonian iron supply to the Southern Ocean from volcanic eruptions is less than that of windblown dust on thousand year timescales but can dominate supply at shorter timescales. Reducing uncertainties in remote sensing of phytoplankton response and nutrient release from ash are avenues for enabling assessment of the oceanic response to large-scale transient nutrient enrichment.

  3. Statistical analysis of dispersal and deposition patterns of volcanic emissions from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P.; Takemi, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iguchi, Masato; Jenkins, Susanna F.

    2018-04-01

    With the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) in 2010, interest in the transport of volcanic ash after moderate to major eruptions has increased with regards to both the physical and the emergency hazard management aspects. However, there remain significant gaps in the understanding of the long-term behaviour of emissions from volcanoes with long periods of activity. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan) provides us with a rare opportunity to study such activity, due to its eruptive behaviour and dense observation network. In the 6-year period from 2009 to 2015, the volcano was erupting at an almost constant rate introducing approximately 500 kt of ash per month to the atmosphere. The long-term characteristics of the transport and deposition of ash and SO2 in the area surrounding the volcano are studied here using daily surface observations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and SO2 and monthly ashfall values. Results reveal different dispersal patterns for SO2 and volcanic ash, suggesting volcanic emissions' separation in the long-term. Peak SO2 concentrations at different locations on the volcano vary up to 2 orders of magnitude and decrease steeply with distance. Airborne volcanic ash increases SPM concentrations uniformly across the area surrounding the volcano, with distance from the vent having a secondary effect. During the period studied here, the influence of volcanic emissions was identifiable both in SO2 and SPM concentrations which were, at times, over the recommended exposure limits defined by the Japanese government, European Union and the World Health Organisation. Depositional patterns of volcanic ash exhibit elements of seasonality, consistent with previous studies. Climatological and topographic effects are suspected to impact the deposition of volcanic ash away from the vent: for sampling stations located close to complex topographical elements, sharp changes in the deposition patterns were observed, with ash deposits for neighbouring stations as close as

  4. Selective extraction methods for aluminium, iron and organic carbon from montane volcanic ash soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Tonneijck, F.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle. Given the central role of Al and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils, we assessed various extraction methods of Al, Fe, and

  5. Juvenile tree growth on some volcanic ash soils disturbed by prior forest harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Geist; John W. Hazard; Kenneth W. Seidel

    2008-01-01

    The effects of mechanical disturbance from traditional ground-based logging and site preparation on volcanic ash soil and associated tree growth were investigated by using two study approaches in a retrospective study. This research was conducted on volcanic ash soils within previously harvested units in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southwest Washington....

  6. Estimation of volcanic ash emissions using trajectory-based 4D-Var data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lin, X.; Heemink, A.W.; Fu, G.; Segers, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic ash forecasting is a crucial tool in hazard assessment and operational volcano monitoring. Emission parameters such as plume height, total emission mass, and vertical distribution of the emission plume rate are essential and important in the implementation of volcanic ash models. Therefore,

  7. The Source of Volcanic Ash in Late Classic Maya Pottery at El Pilar, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, B. L.; Ford, A.; Spera, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of volcanic ash used as temper in Late Classic Maya pottery (AD 600-900) at El Pilar has been long known although the volcano(s) contributing ash have not been identified. We use geochemical fingerprinting, comparing compositions of glass shards in potsherds with volcanic sources to identify the source(s). El Pilar is located in the Maya carbonate lowlands distant from volcanic sources. It is unlikely Maya transported ash from distant sites: ash volumes are too large, the terrain too rugged, and no draft animals were available. Ash layer mining is unlikely because mine sites have not been found despite intensive surveys. Nearest volcanic sources to El Pilar, Belize and Guatemala, are roughly 450 km to the south and east. The ash found in potsherds has a cuspate morphology. This suggests ash was collected during, or shortly after, an ash airfall event following eruption. Analyses of n=333 ash shards from 20 ceramic (pottery) sherds was conducted by electron microprobe for major elements, and LA-ICPMS for trace elements and Pb isotopes. These analyses can be compared to volcanic materials from candidate volcanoes in the region. The 1982 El Chichon eruption caused airfall deposition (archaeological samples and El Chichon has been made. The atomic ratios of La/Yb, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, Sr/Ba and Th/U of n=215 glass shards in the potsherds are 12.2±7.1, 10.9±3.4, 31.2±11.5, 0.09±0.05 and 2.5±0.9, respectively. These ratios for 1982 El Chichon are 15.4±2.1, 26.3, 36.1±5.3, 1.4±0.06 and 3.16, respectively. Data for the 1475 AD El Chichon eruption (Macias et al, 2003) can also be compared; the ratios from are 13.2±2.2, 7.3±1.8, 30.4±9.6, 1.51±0.4 and 2.88±0.23, respectively. The mean 208Pb/206Pb ratio of n=5 potsherds is 2.0523±0.002 compared to 2.0514±0.00074 for n=7 samples from El Chichon. The two most recent eruptions from El Chichon overlap with the potsherd glass data except for Sr/Ba, which might be modified by Sr-Ca exchange during firing. In

  8. Aircraft and Volcanic Ash a Key Focus of EGU Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-05-01

    The erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland, which has intermittently disrupted European air traffic since 14 April, provided a dramatic backdrop for the recent European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, about 2700 kilometers to the east. EGU organized several last-minute conference sessions about the eruption, and a number of scientists, including some from Iceland, discussed the latest situation, monitoring and assessment needs, and new guidance about flying through volcanic ash, which volcanologist and incoming EGU president-elect Donald Dingwell of the University of Munich, Germany, called “one of the ugliest cocktails nature throws up.” Although the eruption was small compared with those at Mount St. Helens in 1980 or Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the event produced an estimated 0.1 ± 0.05 cubic kilometer of tephra between 14 and 16 April, according to preliminary numbers from the Institute of Earth Sciences in Reykjavik, Iceland (see the related news item in this issue). An enormous amount of ash from the eruption got lofted into the jet stream toward the United Kingdom and the European mainland. European air traffic controllers, operating under the best guidance and guidelines available at that time—which indicated no flying in ash—shut down European air space to avoid a potential catastrophe if ash clogged up an aircraft's engines.

  9. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  10. Optimal likelihood-based matching of volcanic sources and deposits in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Emily; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In monogenetic volcanic fields, where each eruption forms a new volcano, focusing and migration of activity over time is a very real possibility. In order for hazard estimates to reflect future, rather than past, behavior, it is vital to assemble as much reliable age data as possible on past eruptions. Multiple swamp/lake records have been extracted from the Auckland Volcanic Field, underlying the 1.4 million-population city of Auckland. We examine here the problem of matching these dated deposits to the volcanoes that produced them. The simplest issue is separation in time, which is handled by simulating prior volcano age sequences from direct dates where known, thinned via ordering constraints between the volcanoes. The subproblem of varying deposition thicknesses (which may be zero) at five locations of known distance and azimuth is quantified using a statistical attenuation model for the volcanic ash thickness. These elements are combined with other constraints, from widespread fingerprinted ash layers that separate eruptions and time-censoring of the records, into a likelihood that was optimized via linear programming. A second linear program was used to optimize over the Monte-Carlo simulated set of prior age profiles to determine the best overall match and consequent volcano age assignments. Considering all 20 matches, and the multiple factors of age, direction, and size/distance simultaneously, results in some non-intuitive assignments which would not be produced by single factor analyses. Compared with earlier work, the results provide better age control on a number of smaller centers such as Little Rangitoto, Otuataua, Taylors Hill, Wiri Mountain, Green Hill, Otara Hill, Hampton Park and Mt Cambria. Spatio-temporal hazard estimates are updated on the basis of the new ordering, which suggest that the scale of the 'flare-up' around 30 ka, while still highly significant, was less than previously thought.

  11. Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera, E-mail: jcervini@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Cuajimalpa, México City (Mexico); Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nieto-Camacho, Antonio [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Gomez-Vidales, Virginia [Laboratorio de Resonancia Paramagnética Electrónica, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención [Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Kaufhold, Stephan [BGR Bundesansaltfür Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Respirable volcanic ash induces oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes. • Respirable volcanic ash triggers cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. • Oxidative stress is surface controlled but not restricted by surface- Fe{sup 3+}. • Surface Fe{sup 3+} acts as a stronger inductor in allophanes vs phyllosilicates or oxides. • Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%. - Abstract: This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe{sup 3+}, and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot{sup −1}. LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe{sup 3+}, because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe{sup 3+} soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe{sup 3+} or small-sized Fe{sup 3+} refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe{sup 3+} located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell

  12. Geoethics implications in volcanic hazards in Argentina: 24 years of uninterrupted ash-fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.; Uber, Silvia M.; Vázquez Herrera, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of falling ash reaches all human activities, has effects on human and animal health and is subject to climate and ecosystem of the affected regions. From 1991 until 2015 (24 years), more than 5 eruptions with VEI ≥ 4 in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes occurred; pyroclastic, dust and volcanic ash were deposited (mostly) in Argentina. A recurring situation during eruptions of Hudson (1991), Chaiten (2008), Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (2011) and Calbuco (2015) volcanoes was the accumulation, storage and dump of volcanic ash in depressed areas, beaches, lakes, ditches, storm drains, areas of landfills and transfer stations. The issues that this practice has taken are varied: pollution of aquifers, changes in geomorphology and water courses, usually in "inconspicuous" zones, often in places where there are precarious population or high poverty settlements. The consequences are not immediate but the effects in the mid and long term bring serious drawbacks. On the contrary, a good example of intelligent management of the volcanic impact occurred many years before, during the eruption of Descabezado Grande (Quizapu) volcano in 1932. In that case, and as an example, the city of Trenque Lauquen, located nearly 770 km east of the volcano, decided a communitarian task of collection and burial of the ashfall in small areas, this was a very successful performance. The Quizapu ash plumes transported by the Westerlies (winds) covered with a blanket of volcanic ash the city, ashfall also reached the capital cities of Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay (Montevideo). Also, the bagging process of volcanic ash with reinforced plastics was an example of Good Practice in the management of the emergency. This allowed the entire affected community to take advantage of this "mineral resource" and contributes to achieving collective and participatory work leading to commercialization and sustainability of these products availed as fertilizers, granular base for ceramics and

  13. Episodic eruptions of volcanic ash trigger a reversible cascade of nuisance species outbreaks in pristine coral habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schils

    Full Text Available Volcanically active islands abound in the tropical Pacific and harbor complex coral communities. Whereas lava streams and deep ash deposits are well-known to devastate coral communities through burial and smothering, little is known about the effect of moderate amounts of small particulate ash deposits on reef communities. Volcanic ash contains a diversity of chemical compounds that can induce nutrient enrichments triggering changes in benthic composition. Two independently collected data sets on the marine benthos of the pristine and remote reefs around Pagan Island, Northern Mariana Islands, reveal a sudden critical transition to cyanobacteria-dominated communities in 2009-2010, which coincides with a period of continuous volcanic ash eruptions. Concurrently, localized outbreaks of the coral-killing cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota displayed a remarkable symbiosis with filamentous cyanobacteria, which supported the rapid overgrowth of massive coral colonies and allowed the sponge to colonize substrate types from which it has not been documented before. The chemical composition of tephra from Pagan indicates that the outbreak of nuisance species on its reefs might represent an early succession stage of iron enrichment (a.k.a. "black reefs" similar to that caused by anthropogenic debris like ship wrecks or natural events like particulate deposition from wildfire smoke plumes or desert dust storms. Once Pagan's volcanic activity ceased in 2011, the cyanobacterial bloom disappeared. Another group of well-known nuisance algae in the tropical Pacific, the pelagophytes, did not reach bloom densities during this period of ash eruptions but new species records for the Northern Mariana Islands were documented. These field observations indicate that the study of population dynamics of pristine coral communities can advance our understanding of the resilience of tropical reef systems to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  14. Episodic eruptions of volcanic ash trigger a reversible cascade of nuisance species outbreaks in pristine coral habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Volcanically active islands abound in the tropical Pacific and harbor complex coral communities. Whereas lava streams and deep ash deposits are well-known to devastate coral communities through burial and smothering, little is known about the effect of moderate amounts of small particulate ash deposits on reef communities. Volcanic ash contains a diversity of chemical compounds that can induce nutrient enrichments triggering changes in benthic composition. Two independently collected data sets on the marine benthos of the pristine and remote reefs around Pagan Island, Northern Mariana Islands, reveal a sudden critical transition to cyanobacteria-dominated communities in 2009-2010, which coincides with a period of continuous volcanic ash eruptions. Concurrently, localized outbreaks of the coral-killing cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota displayed a remarkable symbiosis with filamentous cyanobacteria, which supported the rapid overgrowth of massive coral colonies and allowed the sponge to colonize substrate types from which it has not been documented before. The chemical composition of tephra from Pagan indicates that the outbreak of nuisance species on its reefs might represent an early succession stage of iron enrichment (a.k.a. "black reefs") similar to that caused by anthropogenic debris like ship wrecks or natural events like particulate deposition from wildfire smoke plumes or desert dust storms. Once Pagan's volcanic activity ceased in 2011, the cyanobacterial bloom disappeared. Another group of well-known nuisance algae in the tropical Pacific, the pelagophytes, did not reach bloom densities during this period of ash eruptions but new species records for the Northern Mariana Islands were documented. These field observations indicate that the study of population dynamics of pristine coral communities can advance our understanding of the resilience of tropical reef systems to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  15. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  16. Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the respiratory toxicity of volcanic ash in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David E.; Ayris, Paul M.; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to inhalable volcanic ash particles following an eruption is a health concern, as respirable-sized particles can potentially contribute towards adverse respiratory health effects, such as the onset or exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although there is substantial information on the mineralogical properties of volcanic ash that may influence its biological reactivity, knowledge as to how external factors, such as air pollution, contribute to and augment the potential reactivity is limited. To determine the respiratory effects of volcanic particle interactions with anthropogenic pollution and volcanic gases we will experimentally assess: (i) physicochemical characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to respiratory toxicity; (ii) the effects of simultaneously inhaling anthropogenic pollution (i.e. diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) and volcanic ash (of different origins); (iii) alteration of volcanic ash toxicity following interaction with volcanic gases. In order to gain a first understanding of the biological impact of the respirable fraction of volcanic ash when inhaled with DEP in vitro, we used a sophisticated 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier. The multi-cellular system was exposed to DEP [0.02 mg/mL] and then exposed to either a single or repeated dose of well-characterised respirable volcanic ash (0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 hours using a pseudo-air liquid interface approach. Cultures were subsequently assessed for adverse biological endpoints including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and (pro)-inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the combination of DEP and respirable volcanic ash at sub-lethal concentrations incited a significant release of pro-inflammatory markers that was greater than the response for either DEP or volcanic ash, independently. Further work is planned, to determine if

  17. Sustained effects of volcanic ash on biofilm stoichiometry, enzyme activity and community composition in North- Patagonia streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Uara; Díaz-Villanueva, Verónica; Modenutti, Beatriz

    2018-04-15

    Volcanic eruptions are extreme perturbations that affect ecosystems. These events can also produce persistent effects in the environment for several years after the eruption, with increased concentrations of suspended particles and the introduction of elements in the water column. On 4th June 2011, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (40.59°S-72.11°W, 2200m.a.s.l.) erupted explosively in southern Chile. The area affected by the volcano was devastated; a thick layer of volcanic ash (up to 30cm) was deposited in areas 50 km east of the volcano towards Argentina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of volcanic ash deposits on stream ecosystems four years after the eruption, comparing biofilm stoichiometry, alkaline phosphatase activity, and primary producer's assemblage in streams which were severely affected by the volcano with unaffected streams. We confirmed in the laboratory that ash deposited in the catchment of affected streams still leach phosphorus (P) into the water four years after eruption. Results indicate that affected streams still receive volcanic particles and that these particles release P, thus stream water exhibits high P concentration. Biofilm P content was higher and the C:P ratio lower in affected streams compared to unaffected streams. As a consequence of less P in unaffected streams, the alkaline phosphatase activity was higher compared to affected streams. Cyanobacteria increased their abundances (99.9% of total algal biovolume) in the affected streams suggesting that the increase in P may positively affect this group. On the contrary, unaffected streams contained a diatom dominant biofilm. In this way, local heterogeneity was created between sub-catchments located within 30 km of each other. These types of events should be seen as opportunities to gather valuable ecological information about how severe disturbances, like volcanic eruptions, shape landscapes and lotic systems for several years after the event

  18. Experimental study on the effect of calcination on the volcanic ash activity of diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The volcanic ash activity of diatomite was studied under the conditions of aerobic calcination and vacuum calcination by the combined water rate method, it was characterized by XRD, BET and SEM. The results showed that the volcanic ash activity of diatomite under vacuum conditions was higher than that of aerobic calcination, 600°C vacuum calcination 2h, the combined water rate of diatomite-Ca(OH)2-H2O system was increased from 6.24% to 71.43%, the volcanic ash activity reached the maximum value, the specific surface

  19. Formation, Sintering and Removal of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi

    conditions in laboratory-scale setups. Deposit formation was simulated in an Entrained Flow Reactor, to investigate the effect of operating conditions and ash chemistry on the rate of deposit formation. Experiments were performed using model biomass fly ash, prepared from mixtures of K2Si4O9, KCl, K2SO4, Ca....... Moreover, biomass ash deposits may cause severe corrosion of boiler surfaces. Therefore, reducing deposit formation and timely deposit removal are essential for optimal boiler operation. The formation, sintering and removal of boiler deposits has been investigated in this PhD project, by simulating boiler...... temperature increased the sticking probability of the fly ash particles/deposit surface, thereby increasing the rate of deposit formation. However, increasing flue gas velocity resulted in a decrease in the deposit formation rate, due to increased particle rebound. Furthermore, it was observed...

  20. In vitro toxicology of respirable Montserrat volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M R; Stone, V; Cullen, R T; Searl, A; Maynard, R L; Donaldson, K

    2000-11-01

    In July 1995 the Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat began to erupt. Preliminary reports showed that the ash contained a substantial respirable component and a large percentage of the toxic silica polymorph, cristobalite. In this study the cytotoxicity of three respirable Montserrat volcanic ash (MVA) samples was investigated: M1 from a single explosive event, M2 accumulated ash predominantly derived from pyroclastic flows, and M3 from a single pyroclastic flow. These were compared with the relatively inert dust TiO(2) and the known toxic quartz dust, DQ12. Surface area of the particles was measured with the Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET) adsorption method and cristobalite content of MVA was determined by x ray diffraction (XRD). After exposure to particles, the metabolic competence of the epithelial cell line A549 was assessed to determine cytotoxic effects. The ability of the particles to induce sheep blood erythrocyte haemolysis was used to assess surface reactivity. Treatment with either MVA, quartz, or titanium dioxide decreased A549 epithelial cell metabolic competence as measured by ability to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). On addition of mannitol, the cytotoxic effect was significantly less with M1, quartz, and TiO(2). All MVA samples induced a dose dependent increase in haemolysis, which, although less than the haemolysis induced by quartz, was significantly greater than that induced by TiO(2). Addition of mannitol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly reduced the haemolytic activity only of M1, but not M2 or M3, the samples derived from predominantly pyroclastic flow events. Neither the cristobalite content nor the surface area of the MVA samples correlated with observed in vitro reactivity. A role for reactive oxygen species could only be shown in the cytotoxicity of M1, which was the only sample derived from a purely explosive event. These results suggest that in general the

  1. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Volcanic Ash Impacts on Air Traffic from the 2009 Mt. Redoubt Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Matus, A. V.; Hudnall, L. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Haynes, J. A.; Pippin, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The dispersion of volcanic ash during the March 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt created the potential for major problems for aviation. Mt. Redoubt is located 110 km west-southwest of Alaska Airlines hub in Anchorage. It last erupted in 1990 and caused an estimated $101 million cost to the aviation industry (Waythomas, 1998). This study was conducted to assist in improving warning systems, policy and procedures for addressing the impact of volcanic ash on aviation. The study had two primary components. First, the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion was determined through analysis of synoptic meteorological conditions and satellite imagery. Second, impacts on aviation from the volcanic ash dispersion were investigated. OMI SO2 column measurements were employed to assess the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion of volcanic ash. To accomplish this, OMI data were assimilated with CALIPSO backscatter profiles, geopotential height plots, and HYSPLIT forward model trajectories. Volcanic Ash Advisories were compared to airport and pilot reports to assess aviation impacts. The eruption produced a complex dispersion of volcanic ash. Volcanic ash altitudes estimated for 23 March 2009 indicate that the majority of the plume remained at approximately 8 km, although reports indicate that the initial plume may have reached as high as18 km (60,000 ft). A low pressure system which passed over the eruption area appears to have entrained most of the ash at approximately 8 km, however the CALIPSO satellite indicates that dispersion also extended to 10 km and 16 km. Atmospheric patterns suggest dispersion at approximately 3 km near Hudson Bay. Analysis of 25 March 2009 indicates that much of the ash plume was dispersed at higher altitudes, where CALIPSO data locates the stratospheric ash plume at approximately 14 km above mean sea level. By the time the eruptions had subsided in April, Alaska Airlines had cancelled 295 flights and disrupted the flights of over 20,000 passengers. This

  3. Volcanic ash dosage calculator: A proof-of-concept tool to support aviation stakeholders during ash events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Prata, A.; Shine, K. P.; Irvine, E.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic ash clouds produced by Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 resulted in `no fly zones' which paralysed European aircraft activity and cost the airline industry an estimated £1.1 billion. In response to the crisis, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), in collaboration with Rolls Royce, produced the `safe-to-fly' chart. As ash concentrations are the primary output of dispersion model forecasts, the chart was designed to illustrate how engine damage progresses as a function of ash concentration. Concentration thresholds were subsequently derived based on previous ash encounters. Research scientists and aircraft manufactures have since recognised the importance of volcanic ash dosages; the accumulated concentration over time. Dosages are an improvement to concentrations as they can be used to identify pernicious situations where ash concentrations are acceptably low but the exposure time is long enough to cause damage to aircraft engines. Here we present a proof-of-concept volcanic ash dosage calculator; an innovative, web-based research tool, developed in close collaboration with operators and regulators, which utilises interactive data visualisation to communicate the uncertainty inherent in dispersion model simulations and subsequent dosage calculations. To calculate dosages, we use NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) to simulate several Icelandic eruption scenarios, which result in tephra dispersal across the North Atlantic, UK and Europe. Ash encounters are simulated based on flight-optimal routes derived from aircraft routing software. Key outputs of the calculator include: the along-flight dosage, exposure time and peak concentration. The design of the tool allows users to explore the key areas of uncertainty in the dosage calculation and to visualise how this changes as the planned flight path is varied. We expect that this research will result in better informed decisions from key stakeholders during

  4. Insights into the Toba Super-Eruption using SEM Analysis of Ash Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, E.; Achyuthan, H.; Durant, A. J.; Gibbard, P.; Mokhtar, S.; Oppenheimer, C.; Raj, R.; Shridar, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ~74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) super-eruption of Toba volcano, Northern Sumatra, was the largest eruption of the Quaternary (magnitude M= 8.8) and injected massive quantities of volcanic gases and ash into the stratosphere. YTT deposits covered at least 40,000,000 km2 of Southeast Asia and are preserved in river valleys across peninsular India and Malaysia, and in deep-sea tephra layers in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and South China Sea. Initial studies hypothesized the eruption caused immediate and substantial global cooling during the ~ 1 kyr between Dansgaard-Oeschger events 19 and 20 which devastated ecosystems and hominid populations. A more recent review argues against severe post-YTT climatic deterioration and cannot find clear evidence for considerable impacts on ecosystems or bio-diversity. The determination of the eruptive parameters is crucial in this issue to document the eruption and understand the potential impacts from future super-volcanic eruptions. Volcanic ash deposits can offer dramatic insights into key eruptive parameters, including magnitude, duration and plume height. The composition and shape of volcanic ashes can be used to interpret physical properties of an erupting magma and tephra transport, while textural characteristics such as grain roughness and surface vescicularity can provide insights into degassing history, volatile content and explosive activity of the volcano. We present a stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of YTT deposits in stratified contexts at three localities in India, at two sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and at several localities around Lake Toba and on Samosir Island, Sumatra. These sites offer excellent constraints on the spatial distribution of YTT deposits which can be used to infer dispersal directions of the cloud, and provide insights into environmental controls on preservation of tephra beds. The research aims at a systematic interpretation of the Toba tephra to understand the volcanic

  5. The phosphorus status of andisols as influenced by nanoparticles of volcanic ash and rock phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnita, Rina; Joy, Benny; Arifin, Mahfud; Setiawan, Ade; Rosniawaty, Santi; Meidina, Felia Shella

    2018-02-01

    Andisols need to be ameliorated to improve the phosphorus status. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of nanoparticles of volcanic ash and rock phosphate as ameliorants in Andisols to P-retention, available P and potential P in Andisols. The research used a complete randomized experimental design in factorial with two factors. The first factor was nanoparticle of volcanic ash (a) and the second factor was rock phosphate (p). Both ameliorants consist of four doses on soil weight percentage (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%). The combined treatments were replicated three times. The soil and treatments were mixed and incubated for 4 months. Soil samples were taken after one month and four months of incubation to be analyzed the P-retention, available P and potential P. The results showed that there are interactions between the volcanic ash and rock phosphate on available P and potential P after one month of incubation. However, there were no interactions occurring between the volcanic ash and rock phosphate on P-retention after one and four months of incubation and no interactions on available P and potential P after four months. The best combined treatments in increasing available P and potential P after one month was obtained in 2.5% of volcanic ash and 5% of rock phosphate that increased available P to 405.75 ppm. The 2.5% of volcanic ash and 7.5% of rock phosphate increased potential P to 2190.26 mg/100 g. Independently, 7.5% of volcanic ash and rock phosphate decreased P-retention to 71.49% after one month and 89.74% after four months. Higher effect on the application of nanoparticle of volcanic ash and rock phosphate to the phosphorus status of Andisols recieved after one month of incubation is compared with four months of incubation.

  6. FINE-GRAINED THE FIBER CONCRETE WITH APPLICATION VOLCANIC ASH, REINFORCED BY THE BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dzugulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of fine-grained concrete with the application of volcanic ash are developed. Are investigated compositions and properties of fine-grained fiber concrete with the volcanic ash with the application of methods of the mathematical planning of experiment. It is revealed, that the reinforcement of finegrained concrete by basaltic fibers substantially increases their strength with the bend. 

  7. Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid onto Volcanic Ash Soils:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Mon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the linear adsorption coefficient (Kd for soils plays a vital role to predict fate and transport of pesticides in the soil-water environment. In this study, we measured Kd values for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D adsorption onto Japanese volcanic ash soils with different amount of soil organic matter (SOM in batch experiments under different pH conditions. All measurements followed well both linear and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Strong correlations were found between measured Kd values and pH as well as SOM. The 2,4-D adsorption increased with decreasing pH and with increasing SOM. Based on the data, a predictive Kd equation for volcanic ash soils, log (Kd = 2.04 - 0.37 pH + 0.91 log (SOM, was obtained by the multiple regression analysis. The predictive Kd equation was tested against measured 2,4-D sorption data for other volcanic ash soils and normal mineral soils from literature. The proposed Kd equation well predicted Kd values for other volcanic ash soils and slightly over- or under-predicted Kd values for normal mineral soils. The proposed Kd equation performed well against volcanic ash soils from different sites and countries, and is therefore recommended for predicting Kd values at different pH and SOM conditions for volcanic ash soils when calculating and predicting 2,4-D mobility and fate in soil and groundwater.

  8. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  9. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Mangan

    Full Text Available Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  10. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T P; Atkinson, J D; Neuberg, J W; O'Sullivan, D; Wilson, T W; Whale, T F; Neve, L; Umo, N S; Malkin, T L; Murray, B J

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  11. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.D.; Cunningham, C.G.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Romberger, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO 2 hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 200 0 C (392 0 F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta 34 S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited

  12. Some aspects of volcanic ash layers in the Central Indian Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, N.P.; Banerjee, R.; Borole, D.V.; Gupta, S.M.

    Intercalated volcanic ash layers in two deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Basin (CIB) are examined for the possibility of an in situ source of suboceanic volcanism. An in situ source has been predicated based on the bottom...

  13. Scattering matrices of volcanic ash particles of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, and Mount Spurr Volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J.W.; Veihelmann, B.; Zande, W.J. van der; Waters, L.; Rose, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    [1] We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3degrees - 174degrees of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic

  14. Scattering matrices of volcanic ash particles of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, and Mount Spurr Volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J.W.; Veihelmann, B.; van der Zande, W.J.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Rose, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°-174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980

  15. A Bayesian method to rank different model forecasts of the same volcanic ash cloud: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Webley, P.; Mastin, Larry G.; Schwaiger, Hans F.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions often spew fine ash high into the atmosphere, where it is carried downwind, forming long ash clouds that disrupt air traffic and pose a hazard to air travel. To mitigate such hazards, the community studying ash hazards must assess risk of ash ingestion for any flight path and provide robust and accurate forecasts of volcanic ash dispersal. We provide a quantitative and objective method to evaluate the efficacy of ash dispersal estimates from different models, using Bayes theorem to assess the predictions that each model makes about ash dispersal. We incorporate model and measurement uncertainty and produce a posterior probability for model input parameters. The integral of the posterior over all possible combinations of model inputs determines the evidence for each model and is used to compare models. We compare two different types of transport models, an Eulerian model (Ash3d) and a Langrangian model (PUFF), as applied to the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. The evidence for each model benefits from common physical characteristics of ash dispersal from an eruption column and provides a measure of how well each model forecasts cloud transport. Given the complexity of the wind fields, we find that the differences between these models depend upon the differences in the way the models disperse ash into the wind from the source plume. With continued observation, the accuracy of the estimates made by each model increases, increasing the efficacy of each model’s ability to simulate ash dispersal.

  16. Effect of interfacial properties on mechanical stability of ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ontiveros-Ortega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the cohesion of volcanic ash particles using surface free energy determination and zeta potential analyses. This is a subject of great interest in physical volcanology, as many researches on volcanic particle aggregation are frequently reported. In this case, special attention is paid to the role of structural or hydration forces between hydrophilic surfaces, which are a consequence of the electron-donor/electron-acceptor character of the interface. From this point of view, the results are potentially interesting as they could give valuable insights into this process. The results are presented in terms of the total energy of interaction between dispersed particles, computed from the extended DLVO theory. Contributions to the total free energy of interaction were determined from the zeta potential and surface free energy of ash, measured under different experimental conditions. Two samples of basaltic volcanic ash (black and white with silica contents of 44% and 63% respectively are studied. The surface free energy and zeta potential were analysed for ashes immersed in different electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl3. The presence of electrolytes changes the surface properties of the solid materials. The analysis of total interaction energy between the ash particles in aqueous medium shows that soil cohesion strongly depends on ash surface properties, chemical nature, the adsorbed cation on the surface, and pH value.

  17. The Global Framework for Providing Information about Volcanic-Ash Hazards to International Air Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R. W.; Guffanti, M.

    2009-12-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) created the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) in 1987 to establish a requirement for international dissemination of information about airborne ash hazards to safe air navigation. The IAVW is a set of operational protocols and guidelines that member countries agree to follow in order to implement a global, multi-faceted program to support the strategy of ash-cloud avoidance. Under the IAVW, the elements of eruption reporting, ash-cloud detecting, and forecasting expected cloud dispersion are coordinated to culminate in warnings sent to air traffic controllers, dispatchers, and pilots about the whereabouts of ash clouds. Nine worldwide Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) established under the IAVW have the responsibility for detecting the presence of ash in the atmosphere, primarily by looking at imagery from civilian meteorological satellites, and providing advisories about the location and movement of ash clouds to aviation meteorological offices and other aviation users. Volcano Observatories also are a vital part of the IAVW, as evidenced by the recent introduction of a universal message format for reporting the status of volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to aviation users. Since 2003, the IAVW has been overseen by a standing group of scientific, technical, and regulatory experts that assists ICAO in the development of standards and other regulatory material related to volcanic ash. Some specific problems related to the implementation of the IAVW include: the lack of implementation of SIGMET (warning to aircraft in flight) provisions and delayed notifications of volcanic eruptions. Expected future challenges and developments involve the improvement in early notifications of volcanic eruptions, the consolidation of the issuance of SIGMETs, and the possibility of determining a “safe” concentration of volcanic ash.

  18. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Improving volcanic ash predictions with the HYSPLIT dispersion model by assimilating MODIS satellite retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Crawford, Alice; Stunder, Barbara; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) runs the HYSPLIT dispersion model with a unit mass release rate to predict the transport and dispersion of volcanic ash. The model predictions provide information for the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) to issue advisories to meteorological watch offices, area control centers, flight information centers, and others. This research aims to provide quantitative forecasts of ash distributions generated by objectively and optimally estimating the volcanic ash source strengths, vertical distribution, and temporal variations using an observation-modeling inversion technique. In this top-down approach, a cost functional is defined to quantify the differences between the model predictions and the satellite measurements of column-integrated ash concentrations weighted by the model and observation uncertainties. Minimizing this cost functional by adjusting the sources provides the volcanic ash emission estimates. As an example, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite retrievals of the 2008 Kasatochi volcanic ash clouds are used to test the HYSPLIT volcanic ash inverse system. Because the satellite retrievals include the ash cloud top height but not the bottom height, there are different model diagnostic choices for comparing the model results with the observed mass loadings. Three options are presented and tested. Although the emission estimates vary significantly with different options, the subsequent model predictions with the different release estimates all show decent skill when evaluated against the unassimilated satellite observations at later times. Among the three options, integrating over three model layers yields slightly better results than integrating from the surface up to the observed volcanic ash cloud top or using a single model layer. Inverse tests also show that including the ash-free region to constrain the model is not

  20. ASH REDISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Pelletier; S. deLong; M.L. Cline; C. Harrington; G. Keating

    2005-01-01

    The redistribution of contaminated tephra by hillslope, fluvial, and pedologic processes is a poorly-constrained but important aspect of evaluating the radiological dose from an unlikely volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain (YM). To better evaluate this hazard, we developed a spatially distributed, numerical model of tephra redistribution that integrates contaminated tephra from hill slopes and active channels, mixes it with clean sediment in the channel system, distributes it on the fan, and migrates it into the soil column. The model is coupled with an atmospheric dispersion model that predicts the deposition of radioactive waste-contaminated tephra at specified grid points. The redistribution model begins in the upper Fortymile Wash drainage basin where it integrates the tephra deposited on steep slopes and active channel beds within a GIS framework. The Fortymile Wash drainage basin is the focus of this model because tephra from only this basin reaches the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes, and it is on this fan where the radiological dose to a hypothetical individual is compared to the regulatory standard (via additional biosphere models). The dilution effect of flood scour, mixing, and re-deposition within the upper basin is modeled using a dilution-mixing model widely used in the contaminant-transport literature. The accuracy of this model is established by comparing the model prediction with tephra concentrations measured in channels draining the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The model combines the contaminated tephra transported from the upper basin with the tephra deposited directly on the fan as primary fallout. On the Fortymile Wash fan, channels and interchannel-divide areas are divided on the basis of soil-geomorphic mapping according to whether they are Holocene or Pleistocene in age. This approach allows the model to incorporate the effects of channel migration on the fan within the past 10,000 yr. The model treats the redistribution

  1. Fission-track ages of Neogene and Quaternary volcanic ashes in south of Osaka, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takuo; Nakagawa, Yonosuke; Danhara, Tohru.

    1984-01-01

    A calculation method is proposed for the fission-track ages of zircon crystals in volcanic material. In this method, it is checked whether the spontaneous fission-track number of respective zircon crystals follows the Poisson distribution. If it does, the age is calculated by population method with all crystals, and if not, only with those crystals following the Poisson distribution, eliminating abnormal crystals. Extraneous zircon crystals are thus excluded and crystals with spontaneous fission-track number zero are not ignored. The following ages were obtained: Tamateyama volcanic ash in the Nijo group, 14.0 +- 0.6 Ma; pink volcanic ash in the Osaka group, 1.0 +- 0.2 Ma; Matsuo volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 1.5 +- 0.4 Ma; pumice volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.3 +- 0.4 Ma; Asashiro volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.9 +- 0.6 Ma. (Mori, K.)

  2. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  3. Volcanic Ash fall Impact on Vegetation, Colima 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. G.; Martin, A.; Fonseca, R.; Nieto, A.; Radillo, R.; Armienta, M.

    2007-05-01

    An ash sampling network was established arround Colima Volcano in 2005. Ash fall was sampled on the North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest and West of the volcano. Samples were analyzed for ash components, geochemistry and leachates. Ash fall ocurred on April (12), May (10, 23), June (2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14), July (27), September (27), October (23) and November (24). Most of the ash is made of andesitic dome-lithics but shows diferences in crystal, juvenile material and lithic content. In May, some samples contained grey and dark pumice (scoria). Texture varies from phi >4 to phi 0. Leachate concentration were low: SO4 (7.33-54.19) Cl- (2.29-4.97) and F- (0.16-0.37). During 2005, Colima Volcano's ash fall rotted some of the guava and peach fruits and had a drying effect on spearment and epazote plants. Even these small ash amounts could have hindered sugar cane and agave growth.

  4. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses...

  5. Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benedetto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last Conference of the FEALC (Speleological Federation of Latin America and Caribbean Islands which was held in the town of Malargue, Mendoza, in February 1997, two volcanic caves not far from that town were visited and sampled for cave mineral studies. The first cave (Cueva del Tigre opens close to the Llancanelo lake, some 40 kms far from Malargue and it is a classical lava tube. Part of the walls and of the fallen lava blocks are covered by white translucent fibres and grains. The second visited cave is a small tectonic cavity opened on a lava bed some 100 km southward of Malargue. The cave “El Abrigo de el Manzano” is long no more than 10-12 meters with an average width of 3 meters and it hosts several bird nests, the larger of which is characterized by the presence of a relatively thick pale yellow, pale pink flowstone. Small broken or fallen samples of the secondary chemical deposits of both these caves have been collected in order to detect their mineralogical composition. In the present paper the results of the detailed mineralogical analyses carried out on the sampled material are shortly reported. In the Cueva del Tigre lava tube the main detected minerals are Sylvite, Thenardite, Bloedite and Kieserite, all related to the peculiar dry climate of that area. The flowstone of “El Abrigo de el Manzano” consists of a rather complex admixture of several minerals, the large majority of which are phosphates but also sulfates and silicates, not all yet identified. The origin of all these minerals is related to the interaction between bird guano and volcanic rock.

  6. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  7. Volcanic ash activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in murine and human macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Schnurr, Max; Dingwell, Donald B.; Duewell, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic ash is a heterogeneous mineral dust that is typically composed of a mixture of amorphous (glass) and crystalline (mineral) fragments. It commonly contains an abundance of the crystalline silica (SiO2) polymorph cristobalite. Inhalation of crystalline silica can induce inflammation by stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic receptor complex that plays a critical role in driving inflammatory immune responses. Ingested material results in the assembly of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 with subsequent secretion of the interleukin-1 family cytokine IL-1β. Previous toxicology work suggests that cristobalite-bearing volcanic ash is minimally reactive, calling into question the reactivity of volcanically derived crystalline silica, in general. In this study, we target the NLRP3 inflammasome as a crystalline silica responsive element to clarify volcanic cristobalite reactivity. We expose immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages of genetically engineered mice and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano as well as representative, pure-phase samples of its primary componentry (volcanic glass, feldspar, cristobalite) and measure NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We demonstrate that respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash induces the activation of caspase-1 with subsequent release of mature IL-1β in a NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent manner. Macrophages deficient in NLRP3 inflammasome components are incapable of secreting IL-1β in response to volcanic ash ingestion. Cellular uptake induces lysosomal destabilization involving cysteine proteases. Furthermore, the response involves activation of mitochondrial stress pathways leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Considering ash componentry, cristobalite is the most reactive pure-phase with other components inducing only low-level IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation mediated by inhaled ash and its potential relevance in chronic pulmonary

  8. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  9. Rising from the ashes: Changes in salmonid fish assemblages after 30 months of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Mailén; Macchi, Patricio J; Vigliano, Pablo; Juarez, Santiago; Rechencq, Magalí; Baker, Matthew; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Crowl, Todd

    2016-01-15

    Events such as volcanic eruptions may act as disturbance agents modifying the landscape spatial diversity and increasing environmental instability. On June 4, 2011 the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex located on Chile (2236 m.a.s.l., 40° 02' 24" S- 70° 14' 26" W) experience a rift zone eruption ejecting during the first day 950 million metric tons into the atmosphere. Due to the westerly winds predominance, ash fell differentially upon 24 million ha of Patagonia Argentinean, been thicker deposits accumulated towards the West. In order to analyze changes on stream fish assemblages we studied seven streams 8, 19 and 30 months after the eruption along the ash deposition gradient, and compare those data to pre eruption ones. Habitat features and structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate food base of fish was studied. After the eruption, substantial environmental changes were observed in association with the large amount of ash fallout. In western sites, habitat loss due to ash accumulation, changes in the riparian zone and morphology of the main channels were observed. Turbidity was the water quality variable which reflected the most changes throughout time, with NTU values decreasing sharply from West to East sites. In west sites, increased Chironomid densities were recorded 8 months after the initial eruption as well as low EPT index values. These relationships were reversed in the less affected streams farther away from the volcano. Fish assemblages were greatly influenced both by habitat and macroinvertebrate changes. The eruption brought about an initial sharp decline in fish densities and the almost total loss of young of the year in the most western streams affecting recruitment. This effect diminished rapidly with distance from the emission center. Thirty months after the eruption, environmental changes are still occurring as a consequence of basin wide ash remobilization and transport.

  10. Search for possible relationship between volcanic ash particles and thunderstorm lightning activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várai, A.; Vincze, M.; Lichtenberger, J.; Jánosi, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions that eject columns of ash from the crater often generate lightning discharges strong enough to be remotely located by very low frequency radio waves. A fraction of volcanic ash particles can stay and disperse long enough to have an effect on weather phenomena days later such as thunderstorms and lightnings. In this work we report on lightning activity analysis over Europe following two recent series of volcanic eruptions in order to identify possible correlations between ash release and subsequent thunderstorm flash frequency. Our attempts gave negative results which can be related to the fact that we have limited information on local atmospheric variables of high enough resolution, however lightning frequency is apparently determined by very local circumstances.

  11. Search for possible relationship between volcanic ash particles and thunderstorm lightning activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várai, A; Vincze, M; Jánosi, I M; Lichtenberger, J

    2011-01-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions that eject columns of ash from the crater often generate lightning discharges strong enough to be remotely located by very low frequency radio waves. A fraction of volcanic ash particles can stay and disperse long enough to have an effect on weather phenomena days later such as thunderstorms and lightnings. In this work we report on lightning activity analysis over Europe following two recent series of volcanic eruptions in order to identify possible correlations between ash release and subsequent thunderstorm flash frequency. Our attempts gave negative results which can be related to the fact that we have limited information on local atmospheric variables of high enough resolution, however lightning frequency is apparently determined by very local circumstances.

  12. Multiphase flow modelling of volcanic ash particle settling in water using adaptive unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R. G.

    2013-02-01

    Small-scale experiments of volcanic ash particle settling in water have demonstrated that ash particles can either settle slowly and individually, or rapidly and collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. This has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. Numerical modelling has the potential to extend the results of laboratory experiments to larger scales and explore the conditions under which plumes may form and persist, but many existing models are computationally restricted by the fixed mesh approaches that they employ. In contrast, this paper presents a new multiphase flow model that uses an adaptive unstructured mesh approach. As a simulation progresses, the mesh is optimized to focus numerical resolution in areas important to the dynamics and decrease it where it is not needed, thereby potentially reducing computational requirements. Model verification is performed using the method of manufactured solutions, which shows the correct solution convergence rates. Model validation and application considers 2-D simulations of plume formation in a water tank which replicate published laboratory experiments. The numerically predicted settling velocities for both individual particles and plumes, as well as instability behaviour, agree well with experimental data and observations. Plume settling is clearly hindered by the presence of a salinity gradient, and its influence must therefore be taken into account when considering particles in bodies of saline water. Furthermore, individual particles settle in the laminar flow regime while plume settling is shown (by plume Reynolds numbers greater than unity) to be in the turbulent flow regime, which has a significant impact on entrainment and settling rates. Mesh adaptivity maintains solution accuracy while providing a substantial reduction in computational requirements when compared to the same simulation performed using a fixed mesh, highlighting the benefits of an

  13. Volcanic Ash Cloud Observations with the DLR-Falcon over Europe during Airspace Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Reitebuch, Oliver; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Rahm, Stephan; Scheibe, Monika; Lichtenstern, Michael; Forster, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    At the time of the EGU conference, the volcano ash plume originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in Iceland was probed during 9 flights with the DLR Falcon research aircraft in the region between Germany and Iceland at 1-11 km altitudes between April 19 and May 3, 2010. The Falcon was instrumented with a downward looking, scanning 2-µm-Wind-Lidar (aerosol backscattering and horizontal wind, 100 m vertical resolution), and several in-situ instruments. The particle instrumentation, including wing station probes (PCASP, FSSP-300) cover particle number and size from 5 nm to some tens of µm. Further in-situ instruments measured O3, CO, SO2, H2O, and standard meteorological parameters. Flight planning was based on numerical weather forecasts, trajectory-based particle-dispersion models, satellite observations and ground based Lidar observations, from many sources. During the flight on April 19, 2010, layers of volcanic ash were detected first by Lidar and then probed in-situ. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the volcanic ash layers over Eastern Germany was highly variable at that time. Calculations with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART indicate that the volcanic ash plumes measured by the Falcon had an age of 4-5 days. The concentrations of large particles measured in the volcanic aerosol layers are comparable to concentrations measured typically in fresh (age 3000 kg/s, strong chemistry - Lidar signal and FSSP-300 signal strongly dependent on refractive index, ash density, particle size spectrum 1- 50 µm - Mid-European airspace closure was justified until Sat. April 17; thereafter ageing ash clouds dominated. - Keflavik/Iceland was found to be free of ash as predicted on April 29 - May 2 - The Quality of forecasts was found to be quite reliable for aviation planning - For the future we recommend combinations of models + lidar + satellite + in-situ - We suggest an improved linking between operations and academia - The DLR Falcon will

  14. First experimental observations on melting and chemical modification of volcanic ash during lightning interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S P; Helo, C; Keller, F; Taddeucci, J; Castro, J M

    2018-01-23

    Electrification in volcanic ash plumes often leads to syn-eruptive lightning discharges. High temperatures in and around lightning plasma channels have the potential to chemically alter, re-melt, and possibly volatilize ash fragments in the eruption cloud. In this study, we experimentally simulate temperature conditions of volcanic lightning in the laboratory, and systematically investigate the effects of rapid melting on the morphology and chemical composition of ash. Samples of different size and composition are ejected towards an artificially generated electrical arc. Post-experiment ash morphologies include fully melted spheres, partially melted particles, agglomerates, and vesiculated particles. High-speed imaging reveals various processes occurring during the short lightning-ash interactions, such as particle melting and rounding, foaming, and explosive particle fragmentation. Chemical analyses of the flash-melted particles reveal considerable bulk loss of Cl, S, P and Na through thermal vaporization. Element distribution patterns suggest convection as a key process of element transport from the interior of the melt droplet to rim where volatiles are lost. Modeling the degree of sodium loss delivers maximum melt temperatures between 3290 and 3490 K. Our results imply that natural lighting strikes may be an important agent of syn-eruptive morphological and chemical processing of volcanic ash.

  15. Volcanic ash detection and retrievals using MODIS data by means of neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Picchiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash clouds detection and retrieval represent a key issue for aviation safety due to the harming effects on aircraft. A lesson learned from the recent Eyjafjallajokull eruption is the need to obtain accurate and reliable retrievals on a real time basis.

    In this work we have developed a fast and accurate Neural Network (NN approach to detect and retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data in the Thermal InfraRed (TIR spectral range. Some measurements collected during the 2001, 2002 and 2006 Mt. Etna volcano eruptions have been considered as test cases.

    The ash detection and retrievals obtained from the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD algorithm are used as training for the NN procedure that consists in two separate steps: ash detection and ash mass retrieval. The ash detection is reduced to a classification problem by identifying two classes: "ashy" and "non-ashy" pixels in the MODIS images. Then the ash mass is estimated by means of the NN, replicating the BTD-based model performances. A segmentation procedure has also been tested to remove the false ash pixels detection induced by the presence of high meteorological clouds. The segmentation procedure shows a clear advantage in terms of classification accuracy: the main drawback is the loss of information on ash clouds distal part.

    The results obtained are very encouraging; indeed the ash detection accuracy is greater than 90%, while a mean RMSE equal to 0.365 t km−2 has been obtained for the ash mass retrieval. Moreover, the NN quickness in results delivering makes the procedure extremely attractive in all the cases when the rapid response time of the system is a mandatory requirement.

  16. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  17. Volcanic ash ingestion by a large gas turbine aeroengine: fan-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Clarkson, Rory; Durant, Adam; Cassiani, Massimo; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne particles from explosive volcanic eruptions are a major safety threat for aviation operations. The fine fraction of the emitted particles (fan blades and rotor-path components, and can also cause contamination or blockage of electrical systems and the fuel system such as fuel nozzles and air bleed filters. Ash particles that enter the hot-section of the engine (combustor and turbine stages; temperature between 1400-1800°C) are rapidly heated above the glass transition temperature (about 650-1000°C) and become soft (or form a melt) and can stick as re-solidified deposits on nozzle guide vanes. The glass deposits change the internal aerodynamic airflow in the engine and can affect the cooling capability of the different components by clogging the cooling inlets/outlets, which can lead to a loss of power or flame-out. The nature of volcanic ash ingestion is primarily influenced by the fan at the front of the engine which produces the thrust that drives the aircraft. The ingested air is split between the core (compressor/combustor/turbine) and bypass (thrust) at a ratio of typically between, 1:5-10 on modern engines. Consequently, the ash particles are fractionated between the core and bypass by the geometry and dynamics of the fan blades. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of particle-laden airflows into a turbofan engine under different atmospheric and engine operation conditions. The main aim was to investigate the possible centrifugal effect of the fan blades as a function of particle size, and to relate this to the core intake concentration. We generated a generic 3D axial high-bypass turbofan engine using realistic dimensions of the turbofan, engine intake and other aerodynamically relevant parts. The CFD experiments include three scenarios of aircraft performance (climb, cruise and descent) and for two different typical altitude ranges (10000 and 39000 ft). The fluid dynamics simulations were carried out using a commercial

  18. Tensile Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits: Effect of the Temperature Gradient and Ash Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Nair, Akhilesh Balachandran; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Replacing coal with biomass in power plants is a viable option for reducing net CO2 emissions and combating climate change. However, biomass combustion in boilers may exacerbate problems related to ash deposition and corrosion, demanding effective deposit removal. The tensile adhesion strength...

  19. Synthesis of a one-part geopolymer system for soil stabilizer using fly ash and volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigue April Anne S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach one-part geopolymer was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing the strength of in-situ soil for possible structural fill application in the construction industry. Geopolymer precursors such as fly ash and volcanic ash were utilized in this study for soil stabilization. The traditional geopolymer synthesis uses soluble alkali activators unlike in the case of ordinary Portland cement where only water is added to start the hydration process. This kind of synthesis is an impediment to geopolymer soil stabilizer commercial viability. Hence, solid alkali activators such as sodium silicate (SS, sodium hydroxide (SH, and sodium aluminate (SA were explored. The influence of amount of fly ash (15% and 25%, addition of volcanic ash (0% and 12.5%, and ratio of alkali activator SS:SH:SA (50:50:0, 33:33:33, 50:20:30 were investigated. Samples cured for 28 days were tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS. To evaluate the durability, sample yielding highest UCS was subjected to sulfuric acid resistance test for 28 days. Analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX were performed to examine the elemental composition, mineralogical properties, and microstructure of the precursors and the geopolymer stabilized soil.

  20. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  1. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLCANIC ASH OF THE NEVADO DEL RUIZ: ZEOLITE PHASE IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiddy P. Quiroz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the structural properties obtained from volcanic ash from Nevado del Ruiz located in the Central Range of Andes - Colombia. The volcanic ash samples were subjected to hydration processes and heat treatments in situ during characterization stage material. During the hydration process, which consisted of introducing 2.4875 ± 0.0002g of volcanic ash in 20ml of water for 48 hours, the organic fraction present was removed from the particulate suspension in the aqueous medium. From measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD, it was observed, that the temperature variations between 323 and 673 K influence the phase formation of zeolite with structures Heulandite -Ca, Stellerita and gmelinite. XRD measurements were performed in vacuum and atmospheric pressure. X'pert Highscore Plus program and simulation Rietveld refinement were used for to obtain the structures of each of the phases. It was found, using the Scherrer equation, that crystallite sizes (Δ (2θ are influenced by changes crystal-chemical caused by hydration, heat treatment and pressure conditions during the characterization. A variation of Δ ( 2θ between 37 and 106.9 nm from XRD measurements was found. It was determined that from 423K in the sample of un-hydrated volcanic ash, the formation of zeolite Stellerita presents with a stable phase up to 673 K.

  2. A Comprehensive Training Data Set for the Development of Satellite-Based Volcanic Ash Detection Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Marius

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive training data set covering a large range of atmospheric conditions, including disperse volcanic ash and desert dust layers. These data sets contain all information required for the development of volcanic ash detection algorithms based on artificial neural networks, urgently needed since volcanic ash in the airspace is a major concern of aviation safety authorities. Selected parts of the data are used to train the volcanic ash detection algorithm VADUGS. They contain atmospheric and surface-related quantities as well as the corresponding simulated satellite data for the channels in the infrared spectral range of the SEVIRI instrument on board MSG-2. To get realistic results, ECMWF, IASI-based, and GEOS-Chem data are used to calculate all parameters describing the environment, whereas the software package libRadtran is used to perform radiative transfer simulations returning the brightness temperatures for each atmospheric state. As optical properties are a prerequisite for radiative simulations accounting for aerosol layers, the development also included the computation of optical properties for a set of different aerosol types from different sources. A description of the developed software and the used methods is given, besides an overview of the resulting data sets.

  3. Hydrothermal and magmatic components in the Ruapehu, Pinatubo, Lonquimay and Yasur volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.G.; Trompetter, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh ash from explosive volcanic eruptions of Ruapehu in New Zealand (1995-1996), Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991), Lonquimay in Chile (1989) and Ysur in Vanuatu (1988) were leached in distilled water in a boiling water bath. The leachates were analysed by ion chromatography and ICP-MS and the chemical composition of leached ash measured by IBA, NAA and XRF. Water-soluble minerals adhering on ash surfaces were examined under SEM-EDX and thin sections of the ash were mineralogically analysed under petrographic microscope. The leachates contain mainly adsorbed material from the volcanic plume and the leached ash insoluble plume precipitates or primary volcanic mineral. At Yasur and Lonquimay, where the erupted material is entirely magmatic, the F/S and F/Cl ratios are 100x to 1000x higher and the S/B ratio 10x lower than in Pinatubo where an extensive hydrothermal system had been extant prior to eruption. In Ruhapehu, the adsorbed material contains a significant component of evaporated Crater Lake water. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  4. The future of volcanic ash-aircraft interactions from technical and policy perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, T. J.; Guffanti, M.

    2010-12-01

    Since the advent of jet-powered flight in the 1960s, the threat of volcanic ash to aviation operations has become widely recognized and the mitigation of this threat has received concerted international attention. At the same time the susceptibility to operational disruption has grown. Technical improvements to airframes, engines, and avionic systems have been made in response to the need for improved fuel efficiency and the demand for increased capacity for passenger and freight traffic. Operational demands have resulted in the growth of extended overseas flight operations (ETOPS), increased flight frequency on air traffic routes, and closer spacing of aircraft on heavily traveled routes. The net result has been great advances in flight efficiency, but also increased susceptibility to flight disruption, especially in heavily traveled regions such as North Atlantic-Europe, North America, and the North Pacific. Advances in ash avoidance procedures, pilot and air manager training, and in detection of ash-related damage and maintenance of aircraft and engines have been spurred by noteworthy eruptions such as Galunggung, Indonesia, 1982; Redoubt, Alaska, 1989-1990; and Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991. Comparable advances have been made in the detection and tracking of volcanic ash clouds using satellite-based remote sensing and numerical trajectory forecast models. Following the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, the global aviation community again focused attention on the issue of safe air operations in airspace affected by volcanic ash. The enormous global disruption to air traffic in the weeks after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption has placed added emphasis for the global air traffic management system as well as on the equipment manufacturers to reevaluate air operations in ash-affected airspace. Under the leadership of the International Civil Aviation Organization and the World Meteorological Organization, efforts are being made to address this

  5. Reactive Uptake of Sulfur Dioxide and Ozone on Volcanic Glass and Ash at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Elena C.; Delmelle, Pierre; Rossi, Michel J.; Ayris, Paul M.

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash from explosive eruptions are rarely considered alongside those of volcanogenic gases/aerosols. While airborne particles provide solid surfaces for chemical reactions with trace gases in the atmosphere, the reactivity of airborne ash has seldom been investigated. Here we determine the total uptake capacity (NiM) and initial uptake coefficient (γM) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on a compositional array of volcanic ash and glass powders at 25°C in a Knudsen flow reactor. The measured ranges of NiSO2 and γSO2 (1011-1013 molecules cm-2 and 10-3-10-2) and NiO3 and γO3 (1012-1013 molecules cm-2 and 10-3-10-2) are comparable to values reported for mineral dust. Differences in ash and glass reactivity toward SO2 and O3 may relate to varying abundances of, respectively, basic and reducing sites on these materials. The typically lower SO2 and O3 uptake on ash compared to glass likely results from prior exposure of ash surfaces to acidic and oxidizing conditions within the volcanic eruption plume/cloud. While sequential uptake experiments overall suggest that these gases do not compete for reactive surface sites, SO2 uptake forming adsorbed S(IV) species may enhance the capacity for subsequent O3 uptake via redox reaction forming adsorbed S(VI) species. Our findings imply that ash emissions may represent a hitherto neglected sink for atmospheric SO2 and O3.

  6. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Dacre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4–18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h, a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes, it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column-integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small particles (< 30 μm diameter. NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of < 10 μm diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  7. A model for Nb-Zr-REE-Ga enrichment in Lopingian altered alkaline volcanic ashes: Key evidence of H-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifeng; Nechaev, Victor P.; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu.; Zhao, Lixin; Vysotskiy, Sergei V.; Graham, Ian; Ward, Colin R.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Velivetskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhao, Lei; French, David; Hower, James C.

    2018-03-01

    Clay-altered volcanic ash with highly-elevated concentrations of Nb(Ta), Zr(Hf), rare earth elements (REE), and Ga, is a new type of critical metal deposit with high commercial prospects that has been discovered in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Previous studies showed that the volcanic ashes had been subjected to hydrothermal fluids, the nature of which, however, is not clear. Here we show that the volcanic ashes were originated from alkaline magmatism, followed by a continuous hydrothermal-weathering process. Heated meteoric waters, which were sourced from acidic rains and mixed with CO2 from degassing of the Emeishan plume, have caused partial, but widespread, acidic leaching of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga into ground water and residual enrichment of these elements, along with Al and Ti, in the deeply altered rocks. Subsequent alteration occurring under cooler, neutral or alkaline conditions, caused by water-rock interaction, resulted in precipitation of the leached critical metals in the deposit. Polymetallic mineralization of similar origin may be found in other continental regions subjected to explosive alkaline volcanism associated with deep weathering in humid conditions.

  8. Volcanic Ash and SO2 Monitoring Using Suomi NPP Direct Broadcast OMPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Brentzel, K. W.; Habib, S.; Hassinen, S.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Schneider, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Suomi NPP Ozone Science Team, in conjunction with Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Direct Readout Laboratory, developed the capability of processing, in real-time, direct readout (DR) data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) to perform SO2 and Aerosol Index (AI) retrievals. The ability to retrieve this information from real-time processing of DR data was originally developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft and is used by Volcano Observatories and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) charged with mapping ash clouds from volcanic eruptions and providing predictions/forecasts about where the ash will go. The resulting real-time SO2 and AI products help to mitigate the effects of eruptions such as the ones from Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in Chile, which cause massive disruptions to airline flight routes for weeks as airlines struggle to avoid ash clouds that could cause engine failure, deeply pitted windshields impossible to see through, and other catastrophic events. We will discuss the implementation of real-time processing of OMPS DR data by both the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), which provide real-time coverage over some of the most congested airspace and over many of the most active volcanoes in the world, and show examples of OMPS DR processing results from recent volcanic eruptions.

  9. Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Self

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions emit huge amounts of sulfur and fine ash into the stratosphere. These products cause an impact on radiative processes, temperature and wind patterns. In simulations with a General Circulation Model including detailed aerosol microphysics, the relation between the impact of sulfur and fine ash is determined for different eruption strengths and locations, one in the tropics and one in high Northern latitudes. Fine ash with effective radii between 1 μm and 15 μm has a lifetime of several days only. Nevertheless, the strong absorption of shortwave and long-wave radiation causes additional heating and cooling of ±20 K/day and impacts the evolution of the volcanic cloud. Depending on the location of the volcanic eruption, transport direction changes due to the presence of fine ash, vortices develop and temperature anomalies at ground increase. The results show substantial impact on the local scale but only minor impact on the evolution of sulfate in the stratosphere in the month after the simulated eruptions.

  10. Volcanic Ash and Aviation - the 2014 Eruptions of Kelut and Sangeang Api, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, A. C.; Jansons, E.

    2014-12-01

    Two significant eruptions in Indonesia during the first part of 2014 have highlighted the continuing challenges of safe air traffic management around volcanic ash clouds. The stratospheric eruption of Kelut (also known as Kelud) in Java late on 13 February 2014 resulted in widespread aviation disruption over Indonesia and at least one serious volcanic ash encounter from an international airline. An upper-tropospheric eruption of Sangeang Api in the Lesser Sunda Islands on 30 May 2014 did not result in any known aircraft encounters, but did result in many delays and flight cancellations between Indonesia and Australia. In both cases, the eruption and resultant ash clouds were relatively well observed, if subject to the usual issues in characterising such clouds. For example, as tropical eruptions frequently reach 15 km amsl and above due to the height of the tropical tropopause, it is frequently very difficult to provide an accurate estimation of conditions at the cruising levels of aircraft, at 10-11 km (or lower for shorter domestic routes). More critically, the challenge of linking operational results from two scientific professions (volcanology and meteorology) with real-time aviation users remains strongly evident. Situational awareness of domestic and international airlines, ground-based monitoring and communications prior to and during the eruption, receiving and sharing pilot reports of volcanic ash, and appropriate flight responses all remain inadequate even in relatively fine conditions, with an unacceptable ongoing risk of serious aviation encounters should improvements not be made. Despite the extensive efforts of the International Civil Aviation Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and all partners in the International Airways Volcano Watch, and despite the acceleration of work on the issue since 2010, volcanic ash management remains sub-optimal.

  11. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madankan, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pouget, S. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Singla, P., E-mail: psingla@buffalo.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Bursik, M. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Dehn, J. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States); Jones, M. [Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo (United States); Patra, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pavolonis, M. [NOAA-NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research (United States); Pitman, E.B. [Department of Mathematics, University at Buffalo (United States); Singh, T. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Webley, P. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions – height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters – are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 14–16 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  12. Furthering the investigation of eruption styles through quantitative shape analyses of volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfiani, D.; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.

    2018-04-01

    Volcanic ash morphology has been quantitatively investigated for various aims such as studying the settling velocity of ash for modelling purposes and understanding the fragmentation processes at the origin of explosive eruptions. In an attempt to investigate the usefulness of ash morphometry for monitoring purposes, we analyzed the shape of volcanic ash particles through a combination of (1) traditional shape descriptors such as solidity, convexity, axial ratio and form factor and (2) fractal analysis using the Euclidean Distance transform (EDT) method. We compare ash samples from the hydrothermal eruptions of Iwodake (Japan) in 2013, Tangkuban Perahu (Indonesia) in 2013 and Marapi (Sumatra, Indonesia) in 2015, the dome explosions of Merapi (Java, Indonesia) in 2013, the Vulcanian eruptions of Merapi in 2010 and Tavurvur (Rabaul, Papaua New Guinea) in 2014, and the Plinian eruption of Kelud (Indonesia) in 2014. Particle size and shape measurements were acquired from a Particle Size Analyzer with a microscope camera attached to the instrument. Clear differences between dense/blocky particles from hydrothermal or dome explosions and vesicular particles produced by the fragmentation of gas-bearing molten magma are well highlighted by conventional shape descriptors and the fractal method. In addition, subtle differences between dense/blocky particles produced by hydrothermal explosions, dome explosions, or quench granulation during phreatomagmatic eruptions can be evidenced with the fractal method. The combination of shape descriptors and fractal analysis is therefore potentially able to distinguish between juvenile and non-juvenile magma, which is of importance for eruption monitoring.

  13. The relation between pre-eruptive bubble size distribution, ash particle morphology, and their internal density: Implications to volcanic ash transport and dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Parameterization of volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models strongly depends on particle morphology and their internal properties. Shape of ash particles affects terminal fall velocities (TFV) and, mostly, dispersion. Internal density combined with particle size has a very strong impact on TFV and ultimately on the rate of ash cloud thinning and particle sedimentation on the ground. Unlike other parameters, internal particle density cannot be measured directly because of the micron scale sizes of fine ash particles, but we demonstrate that it varies greatly depending on the particle size. Small simple type ash particles (fragments of bubble walls, 5-20 micron size) do not contain whole large magmatic bubbles inside and their internal density is almost the same as that of volcanic glass matrix. On the other side, the larger compound type ash particles (>40 microns for silicic fine ashes) always contain some bubbles or the whole spectra of bubble size distribution (BSD), i.e. bubbles of all sizes, bringing their internal density down as compared to simple ash. So, density of the larger ash particles is a function of the void fraction inside them (magmatic bubbles) which, in turn, is controlled by BSD. Volcanic ash is a product of the fragmentation of magmatic foam formed by pre-eruptive bubble population and characterized by BSD. The latter can now be measured from bubble imprints on ash particle surfaces using stereo-scanning electron microscopy (SSEM) and BubbleMaker software developed at UNH, or using traditional high-resolution X-Ray tomography. In this work we present the mathematical and statistical formulation for this problem connecting internal ash density with particle size and BSD, and demonstrate how the TFV of the ash population is affected by variation of particle density.

  14. Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stuefer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new functionality within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem that allows simulating emission, transport, dispersion, transformation and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. Emissions from both an explosive eruption case and a relatively calm degassing situation are considered using the most recent volcanic emission databases. A preprocessor tool provides emission fields and additional information needed to establish the initial three-dimensional cloud umbrella/vertical distribution within the transport model grid, as well as the timing and duration of an eruption. From this source condition, the transport, dispersion and sedimentation of the ash cloud can be realistically simulated by WRF-Chem using its own dynamics and physical parameterization as well as data assimilation. Examples of model applications include a comparison of tephra fall deposits from the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt (Alaska and the dispersion of ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. Both model applications show good coincidence between WRF-Chem and observations.

  15. The Complex Refractive Index of Volcanic Ash Aerosol Retrieved From Spectral Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin E.; Peters, Daniel M.; McPheat, Robert; Grainger, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    The complex refractive indices of eight volcanic ash samples, chosen to have a representative range of SiO2 contents, were retrieved from simultaneous measurements of their spectral mass extinction coefficient and size distribution. The mass extinction coefficients, at 0.33-19 μm, were measured using two optical systems: a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared and two diffraction grating spectrometers covering visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. The particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter; values for the effective radius of ash particles measured in this study varied from 0.574 to 1.16 μm. Verification retrievals on high-purity silica aerosol demonstrated that the Rayleigh continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDEs) scattering model significantly outperformed Mie theory in retrieving the complex refractive index, when compared to literature values. Assuming the silica particles provided a good analogue of volcanic ash, the CDE scattering model was applied to retrieve the complex refractive index of the eight ash samples. The Lorentz formulation of the complex refractive index was used within the retrievals as a convenient way to ensure consistency with the Kramers-Kronig relation. The short-wavelength limit of the electric susceptibility was constrained by using independently measured reference values of the complex refractive index of the ash samples at a visible wavelength. The retrieved values of the complex refractive indices of the ash samples showed considerable variation, highlighting the importance of using accurate refractive index data in ash cloud radiative transfer models.

  16. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Volcanic Ash Detection and Height Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of volcanic ash from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS) instrument...

  17. Pena Blanca uranium deposits and ash-flow tuffs relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magonthier, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Pena Blanca uranium deposits (Chihuahua, Mexico) are associated with a Tertiary sequence of ash-flow tuffs. Stratigraphic control is dominant and uranium mineralization occurs in stratiform and fracture-controlled deposits within 44 My-old units: Nopal Rhyolite and Escuadra Rhyolite. These units consist of highly vapor-phase crystallized ash-flow tuffs. They contain sanidine, quartz and granophyric phenocrysts, and minor ferromagnesian silicates. Nopal and Escuadra units are high-silica alkali-rich rhyolites that have a primary potassic character. The trace-element chemistry shows high concentrations in U-Th-Rb-Cs and low contents in Ba-Sr-Eu. These chemical properties imply a genetic relationship between deposits and host-units. The petrochemical study show that the Nopal Rhyolite and Escuadra Rhyolite are the source of U and of hydrothermal solutions [fr

  18. Source and Extent of Volcanic Ashes at the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China and Its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Zhong, Y. T.; Hou, Y. L.; He, B.

    2017-12-01

    Highly correlated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) Mass Extinction in stratigraphic section, volcanic ashes around the P-T Boundary in South China have been suggested to be a likely cause of the PTB Mass Extinction. So the nature, source and extent of these volcanic ashes have great significance in figuring out the cause of the PTB Mass Extinction. In this study, we attempt to constrain the source and extent of the PTB volcanic ashes in South China by studying pyroclastic sedimentary rocks and the spatial distribution of tuffs and ashes in South China. The detrital zircons of tuffaceous sandstones from Penglaitan section yield an age spectrum peaked at 252Ma, with ɛHf(t) values varying from -20 to -5 ,and have Nb/Hf, Th/Nb and Hf/Th ratios similar to those from arc/orogenic-related settings. Coarse tuffaceous sandstones imply that their source is in limited distance. Those pyroclastic sedimentary rocks in Penglaitan are well correlated with the PTB volcanic ashes in Meishan GSSP section in stratigraphy. In the spatial distribution, pyroclastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs distribute only in southwest of South China, while finer volcanic ashes are mainly in the northern part. This spatial distribution suggests the source of tuffs and ashes was to the south or southwest of South China. Former studies especially that of Permian-Triassic magmatism in Hainan Island have supported the existence of a continental arc related to the subduction and closure of Palaeo-Tethys on the southwestern margin of South China during Permian to early Triassic. It is suggested that the PTB ashes possibly derived from this Paleo-Tethys continental arc. The fact that volcanic ashes haven't been reported or found in PTB stratum in North China or Northwest China implies a limited extent of the volcanism, which thus is too small to cause the PTB mass extinction.

  19. Effect of Aggregate Structure on VOC Gas Adsorption onto Volcanic Ash Soil

    OpenAIRE

    濱本, 昌一郎

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the gaseous adsorption process and the parameters of volatile organic compounds such as organic solvents or fuels onto soils is very important in the analysis of the transport or fate of these chemicals in soils. Batch adsorption experiments with six different treatments were conducted to determine the adsorption of isohexane, a gaseous aliphatic, onto volcanic ash soil (Tachikawa loam). The measured gas adsorption coefficient for samples of Tachikawa loam used in the fir...

  20. Applying the GNSS Volcanic Ash Plume Detection Technique to Consumer Navigation Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Palo, S.; Larson, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) rely on predictably structured and constant power RF signals to fulfill their primary use for navigation and timing. When the received strength of GNSS signals deviates from the expected baseline, it is typically due to a change in the local environment. This can occur when signal reflections from the ground are modified by changes in snow or soil moisture content, as well as by attenuation of the signal from volcanic ash. This effect allows GNSS signals to be used as a source for passive remote sensing. Larson et al. (2017) have developed a detection technique for volcanic ash plumes based on the attenuation seen at existing geodetic GNSS sites. Since these existing networks are relatively sparse, this technique has been extended to use lower cost consumer GNSS receiver chips to enable higher density measurements of volcanic ash. These low-cost receiver chips have been integrated into a fully stand-alone sensor, with independent power, communications, and logging capabilities as part of a Volcanic Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR) network. A mesh network of these sensors transmits data to a local base-station which then streams the data real-time to a web accessible server. Initial testing of this sensor network has uncovered that a different detection approach is necessary when using consumer GNSS receivers and antennas. The techniques to filter and process the lower quality data from consumer receivers will be discussed and will be applied to initial results from a functioning VAPR network installation.

  1. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  2. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  3. Detection and characterization of volcanic ash plumes over Lille during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mortier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Routine sun-photometer and micro-lidar measurements were performed in Lille, northern France, in April and May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. The impact of such an eruption emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observations of the volcanic aerosol particles. This paper presents the main results of a joint micro-lidar/sun-photometer analysis performed in Lille, where volcanic ash plumes were observed during at least 22 days, whenever weather conditions permitted. Aerosol properties retrieved from automatic sun-photometer measurements (AERONET were strongly changed during the volcanic aerosol plumes transport over Lille. In most cases, the aerosol optical depth (AOD increased, whereas Ångström exponent decreased, thus indicating coarse-mode dominance in the volume size distribution. Moreover, the non-spherical fraction retrieved by AERONET significantly increased. The real part of the complex refractive index was up to 1.55 at 440 nm during the eruption, compared to background data of about 1.46 before the eruption. Collocated lidar data revealed that several aerosol layers were present between 2 and 5 km, all originating from the Iceland region as confirmed by backward trajectories. The volcanic ash AOD was derived from lidar extinction profiles and sun-photometer AOD, and its maximum was estimated around 0.37 at 532 nm on 18 April 2010. This value was observed at an altitude of 1700 m and corresponds to an ash mass concentration (AMC slightly higher than 1000 μg m−3 (±50%. An effective lidar ratio of ash particles of 48 sr was retrieved at 532 nm for 17 April during the early stages of the eruption, a value which agrees with several other studies carried out on this topic. Even though the accuracy of the retrievals is not as high as that obtained from reference multiwavelength lidar systems, this study demonstrates the opportunity of micro-lidar and sun-photometer joint data

  4. Theory for Deducing Volcanic Activity From Size Distributions in Plinian Pyroclastic Fall Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yu; Toramaru, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    Stratigraphic variation in the grain size distribution (GSD) of plinian pyroclastic fall deposits reflects volcanic activity. To extract information on volcanic activity from the analyses of deposits, we propose a one-dimensional theory that provides a formula connecting the sediment GSD to the source GSD. As the simplest case, we develop a constant-source model (CS model), in which the source GSD and the source height are constant during the duration of release of particles. We assume power laws of particle radii for the terminal fall velocity and the source GSD. The CS model can describe an overall (i.e., entire vertically variable) feature of the GSD structure of the sediment. It is shown that the GSD structure is characterized by three parameters, that is, the duration of supply of particles to the source scaled by the fall time of the largest particle, ts/tM, and the power indices of the terminal fall velocity p and of the source GSD q. We apply the CS model to samples of the Worzel D ash layer and compare the sediment GSD structure calculated by using the CS model to the observed structure. The results show that the CS model reproduces the overall structure of the observed GSD. We estimate the duration of the eruption and the q value of the source GSD. Furthermore, a careful comparison of the observed and calculated GSDs reveals new interpretation of the original sediment GSD structure of the Worzel D ash layer.

  5. Dispersed Volcanic Ash in Sediment Entering NW Pacific Ocean Subduction Zones: Towards a Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, R. P.; Murray, R. W.; Underwood, M.; Kutterolf, S.; Plank, T.; Dyonisius, M.; Arshad, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic ash has long been recognized to be an important component of the global sedimentary system. Ash figures prominently in a number of sedimentary and petrophysical investigations, including how the fluid budget of subducting sediment will be affected by hydration/dehydration reactions. Additionally, many studies focus on discrete ash layers, and how to link their presence with volcanism, climate, arc evolution, biological productivity, and other processes. Less widely recognized is the ash that is mixed into the bulk sediment, or "dispersed" ash. Dispersed ash is quantitatively significant and is an under-utilized source of critical geochemical and tectonic information. Based on geochemical studies of ODP Site 1149, a composite of DSDP Sites 579 & 581, as well as IODP Sites C0011 & C0012 drilled during Expedition 322, we will show the importance of dispersed ash to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kurile-Kamchatka and Nankai subduction zones. Initial geochemical analyses of the bulk sediment, as related to dispersed ash entering these subduction systems are presented here. Geochemical analysis shows that the characteristics of the three sites exhibit some variability consistent with observed lithological variations. For example, the average SiO2/Al2O3 ratios at Site 1149, Site C0011 and Site C0012 average 3.7. The composite of Sites 579 & 581 exhibits a higher average of 4.6. There are contrasts between other key major elemental indicators as well (e.g., Fe2O3). Ternary diagrams such as K2O-Na2O-CaO show that there are at least two distinct geochemical fields with Sites 1149, C0011 and C0012 clustering in one and Sites 579 & 581 in the other. Q-mode Factor Analysis was performed on the bulk sediment chemical data in order to determine the composition of potential end members of these sites. The multivariate statistics indicate that Site 1149 has 3-4 end members, consistent with the results of Scudder et al. (2009, EPSL, v. 284, pp 639), while each of the other sites

  6. Prediction of ash deposition using CFD simulation combined to thermodynamic calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshi Muratani; Takashi Hongo [UBE Industries, Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan). Coal Department, Energy and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    This study focused on the advanced ash deposition prediction using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis combined to thermodynamic calculation, considering both combustion characteristics and ash fusibility. Combustion field in pulverised coal-fired boiler was calculated through the normal CFD process. As the post process of combustion calculation, ash particles were injected into the combustion field to calculate ash deposition by CFD, in which particle sticking sub-program was newly employed. In this post process, ash deposition condition for CFD calculation was defined with the ash fusibility data obtained from thermodynamic analysis. These results of ash deposition on the furnace wall showed good agreement with the plant observation. Furthermore, in order to improve the plant operation, some virtual cases were simulated, which might reduce ash deposition. 7 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Fluidal deep-sea volcanic ash as an indicator of explosive volcanism (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Fluidal glassy lava fragments are now known to be abundant at sites of submarine eruptions including the mid-ocean ridge system, near-ridge seamount chains, mid-plate volcanoes and the submarine rifts of ocean islands, deep-sea (4200m) alkalic lava fields, back-arc spreading centers, and arc volcanoes. Fluidal fragments at these diverse settings have compositions including basanite, tholeiite, boninite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Fragments include straight, bent, curved, and coiled Pele's hair; flat, curved, twisted, folded, bent, or keeled ribbons; and flat, curved, or intensely folded limu o Pele. Most of these morphologies attach to blocky glass fragments. The fluidal fragments from different settings and depths are strikingly similar in morphology with variable vesicularity and particle thickness. They have been sampled flat and steep, rocky to sediment-covered substrates. Two different mechanisms are proposed to explain their origin: magmatic-volatile fragmentation during eruption and sea floor lava-water interactions. Volatiles in the melts and ambient water are present in all submarine volcanic settings, making it difficult to separate their role in forming the fragments. Submarine bubble-burst (strombolian) activity has been observed in situ at an active vent at -1200m on West Mata Volcano. However, lava-water interaction at elevated pressure has not been observed to make such fluidal fragments except in laboratory simulations. Lava-water interaction models suggest that pore water in sediment trapped beneath advancing lava flows migrates into the overlying flow where it expands to steam, and the expanding steam bubble escapes explosively through the flow top to form the fluidal fragments. This is different from the hollow (water-filled) pillars that form in inflating flows as trapped water escapes. Pillars grow upwards at contacts between flow lobes, thus the water exiting through pillars never enters (or exits) the molten lava flow interior. Another

  8. Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air

  9. Uncertainty propagation analysis applied to volcanic ash dispersal at Mt. Etna by using a Lagrangian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Pardini, Federica; Spanu, Antonio; Neri, Augusto; Vittoria Salvetti, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic ash clouds represent a major hazard for populations living nearby volcanic centers producing a risk for humans and a potential threat to crops, ground infrastructures, and aviation traffic. Lagrangian particle dispersal models are commonly used for tracking ash particles emitted from volcanic plumes and transported under the action of atmospheric wind fields. In this work, we present the results of an uncertainty propagation analysis applied to volcanic ash dispersal from weak plumes with specific focus on the uncertainties related to the grain-size distribution of the mixture. To this aim, the Eulerian fully compressible mesoscale non-hydrostatic model WRF was used to generate the driving wind, representative of the atmospheric conditions occurring during the event of November 24, 2006 at Mt. Etna. Then, the Lagrangian particle model LPAC (de' Michieli Vitturi et al., JGR 2010) was used to simulate the transport of mass particles under the action of atmospheric conditions. The particle motion equations were derived by expressing the Lagrangian particle acceleration as the sum of the forces acting along its trajectory, with drag forces calculated as a function of particle diameter, density, shape and Reynolds number. The simulations were representative of weak plume events of Mt. Etna and aimed to quantify the effect on the dispersal process of the uncertainty in the particle sphericity and in the mean and variance of a log-normal distribution function describing the grain-size of ash particles released from the eruptive column. In order to analyze the sensitivity of particle dispersal to these uncertain parameters with a reasonable number of simulations, and therefore with affordable computational costs, response surfaces in the parameter space were built by using the generalized polynomial chaos technique. The uncertainty analysis allowed to quantify the most probable values, as well as their pdf, of the number of particles as well as of the mean and

  10. The significance of volcanic ash in Greenland ice cores during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, G.; Pilcher, J. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Chellman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic forcing is now widely regarded as a leading natural factor in short-term climate variability. Polar ice cores provide an unrivalled and continuous record of past volcanism through their chemical and particulate content. With an almost annual precision for the Common Era, the ice core volcanic record can be combined with historical data to investigate the climate and social impacts of the eruptions. The sulfate signature in ice cores is critical for determining the possible climate effectiveness of an eruption, but the presence and characterization of volcanic ash (tephra) in the ice is requisite for establishing the source eruption so that location and eruptive style can be better factored in to climate models. Here, we review the Greenland tephra record for the Common Era, and present the results of targeted sampling for tephra of volcanic events that are of interest either because of their suspected climate and societal impacts or because of their potential as isochrons in paleoenvironmental (including ice core) archives. The majority of identifiable tephras derive from Northern Hemisphere mid- to high latitude eruptions, demonstrating the significance of northern extra-tropical volcanic regions as a source of sulfates in Greenland. A number of targets are represented by sparse or no tephra, or shards that cannot be firmly correlated with a source. We consider the challenges faced in isolating and characterizing tephra from low latitude eruptions, and the implications for accurately modelling climate response to large, tropical events. Finally, we compare the ice core tephra record with terrestrial tephrostratigraphies in the circum-North Atlantic area to evaluate the potential for intercontinental tephra linkages and the refinement of volcanic histories.

  11. Chemistry of ash-leachates to monitor volcanic activity: An application to Popocatepetl volcano, central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armienta, M.A., E-mail: victoria@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico); De la Cruz-Reyna, S. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Soler, A. [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Fac. Geologia, Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Cruz, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    Monitoring volcanic activity and assessing volcanic risk in an on-going eruption is a problem that requires the maximum possible independent data to reduce uncertainty. A quick, relatively simple and inexpensive method to follow the development of an eruption and to complement other monitoring parameters is the chemical analysis of ash leachates, particularly in the case of eruptions related to dome emplacement. Here, the systematic analysis of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -} and F{sup -} concentrations in ash leachates is proposed as a valuable tool for volcanic activity monitoring. However, some results must be carefully assessed, as is the case for S/Cl ratios, since eruption of hydrothermally altered material may be confused with degassing of incoming magma. Sulfur isotopes help to identify SO{sub 4} produced by hydrothermal processes from magmatic SO{sub 2}. Lower S isotopic values correlated with higher F{sup -} percentages represent a better indicator of fresh magmatic influence that may lead to stronger eruptions and emplacement of new lava domes. Additionally, multivariate statistical analysis helps to identify different eruption characteristics, provided that the analyses are made over a long enough time to sample different stages of an eruption.

  12. Chemistry of ash-leachates to monitor volcanic activity: An application to Popocatepetl volcano, central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armienta, M.A.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Soler, A.; Cruz, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring volcanic activity and assessing volcanic risk in an on-going eruption is a problem that requires the maximum possible independent data to reduce uncertainty. A quick, relatively simple and inexpensive method to follow the development of an eruption and to complement other monitoring parameters is the chemical analysis of ash leachates, particularly in the case of eruptions related to dome emplacement. Here, the systematic analysis of SO 4 2- , Cl - and F - concentrations in ash leachates is proposed as a valuable tool for volcanic activity monitoring. However, some results must be carefully assessed, as is the case for S/Cl ratios, since eruption of hydrothermally altered material may be confused with degassing of incoming magma. Sulfur isotopes help to identify SO 4 produced by hydrothermal processes from magmatic SO 2 . Lower S isotopic values correlated with higher F - percentages represent a better indicator of fresh magmatic influence that may lead to stronger eruptions and emplacement of new lava domes. Additionally, multivariate statistical analysis helps to identify different eruption characteristics, provided that the analyses are made over a long enough time to sample different stages of an eruption.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Harrington

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion''. This model report provides direct inputs to

  14. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Harrington

    2004-10-25

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit

  15. Scale effect on the water retention curve of a volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Emilia; Comegna, Luca; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, a number of flowslides and debris flows triggered by intense rainfall affected a wide mountainous area surrounding the "Campania Plain" (southern Italy). The involved slopes are constituted by shallow unsaturated air-fall deposits of pyroclastic nature, which stability is guaranteed by the contribution of suction on shear strength. To reliably predict the onset of slope failure triggered by critical precipitations, is essential to understand the infiltration process and the soil suction distribution in such granular deposits. The paper presents the results of a series of investigation performed at different scales to determine the soil water retention curve (SWRC) of a volcanic ash which is an es-sential element in the analysis of the infiltration processes. The soil, a silty sand, was taken at Cervinara hillslope, 30 km East of Naples, just aside an area which had been subjected to a catastrophic flowslide. The SWRC was obtained through: - standard tests in a suction-controlled triaxial apparatus (SCTX), in a pressure plate and by the Wind technique (1968) on small natural and reconstituted soil samples (sample dimensions in the order of the 1•10-6m3) ; - infiltration tests on small-scale model slopes reconstituted in an instrumented flume (sample dimensions in the order of 5•10-3m3); - suction and water content monitoring at the automatic station installed along the Cervinara hillslope. The experimental points generally were defined by coupling suction measurements through jet-fill tensiometers and water content through TDR probes installed close each others. The obtained data sets individuate three different curves characterized by different shapes in the transition zone: at larger volume element dimensions correspond curves which exhibit steeper slopes and lower values of the water content in the transition zone. This result confirms the great role of the volume element dimensions in the de-termination of hydraulic characteristics

  16. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  17. Mechanism research on coupling effect between dew point corrosion and ash deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun-Gang; Zhao, Qin-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the coupling mechanism between ash deposition and dew point corrosion, five kinds of tube materials frequently used as anti-dew point corrosion materials were selected as research objects. Dew point corrosion and ash deposition experiments were performed with a new type experimental device in a Chinese thermal power plant. The microstructures of the materials and the composition of ash deposition were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the ash deposition layer could be divided into non-condensation zone, the main condensation zone and the secondary condensation zone. The acid vapor condensed in the main condensation zone rather than directly on the tube wall surface. The dew point corrosion mainly is oxygen corrosion under the condition of the viscosity ash deposition, and the corrosion products are composed of the ash and acid reaction products in the outer layer, iron sulfate in the middle layer, and iron oxide in the inner layer. The innermost layer is the main corrosion layer. With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the ash deposition changes from the viscosity ash deposition to the dry loose ash deposition, the ash deposition rate decreases dramatically and dew point corrosion is alleviated efficiently. The sulfuric dew point corrosion resistance of the five test materials is as follows: 316L > ND > Corten>20G > 20 steel. -- Highlights: ► Dew point corrosion and ash deposition tests of five materials were performed. ► Acid vapor condensed in the ash deposit rather than directly on the tube surface. ► Dew point corrosion resistance is as follow: 316L > ND > Corten>20G > 20 steel. ► Dew point corrosion mainly is oxygen corrosion under viscosity ash deposition

  18. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The April–May, 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that large improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8–28 μm diameter. We evaluate the results of our model results with a posteriori ash emissions using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "Normal" flying zone in up to 14 % (6–16 %, 2 % (1–3 % and 7 % (4–11 %, respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m−3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5 % (0.2–2.8 % and 0.9 % (0.1–1.6 % occurred, while the current "No-Fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m−3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  19. Characterization of volcanic deposits and geoarchaeological studies from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20066aThe eruption of Tambora volcano on the island of Sumbawa in 1815 is generally considered as the largest and the most violent volcanic event in recorded history. The cataclysmic eruption occurred on 11 April 1815 was initiated by Plinian eruption type on 5 April and killed more than 90,000 people on Sumbawa and nearby Lombok. The type plinian eruptions occurred twice and ejected gray pumice and ash, to form stratified deposits as thick as 40-150 cm on the slopes and mostly distributed over the district west of the volcano. Following this, at about 7 pm, on 11 April the first pyroclastic surge was generated and progressively became greater extending to almost whole direction, mainly to the north, west, and south districts from the eruption center. The deadliest volcanic eruption buried ancient villages by pyroclastic surge and flow deposits in almost intact state, thus preserving important archaeological evidence for the period. High preservation in relatively stable conditions and known date of the eruptions provide approximate dating for the archaeological remains. Archaeological excavations on the site uncovered a variety of remains were relieved by ground penetrating radar (GPR to map structural remains of the ancient villages under the pyroclastic surge and flow deposits. These traverses showed that GPR could define structures as deep as 10 m (velocity 0.090 m/ns and could accurately map the thickness of the stratified volcanic deposits in the Tambora village area.    

  20. The Coupling Effect Research of Ash Deposition and Condensation in Low Temperature Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition is a key factor that deteriorates the heat transfer performance and leads to higher energy consumption of low pressure economizer working in low temperature flue gas. In order to study the ash deposition of heat exchange tubes in low temperature flue gas, two experiments are carried out with different types of heat exchange tubes in different flue gas environments. In this paper, Nusselt Number Nu and fouling factor ε are calculated to describe the heat transfer characteristics so as to study the ash deposition condition. The scanning electron microscope (SEM is used for the analysis of ash samples obtained from the outer wall of heat exchange tubes. The dynamic process of ash deposition is studied under different temperatures of outer wall. The results showed that ash deposition of heat exchanger will achieve a stable state in constant flue gas environment. According to the condition of condensation of acid vapor and water vapor, the process of ash deposition can be distinguished as mere ash deposition, acid-ash coupling deposition, and acid-water-ash coupling deposition.

  1. Improvements on Near Real Time Detection of Volcanic Ash Emissions for Emergency Monitoring with Limited Satellite Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torge Steensen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying volcanic ash emissions syneruptively is an important task for the global aviation community. However, due to the near real time nature of volcano monitoring, many parameters important for accurate ash mass estimates cannot be obtained easily. Even when using the best possible estimates of those parameters, uncertainties associated with the ash masses remain high, especially if the satellite data is only available in the traditional 10.8 and 12.0 μm bands. To counteract this limitation, we developed a quantitative comparison between the ash extents in satellite and model data. The focus is the manual cloud edge definition based on the available satellite reverse absorption (RA data as well as other knowledge like pilot reports or ground-based observations followed by an application of the Volcanic Ash Retrieval on the defined subset with an RA threshold of 0 K. This manual aspect, although subjective to the experience of the observer, can show a significant improvement as it provides the ability to highlight ash that otherwise would be obscured by meteorological clouds or, by passing over different surfaces with unaccounted temperatures, might be lost entirely and thus remains undetectable for an automated satellite approach. We show comparisons to Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models and outline a quantitative match as well as percentages of overestimates based on satellite or dispersion model data which can be converted into a level of reliability for near real time volcano monitoring. 

  2. Flood, Seismic or Volcanic Deposits? New Insights from X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, M. E.; Moernaut, J.; Vermassen, F.; Llurba, M.; Praet, N.; Strupler, M. M.; Anselmetti, F.; Cnudde, V.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    Event deposits, such as e.g. turbidites incorporated in marine or lacustrine sediment sequences, may be caused by a wide range of possible triggering processes: failure of underwater slopes - either spontaneous or in response to earthquake shaking, hyperpycnal flows and floods, volcanic processes, etc. Determining the exact triggering process remains, however, a major challenge. Especially when studying the event deposits on sediment cores, which typically have diameters of only a few cm, only a small spatial window is available to analyze diagnostic textural and facies characteristics. We have performed X-ray CT scans on sediment cores from Chilean, Alaskan and Swiss lakes. Even when using relatively low-resolution CT scans (0.6 mm voxel size), many sedimentary structures and fabrics that are not visible by eye, are revealed. For example, the CT scans allow to distinguish tephra layers that are deposited by fall-out, from those that reached the basin by river transport or mud flows and from tephra layers that have been reworked and re-deposited by turbidity currents. The 3D data generated by the CT scans also allow to examine relative orientations of sedimentary structures (e.g. convolute lamination) and fabrics (e.g. imbricated mud clasts), which can be used to reconstruct flow directions. Such relative flow directions allow to determine whether a deposit (e.g. a turbidite) had one or several source areas, the latter being typical for seismically triggered turbidites. When the sediment core can be oriented (e.g. using geomagnetic properties), absolute flow directions can be reconstructed. X-ray CT scanning, at different resolution, is thus becoming an increasingly important tool for discriminating the exact origin of EDs, as it can help determining whether e.g. an ash layer was deposited as fall out from an ash cloud or fluvially washed into the lake, or whether a turbidite was triggered by an earthquake or a flood.

  3. Regional-scale input of dispersed and discrete volcanic ash to the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Rachel P.; Murray, Richard W.; Schindlbeck, Julie C.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Hauff, Folkmar; McKinley, Claire C.

    2014-11-01

    We have geochemically and statistically characterized bulk marine sediment and ash layers at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1149 (Izu-Bonin Arc) and Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 52 (Mariana Arc), and have quantified that multiple dispersed ash sources collectively comprise ˜30-35% of the hemipelagic sediment mass entering the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the bulk sediment at Site 1149 is a mixture of Chinese Loess, a second compositionally distinct eolian source, a dispersed mafic ash, and a dispersed felsic ash. We interpret the source of these ashes as, respectively, being basalt from the Izu-Bonin Front Arc (IBFA) and rhyolite from the Honshu Arc. Sr-, Nd-, and Pb isotopic analyses of the bulk sediment are consistent with the chemical/statistical-based interpretations. Comparison of the mass accumulation rate of the dispersed ash component to discrete ash layer parameters (thickness, sedimentation rate, and number of layers) suggests that eruption frequency, rather than eruption size, drives the dispersed ash record. At Site 52, the geochemistry and statistical modeling indicates that Chinese Loess, IBFA, dispersed BNN (boninite from Izu-Bonin), and a dispersed felsic ash of unknown origin are the sources. At Site 1149, the ash layers and the dispersed ash are compositionally coupled, whereas at Site 52 they are decoupled in that there are no boninite layers, yet boninite is dispersed within the sediment. Changes in the volcanic and eolian inputs through time indicate strong arc-related and climate-related controls.

  4. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  5. The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption: New Data on Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Its Potential Impact on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Iovita, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra) deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe. PMID:23799050

  6. Magmatism, ash-flow tuffs, and calderas of the ignimbrite flareup in the western Nevada volcanic field, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Henry,; John, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The western Nevada volcanic field is the western third of a belt of calderas through Nevada and western Utah. Twenty-three calderas and their caldera-forming tuffs are reasonably well identified in the western Nevada volcanic field, and the presence of at least another 14 areally extensive, apparently voluminous ash-flow tuffs whose sources are unknown suggests a similar number of undiscovered calderas. Eruption and caldera collapse occurred between at least 34.4 and 23.3 Ma and clustered into five ∼0.5–2.7-Ma-long episodes separated by quiescent periods of ∼1.4 Ma. One eruption and caldera collapse occurred at 19.5 Ma. Intermediate to silicic lavas or shallow intrusions commonly preceded caldera-forming eruptions by 1–6 Ma in any specific area. Caldera-related as well as other magmatism migrated from northeast Nevada to the southwest through time, probably resulting from rollback of the formerly shallow-dipping Farallon slab. Calderas are restricted to the area northeast of what was to become the Walker Lane, although intermediate and effusive magmatism continued to migrate to the southwest across the future Walker Lane.Most ash-flow tuffs in the western Nevada volcanic field are rhyolites, with approximately equal numbers of sparsely porphyritic (≤15% phenocrysts) and abundantly porphyritic (∼20–50% phenocrysts) tuffs. Both sparsely and abundantly porphyritic rhyolites commonly show compositional or petrographic evidence of zoning to trachydacites or dacites. At least four tuffs have volumes greater than 1000 km3, with one possibly as much as ∼3000 km3. However, the volumes of most tuffs are difficult to estimate, because many tuffs primarily filled their source calderas and/or flowed and were deposited in paleovalleys, and thus are irregularly distributed.Channelization and westward flow of most tuffs in paleovalleys allowed them to travel great distances, many as much as ∼250 km (original distance) to what is now the western foothills of the

  7. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  8. Conditions and timescales for welding block-and-ash flow deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Campbell, M. E.; Welles, J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Ryan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Welding of pyroclastic deposits to reform a coherent rock mass is a common phenomenon, especially for pumiceous pyroclastic density current deposits (i.e., ignimbrites). However, and despite the pervasive abundance of block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposits in the geological and modern record, instances of strongly welded BAF deposits are few. Here, we present a series of high-temperature (800-900 °C) compaction experiments designed to map the conditions (deposit thickness/stress and temperature/viscosity) and timescales that permit or inhibit the welding of BAF deposits. Our experiments were performed on unconsolidated aggregates (containing an ash and lapilli component) derived from crushed and sieved lava blocks (containing 25% crystals) taken from the well-documented welded BAF deposit at Mount Meager volcano (British Columbia, Canada). The experiments demonstrate that welding efficiency increases with increasing time and temperature. Progressive welding is expressed by increasing axial strain, porosity loss, and bulk density. The rate of change of each of these physical properties reduces as welding progresses. Microstructural analysis of the experimental products shows that the loss of interclast porosity during welding results from the progressive sintering and amalgamation of vitric fragments, and that the pore shape changes from sub-equant pores to stretched lenses sandwiched between vitric and crystal fragments. The coincidence between the microstructure and rock physical properties of the natural and experimental samples highlight that we have successfully reproduced welded BAF in the laboratory. Furthermore, our permeability measurements highlight a hysteresis in the return journey of the "there-and-back-again" volcanic permeability cycle (expressed by an increase in permeability due to vesiculation and fragmentation followed by a decrease due to welding). This hysteresis cannot be described by a single porosity-permeability power law relationship and

  9. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Information about reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds from 1953 through 2009 has been compiled to document the nature and scope of risks to aviation from volcanic activity. The information, gleaned from a variety of published and other sources, is presented in database and spreadsheet formats; the compilation will be updated as additional encounters occur and as new data and corrections come to light. The effects observed by flight crews and extent of aircraft damage vary greatly among incidents, and each incident in the compilation is rated according to a severity index. Of the 129 reported incidents, 94 incidents are confirmed ash encounters, with 79 of those having various degrees of airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events that involve suspected ash or gas clouds; and 15 have data that are insufficient to assess severity. Twenty-six of the damaging encounters involved significant to very severe damage to engines and (or) airframes, including nine encounters with engine shutdown during flight. The average annual rate of damaging encounters since 1976, when reporting picked up, has been approximately 2 per year. Most of the damaging encounters occurred within 24 hours of the onset of ash production or at distances less than 1,000 kilometers from the source volcanoes. The compilation covers only events of relatively short duration for which aircraft were checked for damage soon thereafter; documenting instances of long-term repeated exposure to ash (or sulfate aerosols) will require further investigation. Of 38 source volcanoes, 8 have caused 5 or more encounters, of which the majority were damaging: Augustine (United States), Chaiten (Chile), Mount St. Helens (United States), Pacaya (Guatemala), Pinatubo (Philippines), Redoubt (United States), Sakura-jima (Japan), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, United Kingdom). Aircraft have been damaged by eruptions ranging from small, recurring episodes to very large

  10. Improved Near Real Time WRF-Chem Volcanic Emission Prediction and Impacts of Ash Aerosol on Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuefer, M.; Webley, P. W.; Hirtl, M.

    2017-12-01

    We use the numerical Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to investigate the regional effects of volcanic aerosol on weather. A lot of observational data have become available since the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. The observed plume characteristics and meteorological data have been exploited for volcanic WRF-Chem case studies. We concluded that the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume resulted in significant direct aerosol effects altering the state of the atmosphere over large parts of Europe. The WRF-Chem model runs show near surface temperature differences up to 3ºC, altered vertical stability, changed pressure- and wind fields within the atmosphere loaded with ash aerosol. The modeled results have been evaluated with lidar network data, and ground and balloon based observations all over Europe. Besides case studies, we use WRF-Chem to build an improved volcanic ash decision support system that NOAA can use within the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) system. Realistic eruption source parameter (ESP) estimates are a main challenge in predicting volcanic emission dispersion in near real time. We implemented historic ESP into the WRF-Chem preprocessing routine, which can be used as a first estimate to assess a volcanic plume once eruption activity is reported. In a second step, a range of varying plume heights has been associated with the different ash variables within WRF-Chem, resulting in an assembly of different plume scenarios within one WRF-Chem model run. Once there is plume information available from ground or satellite observations, the forecaster has the option to select the corresponding ash variable that best matches the observations. In addition we added an automatic domain generation tool to create near real time WRF-Chem model runs anywhere on the globe by reducing computing expenses at the same time.

  11. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandstroem, Kjell; Mueller, Christian; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling is since long considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. (author)

  12. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  13. The stability of clay using volcanic ash of Mount Sinabung North Sumatera and sugarcane bagasse ash with cbr and uct value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastuty Ika Puji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the fundamental material that is extremely as the place of establishment of a structure or construction, both building and road constructions. However, not all soil is well used in the constructions field, as there are several types of soil that are problematic in terms of both the soil bearing capacity and deformation. The clay with carrying capacity and low shear strength needs to stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to be used as sub grade. The add materials that are typically used for soil stabilization are cement, lime or a mixture of two or three of the added materials. In this study, the added material use volcanic ash of Mount Sinabung at North Sumatera and sugarcane bagasse ash. The purpose of this study was to determine an index value of properties as the result of the addition of 4% volcanic ash and variations in content of bagasse ash on clay and then to determine the compressive strength for maximum testing UCT (Unconfined Compression Test and understand the value of CBR (California Bearing Capacity as the consequence of the addition of a stabilizing agent, as well as optimum level of addition of bagasse ash. The result showed that the original soil sample has the water content 12.35%, specific gravity of 2.65, liquid limit of 46.73% and plasticity index of 26.44%. The compressive strength value of 1.38 kg/cm2. Base on the USCS classification, the soil sample including the type CL while base on AASHTO classification, soil samples are include this A-7-6 type. After the soil is stabilized with a wide variety of sugarcane bagasse ash content value obtained the largest unconfined compression test in 4% addition level volcanic ash + 10% sugarcane bagasse ash is equal to 5.1kg/cm2 and the result California Bearing capacity value on the optimal mix of 4% volcanic ash + 4% sugarcane bagasse ash is equal to 13.91%.

  14. Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement Laterized Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of partial replacement of cement with volcanic ash (VA on the compressive strength of laterized concrete. A total of 192 cubes of 150mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively, while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25 N/mm2 was adopted. The results show that the density and compressive strength of concrete decreased with increase in volcanic ash content. The 28-day, density dropped from 2390 kg/m3 to 2285 kg/m3 (i.e. 4.4% loss and the compressive strength from 25.08 N/mm2 to 17.98 N/mm2 (i.e. 28% loss for 0-30% variation of VA content with no laterite introduced. The compressive strength also decreased with increase in laterite content; the strength of the laterized concrete however increases as the curing age progresses.

  15. Effect of aggregate structure on VOC gas adsorption onto volcanic ash soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Seki, Katsutoshi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    2009-07-15

    The understanding of the gaseous adsorption process and the parameters of volatile organic compounds such as organic solvents or fuels onto soils is very important in the analysis of the transport or fate of these chemicals in soils. Batch adsorption experiments with six different treatments were conducted to determine the adsorption of isohexane, a gaseous aliphatic, onto volcanic ash soil (Tachikawa loam). The measured gas adsorption coefficient for samples of Tachikawa loam used in the first three treatments, Control, AD (aggregate destroyed), and AD-OMR (aggregate destroyed and organic matter removed), implied that the aggregate structure of volcanic ash soil as well as organic matter strongly enhanced gas adsorption under the dry condition, whereas under the wet condition, the aggregate structure played an important role in gas adsorption regardless of the insolubility of isohexane. In the gas adsorption experiments for the last three treatments, soils were sieved in different sizes of mesh and were separated into three different aggregate or particle size fractions (2.0-1.0mm, 1.0-0.5mm, and less than 0.5mm). Tachikawa loam with a larger size fraction showed higher gas adsorption coefficient, suggesting the higher contributions of macroaggregates to isohexane gas adsorption under dry and wet conditions.

  16. The European air traffic management response to volcanic ash crises: towards institutionalised aviation crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopagne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010 covered Europe and created an unprecedented situation. It resulted in an almost complete lockdown of European airspace in the period from 15th to 21st April, 2010: more than 100,000 flights were cancelled, 10 million people were affected and over US$1.8bn was lost by airlines globally. This paper presents the air traffic management (ATM) view of the situation. Through an analysis of the evolution of the events in the affected region, the paper will provide more details on ATM planning, reaction and follow-up actions. Furthermore, the influence of this event on the identification of further improvements needed to advance volcanic procedures internationally will be discussed. Actions undertaken since the end of the event - the establishment of the European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell, running of the International Civil Aviation Organization VOLCEX 11/01 volcanic ash exercise and European response to the Grimsvötn eruption in May 2011 - will be discussed at the end of the paper.

  17. Trace elements release from volcanic ash to seawater. Natural concentrations in Central Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, L. A.; Censi, P.; Saiano, F.; Zuddas, P.; Aricò, P.; Mazzola, S.

    2009-04-01

    Distributions and concentrations of many minor and trace elements in epicontinental basins, as Mediterranean Sea, are mainly driven to atmospheric fallout from surroundings. This mechanism supplies an estimated yearly flux of about 1000 kg km-2 of terrigenous matter of different nature on the whole Mediterranean basin. Dissolution of these materials and processes occurring at solid-liquid interface along the water column drive the distributions of many trace elements as V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb with contents ranging from pmol l-1 (Co, Cd, Pb) to nmol l-1 scale in Mediterranean seawater, with some local differences in the basin. The unwinding of an oceanographic cruise in the coastal waters of Ionian Sea during the Etna's eruptive activity in summer 2001 led to the almost unique chance to test the effects of large delivery of volcanic ash to a coastal sea water system through the analyses of distribution of selected trace elements along several seawater columns. The collection of these waters and their analyses about V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb contents evidenced trace element concentrations were always higher (about 1 order of magnitude at least) than those measured concentrations in the recent past in Mediterranean seawater, apart from Pb. Progressive increase of concentrations of some elements with depth, sometimes changing in a "conservative" behaviour without any clear reason and the observed higher concentrations required an investigation about interaction processes occurring at solid-liquid interface between volcanic ash and seawater along water columns. This investigation involving kinetic evaluation of trace element leaching to seawater, was carried out during a 6 months time period under laboratory conditions. X-ray investigations, SEM-EDS observations and analyses on freshly-erupted volcanic ash evidenced formation of alteration clay minerals onto glass fraction surfaces. Chemical analyses carried out on coexisting liquid phase demonstrated that trace

  18. Treatment of liquid radioactive waste by adsorption of some radionuclides on calcite sand, volcanic ash and comparing it with nickel ferro-cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Ali, A. F.

    2009-09-01

    Adsorption of 137 Cs existed in the liquid radioactive waste on the calcite sand and volcanic ash has been investigated. X-ray studies of sand and ash were used to have more information about the geological composition. The geological results show that the sand used is calcium carbonate and the ash is uncrystalline old volcanic ash. The radioactive measurements indicated that the calcite sand able to adsorb the 137 Cs with weak bond that can not resist the water flow. Otherwise, the volcanic ash can maintain the 137 Cs for long time and the water flow can not liberate the 137 Cs adsorbed into the volcanic ash. The adsorption of 137 Cs on nickel ferro-cyanide was more effective than other compounds. (author)

  19. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Natalie J.; Huntley, Nathan; Dacre, Helen F.; Goldstein, Michael; Thomson, David; Webster, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations for a small operational

  20. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations

  1. Volcanic Ash Hazards and Risk in Argentina: Scientific and Social Collaborative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, E. I., II; Violante, R. A.; Vazquez Herrera, M. D.; Martinez Fernandez, M. D. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the absence of alerts or volcanic impacts during 60 years (from 1932, Quizapu-Descabezado Grande -one of the major eruptions of the XX Century- until 1991 Hudson eruption) there was mild remembrance of volcanic hazards in the collective memory of the Argentina citizens. Since then and until April 2015, the social perception changed according to different factors: age, location, education, culture, vulnerability. This variability produces a maze of challenges that go beyond the scientific knowledge. Volcanic health hazards began to be understood in 2008 after the eruption of Chaiten volcano. The particle size of ashfall (concern on epidemiological monitoring. In 2011 the volcanic complex Puyehue - Cordon Caulle eruption produced ashfall through plumes that reached densely populated cities like San Carlos de Bariloche and Buenos Aires. Farther away in South Africa and New Zealand ash plumes forced airlines to cancel local and international flights for several weeks. The fear of another eruption did not wait long when Calbuco volcano started activity in April 2015, it came at a time when Villarrica volcano was also in an eruptive phase, and the SERNAGEOMIN Chile, through the Observatory OVDAS of the Southern Andes, faced multiple natural disasters at the same time, 3 volcanoes in activity, lahars, pyroclastic flows and floods in the North. In Argentina, critical infrastructure, farming, livestock and primary supplies were affected mainly in the western region. Copahue volcano, is increasing unstability on seismic and geochemistry data since 2012. Caviahue resort village, distant only 8 Km. from the active vent happens to be a high vulnerable location. In 2014 GEVAS (Geology, Volcanoes, Environment and Health) Network ARGENTINA Civil Association started collaborative activities with SEGEMAR and in 2015 with the IAPG (Geoethics, Argentina), intending to promote Best Practices in volcanic and geological hazards. Geoscientists and the volcano vulnerable population

  2. Geochemistry of volcanic ashes, thermal waters and gases ejected during the 1979 eruption of Ontake Volcano, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Tumomu; Sugisaki, Ryuichi; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Kusakabe, Minoru.

    1980-01-01

    Ontake Volcano suddenly began to erupt on its south-western flank near the summit at 05sup(h)20sup(m) on Oct. 28, 1979, forming several new craters and ejecting large amounts of volcanic ash and steam. Up to that time, the volcano had been believed to be dormant, though there were weak geothermal activities at a part of the south-western flank of the volcano, Jigokudani. This paper reports some results obtained by preliminary examination of volcanic ashes, thermal waters and gases collected on and around Ontake Volcano during the early stage of eruptive activity. The volcanic ashes are homogeneous in chemical and mineralogical compositions, and similar in chemical composition to the pre-historic volcanic ashes. The ashes contain pyrite, anhydrite, cristobalite and clay minerals. The sulfur isotopic equilibrium temperature is estimated to be about 400 0 C for pyrite-anhydrite pairs in the volcanic ashes. The estimated temperature is apparently too high for the temperature of phreatic explosion. The interpretation of this isotopic data remains unsettled. The thermal waters collected from the boiling pools in craters are enriched in D and 18 O. The isotopic enrichment is probably caused by evaporation of water at the surface of boiling pool. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data also suggest that spring waters issuing around Ontake Volcano are meteoric in origin. Nigorigo Hot Spring, about 4 km north-west of Ontake Volcano, showed significant increase in the concentrations of major dissolved chemical components soon after the eruption, but since then no significant change in chemical and isotopic composition has been observed. (author)

  3. Spatial distribution of damage around faults in the Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Utah: A mechanical analog for faulting in pyroclastic deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic ash is thought to comprise a large fraction of the Martian equatorial layered deposits and much new insight into the process of faulting and related fluid flow in these deposits can be gained through the study of analogous terrestrial tuffs. This study identifies a set of fault-related processes that are pertinent to understanding the evolution of fault systems in fine-grained, poorly indurated volcanic ash by investigating exposures of faults in the Miocene-aged Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Utah. The porosity and granularity of the host rock are found to control the style of localized strain that occurs prior to and contemporaneous with faulting. Deformation bands occur in tuff that was porous and granular at the time of deformation, while fractures formed where the tuff lost its porous and granular nature due to silicic alteration. Non-localized deformation of the host rock is also prominent and occurs through compaction of void space, including crushing of pumice clasts. Significant off-fault damage of the host rock, resembling fault pulverization, is recognized adjacent to one analog fault and may reflect the strain rate dependence of the resulting fault zone architecture. These findings provide important new guidelines for future structural analyses and numerical modeling of faulting and subsurface fluid flow through volcanic ash deposits on Mars.

  4. The operational eEMEP model version 10.4 for volcanic SO2 and ash forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Birthe M.; Schulz, Michael; Wind, Peter; Valdebenito, Álvaro M.; Fagerli, Hilde

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a new version of the EMEP MSC-W model called eEMEP developed for transportation and dispersion of volcanic emissions, both gases and ash. EMEP MSC-W is usually applied to study problems with air pollution and aerosol transport and requires some adaptation to treat volcanic eruption sources and effluent dispersion. The operational set-up of model simulations in case of a volcanic eruption is described. Important choices have to be made to achieve CPU efficiency so that emergency situations can be tackled in time, answering relevant questions of ash advisory authorities. An efficient model needs to balance the complexity of the model and resolution. We have investigated here a meteorological uncertainty component of the volcanic cloud forecast by using a consistent ensemble meteorological dataset (GLAMEPS forecast) at three resolutions for the case of SO2 emissions from the 2014 Barðarbunga eruption. The low resolution (40 × 40 km) ensemble members show larger agreement in plume position and intensity, suggesting that the ensemble here does not give much added value. To compare the dispersion at different resolutions, we compute the area where the column load of the volcanic tracer, here SO2, is above a certain threshold, varied for testing purposes between 0.25 and 50 Dobson units. The increased numerical diffusion causes a larger area (+34 %) to be covered by the volcanic tracer in the low resolution simulations than in the high resolution ones. The higher resolution (10 × 10 km) ensemble members show higher column loads farther away from the volcanic eruption site in narrower clouds. Cloud positions are more varied between the high resolution members, and the cloud forms resemble the observed clouds more than the low resolution ones. For a volcanic emergency case this means that to obtain quickly results of the transport of volcanic emissions, an individual simulation with our low resolution is sufficient; however, to forecast peak

  5. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  6. MODIFICATION OF KELUD VOLCANIC ASH 2014 AS SELECTIVE ADSORBENT MATERIAL FOR COPPER(II METAL ION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Kristianingrum

    2017-01-01

      This research aims to prepare an adsorbent from Kelud volcanic ash for better Cu(II adsorption efficiency than Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck. Adsorbent synthesis was done by dissolving 6 grams of volcanic ash activated 700oC 4 hours and washed with HCl 0.1 M into 200 ml of 3M sodium hydroxide with stirring and heating of 100 °C for 1 hour. The filtrate sodium silicate was then neutralized using sulfuric acid. The mixture was allowed to stand for 24 hours then filtered and washed with aquaDM, then dried and crushed. The procedure is repeated for nitric acid, acetic acid and formic acid with a contact time of 24 hours. The products were then characterized using FTIR and XRD, subsequently determined acidity, moisture content, and tested for its adsorption of the ion Cu (II with AAS. The results showed that the type of acid that produced highest rendemen is AK-H2SO4-3M ie 36.93%, acidity of the adsorbent silica gel synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M and the water content of the silica gel adsorbent synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-H2SO4-2 M. The character of the functional groups of silica gel synthesized all have similarities with Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck as a comparison. Qualitative analysis by XRD for all modified adsorbent showed a dominant peak of SiO2 except adsorbent AK-H2SO4 amorphous and chemical bonds with FTIR indicates that it has formed a bond of Si-O-Si and Si-OH. The optimum adsorption efficiency of the metal ions Cu(II obtained from AK-H2SO4-5M adsorbent that is equal to 93.2617% and the optimum adsorption capacity of the Cu(II metal ions was obtained from the adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M is equal to 2.4919 mg/ g.   Keywords: adsorbents, silica gel, adsorption, kelud volcanic ash

  7. Sustained Water Quality Impacts in Marine Environments Due to Mechanical Milling of Volcanic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cronin, S. J.; Stewart, C.; Back, E.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are known to be a significant geohazard, but post- or inter-eruptive processes (such as lahars, landslides, and debris avalanches) can be equally damaging to local and regional areas by remobilizing deposits. Numerous studies have found that soluble salts bound to ash grain surfaces may be quickly released into exposed waters, often lowering pH and adding trace metals with both beneficial and deleterious effects on marine flora and fauna (e.g., Fe influx initiating blooms of marine phytoplankton). Most of the cation content of pyroclastic deposits is released slowly into the environment through weathering and alteration processes. However, other pathways exist through the physical comminution of pyroclasts in fluvial and marine settings. In this case, mechanical fracturing of pyroclasts during progressive stages of disaggregation will lead to exposure of reactive particle surfaces. This study evaluates the potential, ongoing effects on water quality by experimental, mechanical milling of pyroclasts and the evaluation of released metals into exposed waters using the pyroclastic density current deposits of both the 2010 eruption of Merapi and the 2014 eruption of Kelud (Java, Indonesia), which have a bulk basaltic andesite/andesite composition (60-65 wt% SiO2). The electrical conductivity (EC) of water samples positively correlates with Ca and Sr concentrations in the case of bulk ash, whole, and crushed lapilli, but correlates with Na for the milled samples. Compared to other stages of pyroclast disaggregation, milled lapilli have the greatest effect on the concentration of alkali elements and produce a significant increase in Ca, Na, K, and Si. Mechanical milling of pyroclasts grinds down minerals and glass, resulting in an increased EC, pH, and Na concentration of exposed waters. Similar experiments are currently being conducted using basalt (50 wt% SiO2) and rhyolite (70 wt% SiO2) deposits, and these results will be presented

  8. The heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly-ash and deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Pohl, J.H.; Devir, G.P.; Su, S. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on a series of slagging studies investigating the heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly ash and deposits, and how this heterogeneity affects deposition. The data come from low temperature ashing (LTA) of pulverised coal, fly ash from boilers, and deposits from pilot-scale furnaces and boilers. The paper presents optical and scanning electron (SEM) micrographs, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXRA) of mineral matter, individual fly ash particles, and localised regions of deposits. During combustion, the included mineral matter is transformed into fly ash, melts and partially adheres to the char surface, and may form agglomerated masses. Excluded mineral matter has little chance of encountering another ash particle and agglomerating in the gas phase, but can react with other particles in the wall deposits. Certain fly ash particles adhere to the wall where they can combine with other fly ash particles. Analyses of molten regions of deposits have shown, so far, four mineral phase fields to be responsible for forming difficult deposits with melting points below deposit surface temperatures of 1200 to 1350{sup o}C. These mineral fields include iron cordierite, albite and its silica undersaturated equivalent nepheline, anorthite, and compounds with ratios of Ca to P of 2.3-2.5.

  9. Volcaniclastic and sedimentary deposits in Late Oligocene/Early Miocene Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, northern Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Polona

    2010-05-01

    average is 2 dm. Bt is overlain by the lithofacies of horizontally stratified coarse grained tuffs - Tv(h). The thickness ranges from 0.1-5 m.The main constituent are angular volcanic rock fragments of diverse composition, texture and stage of alteration. Thick layers may comprise up to 50 graded units, each 1-20 cm thick, which are united in mostly normally graded subsets and sets. Uppermost parts of the sequences are occupied by horizontally and vaguely laminated fine-grained tuffs, and massive fine grained tuffs, denoted as lithofacies F(h), F(v) and F(m), respectively. F(h) and F(v) attain a thickness of 1-5 dm, and F(m) a few mm to 25 cm. At a distance of about 2 km from the former volcano summit, volcaniclastic turbidity ash flow deposits alternate with reworked turbidite ash deposits and siliciclastic marine sediments. Lithofacies of massive (tuffaceous) sandstone - Sv(m), through-cross stratified tuffaceous sandstone - Sv(t) and massive mudstone - M were recognised. They contain detritial constituents (quartz, metamorphic minerals, illite), some layers are rich in organic matter and fossil remains. The succession indicates changing of depositional environment - from high-energy and influenced by wave action to restricted, low-enegy, lagoonal environment with intensive activity of biosphere. Hanfland, C., Läufer, A.L., Nebelsick, J.H., Mosbrugger, V. 2004: The Paleogene Smrekovec Basin and related volcanism (Slovenia): Sedimentology, Geochemistry, and Tectonic Evolution. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 77-125. Kralj, P., 1996: Lithofacies characteristics of the Smrekovec volcaniclastics, northern Slovenia. Geologija 39, 159-191. Von Blanckenburg, F., Davis, J. H., 1996: Feasibility of double slab break-off (Cretaceous and tertiary) during the Alpine convergence. Eclogae Geol. Helv. 89, 111-127.

  10. The Detection, Characterization and Tracking of Recent Aleutian Island Volcanic Ash Plumes and the Assessment of Their Impact on Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John J.; Hudnall, L. A.; Matus, A.; Krueger, A. J.; Trepte, C. r.

    2010-01-01

    The Aleutian Islands of Alaska are home to a number of major volcanoes which periodically present a significant hazard to aviation. During summer of 2008, the Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes experienced moderate eruptive events. These were followed a dramatic, major eruption of Mount Redoubt in late March 2009. The Redoubt case is extensively covered in this paper. Volcanic ash and SO2 from each of these eruptions dispersed throughout the atmosphere. This created the potential for major problems for air traffic near the ash dispersions and at significant distances downwind. The NASA Applied Sciences Weather Program implements a wide variety of research projects to develop volcanic ash detection, characterization and tracking applications for NASA Earth Observing System and NOAA GOES and POES satellites. Chemistry applications using NASA AURA satellite Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) retrievals produced SO2 measurements to trace the dispersion of volcanic aerosol. This work was complimented by advanced multi-channel imager applications for the discrimination and height assignment of volcanic ash using NASA MODIS and NOAA GOES and POES imager data. Instruments similar to MODIS and OMI are scheduled for operational deployment on NPOESS. In addition, the NASA Calipso satellite provided highly accurate measurements of aerosol height and dispersion for the calibration and validation of these algorithms and for corroborative research studies. All of this work shortens the lead time for transition to operations and ensures that research satellite data and applications are operationally relevant and utilized quickly after the deployment of operational satellite systems. Introduction

  11. Towards understanding of carbon stocks and stabilization in volcanic ash soils in natural Andean ecosystems of northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Sevink, J.; de Lange, L.

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic ash soils contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute potential sources or sinks for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Whether soils become a net carbon source or sink with climate and/or land-use change depends on the stability of

  12. Impacts of forest harvest on active carbon and microbial properties of a volcanic ash cap soil in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; Steven T. Overby; Brian D. Gardner; Joanne M. Tirocke

    2015-01-01

    Soil quality assessments are essential for determining impacts on belowground microbial community structure and function. We evaluated the suitability of active carbon (C), a rapid field test, as an indicator of soil biological quality in five paired forest stands (clear cut harvested 40 years prior and unharvested) growing on volcanic ash-cap soils in northern Idaho....

  13. Volcanic Ash and SO2 retrievals using synthetic MODIS TIR data: comparison between inversion procedures and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corradini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the volcanic ash and SO2 retrievals obtained by applying three different procedures (LUT - Look Up Table, NN - Neural Network and VPR - Volcanic Plume Removal on MODIS Thermal InfraRed (TIR synthetic measurements have been compared. The synthetic measurements are generated using MODTRAN Radiative Transfer Model (RTM for defined volcanic cloud configurations. The results, presented as the percentage difference between the retrieved ash and SO2 total masses and the true values used for the synthetic data generation, indicate maximum differences of +/- 15% and +/- 10% for all the procedures and for ash and SO2 retrievals respectively. A sensitivity analysis has been also realized to investigate the influence of volcanic cloud altitude and water vapour profile on SO2 retrievals at 7.3 and 8.6 μm. Results confirm the high sensitivity of the 7.3 μm retrieval to the volcanic cloud altitude and show that the SO2 total masses estimated at 7.3 and 8.6 μm separately can be used to improve the information on the plume height. Finally, the water vapour profile is used to compute the minimum altitude over which the 7.3 μm retrieval is effective. 

  14. Volcanic-Ash Hazards to Aviation—Changes and Challenges since the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Tupper, A.; Mastin, L. G.; Lechner, P.

    2012-12-01

    In response to the severe disruptions to civil aviation that resulted from atmospheric transport of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) quickly formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF), charging it to support the accelerated development of a global risk-management framework for volcanic-ash hazards to aviation. Recognizing the need for scientifically based advice on best methods to detect ash in the atmosphere and depict zones of hazardous airspace, the IVATF sought input from the global scientific community, primarily by means of the Volcanic Ash Scientific Advisory Group which was established in May 2010 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics to serve as a scientific resource for ICAO. The IVATF finished its work in June 2012 (see http://www.icao.int/safety/meteorology/ivatf/Pages/default.aspx for a record of its results). A major science-based outcome is that production of charts depicting areas of airspace expected to have specific ash-concentration values (e.g. 4 mg/cu. m) will not be required of the world's nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). The VAACs are responsible for issuing warning information to the aviation sector regarding ash-cloud position and expected movement. Forecast concentrations in these charts are based primarily on dispersion models that have at least an order of magnitude in uncertainty in their output and therefore do not delineate hazardous airspace with the level of confidence needed by the aviation sector. The recommended approach to improving model-forecast accuracy is to assimilate diverse observations (e.g., satellite thermal-infrared measurements, lidar, radar, direct airborne sampling, visual sightings, etc.) into model simulations; doing that during an eruption in the demanding environment of aviation operations is a substantial challenge. A

  15. Efficiency of (32P) triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Casas, L.; Michaud, A.

    1986-01-01

    The efficiency of triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes (Andepts) was evaluated. Experiments in greenhouse with rye grass was carried out. Three doses of superphosphate (150,300 and 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) labeled with 32 P were used. The fertilizer was located 2.5 cm underneath the seed. The phosphorus derived from the fertilizer represented a 70 percent from the total P absorved by the plant. The utilization of aggregated nutrient ranged from 2.1 to 5.2, the lower values being obtained for the higher rates. Value 'A' increased with the rate applied but it evaluated comparatively the four soils studied. The isotopic method distinguished quantitatively the P coming from the soil in distinction to the P coming from the fertilizer. (Author)

  16. Efficiency of (/sup 32/P) triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, I; Casas, L; Michaud, A

    1986-10-01

    The efficiency of triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes (Andepts) was evaluated. Experiments in greenhouse with rye grass was carried out. Three doses of superphosphate (150,300 and 600 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5//ha) labeled with /sup 32/P were used. The fertilizer was located 2.5 cm underneath the seed. The phosphorus derived from the fertilizer represented a 70 percent from the total P absorved by the plant. The utilization of aggregated nutrient ranged from 2.1 to 5.2, the lower values being obtained for the higher rates. Value 'A' increased with the rate applied but it evaluated comparatively the four soils studied. The isotopic method distinguished quantitatively the P coming from the soil in distinction to the P coming from the fertilizer.

  17. Real-Time Estimation of Volcanic ASH/SO2 Cloud Height from Combined Uv/ir Satellite Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.

    An efficient iterative method has been developed to estimate the vertical profile of SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions by comparing near real-time satellite observations with numerical modeling outputs. The approach uses UV based SO2 concentration and IR based ash cloud images, the volcanic ash transport model PUFF and wind speed, height and directional information to find the best match between the simulated and the observed displays. The method is computationally fast and is being implemented for operational use at the NOAA Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) in Washington, DC, USA, to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) effort to detect, track and measure volcanic ash cloud heights for air traffic safety and management. The presentation will show the methodology, results, statistical analysis and SO2 and Aerosol Index input products derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA EOS/Aura research satellite and from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument in the MetOp-A. The volcanic ash products are derived from AVHRR instruments in the NOAA POES-16, 17, 18, 19 as well as MetOp-A. The presentation will also show how a VAAC volcanic ash analyst interacts with the system providing initial condition inputs such as location and time of the volcanic eruption, followed by the automatic real-time tracking of all the satellite data available, subsequent activation of the iterative approach and the data/product delivery process in numerical and graphical format for operational applications.

  18. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: vsanhuez@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  19. Hydrothermal uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite in the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rasmussen, J.D.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Rowley, P.D.; Romberger, S.B.; Selverstone, J.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite occur in the Central Mining Area, near Marysvale, Utah, and formed in an epithermal vein system that is part of a volcanic/hypabyssal complex. They represent a known, but uncommon, type of deposit; relative to other commonly described volcanic-related uranium deposits, they are young, well-exposed and well-documented. Hydrothermal uranium-bearing quartz and fluorite veins are exposed over a 300 m vertical range in the mines. Molybdenum, as jordisite (amorphous MoS2, together with fluorite and pyrite, increase with depth, and uranium decreases with depth. The veins cut 23-Ma quartz monzonite, 20-Ma granite, and 19-Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed at 19-18 Ma in a 1 km2 area, above a cupola of a composite, recurrent, magma chamber at least 24 ?? 5 km across that fed a sequence of 21- to 14-Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, rhyolite lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Formation of the Central Mining Area began when the intrusion of a rhyolite stock, and related molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich, glassy rhyolite dikes, lifted the fractured roof above the stock. A breccia pipe formed and relieved magmatic pressures, and as blocks of the fractured roof began to settle back in place, flat-lying, concave-downward, 'pull-apart' fractures were formed. Uranium-bearing, quartz and fluorite veins were deposited by a shallow hydrothermal system in the disarticulated carapace. The veins, which filled open spaces along the high-angle fault zones and flat-lying fractures, were deposited within 115 m of the ground surface above the concealed rhyolite stock. Hydrothermal fluids with temperatures near 200??C, ??18OH2O ~ -1.5, ?? -1.5, ??DH2O ~ -130, log fO2 about -47 to -50, and pH about 6 to 7, permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine, molybdenum, potassium, and hydrogen sulfide, and contained uranium as fluoride complexes. The hydrothermal fluids reacted with the wallrock resulting in

  20. High resolution 3D confocal microscope imaging of volcanic ash particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Gill, Ian; Petford, Nick

    2017-07-15

    We present initial results from a novel high resolution confocal microscopy study of the 3D surface structure of volcanic ash particles from two recent explosive basaltic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011), in Iceland. The majority of particles imaged are less than 100μm in size and include PM 10 s, known to be harmful to humans if inhaled. Previous studies have mainly used 2D microscopy to examine volcanic particles. The aim of this study was to test the potential of 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy as a reliable analysis tool for these materials and if so to what degree high resolution surface and volume data could be obtained that would further aid in their classification. First results obtained using an Olympus LEXT scanning confocal microscope with a ×50 and ×100 objective lens are highly encouraging. They reveal a range of discrete particle types characterised by sharp or concave edges consistent with explosive formation and sudden rupture of magma. Initial surface area/volume ratios are given that may prove useful in subsequent modelling of damage to aircraft engines and human tissue where inhalation has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Speciation analysis of antimony in extracts of size-classified volcanic ash by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravet, R; López-Sánchez, J F; Rubio, R; Smichowski, P; Polla, G

    2007-03-01

    Although there is concern about the presence of toxic elements and their species in environmental matrices, for example water, sediment, and soil, speciation analysis of volcanic ash has received little attention. Antimony, in particular, an emerging element of environmental concern, has been less studied than other potentially toxic trace elements. In this context, a study was undertaken to assess the presence of inorganic Sb species in ash emitted from the Copahue volcano (Argentina). Antimony species were extracted from size-classified volcanic ash (<36 microm, 35-45 microm, 45-150 microm, and 150-300 microm) by use of 1 mol L(-1) citrate buffer at pH 5. Antimony(III) and (V) in the extracts were separated and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Antimony species concentrations (microg g(-1)) in the four fractions varied from 0.14 to 0.67 for Sb(III) and from 0.02 to 0.03 for Sb(V). The results reveal, for the first time, the occurrence of both inorganic Sb species in the extractable portion of volcanic ash. Sb(III) was always the predominant species.

  2. Impact of super-distal ash fallout on tropical hydrology and landscape: a case study from the YTT deposits of the Perak river, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, E.; Saidin, M.; Gibbard, P.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Younger Toba Tuff eruption, approximately 73 ka ago, is the largest known for the Quaternary and its climate, environmental and human consequences are keenly debated (Oppenheimer, 2011).While the distribution (Rose and Chesner, 1987; Rose and Chesner, 1990; Chesner et al., 1991; Schulz et al., 2002; Von Rad et al., 2002) , geochemical properties (Shane et al., 1995; Westgate et al., 1998) and volcanic significance (Rampino and Self, 1982; Rampino and Self, 1993; Rampino and Ambrose, 2000; Oppenheimer, 2002; Mason et al., 2004)of the YTT have been widely studied, few attention has been given to the significance of the distal volcanic ash deposits within their receiving basin context. Although several studies exist on the impact of pyroclastic flows on proximal rivers and lakes (Collins and Dunne, 1986; Thompson et al., 1986; Hayes et al., 2002; Németh and Cronin, 2007), only few address the issues of the dynamic of preservation of super-distal fine ash deposits in rivers (also due to the lack of direct data on super-eruptions). It has also been demonstrated that models of the styles and timing of distal volcanoclastic re-sedimentation are more complicated than those developed for proximal settings of stratovolcanoes (Kataoka et al., 2009). We present an analysis of the taphonomy (intended as accumulation and preservation) of distal volcanic ash in fluvial and lacustrian contexts in newly discovered Toungest Toba Tuff sites in the Lenggong valley, western Peninsular Malaysia. The paper aims to characterise the nature of distal tephras in fluvial environments towards a stratigraphic distinction between primary ash and secondary ash, characterisation of the pre-ash fall receiving environment in term of fluvial dynamic and landscape morphology, and assessment of the time of recovery.

  3. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  4. Volcanic ash and aviation–The challenges of real-time, global communication of a natural hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Peter; Tupper, Andrew C.; Guffanti, Marianne C.; Loughlin, Sue; Casadevall, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    More than 30 years after the first major aircraft encounters with volcanic ash over Indonesia in 1982, it remains challenging to inform aircraft in flight of the exact location of potentially dangerous ash clouds on their flight path, particularly shortly after the eruption has occurred. The difficulties include reliably forecasting and detecting the onset of significant explosive eruptions on a global basis, observing the dispersal of eruption clouds in real time, capturing their complex structure and constituents in atmospheric transport models, describing these observations and modelling results in a manner suitable for aviation users, delivering timely warning messages to the cockpit, flight planners and air traffic management systems, and the need for scientific development in order to undertake operational enhancements. The framework under which these issues are managed is the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW), administered by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). ICAO outlines in its standards and recommended practices (International Civil Aviation Organization, 2014) the basic volcanic monitoring and communication that is necessary at volcano observatories in Member States (countries). However, not all volcanoes are monitored and not all countries with volcanoes have mandated volcano observatories or equivalents. To add to the efforts of volcano observatories, a system of Meteorological Watch Offices, Air Traffic Management Area Control Centres, and nine specialist Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAACs) are responsible for observing, analysing, forecasting and communicating the aviation hazard (airborne ash), using agreed techniques and messages in defined formats. Continuous improvement of the IAVW framework is overseen by expert groups representing the operators of the system, the user community, and the science community. The IAVW represents a unique marriage of two scientific disciplines - volcanology and meteorology - with the

  5. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  6. Geology and petrology of the Woods Mountains Volcanic Center, southeastern California: Implications for the genesis of peralkaline rhyolite ash flow tuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Michael

    1988-12-01

    The Woods Mountains Volcanic Center is a middle Miocene silicic caldera complex located at the transition from the northern to the southern Basin and Range provinces of the western United States. It consists of a trachyte-trachydacite-rhyolite-peralkaline rhyolite association of lava flows, domes, plugs, pyroclastic rocks, and epiclastic breccia. Volcanism began at about 16.4 Ma, near the end of a local resurgence of felsic to intermediate magmatism and associated crustal extension. Numerous metaluminous high-K trachyte, trachydacite, and rhyolite lava flows, domes, and pyroclastic deposits accumulated from vents scattered over an area of 200 km2 forming a broad volcanic field with an initial volume of about 10 km3. At 15.8 Ma, about 80 km3 of metaluminous to mildly peralkaline high-K rhyolite ash flows were erupted from vents in the western part of fhe field in three closely spaced pulses, resulting in the formation of a trap door caldera 10 km in diameter. The ash flows formed the Wild Horse Mesa Tuff, a compositionally zoned ash flow sheet that originally covered an area of about 600 km2 to a maximum thickness of at least 320 m. High-K trachyte pumice lapilli, some of which are intimately banded with rhyolite, were produced late in the two later eruptions, Intracaldera volcanism from widely distributed vents rapidly filled the caldera with about 10 km3 of high-K, mildly peralkaline, high-silica rhyolite lava flows and pyroclastic deposits. These are interlayered with breccia derived from the caldera scarp. They are intruded by numerous compositionally similar plugs, some of which structurally uplifted and fractured the center of the caldera. The center evolved above a high-K trachyte magma chamber about 10 km in diameter that had developed and differentiated within the upper crust at about 15.8 Ma. Petrological, geochemical, and geophysical data are consistent with the idea that a cap of peralkaline rhyolite magma formed within the trachyte chamber as a result

  7. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  8. Correlations of volcanic ash texture with explosion earthquakes from vulcanian eruptions at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, T.; Toramaru, A.; Iguchi, M.

    2009-07-01

    We compare the texture of volcanic ash with the maximum amplitude of explosion earthquakes ( Aeq) for vulcanian eruptions from Sakurajima volcano. We analyze the volcanic ash emitted by 17 vulcanian eruptions from 1974 to 1987. Using a stereoscopic microscope, we classify the glassy particles into smooth surface particles (S-type particles) and non-smooth surface particles (NS-type particles) according to their surface conditions—gloss or non-gloss appearance—as an indicator of the freshness of the particles. S-type particles are further classified into V-type particles (those including vesicles) and NV-type particles (those without vesicles) by means of examinations under a polarized microscopic of polished thin sections. Cross-correlated examinations against seismological data show that: 1) the number fraction of S-type particles (S-fraction) has a positive correlation with Aeq, 2) the number ratio of NV-type particles to V-type particles (the N/V number ratio) has a positive correlation with Aeq, and 3) for explosions accompanied with BL-type earthquake swarms, the N/V number ratio has a negative correlation with the duration of the BL-Swarms. BL-Swarms refer to the phenomenon of numerous BL-type earthquakes occurring within a few days, prior to an increase in explosive activity [Kamo, K., 1978. Some phenomena before the summit crater eruptions at Sakura-zima volcano. Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan., 23, 53-64]. The positive correlation between the N/V number ratio and Aeq could indicate that a large amount of separated gas from fresh magma results in a large Aeq. Plagioclase microlite textual analysis of NV-type particles from five explosive events without BL-Swarms shows that the plagioclase microlite number density (MND) and the L/ W (length/width) ratio have a positive correlation with Aeq. A comparison between textural data (MND, L/ W ratio, crystallinity) and the result of a decompression-induced crystallization experiment [Couch, S., Sparks, R

  9. CFD simulation of ash deposit formation in fixed bed biomass furnaces and boilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstner, M.; Hofmeister, G.; Joeller, M.; Dahl, J.; Braun, M.; Kleditzsch, S.; Scharler, R.; Obernberger, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to describe and predict the formation of ash deposits in biomass fired combustion plants, a mathematical model is being developed and implemented into the CFD code Fluent¿ as a post processing tool. At the present state of development the model covers the release of coarse ash particles and

  10. Investigating the use of the Saharan dust index as a tool for the detection of volcanic ash in SEVIRI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Isabelle; Mackie, Shona; Watson, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Despite the similar spectral signatures of ash and desert dust, relatively little has been done to explore the application of dust detection techniques to the problem of volcanic ash detection. The Saharan dust index (SDI) is routinely implemented for dust monitoring at some centres and could be utilised for volcanic ash detection with little computational expense, thereby providing a product that forecasters already have some familiarity with to complement the suite of existing ash detection tools. We illustrate one way in which the index could be implemented for the purpose of ash detection by applying it to three scenes containing volcanic ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland and the 2011 eruption of Puyehue, Chile. It was also applied to an image acquired over Etna in January 2011, where a volcanic plume is clearly visible but is unlikely to contain any ash. These examples demonstrate the potential of the SDI as a tool for ash monitoring under different environmental and atmospheric conditions. In addition to presenting a valuable qualitative product to aid monitoring, this work includes a quantitative assessment of the detection skill using a manually constructed expert ash mask. The optimum implementation of any technique is likely to be dependent on both atmospheric conditions and on the properties of the imaged ash (which is often unknown in a real-time situation). Here we take advantage of access to a 'truth' rarely available in a real-time situation and calculate an ash mask based on the optimum threshold for the specific scene, which is then used to demonstrate the potential of the SDI. The SDI mask is compared to masks calculated from a simplistic implementation of the more traditional split window method, again exploiting our access to the 'truth' to set the most appropriate threshold for each scene, and to a probabilistic method that is implemented without reference to the 'truth' and which provides useful insights into the likely

  11. Design and construction of a testbed for the application of real volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grimsvötn eruptions to microgas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konradin; Fischer, Christian; Lange, Martin; Schulz, Uwe; Naraparaju, Ravisankar; Kramer, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that volcanic ash clouds emitted from erupting volcanoes pose a considerable threat to the aviation. The volcanic ash particles can damage the turbine blades and their thermal barrier coatings as well as the bearings of the turbine. For a detailed investigation of this damaging effect a testbed was designed and constructed, which allowed to study the damaging effects of real volcanic ash to an especially for these investigations modified microgas turbine. The use of this microgas turbine had the advantage that it delivers near reality conditions, using kerosene and operating at similar temperatures as big turbines, but at a very cost effective level. The testbed consisted out of a disperser for the real volcanic ash and all the equipment needed to control the micro gas turbine. Moreover, in front and behind the microgas turbine the concentration and the distribution of the volcanic ash were measured online by optical particle counters (OPCs). The particle concentration and size distribution of the volcanic ash particles in the intake in front of the microgas turbine was measured by an optical particle counter (OPC) combined with an isokinetic intake. Behind the microgas turbine in the exhaust gas additionally to the measurement with a second OPC ash particles were caught with an impactor, in order to enable the later analysis with an electron microscope concerning the morphology to verify possible melting processes of the ash particles. This testbed is of high importance as it allows detailed investigations of the impact of volcanic ash to jet turbines and appropriate countermeasures.

  12. Deposition behaviour of model biofuel ash in mixtures with quartz sand. Part 1: Experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Christian Mueller; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tran [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Model biofuel ash of well-defined size and melting properties was fed into an entrained flow reactor (EFR) to simulate the deposition behaviour of commercially applied biofuel mixtures in large-scale boilers. The aim was to obtain consistent experimental data that can be used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based deposition models. The results showed that while up to 80 wt% of the feed was lost to the EFR wall, the composition of the model ash particles collected at the reactor exit did not change. When model ashes were fed into the reactor individually, the ash particles were found to be sticky when they contained more than 15 wt% molten phase. When model ashes were fed in mixtures with silica sand, it was found that only a small amount of sand particles was captured in the deposits; the majority rebounded upon impact. The presence of sand in the feed mixture reduced the deposit buildup by more than could be expected from linear interpolation between the model ash and the sand. The results suggested that sand addition to model ash may prevent deposit buildup through erosion. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Principal geological characteristics of the volcanic-type uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiheng

    2009-01-01

    The volcanic-type uranium deposits in China distribute in two gigantic active belts, that is, circum-Pacific belt and latitudinal structure belt crossing Europe-Asia. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur in continental volcanics,which are mainly composed of acid or alkali volcanics. Based on the study of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio, REE distribution pattern and melt inclusion thermometry of volcanics, it is found that volcanic magma originated mainly from high-temperature melt of sialsphere and they were propably contaiminated partially by mantle materials. The volcanic eruption was controlled by regional fault and formed eruption belt, the beld can be divided into several sub-belt which was comprised by a serial eruption centres. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur by the side of down-faulted red basin or associated with basic swarm. This means that the uranium mineralization is related to deep tectonics-magmatism. The paper proposes that the moderate erosion of volcanic belt is an important precondition to find uranium deposits. (authors)

  14. The influence of using quicklime and volcanic ash as stabilizing materials in clay viewed from CBR value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, Ika Puji; Sofyan, Tri Alby; Roesyanto

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the soil in Indonesia in varied, viewed from its bearing capacity. The soil is one of the materials which plays a very important role in a construction or foundation so that it is very necessary to have soil with its adequate technical properties. In reality, often founding inadequate soil properties such as in its compressibility, permeability, and plasticity. The objective of the research was to find out the physical properties, technical properties, CBR value, and stabilization of clay by adding quicklime and volcanic ash as stabilizing materials. The mixing combination is 2%, 4% quicklime, and 2%-24% volcanic ash. The value of Water Content for original soil was 34.33% and Specific Gravity original soil was 2.65. The result of the research showed that the stabilizing materials from quicklime and volcanic ash could improve the physical and mechanical properties of clay. The value of Atterberg Limits decreased from 29.88% to 11.33% in the variation of 4% Q+24% VA, while the most maximal value of CBR was found in the variation of 4% Q+8% VA at 9.01%.

  15. Imaginary refractive index and other microphysical properties of volcanic ash, Sarahan dust, and other mineral aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Artaxo, P.; Todd, M.; Ben Ami, Y.; Dolgos, G.; Espinosa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol properties are essential to support remote sensing measurements, atmospheric circulation and climate models. This research aims to improve the understanding of the optical and microphysical properties of different types of aerosols particles. Samples of volcanic ash, Saharan dust and other mineral aerosols particles were analyzed by different techniques. Ground samples were sieved down to 45um, de-agglomerated and resuspended in the laboratory using a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength was derived empirically from the measurements of the spectral mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. Some selected samples were also analyzed with the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) instrument for the characterization of the aerosol polarized phase function. This work compares results of the spectral refractive index of different materials obtained by our methodology with those available in the literature. In some cases there are significant differences both in magnitude and spectral dependence of the imaginary refractive index. These differences are evaluated and discussed in this work.

  16. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived 129 I (half life: 1.57 x l0 7 yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Neural network multispectral satellite images classification of volcanic ash plumes in a cloudy scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Picchiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the potential use of neural networks in the characterization of eruptive events monitored by satellite, through fast and automatic classification of multispectral images. The algorithm has been developed for the MODIS instrument and can easily be extended to other similar sensors. Six classes have been defined paying particular attention to image regions that represent the different surfaces that could possibly be found under volcanic ash clouds. Complex cloudy scenarios composed by images collected during the Icelandic eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull (2010 and Grimsvötn (2011 volcanoes have been considered as test cases. A sensitivity analysis on the MODIS TIR and VIS channels has been performed to optimize the algorithm. The neural network has been trained with the first image of the dataset, while the remaining data have been considered as independent validation sets. Finally, the neural network classifier’s results have been compared with maps classified with several interactive procedures performed in a consolidated operational framework. This comparison shows that the automatic methodology proposed achieves a very promising performance, showing an overall accuracy greater than 84%, for the Eyjafjalla - jökull event, and equal to 74% for the Grimsvötn event. 

  18. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  19. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J.; Bool, L.E.; Kang, S.G. [and others

    1995-11-01

    This project is designed to examine the effects of combustion stoichiometry on the fundamental aspects of ash formation and ash deposit initiation. Emphasis is being placed on reducing stoichiometries associated with low-NOx combustion, although a range of oxidant/fuel ratios are being considered. Previous work has demonstrated that ash formation depends strongly upon coal mineralogy, including mineral type, size, amount, and the presence of organically associated inorganic species. Combustion temperature and the oxidation state of iron also play a significant role. As these latter items will vary with changes in stoichiometry, research to determine the net effect on deposition is required.

  20. Collateral variations between the concentrations of mercury and other water soluble ions in volcanic ash samples and volcanic activity during the 2014-2016 eruptive episodes at Aso volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Sudo, Yasuaki; Nagamatsu, Yoshizumi

    2017-07-01

    During 2014-2016, the Aso volcano, located in the center of the Kyushu Islands, Japan, erupted and emitted large amounts of volcanic gases and ash. Two episodes of the eruption were observed; firstly Strombolian magmatic eruptive episodes from 25 November 2014 to the middle of May 2015, and secondly phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptive episodes from September 2015 to February 2016. Bulk chemical analyses on total mercury (Hg) and major ions in water soluble fraction in volcanic ash fall samples were conducted. During the Strombolian magmatic eruptive episodes, total Hg concentrations averaged 1.69 ± 0.87 ng g- 1 (N = 33), with a range from 0.47 to 3.8 ng g- 1. In addition, the temporal variation of total Hg concentrations in volcanic ash varied with the amplitude change of seismic signals. In the Aso volcano, the volcanic tremors are always observed during eruptive stages and quiet interludes, and the amplitudes of tremors increase at eruptive stages. So, the temporal variation of total Hg concentrations could provide an indication of the level of volcanic activity. During the phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptive episodes, on the other hand, total Hg concentrations in the volcanic ash fall samples averaged 220 ± 88 ng g- 1 (N = 5), corresponding to 100 times higher than those during the Strombolian eruptive episode. Therefore, it is possible that total Hg concentrations in volcanic ash samples are largely varied depending on the eruptive type. In addition, the ash fall amounts were also largely different among the two eruptive episodes. This can be also one of the factors controlling Hg concentrations in volcanic ash.

  1. Studies on P availability of volcanic ash soils from Chile amended with various P fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Parada, A.M.; Luzio, W.

    2002-01-01

    A high P retention capacity and a low P availability to plants characterize the volcanic ash soils from Chile. For this reason, the purpose of this incubation study was to compare different extraction methods, P sorption, and estimations of the agronomic efficiencies of different fertilizers in these soils. In order to study the agronomic effectiveness of rock phosphates and their suitability for direct application, 32 P was used for assessing the bioavailability of P and the efficiency in rock phosphate materials. Incubation experiments were carried out to measure the soil parameters of Intensity, Quantity and Capacity. Triple superphosphate (TSP, 20% P) was applied to the soil in granular form, whereas local Bahia Inglesa PR (7.68% P) was added as powder. These Chilean soils have a very high P fixing capacity with maximum P adsorption values greater than 1000 mg P/kg soil. Moreover these soils also exhibit higher fixation strength compared to the Venezuelan soils. In relation to isotopic exchangeable P, (E value), the Chilean soils have a low value of isotopic exchangeable P without added P. There is a progressive increase in E value, under increasing P fertilizer rates, particularly at 500 ppm P and above. The P application as PR or TSP did not reduce the P retention capacity of the Perquenco soil. Nevertheless, it exists a positive effect when the P sources are applied as mixtures, which induces a decrease in the P retention percentage. Available P in this soil increased from 3.6 ppm P for the check to a maximum of 20 ppm P for the highest TSP rates, reaching medium to high values according to the extraction methodology used. (author)

  2. Quantification of Ash Deposit Build-up and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension­fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  3. Inexpensive Instrument for In Situ Characterization of Particulate Matter in Volcanic Ash Plumes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volcanic research is a significant part of the "Earth Surface & Interior" focus area of the NASA Earth Science program. After a volcanic eruption, the smallest...

  4. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: A study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. MethodsA physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. ResultsIcelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% < 4 μm), but the samples did not display physicochemical characteristics of pathogenic particulate in terms of composition or morphology. Ash particles were generally angular, being composed of fragmented glass and crystals. Few fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m2 g−1, which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO•), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after ‘refreshing’ sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m−2, with mafic samples releasing more iron

  5. Ash transformation and deposit build-up during biomass suspension and grate firing: Full-scale experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    An attractive option for reducing the net CO2 emissions is to substitute coal with biomass in large power plant boilers. However, the presence of chlorine (Cl) and alkali metals (K, Na) in biomassmay induce large operational problems due to ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. The aim...... of this study was to investigate ash transformation and deposition behavior in two biomass-fired boilers, firing wheat straw and/or wood. The influence of strawfiring technology (grate and suspension) on the ash transformation, deposit formation rate and deposit characteristics has been investigated. Bulk...... elemental analysis of fly ashes revealed that fly ash from suspension firing of straw has high contents of Si, K and Ca, while fly ash from straw firing on grate was rich in the volatile elements K, Cl and S. Investigations of deposit formation ratesweremade in the superheater and convective pass regions...

  6. Volcanic ash leaching as a means of tracing the environmental impact of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, J; Aulinas, M; Rejas, M; Fernandez-Turiel, J L

    2016-07-01

    The Grímsvötn volcanic eruption, from 21 to 28 May, 2011, was the largest eruption of the Grímsvötn Volcanic System since 1873, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of magnitude 4. The main geochemical features of the potential environmental impact of the volcanic ash-water interaction were determined using two different leaching methods as proxies (batch and vertical flow-through column experiments). Ash consists of glass with minor amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, diopside, olivine and iron sulphide; this latter mineral phase is very rare in juvenile ash. Ash grain morphology and size reflect the intense interaction of magma and water during eruption. Batch and column leaching tests in deionised water indicate that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl, S and F had the highest potential geochemical fluxes to the environment. Release of various elements from volcanic ash took place immediately through dissolution of soluble salts from the ash surface. Element solubilities of Grímsvötn ash regarding bulk ash composition were <1 %. Combining the element solubilities and the total estimated mass of tephra (7.29 × 10(14) g), the total inputs of environmentally important elements were estimated to be 8.91 × 10(9) g Ca, 7.02 × 10(9) g S, 1.10 × 10(9) g Cl, 9.91 × 10(8) g Mg, 9.91 × 10(8) g Fe and 1.45 × 10(8) g P The potential environmental problems were mainly associated with the release of F (5.19 × 10(9) g).

  7. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... with a high flue gas temperature of 1250-1300 oC, although the addition of coal fly ash increased the differential deposit formation rate (DDF-rate) and the ash deposition propensity, the deposit removal frequency were considerably increased and the major shedding mechanism was changed from soot...... corrosion. At the location with a low flue gas temperature of 750-800 oC, the addition of coal fly ash reduced the ash deposition propensity and caused the formed deposits being easily removable. Moreover, the KCl and KOH/K2CO3 found in the low-temperature deposits without coal ash addition disappeared when...

  8. Empirical prediction of ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    This report contain an outline of some of the ash chemistry indices utilized in the EPREDEPO (Empirical PREdiction of DEPOsition) PC-program, version 1.0 (DEPO10), developed by Flemming Frandsen, The CHEC Research Programme, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. DEPO10 is a 1st generation FTN77 Fortran PC-programme designed to empirically predict ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utility boilers. Expectational data (empirical basis) from an EPRI-sponsored survey of ash deposition experiences at coal-fired utility boilers, performed by Battelle, have been tested for use on Danish coal chemistry - boiler operational conditions, in this study. (au) 31 refs.

  9. Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the soufriere hills volcano, montserrat, british west indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter; Bonadonna; Dupree; Hards; Kohn; Murphy; Nichols; Nicholson; Norton; Searl; Sparks; Vickers

    1999-02-19

    Crystalline silica (mostly cristobalite) was produced by vapor-phase crystallization and devitrification in the andesite lava dome of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat. The sub-10-micrometer fraction of ash generated by pyroclastic flows formed by lava dome collapse contains 10 to 24 weight percent crystalline silica, an enrichment of 2 to 5 relative to the magma caused by selective crushing of the groundmass. The sub-10-micrometer fraction of ash generated by explosive eruptions has much lower contents (3 to 6 percent) of crystalline silica. High levels of cristobalite in respirable ash raise concerns about adverse health effects of long-term human exposure to ash from lava dome eruptions.

  10. Composition and microstructure of a furnace ash deposit from a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessler, R R

    1980-07-01

    An exploratory study of the structure and composition of furnace-ash deposits was carried out using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of these analyses were supplemented by studies of particulate melting temperature using hot-stage microscopy to measure melting temperature, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses to measure composition of melted particles. It was found that the general structure of the ash deposit was a matrix of glassy, spherical particles having a wide range of composition in which unfused particles containing iron oxide and calcium oxide were dispersed. At the imprint of the tube surface a considerable concentration of calcium, sulphur and iron was found. Near the fused outer surface of the deposit, the glassy materials had melted into a porous, glassy slag containing spherical globules of iron oxide combined with other materials. There were no systematic compositional gradients from the tube surface to the fused outer layer except for the sulfur layer found only at the tube surface. However, there were significant differences in composition from particle to particle and these differences were similar to those found in the coal mineral matter as isolated by low-temperature ashing. Single particles of low-temperature ash were found having low fusion temperatures, in the range of fusion temperatures for particles in furnance has. Thus, the glassy spheres found in furnace deposits could originate from single coal particles, without the need of interactions among coal particles or ash particles.

  11. Spectroscopic and Microscopic Characterization of Volcanic Ash from Puyehue-(Chile Eruption: Preliminary Approach for the Application in the Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Lia Botto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash from Puyehue Cordon Caulle Volcanic Complex (Chile, emitted on June 4, 2011, and deposited in Villa La Angostura at ~40 km of the source, was collected and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, surface area (BET, and chemical analysis (ICP-AES-MS technique. The mineralogical and physicochemical study revealed that the pyroclastic mixture contains iron oxides in the form of magnetite and hematite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase mineral species and amorphous pumiceous shards. Carbonaceous material was also identified. Physicochemical techniques allow us to select two representative samples (average composition and Fe-rich materials which were used to analyze their performances in the adsorption process to remove arsenic from water. Additional iron activation by means of ferric salts was performed under original sample. Results showed that the low-cost feedstock exhibited a good adsorption capacity to remove the contaminant, depending on the iron content and the water pH.

  12. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  13. Metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guihua

    1998-01-01

    A metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits has been established on the basis of analysis of occurrence features and ore-forming mechanism of some continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits in the world. The model proposes that uranium-enriched granite or granitic basement is the foundation, premetallogenic polycyclic and multistage volcanic eruptions are prerequisites, intense tectonic-extensional environment is the key for the ore formation, and relatively enclosed geologic setting is the reliable protection condition of the deposit. By using the model the author explains the occurrence regularities of some rich and large/super large uranium deposits such as Strelichof uranium deposit in Russia, Dornot uranium deposit in Mongolia, Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-REE deposit in Australia, uranium deposit No.460 and Zhoujiashan uranium deposit in China, and then compares the above deposits with a large poor uranium deposit No.661 as well

  14. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: a study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David E; Horwell, Claire J; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-09-11

    The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. Icelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m 2  g -1 , which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO • ), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after 'refreshing' sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m -2 , with mafic samples releasing more iron than silicic samples. All samples were non-reactive in a test of red blood cell-membrane damage. The primary particle-specific concern is the potential for future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to generate fine, respirable material and, thus, to

  15. Evaluation of rainfall infiltration characteristics in a volcanic ash soil by time domain reflectometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasegawa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR was used to monitor soil water conditions and to evaluate infiltration characteristics associated with rainfall into a volcanic-ash soil (Hydric Hapludand with a low bulk density. Four 1 m TDR probes were installed vertically along a 6 m line in a bare field. Three 30 cm and one 60 cm probes were installed between the 1 m probes. Soil water content was measured every half or every hour throughout the year. TDR enabled prediction of the soil water content precisely even though the empirical equation developed by Topp et al. (1980 underestimated the water content. Field capacity, defined as the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m on the day following heavy rainfall, was 640 mm. There was approximately 100 mm difference in the amount of water stored between field capacity and the driest period. Infiltration characteristics of rainfall were investigated for 36 rainfall events exceeding 10 mm with a total amount of rain of 969 mm out of an annual rainfall of 1192 mm. In the case of 25 low intensity rainfall events with less than 10 mm h-1 on to dry soils, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was equal to the cumulative rainfall. For rain intensity in excess of 10 mm h-1, non-uniform infiltration occurred. The increase in the amount of water stored at lower elevation locations was 1.4 to 1.6 times larger than at higher elevation locations even though the difference in ground height among the 1 m probes was 6 cm. In the two instances when rainfall exceeded 100 mm, including the amount of rain in a previous rainfall event, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was 65 mm lower than the total quantity of rain on the two occasions (220 mm; this indicated that 65 mm of water or 5.5% of the annual rainfall had flowed away either by surface runoff or bypass flow. Hence, approximately 95% of the annual rainfall was absorbed by the soil matrix but it is not possible to simulate

  16. Development of estimation method for tephra transport and dispersal characteristics with numerical simulation technique. Part 2. A method of selecting meteorological conditions and the effects on ash deposition and concentration in air for Kanto-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Toshida, Kiyoshi; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the estimation of ground deposition for a real test case, a volcanic ash hazard in Kanto-area with various meteorological conditions by using an ash transport- and deposition-model, fall3d; we consider three eruptions, which correspond to the stage 1 and 3 of Hoei eruption at Mt. Fuji and Tenmei Eruption at Mt. Asama. The meteorological conditions are generated with the 53 years reanalysis meteorological dataset, CRIEPI-RCM-Era2, which has a temporal- and spatial-resolutions of 1 hr and 5 km. The typical and extreme conditions were sampled by using Gumbel plot and an artificial neural network technique. The ash deposition is invariably limited to the west area of the vent, even with the typical wind conditions on summer, while the isopach of ground deposition depicted various distributions, which strongly depends on meteorological conditions. This implies that the concentric circular distribution must not be realistic. Also, a long-term eruption, such as the Hoei eruption during stage 3, yields large deposition area due to the daily variations of wind direction, suggesting that the attention to the differences between daily variation and fluctuations of wind direction on evaluating of volcanic ash risk is vital. (author)

  17. Methodical studies of groundwater pollution caused by fly ash deposits from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuziak-Salzenberg, D.

    1990-01-01

    The risk potential of fly ash deposits from fossil-fuel power plants was investigated through laboratory elution experiments (single elution, multiple elution, column leaching). The groundwater risk potential in the case of indiscriminate, unsealed dumping is high because of an increased water hardness and due to sulfate, molybdenum, selenium, boron, chromium, barium, strontium and arsenic contamination. Higher barium and strontium concentrations are typical of fly ash deposits. Barium and strontium thus serve as target elements for identification of sites of long-standing pollution. The risks of arsenic leaching are discussed in detail. (orig./LU) [de

  18. Mineralogical investigations into ash deposits of selected brown coals; Mineralogische Untersuchungen an Ascheansaetzen ausgewaehlter Braunkohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, J.; Ullrich, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden, Inst. fuer Geotechnik (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Within the framework of the research project financed by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen (AIF) ''Experimental investigations into the formation of ash deposits from stack gases during the combustion of pulverised lignite'' and supervised by the chair of power station technology (Institute of Energy Technology) of the Dresden Technical University, the mineral composition of ash deposits of six different coals were investigated: two coal blends (different countries worldwide), two lignites from east from the River Elbe (types WM and JAe), one from west of the River Elbe and one Rhenish lignite. (orig.)

  19. Validation of a continuous flow method for the determination of soluble iron in atmospheric dust and volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonella, Lucio E; Gaiero, Diego M; Palomeque, Miriam E

    2014-10-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and is supplied to the remote areas of the ocean mainly through atmospheric dust/ash. The amount of soluble Fe in dust/ash is a major source of uncertainty in modeling-Fe dissolution and deposition to the surface ocean. Currently in the literature, there exist almost as many different methods to estimate fractional solubility as researchers in the field, making it difficult to compare results between research groups. Also, an important constraint to evaluate Fe solubility in atmospheric dust is the limited mass of sample which is usually only available in micrograms to milligrams amounts. A continuous flow (CF) method that can be run with low mass of sediments (solubility studies on dust/ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Volcanic ash and its enigma: A case study from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.

    An ash layer occurs between 10-35 cm depth in sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean basin. Morphology, major, trace and rare earth element composition of glass shards from the ash layer suggest that the Youngest Toba Tuff of ~74 ka from...

  1. A study of the effectiveness of the use of gypsum and volcanic ash against the stability of clay soil in terms of UCT and CBR values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, IP; Lubis, AIU

    2018-02-01

    Soil stabilization is an effort to improve engineering properties of soil. The conventional soil stabilization is by adding additives to the soil such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and volcanic ash. The research purposes were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% volcanic ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT values of original soil and original soil plus 2% gypsum were 1.40 kg/cm2 and 1.66 kg/cm2 respectively. The CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.44% and 6.28% correspondingly. Meanwhile, CBR soaked and CBR unsoaked values of original soil plus 2% gypsum were 6.74% and 8.02% respectively. The research results showed that the additives materials of gypsum and volcanic ash improved the engineering properties of clay. The UCT result from the stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 10% volcanic ash gave value of 2.79 kg/cm2 (increased 99.28% from original soil). For CBR test, the most effective mixture were in variation of 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash which gave value of 9.07% (104.27% increase from original soil) for CBR soaked and 10.29% (63.85% increase from original soil) for CBR unsoaked. The stabilized soil with 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash was classified as CL based on USCS and was classified as A-6 (4) based on AASHTO classification system.

  2. Advances in Monitoring, Modelling and Forecasting Volcanic Ash Plumes over the Past 5 Years and the Impact on Preparedness from the London VAAC Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Lisk, I.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted and run by the Met Office, the London VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) is responsible for issuing advisories on the location and likely dispersion of ash clouds originating from volcanoes in the North East Atlantic, primarily from Iceland. These advisories and additional guidance products are used by the civil aviation community to make decisions on airspace flight management. London VAAC has specialist forecasters who use a combination of volcano source data, satellite-based, ground-based and aircraft observations, weather forecast models and dispersion models. Since the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, which resulted in the decision by many northern European countries to impose significant restrictions on the use of their airspace, London VAAC has been active in further developing its volcanic ash monitoring, modelling and forecasting capabilities, collaborating with research organisations, industry, other VAACs, Meteorological Services and the Volcano Observatory in Iceland. It has been necessary to advance operational capabilities to address evolving requirements, including for more quantitative assessments of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Here we summarise advances in monitoring, modelling and forecasting of volcanic ash plumes over the past 5 years from the London VAAC perspective, and the realization of science into operations. We also highlight the importance of collaborative activities, such as the 'VAAC Best Practice' Workshop, where information is exchanged between all nine VAACs worldwide on the operational practices in monitoring and forecasting volcanic ash, with the aim of working toward a more harmonized service for decision makers in the aviation community. We conclude on an evaluation of how better we are prepared for the next significant ash-rich Icelandic eruption, and the challenges still remaining.

  3. Formation and uranium explorating prospect of sub-volcanic granitic complex and rich uranium ore deposit in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng

    1997-01-01

    The rich uranium ore deposits are all closely related to tecto-magmatism of late-magmatic cycle whether volcanic types or granitic types in south China. Volcanic type rich uranium deposit has closely relationship with sub-volcanic activity, and granitic type rich uranium deposit is also closely related to mid-fine, unequal particle small massif in late main invasion stage. Based on characteristics of magmatism, we name the rock sub-volcanic granite complex, which is a unique style and closely related to the formation of rich uranium ore deposit

  4. A Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) peat-forming forest preserved in situ in volcanic ash of the Whetstone Horizon in the Radnice Basin, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Opluštil, Stanislav; Pšenicka, Josef; Libertín, Milan; Bashforth, Arden Roy; Šimunek, Zbynek; Drábková, Jana; Dašková, Jirina

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 The precursory mire of the Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) Lower Radnice Coal was buried in situ by volcanic ash, preserving the taxonomic composition, spatial distribution, vertical strati¿cation, and synecology of this peat-forming ecosystem in extraordinary detail. Plant fossil remains represent the pre- eruption vegetation of the swamp, which resulted from accumulation of peat in a high-ash, planar (rheotrophic) mire situated in a narrow palaeovalley containing an...

  5. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas...... at the low-temperature location showed a slow initial build-up and a stable mass of deposits after approximately 1-5 h. The deposits collected during pulverized wood combustion contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of coal fly ash (~4 times of the mass flow of wood...... ash) to the boiler, these alkali species were effectively removed both in the fly ash and in the deposits, and a more frequent shedding of the deposits was observed. The results imply that coal fly ash can be an effective additive to reduce ash deposition and corrosion problems in a pulverized wood...

  6. Hydrothermal alteration, fumarolic deposits and fluids from Lastarria Volcanic Complex: A multidisciplinary study

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Felipe; Layana, Susana; Rodríguez-Díaz, Augusto; González, Cristóbal; Cortés, Julio; Inostroza, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study that includes processing of Landsat ETM+ satellite images, chemistry of gas condensed, mineralogy and chemistry of fumarolic deposits, and fluid inclusion data from native sulphur deposits, has been carried out in the Lastarria Volcanic Complex (LVC) with the objective to determine the distribution and characteristics of hydrothermal alteration zones and to establish the relations between gas chemistry and fumarolic deposits. Satellite image processing shows the pres...

  7. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  8. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  9. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011 affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously identify

  10. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 2: Deposit chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tranb [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe at a temperature of 550 {sup o}C. The fuel and deposit compositions were compared using chemical fractionation analysis and SEM/EDX. Chemical fractionation analysis was capable of explaining the relative fouling tendency of peat, bark, and straw. The composition of deposits obtained from firing peat, bark, and straw individually resembled the composition of their ashes. When firing peat-bark and peat-straw mixtures, it was found that the deposition rate only started to increase when the Cl/S molar ratio in the feed ash exceeded 0.15. The composition of the ensuing deposits resembled the deposits obtained from burning either bark or straw individually. For peat-bark mixtures it was concluded that the presence of S in the feed suppresses deposition by sulfating chloride compounds, leading to deposits that contain less Cl and have less molten phase. For peat-straw mixtures it was concluded that the deposition behaviour is governed by other mechanisms than the interaction of Cl and S. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Metallogenetic regularity exploration model and prospecting potential of the mesocenozoic volcanic type uranium deposit in the east of south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng; Li Wenjun

    1995-01-01

    During the Meso-Cenozoic era, the crust in the east of South China experienced an evolutional process of compression-relaxed extension-local disintegration, correspondingly, three periods of volcanic activity were developed, forming initial volcanic cycle, principal volcanic cycle and caldera volcanic cycle. The caldera volcanic cycle was expressed as a 'bimodal type' rock suite, indicating the entering of the region into an evolutional stage of new embryonic refitting. The volcanic type uranium deposit is characterized by ore-formation during caldera volcanic cycle, ore control by the mobile belt of caldera volcanic cycle and double superposition and concentration, and it can be summarized as a new unconformity-related type uranium deposit of caldera volcanic series, which is divided into three morphological types: body type, layer type and vein type and relevant exploration models are proposed. The new unconformity-related type uranium deposits of the caldera volcanic series in the east of South China have a great prospecting potential. The tectonomagmatic complex area of the caldera volcanic cycle developed on the granite basement is the favourable target area in searching for large uranium deposits from now on

  12. Sedimentary cycles and volcanic ash beds in the Lower Pliocene lacustrine succession of Ptolemais (NW Greece): discrepancy between 40 Ar/39 Ar and astronomical ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbrink, J.; Vugt, N. van; Hilgen, F.J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Meulenkamp, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution cyclostratigraphy for the rhythmically bedded lignite-marl sequences of the Lower Pliocene Ptole-mais Formation is combined with 40 Ar= 39 Ar dating results of intercalated volcanic ash beds. Detailed field reconnaissance in three open-pit lignite mines reveals three end-member

  13. Holocene tephra-fall deposits of southern and austral Andes volcanic zones (33-54oS): eruption recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.A.; Polanco, E.; Lara, L; Moreno, H; Stern, C.R

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric 14 C dating is a very useful tool to study the chronostratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 14 C ages are essential parameters for the estimation of the recurrence time of the explosive volcanic activity. The origin, distribution and relative age of mappable Holocene tephra-fall deposits of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and Austral Andes Volcanic Zone (AVZ) from 33 o S-54 o S, were studied and their recurrence period is analysed (au)

  14. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  15. About a double process of soil acidification under the influence of recent volcanic ashes. Example of the Soufriere of Guadeloupe, after the 1976-1977 eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabidoche, Y.M.; Sobesky, O.; Feller, C.; Larque, P.

    1987-04-21

    A fast and durable acidification was observed in Andisols, after the ash-deposits of the 1976-1977 Soufriere eruptions. This phenomenon is due to an original connection of a double process, concerning with the initial ash composition: an immediate aluminic acidity coming from the inter-layer Al smectites, a gradual protonic acidification due to oxydation of pyrites.

  16. A depositional model for spherulitic carbonates associated with alkaline, volcanic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Brasier, Alexander T.; Rogerson, Mike; Reijmer, John J.G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Pedley, Martyn

    2017-01-01

    The South Atlantic Aptian ‘Pre-salt’ reservoirs are formed by a combination of spherulitic carbonates and Mg-rich clays accumulated in volcanic alkaline lake settings with exotic chemistries. So far, outcrop analogues characterised by metre-thick successions deposited in lacustrine scenarios are

  17. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  18. Agronomic behavior of phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa using isotopic techniques. 2. Greenhouse experiment in three volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casas G, L.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the behaviour of phosphoric rock in regard to the sorption capacity from three volcanic ash soils, a greenhouse trial was carried out. The isotopic dilution method with triple superphosphate labeled P32 (TSP-32) was used. Total dry matter, P total was determined by colorimetry and the liquid scintillation method for P32 was used. The evaluation of the rock was measured through different isotopical parameters such as A value and P derived from the rock. The behaviour of this material was affected by the different properties of the soils mainly on account of the diverse sorption capacity of them giving an inverse relation among sorption and effectiveness of the rock. The results showed a higher efficiency of TSP for the three soils compared with the phosphoric rock either concentrated or not. (author)

  19. Anomalously high porosity in subduction inputs to the Nankai Trough (SW Japan) potentially caused by volcanic ash and pumice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepers, A.; Ikari, M.; Underwood, M.; Kopf, A.

    2013-12-01

    At convergent margins, the sedimentary section seaward of the trench on the subducting oceanic lithosphere provides the source material for accretionary prisms and eventually becomes the host rock of the plate boundary megathrust. The mechanical properties of the sediments seaward of the subduction zone have therefore a first order control on subduction zone forearc mechanics and hydrogeology. At the Nankai Trough (SW Japan) the majority of sediment approaching the subduction zone is clay-rich. Scientific drilling expeditions in the framework of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have revealed an anomalous zone of high porosity in a major lithologic unit known as the Upper Shikoku Basin facies (USB), which is associated with elevated volcanic ash content and high amounts of silica in the interstitial water. The existence of the high porosity zone has previously been associated with advanced silica cementation, driven by the dual diagenetic transition of opal-A to opal-CT, and opal-CT to quartz. However, temperature estimates from recent drilling expeditions offshore the Kii peninsula reveal different in situ temperatures at the proposed diagenetic boundary in the Shikoku Basin. Furthermore, laboratory measurements using core samples from the USB show that cohesive strength is not elevated in the high porosity zone, suggesting that a process other than cementation may be responsible. The USB sediment is characterized by abundant volcanic ash and pumice, therefore the high porosity zone in the USB may be closely linked to the mechanical behavior of this phase. We conducted consolidation tests in the range 0.1 to 8 MPa effective vertical stress on artificial ash-smectite and pumice-smectite mixtures, as well as intact and remolded natural samples from the IODP Sites C0011 and C0012 to investigate the role of the volcanic constituent on porosity loss with progressive burial. Our results show that both remolded and intact

  20. VolcLab: A balloon-borne instrument package to measure ash, gas, electrical, and turbulence properties of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Release of volcanic ash into the atmosphere poses a significant hazard to air traffic. Exposure to appreciable concentrations (≥4 mg m-3) of ash can result in engine shutdown, air data system loss, and airframe damage, with sustained lower concentrations potentially causing other long-term detrimental effects [1]. Disruption to flights also has a societal impact. For example, the closure of European airspace following the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull resulted in global airline industry losses of order £1100 million daily and disruption to 10 million passengers. Accurate and effective measurement of the mass of ash in a volcanic plume along with in situ characterisation of other plume properties such as charge, turbulence, and SO2 concentration can be used in combination with plume dispersion modelling, remote sensing, and more sophisticated flight ban thresholds to mitigate the impact of future events. VolcLab is a disposable instrument package that may be attached to a standard commercial radiosonde, for rapid emergency deployment on a weather balloon platform. The payload includes a newly developed gravimetric sensor using the oscillating microbalance principle to measure mass directly without assumptions about particles' optical properties. The package also includes an SO2 gas detector, an optical sensor to detect ash and cloud backscatter from an LED source [2], a charge sensor to characterise electrical properties of the plume [3], and an accelerometer to measure in-plume turbulence [4]. VolcLab uses the established PANDORA interface [5], to provide data exchange and power from the radiosonde. In addition to the VolcLab measurements, the radiosonde provides standard meteorological data of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity, and GPS location. There are several benefits of using this instrument suite in this design and of using this method of deployment. Firstly, this is an all-in-one device requiring minimal expertise on the part of the end

  1. P retention and cation exchange as affected by nanoparticle of volcanic ash and application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on Andisol Ciater, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriatin, Betty Natalie; Arifin, Mahfud; Devnita, Rina; Yuniarti, Anni; Haryanto, Rachmat; Setiabudi, Mariska Amalia

    2018-02-01

    Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to study the effect of nanoparticle volcanic ash and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) on P retention and cation exchangeable (CEC) in Andisol Ciater, West Java. This research was conducted from October 2016 to March 2017. The design of the analysis used was a complete randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor was nanoparticle volcanic ash (a) consists of four dosages based on weight percentage (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and the second factor was PSB (h) consists of two dosages (without biofertilizer and with biofertilizer 1 g/Kg soil). The combination treatments replicated three times were incubated for 4 months. Soil samples were analyzed at first month and fourth month after incubation. The results showed that all dosages of nanoparticle volcanic ash and application of PSB decreased P retention by 75-77% at the first month after incubation. Nanoparticle volcanic ash dosage decreased to 7.5% the P retention reaches 90.36% in the fourth month after incubation. The nanoparticle of volcanic ash dosage 7.5% increased with CEC (24.787 cmol.kg-1 and 16.555 cmol.kg-1) at the first and fourth months after incubation. The application of PSB increased the CEC (28.606 cmol.kg-1) in the first month after incubation.

  2. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  3. The effect of steel slag as a coarse aggregate and Sinabung volcanic ash a filler on high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, R.; Putra, A. L. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Development of concrete technology is continues to grow. The requisite for efficient constructions that are often viewed in terms of concrete mechanical behavior, application on the field, and cost estimation of implementation increasingly require engineers to optimize construction materials, especially for concrete materials. Various types of concrete have now been developed according to their needs, such as high strength concrete. On high strength concrete design, it is necessary to consider several factors that will affect the reach of the quality strength, Those are cement, water cement ratio (w/c), aggregates, and proper admixture. In the use of natural mineral, it is important for an engineer to keep an eye on the natural conditions that have been explored. So the selection of aggregates as possible is a material that is not causing nature destruction. On this experiment the use of steel slag from PT.Growth Sumatra Industry as a substitute of coarse and fine aggregate, and volcanic ash of mount Sinabung as microsilka in concrete mixture substituted to create high strength concrete that is harmless for the environment. The use of mount sinabung volcanic ash as microsilika coupled with the use of Master Glenium Sky 8614 superplasticizer. This experiment intend to compare high strength concrete based slag steel as the main constituent aggregates and high strength concrete with a conventional mixture. The research result for 28 days old concrete shows that conventional concrete compressive strength is 67.567 MPa, slag concrete 75.958 Mpa, conventional tensile strength 5.435 Mpa while slag concrete 5.053 Mpa, conventional concrete bending strength 44064.96 kgcm while concrete slag 51473.94 kgcm and modulus of conventional concrete fracture 124.978 kg / cm2 while slag concrete 145.956 kg / cm2. Both concrete slump values shows similar results due to the use of superplasticizer.

  4. Runoff and Erosion Effects after Prescribed Fire and Wildfire on Volcanic Ash-Cap Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; F. B. Pierson; R. E. Brown

    2007-01-01

    After prescribed burns at three locations and one wildfire, rainfall simulations studies were completed to compare postfire runoff rates and sediment yields on ash-cap soil in conifer forest regions of northern Idaho and western Montana. The measured fire effects were differentiated by burn severity (unburned, low, moderate, and high). Results...

  5. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2018-03-01

    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  6. Analysis of the 2006 block-and-ash flow deposits of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, using high-spatial resolution IKONOS images and complementary ground based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Liew, Soo Chin; Lube, Gert; Cronin, Shane J.; Surono, Dr

    2010-05-01

    On 16 June 2006 an overpass of IKONOS coincided with the emplacement of an active block-and-ash flow fed by a lava dome collapse event at Merapi Volcano (Java, Indonesia). This was the first satellite image recorded for a moving pyroclastic flow. The very high-spatial resolution data displayed the extent and impact of the pyroclastic deposits emplaced during and prior to, the day of image acquisition. This allowed a number of features associated with high-hazard block-and-ash flows emplaced in narrow, deep gorges to be mapped, interpreted and understood. The block-and-ash flow and surge deposits recognized in the Ikonos images include: (1) several channel-confined flow lobes and tongues in the box-shaped valley; (2) thin ash-cloud surge deposit and knocked-down trees in constricted areas on both slopes of the gorge; (3) fan-like over bank deposits on the Gendol-Tlogo interfluves from which flows were re-routed in the Tlogo secondary valley; (4) massive over bank lobes on the right bank from which flows devastated the village of Kaliadem 0.5 km from the main channel, a small part of this flow being re-channeled in the Opak secondary valley. The high-resolution IKONOS images also helped us to identify geomorphic obstacles that enabled flows to ramp and spill out from the sinuous channel, a process called flow avulsion. Importantly, the avulsion redirected flows to unexpected areas away from the main channel. In the case of Merapi we see that the presence of valley fill by previous deposits, bends and man-made dams influence the otherwise valley-guided course of the flows. Sadly, Sabo dams (built to ameliorate the effect of high sediment load streams) can actually cause block-and-ash flows to jump out of their containing channel and advance into sensitive areas. Very-high-spatial resolution satellite images are very useful for mapping and interpreting the distribution of freshly erupted volcanic deposits. IKONOS-type images with 1-m resolution provide opportunities to

  7. Lidar observation and model simulation of a volcanic-ash-induced cirrus cloud during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice formation induced by volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 is investigated based on the combination of a cirrus cloud observed with a backscatter lidar over Jülich (western Germany and model simulations along backward trajectories. The microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud could only be represented by the microphysical model under the assumption of an enhanced number of efficient ice nuclei originating from the volcanic eruption. The ice nuclei (IN concentration determined by lidar measurements directly before and after cirrus cloud occurrence implies a value of around 0.1 cm−3 (in comparison normal IN conditions: 0.01 cm−3. This leads to a cirrus cloud with rather small ice crystals having a mean radius of 12 μm and a modification of the ice particle number (0.08 cm−3 instead of 3 × 10−4 cm−3 under normal IN conditions. The effectiveness of ice nuclei was estimated by the use of the microphysical model and the backward trajectories based on ECMWF data, establishing a freezing threshold of around 105% relative humidity with respect to ice in a temperature range from −45 to −55 °C . Only with these highly efficient ice nuclei was it possible for the cirrus cloud to be formed in a slightly supersaturated environment.

  8. Ponderosa pine growth response to soil strength in the volcanic ash soils of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. Parker; D.A. Maguire; D.D. Marshall; P. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical harvesting and associated logging activities have the capacity to compact soil across large portions of harvest units. Two thinning treatments (felled only versus felled and skidded) in 70- to 80-year-old ponderosa pine stands were replicated at three sites with volcanic soils in central Oregon. Growth in diameter, height, and volume of residual trees were...

  9. Respiratory hazard assessment of combined exposure to complete gasoline exhaust and respirable volcanic ash in a multicellular human lung model at the air-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Bisig, Christoph; Damby, David; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Petri-Fink, Alke; Clift, Martin J D; Drasler, Barbara; Rothen-Rutishauer, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Communities resident in urban areas located near active volcanoes can experience volcanic ash exposures during, and following, an eruption, in addition to sustained exposures to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g., vehicle exhaust emissions). Inhalation of anthropogenic pollution is known to cause the onset of, or exacerbate, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. It is further postulated similar exposure to volcanic ash can also affect such disease states. Understanding of the impact of combined exposure of volcanic ash and anthropogenic pollution to human health, however, remains limited.The aim of this study was to assess the biological impact of combined exposure to respirable volcanic ash (from Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV), Montserrat and Chaitén volcano (ChV), Chile; representing different magmatic compositions and eruption styles) and freshly-generated complete exhaust from a gasoline vehicle. A multicellular human lung model (an epithelial cell-layer composed of A549 alveolar type II-like cells complemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells cultured at the air-liquid interface) was exposed to diluted exhaust (1:10) continuously for 6 h, followed by immediate exposure to the ash as a dry powder (0.54 ± 0.19 μg/cm2 and 0.39 ± 0.09 μg/cm2 for SHV and ChV ash, respectively). After an 18 h incubation, cells were exposed again for 6 h to diluted exhaust, and a final 18 h incubation (at 37 °C and 5% CO2). Cell cultures were then assessed for cytotoxic, oxidative stress and (pro-)inflammatory responses.Results indicate that, at all tested (sub-lethal) concentrations, co-exposures with both ash samples induced no significant expression of genes associated with oxidative stress (HMOX1, NQO1) or production of (pro-)inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α) at the gene and protein levels. In summary, considering the employed experimental conditions, combined exposure of

  10. Respiratory hazard assessment of combined exposure to complete gasoline exhaust and respirable volcanic ash in a multicellular human lung model at the air-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J; Bisig, Christoph; Damby, David E; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Petri-Fink, Alke; Clift, Martin J D; Drasler, Barbara; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-07-01

    Communities resident in urban areas located near active volcanoes can experience volcanic ash exposures during, and following, an eruption, in addition to sustained exposures to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g., vehicle exhaust emissions). Inhalation of anthropogenic pollution is known to cause the onset of, or exacerbate, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. It is further postulated similar exposure to volcanic ash can also affect such disease states. Understanding of the impact of combined exposure of volcanic ash and anthropogenic pollution to human health, however, remains limited. The aim of this study was to assess the biological impact of combined exposure to respirable volcanic ash (from Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV), Montserrat and Chaitén volcano (ChV), Chile; representing different magmatic compositions and eruption styles) and freshly-generated complete exhaust from a gasoline vehicle. A multicellular human lung model (an epithelial cell-layer composed of A549 alveolar type II-like cells complemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells cultured at the air-liquid interface) was exposed to diluted exhaust (1:10) continuously for 6 h, followed by immediate exposure to the ash as a dry powder (0.54 ± 0.19 μg/cm 2 and 0.39 ± 0.09 μg/cm 2 for SHV and ChV ash, respectively). After an 18 h incubation, cells were exposed again for 6 h to diluted exhaust, and a final 18 h incubation (at 37 °C and 5% CO 2 ). Cell cultures were then assessed for cytotoxic, oxidative stress and (pro-)inflammatory responses. Results indicate that, at all tested (sub-lethal) concentrations, co-exposures with both ash samples induced no significant expression of genes associated with oxidative stress (HMOX1, NQO1) or production of (pro-)inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α) at the gene and protein levels. In summary, considering the employed experimental conditions, combined exposure of

  11. Volcanic flows versus water- and ice-related outburst deposits in eastern Hellas: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.

    2018-06-01

    Hellas Planitia is one of the major topographic sinks on Mars for the deposition of any kind of sediments. We report on our observations of sheet deposits in the eastern part of the basin that are apparently related to the Dao Vallis outflow channel. The deposits have lobate flow fronts and a thickness of a few decameters. Despite their generally smooth surface, some distinctive textures and patterns can be identified, such as longitudinal lineations, distributive channels, and polygons. We compared these deposits to other sheet deposits on Mars and tested three hypotheses of their origin: volcanic flows as well as water- and ice-related mass wastings. Despite some similarities to volcanic sheet flows on Mars, we found several morphological characteristics that are not known for sheet lava flows; for example conically arranged lineations and channel systems very similar to fluvial incisions. We also reject an ice-related formation similar to terrestrial rock-ice avalanches, as there is no sufficient relief energy to explain their extent and location. A water-related origin appears most consistent with our observations, and we favor an emplacement by fluvially-driven mass wasting processes, e.g., debris flows. Assuming a water-related origin, we calculated the amount of water that would be required to deposit such large sedimentary bodies for different flow types. Our calculations show a large range of possible water volumes, from 64 to 2,042 km³, depending on the specific flow mechanism. The close link to Dao Vallis makes these deposits a unique place to study the deposition of outflow channel sediments, as the deposits of other outflow channels on Mars, such as those around Chryse Planitia, are mostly buried by younger sediments and volcanic flows.

  12. Metallogenic characteristics of volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in Yanshan-Liaoning region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; He Yiqiang; Tao Quan; Xia Yuliang; Cui Huanmin; Zhu Deling

    1996-03-01

    Yanshan-Liaoning area is located in the east part of the northern margin of North-China platform. It is a famous metallogenic region of Mesozoic volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in the country. The metallogenesis is controlled by a united Late Mesozoic continental taphrogenic volcano-magmatic activity. The metallogenic epochs are concentrated in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous periods. The metallogenic media are moderate and moderate-low temperature volcanic hydrothermal solutions originated from the mixing of volcano-magmatic water, metamorphic water and atmospheric water. The ore-forming materials are mainly derived from enrichment type upper mantle and lower crust. (8 refs., 5 figs.)

  13. Ash deposition and high temperature corrosion at combustion of aggressive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Henriksen, N [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission, ELSAM is investigating the possibilities of using biomass - mainly straw - for combustion in high efficiency power plants. As straw has very high contents of chlorine and potassium, a fuel with high corrosion and ash deposition propensities has been introduced. ELSAM has investigated 3 ultra supercritical boiler concepts for combustion of straw alone or together with coal: (1) PF boilers with a relatively low share of straw, (2) CFB boilers with low to high share of straw and (3) vibrating grate boilers with 100% straw. These investigations has mainly been full-scale tests with straw fed into existing boilers. Corrosion tests have been performed in these boilers using temperature regulated probes and in-plant test tubes in existing superheaters. The corrosion has been determined by detailed measurements of wall thickness reduction and light optical microscopic measurements of the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion. Corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated using SEM/EDX together with thermodynamical considerations based on measurements of the chemical environment in the flue gas. Ash deposition is problematic in CFB boilers and in straw fired boilers, especially in years with high potassium and chlorine content of the straw. This ash deposition also is related to condensation of KCl and can probably only be handled by improved cleaning devices. (EG)

  14. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive

  15. Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

  16. Fractal analysis: A new tool in transient volcanic ash plume characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournigand, Pierre-Yves; Peña Fernandez, Juan Jose; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Perugini, Diego; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Transient volcanic plumes are time-dependent features generated by unstable eruptive sources. They represent a threat to human health and infrastructures, and a challenge to characterize due to their intrinsic instability. Plumes have been investigated through physical (e.g. visible, thermal, UV, radar imagery), experimental and numerical studies in order to provide new insights about their dynamics and better anticipate their behavior. It has been shown experimentally that plume dynamics is strongly dependent to source conditions and that plume shape evolution holds key to retrieve these conditions. In this study, a shape evolution analysis is performed on thermal high-speed videos of volcanic plumes from three different volcanoes Sakurajima (Japan), Stromboli (Italy) and Fuego (Guatemala), recorded with a FLIR SC655 thermal camera during several field campaigns between 2012 and 2016. To complete this dataset, three numerical gas-jet simulations at different Reynolds number (2000, 5000 and 10000) have been used in order to set reference values to the natural cases. Turbulent flow shapes are well known to feature scale-invariant structures and a high degree of complexity. For this reason we characterized the bi-dimensional shape of natural and synthetic plumes by using a fractal descriptor. Such method has been applied in other studies on experimental turbulent jets as well as on atmospheric clouds and have shown promising results. At each time-step plume contour has been manually outlined and measured using the box-counting method. This method consists in covering the image with squares of variable sizes and counting the number of squares containing the plume outline. The negative slope of the number of squares in function of their size in a log-log plot gives the fractal dimension of the plume at a given time. Preliminary results show an increase over time of the fractal dimension for natural volcanic plume as well as for the numerically simulated ones, but at

  17. A Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) peat-forming forest preserved in situ in volcanic ash of the Whetstone Horizon in the Radnice Basin, Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opluštil, Stanislav; Pšenicka, Josef; Libertín, Milan

    2009-01-01

    represent the pre- eruption vegetation of the swamp, which resulted from accumulation of peat in a high-ash, planar (rheotrophic) mire situated in a narrow palaeovalley containing an active ¿uvial system. A tuff bed (the Belka) at the base of the volcaniclastic Whetstone Horizon was exposed in two......The precursory mire of the Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) Lower Radnice Coal was buried in situ by volcanic ash, preserving the taxonomic composition, spatial distribution, vertical strati¿cation, and synecology of this peat-forming ecosystem in extraordinary detail. Plant fossil remains...

  18. Review on geological character and exploration methods of Daqiaowu volcanic-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiangwei

    2009-01-01

    Through a new round of exploration work from 2006 to 2008 on exploration practice and studies, it is suggested that ore host rock in Daqiaowu volcanic rock-type uranium deposit is volcanic breccias which can be classified into two types, one is cryptoexplosion breccias of vent facies,the other is lens-like breccias of crater facies controlled by interlayer structure. Main ore-controlling structure is NW-trending faults, uranium ore bodies in all the mineralized belts of the deposit are mainly NW-trending. The layout of exploration projects in reconnaissance stage should be with flexible principles, so that project arrangement can be adjusted timely with the deepening and changes of geological understanding. (authors)

  19. An oscillating microbalance for meteorological measurements of ice and volcanic ash accumulation from a weather balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    A new, low cost, instrument has been developed for meteorological measurements of the accumulation of ice and volcanic ash that can be readily deployed using commercial radiosondes and weather balloons. It is based on principles used by [1], an instrument originally developed to measure supercooled liquid water profiles in clouds. This new instrument introduces numerous improvements in terms of reduced complexity and cost. It uses the oscillating microbalance principle, whereby a wire vibrating at its natural frequency is subjected to increased loading of the property to be measured. The increase in mass modifies the wire properties such that its natural frequency of oscillation changes. By measuring this frequency, the increase in mass can be inferred and transmitted to a ground base station through the radiosonde's UHF antenna via the PANDORA interface [2], which has been previously developed to provide power and connection to the radiosonde telemetry. The device consists of a simple circuit board controlled by an ATMEGA microcontroller. For calibration, the controller is capable of driving the wire at specified frequencies via excitation by a piezo sounder upon which the wire is mounted. The same piezo sounder is also used during active operation to measure the frequency of the wire in its non-driven state in order to infer the mass change on the wire. A phase-locked loop implemented on the board identifies when resonance occurs and the measured frequency is stable, prompting the microcontroller to send the measurement through the data interface. The device may be used for any application that requires the measurement of incremental mass variation e.g. ice accumulation, frosting, or particle accumulation such as dust and volcanic ash. For the solid particle accumulation, a low temperature, high-tack, adhesive may be applied to the wire prior to deployment to collect the material. In addition, the same instrument may be used for ground-based applications, such as

  20. Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

    2011-12-01

    Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal

  1. Controls on carbon storage and weathering in volcanic ash soils across a climate gradient on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M. G.; Chadwick, O.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of weathering are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and weathering across a high altitude (3563 - 3013 m) 20 ky climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected ( 250-500 mm rainfall) which range from arid-periglacial to sites which contain a mix of shrubs and grasses. At each site, between 2-3 pits were dug and major diagnostic horizons down to bedrock (in-tact lava) were sampled. Soils were analyzed for particle size, organic C and N, soil pH, exchangeable cations, base saturation, NaF pH, phosphorous sorption and bulk elements. Mass loss and pedogenic metal accumulation (hydroxlamine Fe, Al and Si extractions) were used to measure extent of weathering, leaching, changes in soil mineralogy and carbon accumulation with the short-range-ordered (SRO) minerals. Reactive-phase (SRO) minerals show a general trend of increasing abundance through the soil depth profile with increasing rainfall. However carbon accumulation patterns across the climate gradient are largely decoupled from these trends. The results suggest that after 20ky, pedogenic processes have altered the nature and composition of the volcanic ash such that it is capable of retaining soil C even where organic acid influences from plant material and leaching from rainfall is severely limited. Comparisons with lower elevation soils on Mauna Kea and other moist mesic (2500mm rainfall) sites on Hawaii suggest that these soils have reached only between 1-15 % of their capacity to retain carbon. Our results suggest that in low rainfall and a cold climate, after 20ky, weathering has advanced but is decoupled from soil carbon accumulation patterns and the associated influence of vegetation on soil development. Changes in soil carbon composition and amount across the entire

  2. Non-equilibrium processes in ash-laden volcanic plumes: new insights from 3D multiphase flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Cerminara, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth Interior) initiative on volcanic plume models intercomparison, we discuss three-dimensional numerical simulations performed with the multiphase flow model PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code). The model describes the dynamics of volcanic and atmospheric gases (in absence of wind) and two pyroclastic phases by adopting a non-equilibrium Eulerian-Eulerian formulation. Accordingly, gas and particulate phases are treated as interpenetrating fluids, interacting with each other through momentum (drag) and heat exchange. Numerical results describe the time-wise and spatial evolution of weak (mass eruption rate: 1.5 × 106 kg/s) and strong (mass eruption rate: 1.5 × 109 kg/s) plumes. The two tested cases display a remarkably different phenomenology, associated with the different roles of atmospheric stratification, compressibility and mechanism of buoyancy reversal, reflecting in a different structure of the plume, of the turbulent eddies and of the atmospheric circulation. This also brings about different rates of turbulent mixing and atmospheric air entrainment. The adopted multiphase flow model allows to quantify temperature and velocity differences between the gas and particles, including settling, preferential concentration by turbulence and thermal non-equilibrium, as a function of their Stokes number, i.e., the ratio between their kinetic equilibrium time and the characteristic large-eddy turnover time of the turbulent plume. As a result, the spatial and temporal distribution of coarse ash in the atmosphere significantly differs from that of the fine ash, leading to a modification of the plume shape. Finally, three-dimensional numerical results have been averaged in time and across horizontal slices in order to obtain a one-dimensional picture of the plume in a stationary regime. For the weak plume, the results are consistent with one-dimensional models, at

  3. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M

    2017-11-14

    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  4. Experimental investigation of ash deposits characteristics of co-combustion of coal and rice hull using a digital image technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhang, Hailong; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Bin; Li, Letian; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the ash deposit characteristics during the co-firing Da Tong (DA) coal with different proportions of rice hull (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, based on weight) in a pilot-scale furnace. The growth of ash deposit with a four-stage mode was presented. The stable thickness values of DA coal, 5% rice hull, 10% rice hull, and 20% rice hull were 0.5, 1.4, 2.9, 5.7 cm, with stable heat flux values of 230, 200, 175, and 125 kW/m 2 , respectively. According to the results of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), the amount of Si in the deposits increased with the increasing proportion of rice hull rich in SiO 2 . The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results indicated that most elements except Si were in the amorphous state because of the formation of eutectics. The stable thicknesses of deposits increased exponentially with the proportion of rice hull. The deposit was loose, easy removable but it reduced the heat transfer significantly. Consequently, sootblowing timely was necessary when co-firing DA coal with rice hull. - Highlights: • Digital image technique was used to monitor deposits growth process. • A type of four stages mode of ash deposit growth was presented. • The heat flux of ash deposits fit a three-stage mode. • The addition of rice hull increased the porosity of deposits

  5. Monitoring volcanic ash cloud top height through simultaneous retrieval of optical data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zakšek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash cloud-top height (ACTH can be monitored on the global level using satellite remote sensing. Here we propose a photogrammetric method based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary and polar orbiting satellites to overcome some limitations of the existing methods of ACTH retrieval. SEVIRI HRV band and MODIS band 1 are a good choice because of their high resolution. The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. MODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. The proposed method was tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. The parallax between MODIS and SEVIRI data can reach 30 km, which implies an ACTH of approximately 12 km at the beginning of the eruption. At the end of April eruption an ACTH of 3–4 km is observed. The accuracy of ACTH was estimated to be 0.6 km.

  6. Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babafemi A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of curing age and mix proportions on the compressive strength of volcanic ash (VA blended cement laterized concrete. A total of 288 cubes of 100mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 120 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25N/mm2 (using British Method was adopted. The results show that the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete increased with the increase in curing age but decreased as the VA and laterite (LAT contents increased. The optimum replacement level was 20%LAT/20%VA. At this level the compressive strength increased with curing age at a decreasing rate beyond 28 days. The target compressive strength of 25N/mm2 was achieved for this mixture at 90 days of curing. VA content and curing age was noted to have significant effect (α ≤ 0.5 on the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete.

  7. Formation of obsidian pyroclasts by sintering of ash particles in the volcanic conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Befus, Kenneth S.

    2017-02-01

    The ranges in intensity and style of volcanic eruptions, from highly explosive Plinian eruptions to quiescent lava extrusions, depend on the style and efficiency of gas loss from ascending magma. Obsidian pyroclasts - small, glassy pieces of quenched magma found in some volcanic tephra beds - may preserve valuable information about magma degassing in their vesicle textures and volatile contents. Accurate interpretation of their textures and volatiles, however, requires understanding the mechanism of formation of the pyroclasts. Obsidian pyroclasts from the ca. 1325-1350 C.E. North Mono eruption of Mono Craters (CA, USA) were analyzed and found to have H2O and CO2 contents indicating that they were formed at pressures in the approximate range of 3-40 MPa. Many also contain domains with differing vesicle textures, separated by boundaries containing xenocrystic material, indicating that they are composed of smaller fragments that have sutured together. More than half of the pyroclasts analyzed contained small (∼10 μm), highly distorted vesicles, with multi-cuspate morphology, interpreted as the remnants of interstitial gas trapped amongst sintered fragments of melt/glass. Rounded vesicles are also common and are interpreted to result from surface tension-driven relaxation of the distorted vesicles. Calculated timescales of sintering and relaxation are consistent with timescales for pyroclast formation indicated by H2O re-equilibration within the heterogeneous pyroclasts. This sintering model for the origin of obsidian pyroclasts is further supported by the observation that spherical vesicles are found mainly in H2O-rich pyroclasts, and distorted vesicles mainly in H2O-poor pyroclasts. We conclude that obsidian pyroclasts generated during the North Mono eruption were formed by cycles of fragmentation, sintering/suturing, and relaxation, over a very wide range of depths within the conduit; we find no evidence to support pumice (foam) collapse as the formation

  8. Ash Deposit Formation and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    ). The shedding investigation was also made when the nearby plant sootblower (4m below) was working. It was identified that the mass uptake signal remained stable and the deposits in small pieces were continuously removed during 35% and 65% straw-firing. Previous findings of Vattenfall indicated that a mixture...... was limited to two weeks when 100% straw was fired due to ash deposition in the superheater region that has tube spacing specified for coal-firing (113mm). A series of 3-5 days deposit probe experiments were conducted utilizing 35 to 100% straw with wood on mass basis. The applied deposit probe was water...... two hours deposit mass uptake rate was 52.8 (g/m2/h), while it was 353.8 (g/m2/h) during 100% straw-firing. All tests in the superheater region for all applied straw shares indicated that with increase in straw share, final deposit mass uptake increased. The comparison of current and previous full...

  9. Initial discussion on ore-forming conditions and prospecting direction of volcanic type uranium deposits in the gangdise tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baoguang; Wang Sili; Wang Qin; Sun Yue; Du Xiaolin; Chen Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    The most active volcanic activity in the Gangdise tectonic belt happened in early Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene, and Eocene is the most active period. The distribution of volcanic rock is controlled by latitudinal deep fault and deuteric longitudinal fault. Paleo-volcano was located at these structural compounds frequently. The volcanics which appeared near the merdional large scale pull-apart construction in Neogene is considered as land facies medium-acidic volcanics which brought by various kinds of volcanic basin. A large stream sediment anomaly (>6.8 x 10 -6 ) has been found at Cenozoic volcanics in south of CuoQin basin, and its areas amount to hundreds square kilometers. The uranium content of volcanics in Wuyu basin amounts to 20.0 x 10 -6 at most. It has favorable Ore-forming conditions for forming volcanic type uranium deposit due to the volcanic geologic environment, accompanying mineral, region feature of geochemistry and geophysical, volcanic-tectonic depression and so on. The major prospecting targets are the south of CuoQin basin and the Nanmulin district. (authors)

  10. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  11. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  12. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    , Tungurahua in Ecuador, Mt. Etna in Italy, Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea, Mt. Spurr and Mt. St. Helens in the USA, Ruapehu in New Zealand, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Anatahan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (part of the USA). Ten countries - USA, Indonesia, Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, Italy, New Zealand, Philippines, Mexico, Japan, and United Kingdom - have the highest volcanic hazard and/or vulnerability measures for airports. The adverse impacts of volcanic eruptions on airports can be mitigated by preparedness and forewarning. Methods that have been used to forewarn airports of volcanic activity include real-time detection of explosive volcanic activity, forecasts of ash dispersion and deposition, and detection of approaching ash clouds using ground-based Doppler radar. Given the demonstrated vulnerability of airports to disruption from volcanic activity, at-risk airports should develop operational plans for ashfall events, and volcano-monitoring agencies should provide timely forewarning of imminent volcanic-ash hazards directly to airport operators. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  13. Properties of volcanic soils in cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Layers of volcanic ash and the Andosol soils derived from them may play an important role in preserving snow and ice as well as developing permafrost conditions in the immediate vicinity of volcanoes of high elevation or those situated at high latitudes, and land areas, often distant from volcanic activity that are either prone to permafrost or covered by snow and ice, but are affected by the deposition of subaerial ash. The special properties of volcanic ash that are responsible are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place. Volcanic glass is the most easily weathered component of volcanic ejecta (Shoji et al., 1993; Kimble et al., 2000). There are many specific environmental conditions, including paleoclimate and present-day climate, the composition of volcanic tephra and glaciation history, which cause the differences in weathering and development of volcanic ash soils (Zehetner et al., 2003). The preservation of in situ, unweathered, and unaltered surficial ash-fall deposits in the cold regions has important implications for paleoclimate and glacial history. Ash-fall deposits, which trap and preserve the soils, sediments, and landforms on which they fall, can be used to resolve local climate conditions (temperature and moisture) at the ash site during ash-fall deposition. The preservation of detailed sedimentary features (e.g. bedding in the ash, sharpness of stratigraphic contacts) can tell us about their post-depositional history, whether they have been redeposited by wind or water, or overridden by glaciers (Marchant et al., 1996). Weathering of volcanic glass results in the development of amorphous clay minerals (e.g. allophane, opal, palagonite) but this takes place much slower in cold than under warmer climate conditions. Only few

  14. The metallogenic model of volcanic-hosted large deposit rich in U in the Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhidong

    2001-01-01

    During the evolution of ridge-basin tectonic system occurred in Northeast Asia area, the U-rich fluid was formed with intense tectonic-magmatic activities and the fixed fluid of crust-mantle upwelling, shallow structural coupling and deep or shallow derived heat fluid has been established. Using the geologic theory of deep-shallow structure, the U-deposits in this area have been divided into collapsed-basin type, divergent belt type, fissure type and sub-volcanics type, the favorable region for uranium also has been predicted

  15. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chiara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl's reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption (4965 14C yr BP

  16. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  17. Comparative study of P uptake and utilization from P fertilizers by Chilean wheat genotypes in volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Parada, A.M.; Zapata, F.; Navia, M.; Luzio, W.

    2002-01-01

    The intensification of the agricultural production in Southern Chile demand the application of P fertilizers to volcanic ash soils for optimum plant growth and crop yields. Due to the high P sorption capacities of these soils, high amounts of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizers need to be applied. Therefore, the direct application of locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock has been utilized to supply P to crops in these acid soils. Phosphate rock is a very efficient P input for crops with long growth cycles or crop rotations nevertheless water-soluble P fertilizers must still be applied to crops of short growth cycle. Combined with these strategic P inputs, the use of acid-tolerant and P-efficient genotypes can further contribute to agricultural sustainability. Greenhouse studies were undertaken to explore and identify genotypic variations in P efficiency of wheat grown in Andisols of Southern Chile. 32 P isotopic techniques were utilized to measure the uptake of P from triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer and the locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock. Substantial genotypic variations in P use efficiency were found among the Chilean wheat genotypes tested. The utilization of the 32 P isotopic techniques enabled to quantify the P taken up from the P fertilizer and the assessment of differences among the genotypes. Significant genotypic differences were obtained in the P uptake from the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. Much higher applications of phosphate rock were required in Santa Barbara soil series (Andisol) due to its high P retention. A sustainable strategy for agricultural production in the Andisols of Chile would therefore, be the combined utilization of those efficient wheat genotypes and the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. As P efficiency is a multi-faceted trait, which interacts with a range of environmental factors, further field-testing and validation is required accompanied by in depth studies to assess the

  18. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  19. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  20. Petrography and geochemistry of achnelithic tephra from Las Herrerías Volcano (Calatrava volcanic field, Spain): Formation of nephelinitic achneliths and post-depositional glass alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Arostegui, J.; Errandonea-Martin, J.; Gil-Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a petrographic and geochemical study carried out on a layer of achnelithic tephra outcropping at the base of the volcanic cone of Las Herrerías (Miocene-Quaternary volcanic region of Campo de Calatrava, Spain). The tephra, with a composition of nephelinite and ash (Pele's tears), achnelith fragments and rare welded achneliths. The achneliths at Las Herrerías were generated in a gas-rich fire fountain that fragmented the magma into micro- to nanometre particles. The low viscosity of the nephelinitic blebs (< 1235 Pa.s) inside the hottest (ca. 900 °C), inner zone of the fountain allowed the development of the characteristic fluidal shapes of these pyroclasts and their welding above the glass transition temperature (533-669 °C). The sideromelane glass of the achneliths, also nephelinitic in composition, is variably altered to palagonite. The palagonitization was isovolumetric and took place in a near closed system at the achnelith scale. Palagonitization involved depletion in the concentration (g/cm3) of all major elements and notable increase in H2O content. The elements liberated by this process formed smectite with an average structural formula comprised between those of beidellite and nontronite end terms: (Na0.01K0.03Ca0.18) (Mg0.22Fe0.16)2 + (Fe0.48Al1.02)3 + (Ti0.18)4 + (Si3.58Al0.42) O10(OH)2. The degree of palagonitization in each achnelith was likely related to the amount of water incorporated by individual clasts at the moment of their deposition in a volcanic maar lake. Afterwards, there was no more water circulation through the achnelithic tephra, which was sealed from water by overlying hydrovolcanic tuff deposits. It was this isolation that made possible the preservation of glass to the present day.

  1. Trace elements deposition in the Tierra del Fuego region (south Patagonia) by using lichen transplants after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (north Patagonia) volcanic eruption in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Jasan, Raquel; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Plá, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.

  2. Project for solving of environmental problems caused by ash emission and deposition from the thermal power plant 'Nikola Tesla' at Obrenovac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, B.R.; Vukmirovic, Z.; Ilic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of ash emission and deposition from the Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla' (TPPNT) in Obrenovac commences with the date of their construction. Up to now, mainly, some analysis of several possible influences of ash (emitted or deposited on the ash and slug dump) was done. We believe that is time now, due to the consequences for a long time, to pose and to resolve the whole problem of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Due to the very big production capacity, an enormous amount of fly ash (particle size of 90-200 μm) is emitted to a large area near Obrenovac. Very large quantities of ash and slug (more than 2 millions tons annually) produced during coal burning were deposited on the dump very close to the river Sava. Some of the multiple consequences due to elution of heavy metals, water spilling from the dump and mixing with ground water and surface water of river Sava, weathering of fine particles of ash by wind, acid rains near to the thermal power plants, and other influences of flying and deposited ash on the environment of the whole area are always present. Due to the complexity of the posed problem, a multidisciplinary experts' team was formed to cover all aspects of negative influences of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Our project comprises a large number of subprojects covering different problem solving, diminution or removal of all negative influences according to European standards and regulations. (author)

  3. Origins and exploration significance of replacement and vein-type alunite deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field, west central Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alunite in the Marysvale volcanic field forms two (three are described) different types of deposits which contrast in appearance and conditions of origin: 1) Replacement deposits are generally fine-grained and formed by near-surface replacement of intermediate-composition volcanic rocks. The deposits form a bead necklace around a monzonite stock. Each deposit is zoned horizontally from alunitic cores to kaolinitic and propylitic envelopes and zoned vertically from pyrite/propylite upward through alunite/jarosite/hematite to a silica cap. Alunite does not extend below 100 m. Sulphur isotope ratios agree with derivation from underlying Mesozoic evaporites. 2) Natroalunite of 14-m.y. age crosscuts replacement-type alunite deposits. Its S-isotope ratios are comparable with those of pyrite in the volcanics. The Na may be from underlying Mesozoic halites. 3) Veins of coarse-grained alunite of 14-m.y. age filled extension fractures above a postulated stock. S-isotope ratios indicate a probable magmatic source. The contrasting properties of the Marysvale alunite deposits preclude any simple relation to ore deposits, but serve to refine interpretations based on other geological considerations. The replacement deposits are a logical near-surface result of skarn forming processes at depth around the monzonite stock. The vein- type deposits are a logical near-surface result of porphyry metallization in an underlying stock. -G.J.N.

  4. Ellipsometry and electronic microscopy of ashes swept of the Popocatepetl volcano; Elipsometria y microscopia electronica de barrido de las cenizas del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Aaron; Munoz, Rafel; Falcon, Nelson [Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela); Chavira, Enrique [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    The ellipsometry and the scanning electronic microscopy is applied to the study of the optic properties of Popocatepetl volcano ash in connection with the form, ruggedness and elemental chemical composition of the microparticles, also to argue about the relation with atmospheric conditions. [Spanish] Se aplica la eliposometria y la microscopia electronica de barrido al estudio de las propiedades opticas de las cenizas de volcan Popocatepetl en relacion con la forma, rugosidad y composicion quimica elemental de las microparticulas, destacandose su vinculacion con las condiciones de visibilidad.

  5. Influences of volcanism on coal quality - Examples from the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, R.T.; Affolter, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Several small Tertiary coal deposits in Idaho, Nevada, and Washington formed in fresh-water basins located near active continental (salic) volcanic centers. Metastable glassy material (tephra) ejected during volcanic eruptions was introduced into the coal-forming environment of these basins as ash falls. This tephra contributed to the high ash content of many of the coal beds, formed laterally persistent partings (''tonsteins'') in the coal, and constitutes a large part of the strata enclosing the deposits. In order to study the possible relationships between the presence of tephra and coal quality, chemical data for 65 coal samples from 12 of these deposits were compiled and statistically analyzed. The results indicate that, in addition to the high ash content, coal from Tertiary deposits containing appreciable amounts of tephra generally is enriched in many elements compared to 460 coal samples from 11 deposits of similar ages remote from volcanic activity

  6. Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marshall

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the past 500 years. The eruption had significant climatic impacts, leading to the 1816 year without a summer, and remains a valuable event from which to understand the climatic effects of large stratospheric volcanic sulfur dioxide injections. The eruption also resulted in one of the strongest and most easily identifiable volcanic sulfate signals in polar ice cores, which are widely used to reconstruct the timing and atmospheric sulfate loading of past eruptions. As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP, five state-of-the-art global aerosol models simulated this eruption. We analyse both simulated background (no Tambora and volcanic (with Tambora sulfate deposition to polar regions and compare to ice core records. The models simulate overall similar patterns of background sulfate deposition, although there are differences in regional details and magnitude. However, the volcanic sulfate deposition varies considerably between the models with differences in timing, spatial pattern and magnitude. Mean simulated deposited sulfate on Antarctica ranges from 19 to 264 kg km−2 and on Greenland from 31 to 194 kg km−2, as compared to the mean ice-core-derived estimates of roughly 50 kg km−2 for both Greenland and Antarctica. The ratio of the hemispheric atmospheric sulfate aerosol burden after the eruption to the average ice sheet deposited sulfate varies between models by up to a factor of 15. Sources of this inter-model variability include differences in both the formation and the transport of sulfate aerosol. Our results suggest that deriving relationships between sulfate deposited on ice sheets and atmospheric sulfate burdens from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.

  7. Distribution and mass of tephra-fall deposits from volcanic eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano based on posteruption surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Nishiki, Kuniaki; Geshi, Nobuo; Furukawa, Ryuta; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Teruki; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nanayama, Futoshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Hirota, Akinari; Miwa, Takahiro; Miyabuchi, Yasuo

    2018-04-01

    We estimate the total mass of ash fall deposits for individual eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano, southwest Japan based on distribution maps of the tephra fallout. Five ash-sampling campaigns were performed between 2011 and 2015, during which time Sakurajima continued to emit ash from frequent Vulcanian explosions. During each survey, between 29 and 53 ash samplers were installed in a zone 2.2-43 km downwind of the source crater. Total masses of erupted tephra were estimated using several empirical methods based on the relationship between the area surrounded by a given isopleth and the thickness of ash fall within each isopleth. We obtained 70-40,520 t (4.7 × 10-8-2.7 × 10-5-km3 DRE) as the minimum estimated mass of erupted materials for each eruption period. The minimum erupted mass of tephra produced during the recorded events was calculated as being 890-5140 t (5.9 × 10-7-3.6 × 10-6-km3 DRE). This calculation was based on the total mass of tephra collected during any one eruptive period and the number of eruptions during that period. These values may thus also include the contribution of continuous weak ash emissions before and after prominent eruptions. We analyzed the meteorological effects on ash fall distribution patterns and concluded that the width of distribution area of an ash fall is strongly controlled by the near-ground wind speed. The direction of the isopleth axis for larger masses is affected by the local wind direction at ground level. Furthermore, the wind direction influences the direction of the isopleth axes more at higher altitude. While a second maximum of ash fall can appear, the influence of rain might only affect the finer particles in distal areas.

  8. Ash formation and deposition in coal and biomass fired combustion systems: Progress and challenges in the field of ash particle sticking and rebound behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph; Frandsen, Flemming J.

    2018-01-01

    . The impaction of solid, molten or partially molten particles on surfaces is dependent on the particle and surface characteristics. For instance, a particulate deposit might capture incoming particles or be removed due to erosion, while a molten layer will collect all impacting particles, no matter...... if they are sticky or not. The main properties affecting the particle stickiness are the viscosity and surface tension for silicate-rich ashes. On the contrary, the stickiness of salt-rich ashes – typical for herbaceous biomass and wood- or waste-based fuels – is often described using the liquid melt fraction......, their required parameters are discussed and typical particle and surface properties found in combustion systems, are summarized. Eight different sticking criteria are implemented in a computational fluid dynamics code and computations are compared against measurements from an entrained flow reactor. Uniform...

  9. Volcanic ash deposition and long-term vegetation change on Subantarctic Marion Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Mauquoy, D.S.; Barber, K.; Way, S.; van Geel, B.; Turney, C.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A c. 5500 year record of peatland development and vegetation change was generated from a core recovered from an Agrostis magellanica peat bog on subantarctic Marion Island, using palynomorph, plant macrofossil, and tephra analyses. Two tephra horizons (both 17 cm thick) were identified and dated to

  10. Propiedades insecticidas de la ceniza del complejo volcánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle y su posible impacto ambiental: Insecticidal properties of ashes from the volcanic complex Puyehue-Caulle Range and their possible environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Buteler

    2011-12-01

    insecticidal effect of volcanic ash and its environmental impact, focusing on the ash accumulated as a result of the eruption of the volcanic complex Puyehue- Caulle Range currently affecting an area of over 7.5 million hectares in the Argentine Patagonia. The chemical composition of ashes from the Puyehue-Caulle Range was analyzed by EDS showing that its major components are O, Si, Al, Fe, Na and K. Laboratory bioassays using two species of insects as a biological model, found that the ashes thoroughly adhere to the insect body surface and are toxic to both species tested, when mixed into the substrate at low concentrations. Susceptibility to ashes differs between the two species when tested in a seven day continuous exposure bioassay [CL99(Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. = 10.25 mg.g-1; CL99((Tribolium castaneum (Herbst = 4.96 mg.g-1]. These results agree with those reported in the literature on effects of volcanic eruptions and suggest that the impact of the ashes from the Puyehue-Caulle Range volcanic complex on the insect community may be radical in the acute deposition phase, with substantial qualitative effects in the chronic phase of exposure. Also, the recovery of populations affected by ash in desert areas where dry ash persists will be slower, and this will have tangible and long-term consequences for insect host plants, pollination and on the development of populations of vertebrate insectivores. By contrast, the presence of ash in humid regions will impact the ecosystem by the addition of nutrients, which in combination with water retention by the ash will lead to a qualitative and quantitative recovery of the populations under favorable conditions.

  11. Triple oxygen and sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate extracted from voluminous volcanic ashes in the Oligocene John Day Formation: insight into dry climate conditions and ozone contribution to supereruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, J.; Bindeman, I. N.; Martin, E.; Retallack, G.; Palandri, J. L.; Weldon, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large volume pyroclastic silicic eruptions emit hundreds of megatons of SO2 into the troposphere and stratosphere that is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by a variety of reactions with mass independent oxygen signatures (MIF), Δ17O>0. Sulfuric acid is then preserved as gypsum in parental volcanic deposits. Diagenic effects are mass dependent and can dilute, but otherwise do not affect MIF ratios. Pleistocene Yellowstone and Bishop tuffs and modern volcanic eruptions preserved under arid climate conditions in North American playa lakes, preserve small amounts of volcanic sulfate as gypsum. This gypsum's Δ17O>0, in combination with isotopic variations of δ18O, δ33S and δ34S is distinct from sedimentary sulfate and reveals its original MIF sulfate isotopic signal and the effect of super eruptions on the atmosphere, and ozone consumption in particular. We use linear algebraic equations to resolve volcanic versus sedimentary (MIF=0) sources. We have found that many large volume ignimbrites have very high initial Δ17O in volcanic sulfate that can only be acquired from reaction with stratospheric ozone. We here investigate nine thick (>2 m) ash beds ranging in age from ~33-23 Ma in the John Day Formation of central Oregon, including massive 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff of newly identified Crooked River supercaldera. The 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff (PGT) has the highest measured Δ17O of 3.5‰, and other tuffs (Tin Roof, Biotite, Deep Creek) have +1.3 to 3.4‰ Δ17O excesses. Sulfate from modern smaller tropospheric eruptions studied for comparison have a resolvable 0.4‰ range consistent with liquid-phase based H2O2 oxidation. The PGT is coeval with the ignimbrite flare-up in western N. America, the 28-29 Ma eruption of the 5000 km3 Fish Canyon tuff and the 28 Ma Never Summer Field eruption in Nebraska-Colorado that have the highest measured Δ17O of 6‰ (Bao et al. 2003). We speculate on the climatic/atmospheric effects of these multiple ~28 Ma supereruptions

  12. Environmental impact of early Basque mining and smelting recorded in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monna, F.; Galop, D.; Carozza, L.; Tual, M.; Beyrie, A.; Marembert, F.; Chateau, C.; Dominik, J.; Grousset, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    More than four metres of core, covering almost 5000 years of deposition, were collected in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit located in the High Aldudes valley (Basque country), an area well known for its mineral abundance, exploited from Roman Times at least. Although minerogenic peatlands are not generally considered as the best archives to reconstruct past atmospheric metal deposition history, lead isotopic geochemistry demonstrates the integrity of the Pb record at least within the three upper meters; that is to say over the last four millennia. Zn, Cd and Cu may have been widely redistributed either by biological cycling, advective groundwater movements, or diffusional processes. Anthropogenic lead input phases are clearly pinpointed by positive shifts in Pb/Sc ratios with concomitant sharp drops in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios. They are often accompanied by significant declines in tree taxa, interpreted as increasing demand for wood to supply energy for local mining and/or metallurgical operations. Periods of mining and/or smelting activity are identified during Antiquity and Modern Times, and are also confirmed by textual and field evidence. Inputs from the Rio Tinto (Southern Spain), often invoked as a major lead contributor to the European atmosphere during Roman Times, were not detected here. This remote source was probably masked by local inputs. Other mining and/or smelting phases, only suspected by archaeologists, are here identified as early as the Bronze Age. Although the durations of these phases are possibly overestimated because of detrital inputs consequent to the release of lead from polluted soils over a long period of time after major pollutant inputs, the periods at which pollution peaks occur are in good agreement with archaeological knowledge and palaeo-botanical data. The combination of geochemical and palaeo-botanical techniques with field archaeology, therefore provides a powerful tool in studying the interaction of early human societies with

  13. The Lepanto Cu–Au deposit, Philippines: A fossil hyperacidic volcanic lake complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Henley, Richard W.; Lowers, Heather; Pribil, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hyperacidic lakes and associated solfatara in active volcanoes are the expression of magmatic gas expansion from source to surface. Here we show for the first time, that the vein system that comprises the ~ 2 Ma high-sulfidation, Lepanto copper–gold deposit in the Mankayan district (Philippines) was associated with a contemporary hyperacidic volcanic lake complex—possibly the first such lake recognized in the geological record. A 15–20‰ difference in sulfur isotopic composition between barite and sulfides and sulfosalts in the vent fumarole encrustations supports the interpretation that SO2-rich volcanic gas vented into the base of the lake and marginal to it and ties the mineralization directly to magmatic gas expansion, fracture propagation, and mineralization that occurred through a series of decompression steps within the feeder fracture network. These data confirm that crater lake environments such as Kawah Ijen (Java, Indonesia) provide modern day analogs of the Lepanto and other high sulfidation Cu–Au depositing environments.We also provide extensive analysis of sulfosalt–sulfide reactions during vein formation within the hyperacidic lake complex. Pyrite ±  silica deposited first at high temperature followed by enargite that preserves the vapor–solid diffusion of, for example, antimony, tin, and tellurium into the vapor from the crystallizing solid. Subsolidus, intra-crystalline diffusion continued as temperature declined. Pyrite and enargite are replaced by Fe-tennantite in the lodes which initially has low Sb/(Sb + As) atomic ratios around 13.5% close to the ideal tennantite formula, but evolves to higher ratios as crystallization proceeds. Fumarole encrustation clasts and sulfosalts in the lake sediment are more highly evolved with a larger range of trace element substitutions, including antimony. Substitution of especially Zn, Te, Ag, and Sn into tennantite records metal and semi-metal fractionation between the expanding magmatic

  14. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uranium deposits associated to tertiary acid volcanism of the Pena Blanca Sierra (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniel, B.

    1986-12-01

    The uraniferous deposits located in the Sierra de Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) are the consequence of successive events that modified acid volcanic rocks. The devitrification of the Nopal Formation, vitroclastic tuffs, is esential in the cooling history because it releases uranium that becomes available. The uranium present in fluids as uranylcarbonate complexes, precipitate along the lamellea of hematite (exsolutions of the ilmenites). The presence of sulfur causes the destabilization of the ilmenites with uranium oxide (pitchblende - titanium oxide - pyrite), the pseudomorph of magnetites (pitchblende - pyrite) and the transformation of hematite into pyrite. The silice coming from the kaolinization of feldspars recristallizes as microcristalline quartz so that the rock appears compact. Fractures cause the uplifting of the lower unit of Nopal formation. It has been altered to montmorillonite. A carbonatation of this tuff has been observed and these two types of alteration occur after kaolinization. The Escuadra formation overlies the Nopal formation. The deposition takes place on an eroded basement where a soil developed. The two formations will together undergo transformations due to the saturation level and the primary ore will be only oxidized or oxidized, transported and reconcentrated. Late and localized thermal activities have been observed and may be the result of tectonic movements occurring after the supergene modification [fr

  16. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  17. Mathematical modelling of water and gas transport in layered soil covers for coal ash deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, M [Kemakta Consultants Co, Stockholm (SE); Rasmuson, A [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Design

    1991-06-19

    In phase 1 of this study the design of soil covers for deposits of coal ash from energy production was studied with regard to various parameters like: climate, cover slope, hydraulic conductivity of tight layer and length of cover. One of the main results was the relatively large risk for total saturation up to the surface and overflow which may cause surface erosion problems. In the present study two theoretical cases are studied to further elucidate the problem. A case from the phase 1 study is used to illustrate the effect of increased infiltration. Calculations show that total saturation and thereby overflow is achieved when the infiltration is increased by 20% in March, but not when increased by 10% only. This shows that the margin in an acceptable case may be small. A cover treated in phase 1, where totally saturated conditions were obtained, was modified so that two decimeters of the one meter till in its bottom part were exchanged for a drainage layer. It is shown that the effect of this layer is large. A negative side-effect, however, is that gas flow may increase due to the lower saturation of the cover. Calculations were made for a real soil covered mine tailings deposit at Bersbo. This deposit was chosen mainly because it is the only well documented case in Sweden where soil covers are used for securing a deposit, but also because some contradictory results as compared to theory were obtained. Another topic studied in the present work was the influence of a heterogeneous clay layer. For example, a weak zone with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -7} m/s (10{sup -9} m/s for the rest of the clay), covering 0.5 m x 0.5 m of 10 m in length and 5 m in width, will increase the flow through the bottom of the cover with almost 30%. The gas transport through the heterogeneous soil cover was also studied, showing about 5 times increased gas transport rate around the weak zone, but almost no difference about 1 m from the weak zone. (29 figs., 5 tabs., 27 refs.).

  18. Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

    2013-04-01

    suggest that the outcropping portion of these volcanic bodies represents the lower diatreme zone. The presence of diffuse welding and the globular shapes of some juvenile fragments, together with their vesicularity, suggest that magma fragmentation was mainly driven by magmatic gas exsolution occurring at a deeper level respect to classical, basaltic explosive activity. Textural features, facies association and facies architecture of the studied deposits are suggestive of an important affinity with kimberlitic and other ultramafic diatremes.

  19. T.sup.0./sup. peat-forming plant assemblage preserved in growth position by volcanic ash-fall: A case study from the Middle Pennsylvanian of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Pšenička, J.; Bek, Jiří; Wang, J.; Feng, Z.; Libertín, M.; Šimůnek, Z.; Bureš, J.; Drábková, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 773-813 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Pennsylvanian * T 0 plant assemblage * coal forests * volcanic ash beds * Radnice Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  20. Coal Ash Aerosol in East Asian Outflow as a Source for Oceanic Deposition of Iron and Other Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. R.; Hua, X.

    2008-12-01

    While ocean deposition of East Asian dust is given significant emphasis as a source of biologically-active trace elements, iron in particular, dust events are episodic and highly seasonal. There is, however, a constant source of aerosol that is chemically similar to dust (albeit amorphous in structure rather than crystalline) in the ash particles emitted from many hundreds of coal-fired power plants that are sited along the entire coastal region of China and Korea. The emission controls on these facilities vary widely and, in even cases of state-of-the-art emission controls, the secondary release of ash can be significant. There are of course even more small industrial and household sources of coal combustion emissions, in most cases with little or no emissions controls. Ash from a modern coal-fired power facility in Korea has been examined chemically and morphologically with electron microscopic techniques. As is characteristic of all such facilities, two principal types of ash are present: (1) flyash, silicate glass spheres that are emitted with the smoke and removed by electrostatic precipitators; and (2) bottom ash, "clinkers" and noncombustible material sticking to the furnace walls that are mixed with water and ground after cooling, then removed as a slurry to a dumping area. In addition, iron sulfide (pyrite) is a common constituent of coal and provides both a source of sulfur dioxide gas and also molten iron spherical particles in the ash. The iron spheres then are rapidly oxidized upon cooling. Bottom ash is a more complex material than flyash in that it contains more iron and other trace metals, plus it contains varying amounts of uncombusted carbon. The post-combustion handling of bottom ash can lead to significant emissions despite the fact that little or none goes out the stack. The iron oxide spheres can also be emitted by this secondary method. The concentrations of ash can be very high in close proximity to power plants (PM10 of several hundred

  1. PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI KIMIA ABU VULKANIK DARI ERUPSI GUNUNG MERAPI (Determination of Chemical Composition of Volcanic Ash from Merapi Mt. Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Tri Wahyuni

    2012-07-01

     In order to identify the utilizing potential and the environmental effect of ash from Merapi Mount eruption in 2010, determination of its chemical composition has been performed, including major, minor and trace elements. In addition,  pH of the ash, and iron concentration in rivers, wells, and  tower for water collection were also determined. The ash samples was taken in December 2010- January 2011, after the eruption stopped, located in Magelang, Sleman, and Klaten regions, in various distances from the summit.The results of the determination show that the Merapi Mt. ash contains major (Al, Si, Ca, and  Fe, minor (K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and Ti, and  trace elements (Au ,As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, dan Zr.   The elements can be categorized into  widely used elements, i.e.   Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ti, V, and  Zn, and economic high value element,  i.e.  Au, as well as  the environment and health negative affect elements  such as As, Cr, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and S. It is also found that the  ash taken from different locations with farther distances from the mountain, has similar chemical composition.  Moreover, based on the large content of Al, Ca, and  Si  (around 56%, 4%, and  18 %respectively,  enabling the ash to be used as raw material for  cement or other cement based materials production. In addition, since Ti and Fe is also found in adequate level in the ash, it is also possible to extract the metals to get the pure one having wide and valuable functions. The presence of K and P, as fertilizer components, in the ash with significant amount, it is also interesting to evaluate the effect of the ash covering the soil on its fertile. However, the low pH of the ash is also observed that is due  to the presence of S in considerable amount, leading to the soil becomes unfertile. Although the hazard heavy (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni are found in the ash, the contamination of the metals in the rivers and wells are not detected

  2. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Korhonen, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  3. A simple semi-empirical approach to model thickness of ash-deposits for different eruption scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. González-Mellado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ash-fall on people, buildings, crops, water resources, and infrastructure depends on several factors such as the thickness of the deposits, grain size distribution and others. Preparedness against tephra falls over large regions around an active volcano requires an understanding of all processes controlling those factors, and a working model capable of predicting at least some of them. However, the complexity of tephra dispersion and sedimentation makes the search of an integral solution an almost unapproachable problem in the absence of highly efficient computing facilities due to the large number of equations and unknown parameters that control the process. An alternative attempt is made here to address the problem of modeling the thickness of ash deposits as a primary impact factor that can be easily communicated to the public and decision-makers. We develop a semi-empirical inversion model to estimate the thickness of non-compacted deposits produced by an explosive eruption around a volcano in the distance range 4–150 km from the eruptive source.

    The model was elaborated from the analysis of the geometric distribution of deposit thickness of 14 world-wide well-documented eruptions. The model was initially developed to depict deposits of potential eruptions of Popocatépetl and Colima volcanoes in México, but it can be applied to any volcano. It has been designed to provide planners and Civil Protection authorities of an accurate perception of the ash-fall deposit thickness that may be expected for different eruption scenarios. The model needs to be fed with a few easy-to-obtain parameters, namely, height of the eruptive column, duration of the explosive phase, and wind speed and direction, and its simplicity allows it to run in any platform, including a personal computers and even a notebook. The results may be represented as tables, two dimensional thickness-distance plots, or isopach maps using any available

  4. Appendices 1-3 - the effects of combustion on ash and deposits from low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledger, R.C.; Ottrey, A.L.; Mackay, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    Thermomechanical analyses (TMA) of ashes derived from combustion of fourteen coal samples from Victorian and South Australian coalfields are presented in the results volumes of this report (Volume 2-4). This appendix describes the analytical equipment used, the modifications that were incorporated and the technique developed for analysis and interpretation of the data. To aid identification, limited numbers of analyses were performed on reference materials, the results of which are presented in this appendix. Analyses were performed on a modified Stanton Redcroft 790 series thermomechanical analyser. The aim was to identify components in the ashes and to gain an understanding of the sintering and fusion behaviour of the ashes up to temperatures encountered in large scale boilers. As part of the main project, ashes were also submitted to simultaneous Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG). For each coal burnt in this investigation the Test Bank 1 and precipitator ashes produced at a flame temperature of 1200/sup o/C and 3% excess oxygen were examined by TMA, as were ashes from tests at other flame temperatures and at 3% excess oxygen for four of the coals. This was to investigate the effects of variation in combustion conditions on ash properties. The results are presented in Volume 2-4 of this report as tables, giving details of events and assignments and as a formalised TMA pattern for each ash tested.

  5. Ash transformation and deposition behavior during co-firing biomass with sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Hao; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    combustion wheat straw, fine fly ash particles smaller than 2.5 μm are mainly formed due to vaporization, nucleation and condensation of K, Cl, S and P species. Large fly ash particles consist of condensed potassium chloride crystals and molten/partial molten spherical particles rich in Ksilicates and K...

  6. The Isopach Mapping of Volcanic Deposits of Mount Samalas 1257 AD Based on the Values of Resistivity and Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiden Hiden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study had been conducted on the sediment of Mount Samalas’ volcanic eruption in 1257 AD. Using the framework of the reconstruction of the ancient eruption of Mount Samalas, the first step was to map and analyze the deposits of volcanic sediment. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of geomorphology and the distance function to the isopach thickness. The results show that a combination of methods allowed to provide a high resolution map of the distribution of the thickness of the volcanic deposits, both on the slope and in alluvial areas. Geo-electric survey results (both Vertical Electric Sound (VES and 2D mapping show consistent changes in the pattern of contrast resistivity layer interface, for all areas. The pattern changes in a row of the top layer, the high resistivity turned into the low. Furthermore, the second and third layer interface changes from low to the high resistivity. High resistivity on the top layer is interpreted as a layer of unconsolidated volcanic sediment. High resistivity values are range from 736 to 2000 Ohm.m on the top layer in the area of the slopes while in the area of alluvial, the resistivity values range from 20 to 958 Ohm.m. Generally, the volcanic deposits in the area of the slopes have a higher value of isopach (>17 m than in areas of alluvial (<25 m. The geomorphology seemed to have no significant effect on the isopach value, particularly pyroclastic fallout. Such is the case with distance from the source to the site, which is not linear. The value of isopach increases westward from 21 to 31 km, in contrast to the East, which began to occur at a distance of 14 km to 21 km.

  7. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1 and 11 years (L2. All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced vitality of all populations growing on the ash was observed, except for the naturally colonized A. fruticosa. High vitality on all sites, except at L2, increased chlorophyll content and absence of damage symptoms indicates a tolerance in relation to the uptake of toxic elements from the ash. Therefore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for modeling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits.

  8. The effectiveness of stone ash and volcanic ash of mount Sinabung as a filler on the initial strength of self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, R.; Muhammad, W.; Saragih, M. D. S. M.; Mustaqa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Self Compacting Concrete is a concrete variant that has a high degree of workability and also has great initial strength, but low water cement factor. It is also self-flowable that can be molded on formwork with a very little or no compacted use of compactors. This concrete, using a variety of aggregate sizes, aggregate portions and superplasticizer admixture to achieve a special viscosity that allows it to flow on its own without the aid of a compactor. Lightweight concrete brick is a type of brick made from cement, sand, water, and developers. Lightweight concrete bricks are divided into 2 based on the developed materials used are AAC (Autoclave Aerated Concrete) using aluminum paste and CLC (Cellular Lightweight Concrete) that use Foaming Agent from BASF as a developer material. In this experiment, the lightweight bricks that will be made are CLC type which uses Foaming Agent as the developer material by mixing the Ash Stone produced by Stone Crusher machine which has the density of 2666 kg / m3 as Partial Pair Substitution. In this study the variation of Ash Stone used is 10%, 15%, and 20% of the planned amount of sand. After doing the tasting the result is obtained for 10% variation. Compressive Strength and Absorption Increase will decrease by 25.07% and 39.005% and Variation of 15% compressive strength will decrease by 65,8% and decrease of absorbtion equal to 17,441% and variation of 20% compressive strength will decreased by 67,4 and absorption increase equal to 17,956%.

  9. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Tafuri, Victoria V.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  10. Theory and practice of corrosion related to ashes and deposits in a WtE boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; De Greef, Johan; Van Caneghem, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of heat-exchanging components is one of the main operational problems in Waste-to-Energy plants, limiting the electrical efficiency that can be reached. Corrosion is mainly related to the devolatilization and/or formation of chlorides, sulphates and mixtures thereof on the heat-exchanging surfaces. Theoretical considerations on this corrosion were already put forward in literature, but this paper now for the first time combines theory with a large scale sampling campaign of several Waste-to-Energy plants. Based on the outcome of elemental and mineralogical analysis, the distribution of Cl and S in ashes sampled throughout the plant during normal operation is explained. Cl concentrations are high (15-20%) in the first empty pass, decrease in the second and third empty pass, but increase again in the convective part, whereas the S concentrations show an inverse behavior, with the highest concentrations (30%) observed in the second and third empty pass. Sampling of deposits on specific places where corrosion possibly occurred, gives a better insight in the mechanisms related to corrosion phenomena in real-scale WtE plants and provides practical evidence for some phenomena that were only assumed on the basis of theory or lab scale experiments before. More specific, it confirms the role of oxygen content, temperatures in the different stages of the boiler, the presence of polysulphates, Pb and Zb, and the concentrations of HCl and SO 2 in the flue gas for different types of boiler corrosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  12. Mobility and contamination assessment of mercury in coal fly ash, atmospheric deposition, and soil collected from Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Wu, Guanghong; Su, Ruixian; Li, Congwei; Liang, Peiyu

    2011-09-01

    Samples of class F coal fly ash (levels I, II, and III), slag, coal, atmospheric deposition, and soils collected from Tianjin, China, were analyzed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 3052 and a sequential extraction procedure, to investigate the pollution status and mobility of Hg. The results showed that total mercury (HgT) concentrations were higher in level I fly ash (0.304 µg/g) than in level II and level III fly ash and slag (0.142, 0.147, and 0.052 µg/g, respectively). Total Hg in the atmospheric deposition was higher during the heating season (0.264 µg/g) than the nonheating season (0.135 µg/g). Total Hg contents were higher in suburban area soils than in rural and agricultural areas. High HgT concentrations in suburban area soils may be a result of the deposition of Hg associated with particles emitted from coal-fired power plants. Mercury in fly ash primarily existed as elemental Hg, which accounted for 90.1, 85.3, and 90.6% of HgT in levels I, II, and III fly ash, respectively. Mercury in the deposition existed primarily as sulfide Hg, which accounted for 73.8% (heating season) and 74.1% (nonheating season) of HgT. However, Hg in soils existed primarily as sulfide Hg, organo-chelated Hg and elemental Hg, which accounted for 37.8 to 50.0%, 31.7 to 41.8%, and 13.0 to 23.9% of HgT, respectively. The percentage of elemental Hg in HgT occurred in the order fly ash > atmospheric deposition > soils, whereas organo-chelated Hg and sulfide Hg occurred in the opposite order. The present approach can provide a window for understanding and tracing the source of Hg in the environment in Tianjin and the risk associated with Hg bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  14. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  15. Multi-criteria correlation of tephra deposits to source centres applied in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jenni L.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Leonard, Graham S.; Timm, Christian; McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2017-07-01

    Linking tephras back to their source centre(s) in volcanic fields is crucial not only to reconstruct the eruptive history of the volcanic field but also to understand tephra dispersal patterns and thus the potential hazards posed by a future eruption. Here we present a multi-disciplinary approach to correlate distal basaltic tephra deposits from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) to their source centres using proximal whole-rock geochemical signatures. In order to achieve these correlations, major and trace element tephra-derived glass compositions are compared with published and newly obtained whole-rock geochemical data for the entire field. The results show that incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. (Gd/Yb)N, (La/Yb)N, (Zr/Yb)N) vary widely across the AVF (e.g. (La/Yb)N = 5 to 40) but show a more restricted range within samples from a single volcanic centre (e.g. (La/Yb)N = 5 to 10). These ratios are also the least affected by fractional crystallisation and are therefore the most appropriate geochemical tools for correlation between tephra and whole-rock samples. However, findings for the AVF suggest that each volcanic centre does not have a unique geochemical signature in the field as a whole, thus preventing unambiguous correlation of tephras to source centre using geochemistry alone. A number of additional criteria are therefore combined to further constrain the source centres of the distal tephras including age, eruption scale, and location (of centres, and sites where tephra were sampled). The combination of tephrostratigraphy, 40Ar/39Ar dating and morphostratigraphic constraints allow, for the first time, the relative and absolute ordering of 48 of 53 volcanic centres of the Auckland Volcanic Field to be resolved. Eruption frequencies are shown to vary between 0.13 and 1.5 eruptions/kyr and repose periods between individual eruptions vary from <0.1 to 13 kyr, with 23 of the 48 centres shown to have pre-eruptive repose periods of <1000 years. No spatial

  16. Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scollo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of a project ongoing at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. The objective is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present by multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite, visual and thermal cameras, and three radar disdrometers able to detect ash dispersal and fallout. Forecasting is performed by using automatic procedures for: i downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii running models of tephra dispersal, iii plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing field data collected after the end of recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring system. The system was tested on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007 successfully. The potentiality use of monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, in a way to prevent threats to aviation from volcanic ash, is finally discussed.

  17. Contributions of microbial activity and ash deposition to post-fire nitrogen availability in a pine savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficken, Cari D.; Wright, Justin P.

    2017-01-01

    Many ecosystems experience drastic changes to soil nutrient availability associated with fire, but the magnitude and duration of these changes are highly variable among vegetation and fire types. In pyrogenic pine savannas across the southeastern United States, pulses of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) occur in tandem with ecosystem-scale nutrient losses from prescribed burns. Despite the importance of this management tool for restoring and maintaining fire-dependent plant communities, the contributions of different mechanisms underlying fire-associated changes to soil N availability remain unclear. Pulses of N availability following fire have been hypothesized to occur through (1) changes to microbial cycling rates and (2) direct ash deposition. Here, we document fire-associated changes to N availability across the growing season in a longleaf pine savanna in North Carolina. To differentiate between possible mechanisms driving soil N pulses, we measured net microbial cycling rates and changes to soil δ15N before and after a burn. Our findings refute both proposed mechanisms: we found no evidence for changes in microbial activity, and limited evidence that ash deposition could account for the increase in ammonium availability to more than 5-25 times background levels. Consequently, we propose a third mechanism to explain post-fire patterns of soil N availability, namely that (3) changes to plant sink strength may contribute to ephemeral increases in soil N availability, and encourage future studies to explicitly test this mechanism.

  18. Sorption behavior of bensulfuron-methyl on andisols and ultisols volcanic ash-derived soils: Contribution of humic fractions and mineral-organic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Jeannette; Fuentes, Edwar [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile); Baez, Maria E., E-mail: mbaez@ciq.uchile.c [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-15

    Bensulfuron-methyl sorption was studied in Andisol and Ultisol soils in view of their characteristic physical and chemical properties, presenting acidic pH and variable charge. Humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) and humin (HUM) contributions were established. Sorption was studied by using two synthetic sorbents, an aluminum-silicate with iron oxide coverage and the same sorbent coated with humic acid. Freundlich model described Bensulfuron-methyl behavior in all sorbents (R{sup 2} 0.969-0.998). K{sub f} for soils (8.3-20.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}) were higher than those reported in the literature. Organic matter, halloysite or kaolinite, and specific surface area contributed to the global process. The highest K{sub f} for HA, FA and HUM were 539.5, 82.9, and 98.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}. Model sorbents described the participation of variable charge materials with high adsorption capacity. The constant capacitance model was used to assess effects of Bensulfuron-methyl adsorption on the distribution of SOH, SOH{sub 2}{sup +} and SO{sup -} sites of sorbents. - Organic matter, phyllosilicates, variable charge minerals and organo-mineral complexes contribute to bensulfuron-methyl sorption on volcanic ash-derived soils.

  19. Efect of diferent rates of phosphorus and forms of application in the efficiency of triple superphosphate in a soil derived from volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Casas, L.

    1988-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments with a soil derived from volcanic ash were carried out in order to determine the efficiency of triple Superphosphate with different rates and forms of application. Oat (Avena Sativa L.) was used as reference crop. The P 32 labeled fertilizer was applied located 2,5 cm underneath the seeds. At the same time 500 mg P were applied located, mixed and in the surface of the soil. The P in the plant coming from the fertilizer was about 65%. This value was independent from the rates. The A value showed some fluctuations with the utmost rates of P. The fertilizer applied located and in the surface of the soil proved to be the most efficient form of application. The A value useful to compare the different treatments. The fertilizer efficiency was very low in both experiments, being the higher efficiency (5,9%) at the lowest rate which is not associated to a higher production. The best treatment was obtained with 500 mg of P located underneath the seed. (author)

  20. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 x 10 -5 per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 x 10 -5 per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis

  1. Behaviour of Onobrychis Viciifolia Growing on Fly Ash Experimental Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to identify a treatment method for upper layers of fly ash to cover them with vegetation. Fixing plant layer acts against erosion/washes of fly ash deposits. Studies emphasized the need of use of an organic fertilizer mixed with inorganic materials such as volcanic tuff and, also, the need of selecting a plant species compatible with the treated culture medium. The use of an amended variant of compost and modified volcanic tuff of fly ash layers shows that the selected leguminous species, Onobrychis viciifolia, installs itself quickly on the third level of Braun - Blanquet scale. The reduction of toxic heavy metals bioaccumulation from the aerial plant tissues such as lead and nickel of 72-79%, and copper and zinc of 50-68%, respectively, allows obtaining of a safe biomass for wildlife visiting the area.

  2. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  3. Ordovician ash geochemistry and the establishment of land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnell John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The colonization of the terrestrial environment by land plants transformed the planetary surface and its biota, and shifted the balance of Earth’s biomass from the subsurface towards the surface. However there was a long delay between the formation of palaeosols (soils on the land surface and the key stage of plant colonization. The record of palaeosols, and their colonization by fungi and lichens extends well back into the Precambrian. While these early soils provided a potential substrate, they were generally leached of nutrients as part of the weathering process. In contrast, volcanic ash falls provide a geochemically favourable substrate that is both nutrient-rich and has high water retention, making them good hosts to land plants. An anomalously extensive system of volcanic arcs generated unprecedented volumes of lava and volcanic ash (tuff during the Ordovician. The earliest, mid-Ordovician, records of plant spores coincide with these widespread volcanic deposits, suggesting the possibility of a genetic relationship. The ash constituted a global environment of nutrient-laden, water-saturated soil that could be exploited to maximum advantage by the evolving anchoring systems of land plants. The rapid and pervasive inoculation of modern volcanic ash by plant spores, and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing fungi, suggests that the Ordovician ash must have received a substantial load of the earliest spores and their chemistry favoured plant development. In particular, high phosphorus levels in ash were favourable to plant growth. This may have allowed photosynthesizers to diversify and enlarge, and transform the surface of the planet.

  4. Combined exposure of diesel exhaust particles and respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash causes a (pro-)inflammatory response in an in vitro multicellular epithelial tissue barrier model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere are justifiable health concerns regarding the potential adverse effects associated with human exposure to volcanic ash (VA) particles, especially when considering communities living in urban areas already exposed to heightened air pollution. The aim of this study was, therefore, to gain an imperative, first understanding of the biological impacts of respirable VA when exposed concomitantly with diesel particles.MethodsA sophisticated in vitro 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier was exposed to either a single or repeated dose of dry respirable VA (deposited dose of 0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 h at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Subsequently, co-cultures were exposed to co-exposures of single or repeated VA and diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST SRM 2975; 0.02 mg/mL), a model urban pollutant, at the pseudo-ALI. The biological impact of each individual particle type was also analysed under these precise scenarios. The cytotoxic (LDH release), oxidative stress (depletion of intracellular GSH) and (pro-)inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-1β) responses were assessed after the particulate exposures. The impact of VA exposure upon cell morphology, as well as its interaction with the multicellular model, was visualised via confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.ResultsThe combination of respirable VA and DEP, in all scenarios, incited an heightened release of TNF-α and IL-8 as well as significant increases in IL-1β, when applied at sub-lethal doses to the co-culture compared to VA exposure alone. Notably, the augmented (pro-)inflammatory responses observed were not mediated by oxidative stress. LSM supported the quantitative assessment of cytotoxicity, with no changes in cell morphology within the barrier model evident. A direct interaction of the VA with all

  5. Mio Pliocene volcaniclastic deposits in the Famatina Ranges, southern Central Andes: A case of volcanic controls on sedimentation in broken foreland basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2006-04-01

    A well-constrained record of Miocene-Pliocene explosive volcanism is preserved within the broken foreland of Western Argentina along the Famatina Ranges. This paper focuses on the volcaniclastic record known as the Río Blanco member of the El Durazno Formation. Three facies can be recognized in the study area: (1) massive tuffs; (2) volcaniclastic conglomerates and (3) pumiceous sandstones. These facies are interpreted as primary pyroclastic flow deposits (ignimbrites) and reworked volcanogenic deposits within interacting volcanic-fluvial depositional systems. Alternation between ignimbrites and volcanogenic sandstones and conglomerates suggest a recurrent pattern of sedimentation related to recurrent volcanic activity. Considering the facies mosaic and relative thicknesses of facies, short periods of syn-eruption sedimentation (volcaniclastic deposits) seem to have been separated by longer inter-eruption periods, where normal stream-flow processes were dominant. The volcaniclastic component decreases up-section, suggesting a gradual reduction in volcanic activity. The mean sedimentation rate of the Río Blanco member is higher (0.44 mm/year) than those obtained for the underlying and overlying units. This increase cannot be fully explained by foreland basement deformation and tectonic loading. Hence, we propose subsidence associated with volcanic activity as the causal mechanism. Volcanism would have triggered additional accommodation space through coeval pyroclastic deposition, modification of the stream equilibrium profile, flexural loading of volcanoes, and thermal processes. These mechanisms may have favored the preservation of volcaniclastic beds in the high-gradient foreland system of Famatina during the Mio-Pliocene. Thus, the Río Blanco member records the response of fluvial systems to large, volcanism-induced sediment loads.

  6. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10 -3 (CTE) and 6.5 × 10 -2 (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  7. CFD modeling of ash deposition for co-combustion of MBM with coal in a tangentially fired utility boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Stam, A.F.; Stam, K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Ash deposition is one of the main challenges that needs to be tackled in response to increased percentage of biomass co-firing in pulverized fuel boilers. In this study, a model has been developed to investigate the slagging behavior of meat and bone meal (MBM) at higher co-firing rates in the

  8. Dynamics of deposited fly-ash and fine grained magnetite in sandy material of different porosity (column experiments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Ales; Kodesova, Radka; Petrovsky, Eduard; Grison, Hana

    2010-05-01

    Several studies confirm that soil magnetometry can serve as proxy of industrial immisions as well as heavy-metal contamination. The important assumption for magnetic mapping of contaminated soils is that atmospherically deposited particulate matter, including the ferrimagnetic phase, accumulates in the top soil horizons and remains there over long period. Only if this is true, large areas can be reliably mapped using soil magnetometry, and, moreover, this method can be used also for long-term monitoring. However, in soil types such as sandy soils with different porosity or soils with substantial variability of water regime, translocation of the deposited anthropogenic particles may result in biased (underestimated) values of the measured topsoil magnetic susceptibility. From the physical point of view, this process may be considered as colloid transport through porous medium. In our column experiments in laboratory we used three technical sands with different particle sizes (0,63 - 1.25mm, 0,315-0,80mm, 0,10-0,63mm). Sands in cylinders were contaminated on the surface by fly-ashes from coal-burning power plant (mean grain size 10μm) and fine grained Fe3O4 (grain size < 20 μm). Soil moisture sensors were used to monitor water regime within the sand columns after controlled rain simulation and temperature distribution in sand column was measured as well. Vertical migration of ferrimagnetic particles-tracers presented in the fly-ash was measured by SM 400 Kappameter. By means of magnetic susceptibility distribution we studied two parameters: gradual shift of peak concentration of contaminants (relative to surface layer) and maximum penetration depth. Results indicated that after rain simulation (pulls infiltration of defined water volume) the positions of peak values moved downwards compared to the initial state and gradual decrease of susceptibility peak values were detected in all studied sand formations. Fly-ash migrated more or less freely in coarse sand

  9. Nature, source and composition of volcanic ash in sediments from a fracture zone trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Nath, B.N.; Borole, D.V.; Gupta, S.M.

    Volcanic glasses associated with pumice, micro nodules and palagonite like lithic fragments were recovered from a volcanic terrain in a fracture zone defined as Rodriguez Triple Junction trace in the Central Indian Basin. Morphologically, the tephra...

  10. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q Current injected was

  11. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  12. Analysis on deep metallogenic trace and simulation experiment in xiangshan large-scale volcanic hydrothermal type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengyi; Liu Zhangyue; Wen Zhijian; Du Letian

    2010-01-01

    Based on series experiments on field geologic analysis, and associated with deep metallogenic trace experiment model transformed from establishment of field deep metallogenic trace model, this paper come to the conclusion that distribution coefficients of U and Th first domestic from the magmatic experiment, and then discuss the geochemical behaviors of U, Th, K during magmatic evolution stage. The experiment shows that close relationship between U and Na during the hydrothermal alteration stage; and relationship between U and K during metallogenic stage, which prove that U and K are incompatible and regularity of variation between K and Na. The conclusion of uranium dissolving ability increased accompany with pressure increasing in basement metamorphic rocks and host rocks, is obtained from this experiment, which indicate a good deep metallogenic prospect. Furthermore, Pb, Sr, Nd, He isotopes show that the volcanic rocks and basement rocks are ore source beds; due to the combined functions of volcanic hydrothermal and mantle ichor, uranium undergo multi-migration and enrichment and finally concentrated to large rich deposit. (authors)

  13. Characterization of herbaspirillum- and limnobacter-related strains isolated from young volcanic deposits in miyake-jima island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongsheng; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nanba, Kenji; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The role of microbes in the early development of ecosystems on new volcanic materials seems to be crucial to primary plant succession but is not well characterized. Here we analyzed the bacterial community colonizing 22-year-old volcanic deposits of the Miyake-jima Island (Japan) using culture-based and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods. The majority of 91 bacterial isolates were placed phylogenetically in two clusters (A and B) of the Betaproteobacteria. Cluster A (82% of isolates) was related to the genus Limnobacter and Cluster B (9%) was affiliated with the Herbaspirillum clade. The clone library analysis supported the predominance of Cluster B rather than Cluster A. Strain KP1-50 of Cluster B was able to grow on a mineral medium under an atmosphere of H(2), O(2), and CO(2) (85:5:10), and characterized by its large-subunit gene of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH). In contrast, strains of Cluster A did not grow chemolithoautotrophically with H(2), O(2), and CO(2) but increased their cell biomass with the addition of thiosulfate to the succinate medium, suggesting the use of thiosulfate as an energy source. From phenotypic characterization, it was suggested that the Cluster A and B strains were novel species in the genus Limnobacter and Herbaspirillum, respectively.

  14. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António

    2018-01-01

    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  15. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  16. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  17. The Role of Siliceous Hydrothermal Breccias in the Genesis of Volcanic Massive Sulphide Deposits - Ancient and Recent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. A.; Barriga, F. J.; Fouquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Siliceous hydrothermal breccias were sampled in two Mid-Atlantic Ridge active sites: Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen. These hydrothermal fields are located in the border of the Azorean plateau, southwest of the Azores islands where the alteration processes affecting basaltic rocks are prominent (Costa et al., 2003). The hydrothermal breccias are genetically related with the circulation of low temperature hydrothermal fluids in diffuse vents. The groundmass of these breccias precipitates from the fluid and consolidates the clastic fragments mostly composed of basalt. The main sources are the surrounding volcanic hills. Breccias are found near hydrothermal vents and may play an important role in the protection of subseafloor hydrothermal deposits forming an impermeable cap due to the high content in siliceous material. The amorphous silica tends to precipitate when the fluid is conductively cooled as proposed by Fouquet et al. (1998) after Fournier (1983). The process evolves gradually from an initial stage where we have just the fragments and circulating seawater. The ascending hydrothermal fluid mixes with seawater, which favours the precipitation of the sulphide components. Sealing of the initially loose fragments begins, the temperature rises below this crust, and the processes of mixing fluid circulation and conductive cooling are simultaneous. At this stage the fluid becomes oversaturated with respect to amorphous silica. This form of silica can precipitate in the open spaces of the porous sulphides and seal the system. Normally this can happen at low temperatures. At this stage the hydrothermal breccia is formed creating a progressively less permeable, eventually impermeable cap rock at the surface. Once the fluid is trapped under this impermeable layer, conductive cooling is enhanced and mixing with seawater is restricted, making the precipitation of amorphous silica more efficient. Since the first discovery and description of recent mineralized submarine

  18. Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A J; Abbott, P M; Albert, P G; Cook, E; Pearce, N J G; Ponomareva, V; Svensson, A; Davies, S M

    2016-07-21

    Widespread ash dispersal poses a significant natural hazard to society, particularly in relation to disruption to aviation. Assessing the extent of the threat of far-travelled ash clouds on flight paths is substantially hindered by an incomplete volcanic history and an underestimation of the potential reach of distant eruptive centres. The risk of extensive ash clouds to aviation is thus poorly quantified. New evidence is presented of explosive Late Pleistocene eruptions in the Pacific Arc, currently undocumented in the proximal geological record, which dispersed ash up to 8000 km from source. Twelve microscopic ash deposits or cryptotephra, invisible to the naked eye, discovered within Greenland ice-cores, and ranging in age between 11.1 and 83.7 ka b2k, are compositionally matched to northern Pacific Arc sources including Japan, Kamchatka, Cascades and Alaska. Only two cryptotephra deposits are correlated to known high-magnitude eruptions (Towada-H, Japan, ca 15 ka BP and Mount St Helens Set M, ca 28 ka BP). For the remaining 10 deposits, there is no evidence of age- and compositionally-equivalent eruptive events in regional volcanic stratigraphies. This highlights the inherent problem of under-reporting eruptions and the dangers of underestimating the long-term risk of widespread ash dispersal for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic flight routes.

  19. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    -1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction......, the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co-firing...

  20. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  1. Volcanic ash particulate matter from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in dust deposition at Prague, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Strnad, L.; Koptíková, Leona; Skála, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, June (2013), s. 191-202 ISSN 1875-9637 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eyjafjallajökull volcano * Icelandic tephra * grain size * mineralogy * geochemical analysis Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2013

  2. Multiple sources of selenium in ancient seafloor hydrothermal systems: Compositional and Se, S, and Pb isotopic evidence from volcanic-hosted and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits of the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Scott, Steven D.; Cousens, Brian; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2013-09-01

    Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide (VSHMS; i.e., hosted by both volcanic and sedimentary rocks) deposits in the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada, provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of seafloor and sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes on the formation of Se-poor (GP4F VHMS deposit; 7 ppm Se average), intermediate (Kudz Ze Kayah—KZK VHMS deposit; 200 ppm Se average), and Se-enriched (Wolverine VSHMS deposit; 1100 ppm Se average) mineralization. All three deposits are hosted by mid-Paleozoic (˜360-346 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks, but only the Wolverine deposit has voluminous coeval carbonaceous argillites (black shales) in the host rock package. Here we report the first application of Se isotope analyses to ancient seafloor mineralization and use these data, in conjunction with Pb and S isotope analyses, to better understand the source(s) and depositional process(es) of Se within VHMS and VSHMS systems. The wide range of δ82Se (-10.2‰ to 1.3‰, relative to NIST 3149), δ34S (+2.0‰ to +12.8‰ CDT), and elevated Se contents (up to 5865 ppm) within the Wolverine deposit contrast with the narrower range of δ82Se (-3.8‰ to -0.5‰), δ34S (9.8‰ to 13.0‰), and lower Se contents (200 ppm average) of the KZK deposit. The Wolverine and KZK deposits have similar sulfide depositional histories (i.e., deposition at the seafloor, with concomitant zone refining). The Se in the KZK deposit is magmatic (leaching or degassing) in origin, whereas the Wolverine deposit requires an additional large isotopically negative Se source (i.e. ˜-15‰ δ82Se). The negative δ82Se values for the Wolverine deposit are at the extreme light end for measured terrestrial samples, and the lightest observed for hypogene sulfide minerals, but are within calculated equilibrium values of δ82Se relative to NIST 3149 (˜30‰ at 25 °C between SeO4 and Se2-). We propose that the most negative Se isotope values at the

  3. Relationship between uranium-molybdenum, fluorite and gold deposits within provinces of continental volcanicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modnikov, I.S.; Skvortsova, K.V.; Chesnokov, L.V.

    1974-01-01

    The article gives a comparative description of and the age relationships between uranium-molybdenum, gold and fluorite mineralizations in the areas of development of adhesite-diorite and liparite-granite vulcanoplutonic formations, which are most fully and intensively manifest in the intra-anticlinal and median blocks of folded regions in the final stages of geosynclinal development or during the final stages of tectono-magmatic activation. These formations usually fill vulcano-tectonic depression structures - overlaid troughs and inherited delections. The geological and geochemical data are evidence of the close temporal link between the hydrothermal process of ore formation and the type and scale of manifestations of the vulcano-plutonic magmatism that is responsible for the general geochemical features of the ores of deposits of various types. The formation of gold, fluorite and uranium-molybdenum deposits occurred immediately after the completion of effusive and intrusive magmatism during a single metallogenic cycle. The spatial distribution of the ore fields and deposits depends chiefly on the peculiarities of the tectonic make-up of the depression structures, and also on the type and scale of the manifestations of vulcano-plutonic magmatism. (B.Ya.)

  4. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  5. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  6. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  7. Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, A; Nicholl, A; Baxter, P J

    2002-08-01

    The Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, has been erupting since July 1995 and volcanic ash has fallen on the island throughout most of the eruption. The ash contains substantial quantities of respirable particles and unusually large amounts (15-20%) of the crystalline silica mineral, cristobalite. The purpose of the surveys described here, undertaken between December 1996 and April 2000, was to determine levels of personal exposure of islanders to volcanic ash and cristobalite in order to inform advice on the associated risks to health and the measures required to reduce exposure. Surveys of personal exposure to respirable dust and cristobalite were undertaken using cyclone samplers. In addition, direct reading instruments (DUSTTRAK) were used to monitor ambient air concentrations of PM(10) at fixed sites and also to provide information about exposures to airborne particles associated with selected activities. Environmental concentrations of airborne ash have been greatest in the areas where the most ash has been deposited and during dry weather. Individual exposure to airborne ash was related to occupation, with the highest exposures among gardeners, cleaners, roadworkers, and police at roadside checkpoints. During 1997 many of these individuals were exposed to concentrations of cristobalite that exceeded the ACGIH recommended occupational exposure limit. Since the population became confined to the north of the island in October 1997, even those in relatively dusty occupations have received exposures to cristobalite well below this limit. Most of the 4500 people who have remained on island since the eruption began have not been exposed to sufficiently high concentrations of airborne dust for long enough to be at risk of developing silicosis. However, more than a dozen individuals continued to experience frequent high occupational exposures to volcanic ash, some of whom may have had sufficient exposure to crystalline silica to be at risk of developing mild

  8. Mathematical modelling of water and gas transport in layered soil covers for coal ash deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A; Lindgren, M [Kemakta Consultants Co, Stockholm (SE)

    1990-12-17

    In the present work the dry deposition alternative is investigated. In particular the design of soil covers is treated theoretically using mathematical models. The soil cover should primarily act as a barrier against infiltrating water. This is done by having soil cover materials with low permeabilities and sloping covers thereby diverting the infiltrating water in the lateral direction. An important design aspect is that overflow should be avoided since this may cause erosional problems. Thus the design of the cover should allow for lateral water flow within the cover. In the present work we use the computer code TRUST for calculating the flow rates and the moisture contents in two layer covers (till on top of clay) for varying conditions. The calculations so far show that the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layer should be smaller than 10{sup -8} m/s. However, for the simulated longer covers (50 m) a lower hydraulic conductivity gives overflow indicating that better lateral drainage must be provided for. This can be done by increasing the thickness or hydraulic conductivity of the till layer. Simulations for different slopes give little impact, while the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layer is of major importance. Gas transport through the soil cover may be of importance if the waste contains pyrite. In the presence of oxygen and water, pyrite is oxidized producing sulphuric acid. The lowered pH will accelerate the leaching of several heavy metals. The transport rate of gas through a porous material is very sensitive to the water content, decreasing rapidly with increasing water content. In the present work a model, where the unsaturated conditions are accounted for, is outlined. A previously developed method for calculating oxygen transport and oxidation rate of pyrite in connection with mine wastes is generalized from 1D to 2D. A sample calculation illustrates the feasibility of the method. (au) (43 refs.).

  9. Formation of a spatter-rich pyroclastic density current deposit in a Neogene sequence of trachytic-mafic igneous rocks at Mason Spur, Erebus volcanic province, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Smellie, J. L.; Cooper, A. F.; Townsend, D. B.

    2018-01-01

    Erosion has revealed a remarkable section through the heart of a volcanic island, Mason Spur, in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, including an unusually well-exposed section of caldera fill. The near-continuous exposure, 10 km laterally and > 1 km vertically, cuts through Cenozoic alkalic volcanic rocks of the Erebus volcanic province (McMurdo Volcanic Group) and permits the study of an ancient volcanic succession that is rarely available due to subsequent burial or erosion. The caldera filling sequence includes an unusual trachytic spatter-rich lapilli tuff (ignimbrite) facies that is particularly striking because of the presence of abundant black fluidal, dense juvenile spatter clasts of trachytic obsidian up to 2 m long supported in a pale cream-coloured pumiceous lapilli tuff matrix. Field mapping indicates that the deposit is an ignimbrite and, together with petrological considerations, it is suggested that mixing of dense spatter and pumiceous lapilli tuff in the investigated deposit occurred during emplacement, not necessarily in the same vent, with the mixed fragmental material emplaced as a pyroclastic density current. Liquid water was not initially present but a steam phase was probably generated during transport and may represent water ingested during passage of the current as it passed over either wet ground, stream, shallow lake or (possibly) snow. Well-exposed caldera interiors are uncommon and that at Mason Spur is helping understand eruption dynamics associated with a complex large island volcano. The results of our study should help to elucidate interpretations of other, less well exposed, pyroclastic density current deposits elsewhere in Antarctica and globally.

  10. Radioisotope distribution characteristics of the groundwater system in volcanic-type U deposits and isotope-dating estimation of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingguan

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of groundwater sample measurements collected from the uranogenic belt of Mesozoic volcanic rocks in East China, the distribution characteristics of radioisotopes, including the total U content (CΣu), the activity of nuclides (Aui) or their activity ratio (ARu) and the relationship among the three ((Aui,ARu)=f(CΣu)), have been studied. Also, it is performed for radioactive water halos in the area to be divided into four various mineralization tendencies: (1) the convergent tendency of negative correlation, which has the genetic relationship with the primary U accumulation in volcanic rocks; (2) the scattered tendency of positive correlation, which is intimately related to epigenetic U mineralization in the supergene zone of volcanic rocks or in the sandstones; (3) the both positive and negative multiple-correlative tendency, which indicates that the primary volcanic-type U deposit has been leached and destroyed, and the secondary U enrichment has occurred within the supergene zone; (4) non-correlative tendency, which mainly results from increasing dispersion U. For the above recognitions, an evolution model for radioactive water halos related to this type of U deposit has been derived, and an attempt to estimate the radioisotopic age of the groundwater system also has been made. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Rock, Lake Owyhee, and McDermitt volcanic fields, consisting of regionally extensive ash flow tuffs and associated calderas, developed in NW Nevada and SE Oregon following eruption of the ca. 16.7 Ma Steens flood basalt. The first ash flow, the Tuff of Oregon Canyon, erupted from the McDermitt volcanic field at 16.5Ma. It is chemically zoned from peralkaline rhyolite to dacite with trace element ratios that distinguish it from other ash flow tuffs. The source caldera, based on tuff distribution, thickness, and size of lithic fragments, is in the area in which the McDermitt caldera (16.3 Ma) subsequently formed. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with some but not all of the calderas. The White Horse caldera (15.6 Ma), the youngest caldera in the McDermitt volcanic field has the best geophysical expression, with both aeromagnetic and gravity lows coinciding with the caldera. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity surveys of the McDermitt caldera, combined with geology and radiometric surveys, provides insight into the complexities of caldera collapse, resurgence, post collapse volcanism, and hydrothermal mineralization. The McDermitt caldera is among the most mineralized calderas in the world, whereas other calderas in these three Mid Miocene volcanic fields do not contain important hydrothermal ore deposits, despite having similar age and chemistry. The McDermitt caldera is host to Hg, U, and Li deposits and potentially significant resources of Ga, Sb, and REE. The geophysical data indicate that post-caldera collapse intrusions were important in formation of the hydrothermal systems. An aeromagnetic low along the E caldera margin reflects an intrusion at a depth of 2 km associated with the near-surface McDermitt-hot-spring-type Hg-Sb deposit, and the deeper level, high-sulfidation Ga-REE occurrence. The Li deposits on the W side of the caldera are associated with a series of low amplitude, small diameter aeromagnetic anomalies that form a continuous

  12. Enhanced ice sheet melting driven by volcanic eruptions during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; Pausata, Francesco S R; Lea, James M; Mair, Douglas W F; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2017-10-24

    Volcanic eruptions can impact the mass balance of ice sheets through changes in climate and the radiative properties of the ice. Yet, empirical evidence highlighting the sensitivity of ancient ice sheets to volcanism is scarce. Here we present an exceptionally well-dated annual glacial varve chronology recording the melting history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at the end of the last deglaciation (∼13,200-12,000 years ago). Our data indicate that abrupt ice melting events coincide with volcanogenic aerosol emissions recorded in Greenland ice cores. We suggest that enhanced ice sheet runoff is primarily associated with albedo effects due to deposition of ash sourced from high-latitude volcanic eruptions. Climate and snowpack mass-balance simulations show evidence for enhanced ice sheet runoff under volcanically forced conditions despite atmospheric cooling. The sensitivity of past ice sheets to volcanic ashfall highlights the need for an accurate coupling between atmosphere and ice sheet components in climate models.

  13. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  14. Prospecting ideas for mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits in South China. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    2001-01-01

    The Mesozoic uranium ore-formation process in South China resulted from the intense volcanic magmatism, the crust-mantle interaction and the fluidization in Yanshanian period, and there is great prospect for large-scale uranium concentration and ore-formation. Therefore, during the prospecting for Mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits it is necessary to introduce deep-source metallogenic theory, to 'desalt' metallogenic theory of epithermal activation, to fully realize that uranium deposits may be formed not only at shallow depth, but also in conditions of deep-source, great depth and high temperature, as well as in environments of deep-source, shallow depth and median temperature, to give emphasis to the early-stage (130-95 Ma) uranium mineralization, to break the man-made boundary in prospecting for uranium only based on host rock type, to strengthen the research on Cretaceous magmatic system

  15. Properties of the fly ash from the Power Plant Dětmarovice from the point of view of their deposition in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirner Vojtech

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining for the Purposes of Disposal – Facilities, Requirements and Conceptions. Mining for the purposes of disposal can be instrumental in environmental protection in the future. Therefore the utilization of residues in the mining process has to be put into the foreground, whether they are a product of the mining activity itself or coming from other sources. It is possible to use the residual products as filling or building materials. Within the constantly increasing demand for building materials in the mines it is possible to combine the advantages that improve mine safety, rock mechanics and support with the secure long-term sealing of mineralized industrial residues in the lithosphere. Also the disposal of polluted, water-soluble and toxic or radioactive waste in a suitable geological formation underground can be realized ensuring long-term safety. This long-term safety is guaranteed by a multiple system of geological and technical barriers. The storage can b conducted in appropriate void space like chambers, caverns, drifts or boreholes with or without the opinion of retarding the material.Contribution is discussing the possibility of the deposition on fly ash produced by thermal power plants which are using low-grade brown coal as a fuel. Properties of fly ash were studied id detail on samples from Power Plant Dìtmarovice, northern Moravia.Results proved that fly ash can be deposited safely in underground.

  16. Electromagnetic signal penetration in a planetary soil simulant: Estimated attenuation rates using GPR and TDR in volcanic deposits on Mount Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Cosciotti, B.; Di Paolo, F.; Arcone, S. A.; Viccaro, M.; Pettinelli, E.

    2017-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a well-established geophysical terrestrial exploration method and has recently become one of the most promising for planetary subsurface exploration. Several future landing vehicles like EXOMARS, 2020 NASA ROVER, and Chang'e-4, to mention a few, will host GPR. A GPR survey has been conducted on volcanic deposits on Mount Etna (Italy), considered a good analogue for Martian and Lunar volcanic terrains, to test a novel methodology for subsoil dielectric properties estimation. The stratigraphy of the volcanic deposits was investigated using 500 MHz and 1 GHz antennas in two different configurations: transverse electric and transverse magnetic. Sloping discontinuities have been used to estimate the loss tangents of the upper layer of such deposits by applying the amplitude-decay and frequency shift methods and approximating the GPR transmitted signal by Gaussian and Ricker wavelets. The loss tangent values, estimated using these two methodologies, were compared and validated with those retrieved from time domain reflectometry measurements acquired along the radar profiles. The results show that the proposed analysis, together with typical GPR methods for the estimation of the real part of permittivity, can be successfully used to characterize the electrical properties of planetary subsurface and to define some constraints on its lithology of the subsurface.

  17. Volcanic Hazards Associated with the NE Sector of Tacaná Volcano, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. R.; Saucedo, R.; Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Garcia-Palomo, A.; Mora, J.; Scolamacchia, T.

    2003-12-01

    Tacaná volcano, with a height of 4,030 m above sea level, straddles the southern Mexico/Guatemala border. Last active in 1986, when there was a small phreatic event with a duration of a few days, this volcano presents an impending hazard to over 250,000 people. The NE sector of the volcano reveals the violent volcanic history of Tacaná that may be indicative of a serious potential risk to the area. Its earliest pyroclastic history appears to consist of fall, flow, and surge deposits, together with lavas, that have formed megablocks within a series of old debris avalanche deposits. This sector collapse event is overlain by a sequence of pumice fall and ash flow deposits, of which the youngest, less-altered pumice fall deposit shows a minimum thickness of > 4 m, with a dispersal axis trending toward the NE. A second debris avalanche deposit, separated from the above deposits by a paleosoil, is dominated by megablocks of lava and scoriaceous dome material. The current topography around the northeastern flank of the volcano is determined by a third, and most recent debris avalanche deposit, a thick (> 20 m) sequence of six block and ash flows dated at around 16,000 years BP, each separated by 1-10 cm thick ash cloud surge deposit, together with secondary lahar deposits. These are followed by a at least 4 lava flows that extend 2 km down the flank of the volcano. It appears that the most recent pyroclastic event at Tacaná is also recorded in this sector of the volcano: above the block and ash flows occurs a > 1 m thick ash flow unit that can be seen at least 5 km from the vent. Lastly, the Santa Maria Ash fall deposit, produced in 1902, has capped most of the deposits at Tacaná.

  18. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  20. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  1. The dispersal of ash during explosive eruptions from central volcanoes and calderas: an underestimated hazard for the central Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Caron, Benoit; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Santacroce, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Giaccio, Biagio [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Via Bolognola 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Paterne, Martine [LSCE, Laboratoire Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Siani, Giuseppe [IDES-UMR 8148, Universite Paris-XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.

  2. Correlation of upper Llandovery–lower Wenlock bentonites in the När (Gotland, Sweden and Ventspils (Latvia drill cores: role of volcanic ash clouds and shelf sea currents in determining areal distribution of bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kiipli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of volcanic ash beds using biostratigraphy, sanidine composition and immobile elements within bentonites has manifested several well-established and some provisional correlations between Gotland and East Baltic sections. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence microanalysis of phenocrysts has revealed bentonites containing Mg-rich or Fe-rich biotite. Sanidine phenocrysts contain, in addition to a major Na and K component, often a few per cent of Ca and Ba. On the basis of new correlations the mapping of the distribution areas of bentonites has been extended from the East Baltic to Gotland. The bentonite distribution can be separated into two parts in North Latvia–South Estonia, indicating the existence of shelf sea currents in the Baltic Silurian Basin.

  3. Characterization of unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units using matrix properties and depositional history in a complex volcanic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Buesch, David C.; Flint, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the physical and unsaturated hydrologic properties of subsurface materials is necessary to calculate flow and transport for land use practices and to evaluate subsurface processes such as perched water or lateral diversion of water, which are influenced by features such as faults, fractures, and abrupt changes in lithology. Input for numerical flow models typically includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all materials in the unsaturated zone, such as bulk density, porosity, and particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture-retention characteristics, and field water content. We describe an approach for systematically evaluating the site features that contribute to water flow, using physical and hydraulic data collected at the laboratory scale, to provide a representative set of physical and hydraulic parameters for numerically calculating flow of water through the materials at a site. An example case study from analyses done for the heterogeneous, layered, volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain is presented, but the general approach for parameterization could be applied at any site where depositional processes follow deterministic patterns. Hydrogeologic units at this site were defined using (i) a database developed from 5320 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow (deep (500–1000 m) boreholes, (ii) lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (iii) transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (iv) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (v) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. Model parameters developed in this study, and the relation of flow properties to porosity, can be used to produce detailed and accurate

  4. Air pollution dry deposition: radioisotopes as particles and volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This study focuses on determining volcanic ash and ambient airborne solids concentrations at various sampling sites subsequent to the Mt. St. Helens' eruption in order to develop an experimental basis for models predicting removal of airborne particles and gases by dry deposition onto outdoor surfaces. In addition, deposition rates were determined using dual tracer techniques in the field and in a wind tunnel in the laboratory

  5. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de las emisiones de una erupcion volcanica mediante analisis por activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, Rita R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Radioquimica, Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares; Tafuri, Victoria V. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Contaminacion del Aire

    1997-10-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Transition from Plinian to unstable eruption conditions recorded in fine-grained proximal ash layers of the Middle Laacher See Tephra (12,900 a BP), East Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernack, Anke Verena

    The 12,900 a BP eruption of Laacher See Volcano is a classic example of a complex, multi-phase Plinian eruption and one of the largest known of the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Quaternary. The wide range of primary and reworked pyroclastic deposits produced record drastically changing...... internal and external conditions during the course of the eruption. Here we focus on the so-called “Hauptbritzbank” (HBB), which marks a significant change in the eruptive style of Laacher See Volcano following the initial Plinian phase. The interval is characterised by a series of thin ash beds...... to assess their eruptive mechanism, transport processes and depositional conditions. Correlation between the Eastern and Southern fan proved difficult with dispersal axes of deposits pointing to two different locations within the Laacher See basin and some not intersecting the basin at all. In addition...

  7. Application of sequential fragmentation/transport theory to deposits of 1723 and 1963-65 eruptions of Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica: positive dispersion case and fractal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes, Jose; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of Fragmentation and Sequential Transport (FST) was applied to the granulometric analyzes of the deposits from the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65 of the Volcan Irazu. An appreciable number of cases of positive dispersion was showed, associated in the literature with aggregation processes. A new fractal dimension defined in research has shown to be the product of secondary fragmentation. The application of the new dimension is used in the analyses of the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65. A fractal model of a volcanic activity is formulated for the first time. The Hurst coefficient and the exponent of the law of powers are incorporated. The existence of values of dissidence near zero have been indicators of an effusive process, as would be the lava pools. The results derived from the model were agreed with field observations. (author) [es

  8. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  9. Volcanic Plume Impact on the Atmosphere and Climate: O- and S-Isotope Insight into Sulfate Aerosol Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate has been studied over the last decades and the role played by sulfate aerosols appears to be major. S-bearing volcanic gases are oxidized in the atmosphere into sulfate aerosols that disturb the radiative balance on earth at regional to global scales. This paper discusses the use of the oxygen and sulfur multi-isotope systematics on volcanic sulfates to understand their formation and fate in more or less diluted volcanic plumes. The study of volcanic aerosols collected from air sampling and ash deposits at different distances from the volcanic systems (from volcanic vents to the Earth poles is discussed. It appears possible to distinguish between the different S-bearing oxidation pathways to generate volcanic sulfate aerosols whether the oxidation occurs in magmatic, tropospheric, or stratospheric conditions. This multi-isotopic approach represents an additional constraint on atmospheric and climatic models and it shows how sulfates from volcanic deposits could represent a large and under-exploited archive that, over time, have recorded atmospheric conditions on human to geological timescales.

  10. The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes : Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes occurred within the Okataina Volcanic Centre at c. 21 000 and 18 000 yr B.P., respectively. The widespread rhyolitic pumice fall deposits of Te Rere Ash (volume 5 km 3 ) and Okareka Ash (6 km 3 ) are only rarely exposed in near-source areas, and locations of their vent areas have been uncertain. New exposures and petrographic and chemical analyses show that the Te Rere episode eruptions occurred from multiple vents, up to 20 km apart, on the Haroharo linear vent zone. The Okareka episode eruptions occurred from vents since buried beneath the Tarawera volcanic massif. Eruption of the rhyolitic Okareka pumice fall was immediately preceded by a small basaltic scoria eruption, apparently from vents close to those for the following rhyolite eruptions. Dacitic mixed pumices scattered within the rhyolite pumice layers immediately overlying the scoria were formed by mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas. The Te Rere and Okareka pyroclastic eruptions were both followed by extrusion of voluminous rhyolite lavas. These eruptive episodes mark the commencement of growth of the present-day Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Ice nucleation properties of fine ash particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Steinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in the south of Iceland in April/May 2010, about 40 Tg of ash mass were emitted into the atmosphere. It was unclear whether volcanic ash particles with d < 10 μm facilitate the glaciation of clouds. Thus, ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash particles were investigated in AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud chamber experiments simulating atmospherically relevant conditions. The ash sample that was used for our experiments had been collected at a distance of 58 km from the Eyjafjallajökull during the eruption period in April 2010. The temperature range covered by our ice nucleation experiments extended from 219 to 264 K, and both ice nucleation via immersion freezing and deposition nucleation could be observed. Immersion freezing was first observed at 252 K, whereas the deposition nucleation onset lay at 242 K and RHice =126%. About 0.1% of the volcanic ash particles were active as immersion freezing nuclei at a temperature of 249 K. For deposition nucleation, an ice fraction of 0.1% was observed at around 233 K and RHice =116%. Taking ice-active surface site densities as a measure for the ice nucleation efficiency, volcanic ash particles are similarly efficient ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode (ns,imm ~ 109 m−2 at 247 K compared to certain mineral dusts. For deposition nucleation, the observed ice-active surface site densities ns,dep were found to be 1011 m−2 at 224 K and RHice =116%. Thus, volcanic ash particles initiate deposition nucleation more efficiently than Asian and Saharan dust but appear to be poorer ice nuclei than ATD particles. Based on the experimental data, we have derived ice-active surface site densities as a function of temperature for immersion freezing and of relative humidity over ice and temperature for

  12. Volcanic Cyclicities in the Pacific Northwest: Insights from the Marine Tephra Record from IODP Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Jegen, M. D.; Corry-Saavedra, K.; Murayama, M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Kutterolf, S.; Vautravers, M. J.; Wang, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    While the influences of orbital cycles on the ocean-atmosphere system are well documented, it remains largely unknown whether Earth's interior processes are similarly connected to orbital cycles. Recent studies of cyclic deposition in ash fallout from arc volcanism suggest that global climate changes in the form of variable glacial and water load are inversely related to magma production and/or volcanic eruption rate. However, a rigorous test of this hypotheses requires a temporally precise record of past volcanism which spans multiple glacial cycles at high resolution. The marine ash record of explosive volcanism provides such records readily. Here we undertake a detailed chemical study of discrete and disperse tephra deposits in cores from IODP Holes U1437B and U1436A drilled near the Izu Bonin arc in the northwestern Pacific. These locations combine a high background sedimentation rate (>10 m/Ma) of biogenic carbonate and Asian-derived dust with frequent emplacement of tephra fallout from the nearby Izu Bonin and Japan arcs. δ18O analyses record thirteen climatic cycles in the carbonate mud of the uppermost 120 m of Hole U1437B and eleven cycles in the uppermost 70 m of Hole U1436C. Strikingly, the distribution of 134 primary ash layers in Hole U1437B seems to be synchronous with glacial cycles, with a distinct increase in eruption occurrences at either the transitions of glacial/interglacial or at the early interglacials. This is confirmed by first results of a frequency analysis of the ash-time series that indicate a dominance of a 100 ka cycle. The question, which remains to be answered, is whether deglaciation drives volcanism or volcanism drives deglaciation? We also investigate the distribution of `dispersed ash' in this sequence, which is not visible to the naked eye but is volumetrically significant and thus also critical in testing time-cause relationships between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. Major questions we address are: 1) do we see the same

  13. Accumulation and selective maternal transfer of contaminants in the turtle Trachemys scripta associated with coal ash deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, R.D.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    Coal combustion wastes are enriched in a number of potentially toxic compounds and may pose risks to biota exposed to the wastes. Slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) are common inhabitants of coal ash settling basins in South Carolina, USA, where they feed on contaminated prey items and accumulate high levels of potentially toxic compounds in their tissues. Furthermore, female sliders sometimes nest in contaminated spill piles and thus may expose embryos to contaminated soils. We examined two potential pathways by which female T. scripta may influence the survivorship and quality of their offspring in a contaminated habitat: (1) nesting in contaminated soil and (2) maternal transfer of pollutants. Eggs were collected from turtles captured in coal ash-polluted or unpolluted sites; individual clutches were incubated in both ash-contaminated and uncontaminated soil in outdoor, artificial nests. Incubation in contaminated soil was associated with reduced embryo survivorship. Adult females from the polluted site accumulated high levels of As, Cd, Cr, and Se in their tissues, yet Se was the only element transferred maternally to hatchlings at relatively high levels. Hatchlings from polluted-site females exhibited reduced O{sub 2} consumption rates compared to hatchlings from reference sites. Relatively high levels of Se transferred to hatchlings by females at the ash-polluted site might contribute to the observed differences in hatchling physiology.

  14. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  15. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and inferred flow dynamics from the July 2015 block-and-ash flow deposits at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macorps, Elodie; Charbonnier, Sylvain J.; Varley, Nick R.; Capra, Lucia; Atlas, Zachary; Cabré, Josep

    2018-01-01

    The July 2015 block-and-ash flow (BAF) events represent the first documented series of large-volume and long-runout BAFs generated from sustained dome collapses at Volcán de Colima. This eruption is particularly exceptional at this volcano due to (1) the large volume of BAF material emplaced (0.0077 ± 0.001 km3), (2) the long runout reached by the associated BAFs (max. 10 km), and (3) the short period ( 18 h) over which two main long-sustained dome collapse events occurred (on 10 and 11 July, respectively). Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the 2015 BAF deposits exposed in the southern flank of the volcano based on lithofacies description, grain size measurements and clast componentry allowed the recognition of three main deposit facies (i.e., valley-confined, overbank and ash-cloud surge deposits). Correlations and lithofacies variations inside three main flow units from both the valley-confined and overbank deposits left from the emplacement of the second series of BAFs on 11 July provide detailed information about: (1) the distribution, volumes and sedimentological characteristics of the different units; (2) flow parameters (i.e., velocity and dynamic pressure) and mobility metrics as inferred from associated deposits; and (3) changes in the dynamics of the different flows and their material during emplacement. These data were coupled with geomorphic analyses to assess the role of the topography in controlling the behaviour and impacts of the successive BAF pulses on the volcano flanks. Finally, these findings are used to propose a conceptual model for transport and deposition mechanisms of the July 2015 BAFs at Volcán de Colima. In this model, deposition occurs by rapid stepwise aggradation of successive BAF pulses. Flow confinement in a narrow and sinuous channel enhance the mobility and runout of individual channelized BAF pulses. When these conditions occur, the progressive valley infilling from successive sustained dome-collapse events promote the

  16. Origin Of Black Shale (Marl) Formation Aided By Continuous Volcanism For 10Ma Including Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE2 (93-93.5 Ma) In The Eagle Ford Formation In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Basu, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons, petrography, major and trace elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of whole rock black shales(marls) from volcanic subsurface as well as surface exposure ash beds of the Eagle Ford and Boquillas Formations in South Texas. Zircons from the middle part of the 300ft long Eagle Ford cores yield ages of 93.2±1.66 Ma, 94.13±1.25 Ma and 93.7±1.9 Ma. These ages are consistent with the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) age of deposition in three contiguous cores with spatial separation of 140 miles. An approximate 10Ma duration of deposition of volcanic ash and marl, at a rate of 28ft/Ma for the Eagle Ford is suggested from the 85.76 to 95.5 Ma ages. These ages are from the Eagle Ford ash beds, below the Austin Chalk and above the Buda Limestone and cover the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 at the C-T boundary. Zircons from 7 ash beds in the surface exposures of the Boquillas Formation near Del Rio, yield ages between 84.63 Ma - 90.91 Ma, implying younger than C-T boundary ages for these samples. The mineralogy, major and trace elements of the ash beds suggest their source from nearby arc-derived calc-alkaline volcanism. The ɛHf(T) of the analyzed ash bed zircons yield values between 0 - +8 averaging at +3.5, clearly indicating a mantle component in the host magmas of the zircons. This initial range of ɛHf(T) is similar to arc-volcanism signatures such as the Quaternary andesitic volcanism in Central Mexico. Petrographic analyses of marls away from the visible tuff layer contain phenocrysts of biotite, alkali feldspar and andesitic rock fragments. The whole rock marl with high concentration of some transition metals (V, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mo) and relatively higher MgO and TiO2 contents indicate contemporaneous arc volcanic activity at the time of marl deposition. XRD of subsurface Eagle Ford bulk marl samples from different depths in 4 cores, show volcanogenic clays, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite, dickite and halloysite

  17. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex from the giant Yanbei tin deposit, South China: Implication for multiple magma sources, tin mineralization, and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Lai, Pan-Chen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The giant Yanbei tin ore deposit is the largest porphyry-type tin deposit in South China. The orebodies are hosted by the granite porphyry in the central part of the Yanbei volcanic basin in southern Jiangxi Province. The Yanbei volcanic-intrusive complex mainly consists of dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic rocks, granite, granite porphyry and diabase dikes. In previous papers, the granite porphyry was considered as subvolcanic rocks, which came from the same single magma chamber with the volcanic rocks. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of different magmatic units in the Yanbei complex are reported. Geochronologic results show that various magmatic units have different formation ages. The dacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 143 ± 1 Ma, and the granite porphyry has the emplacement age of 138 ± 1 Ma. Diabase dikes which represented the final stage of magmatism, yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 128 ± 1 Ma. Distinctive whole rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that these magmatic units were derived from different magma sources. The volcanic rocks were mainly derived from the partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks without additions of mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry has an A-type geochemical affinity, and was derived from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal source with involvement of a subordinate mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry is also a typical stanniferous granite with high F (4070-6090 ppm) and Sn (7-39 ppm) contents. It underwent strongly crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and accessory minerals (like apatite, Fe-Ti oxides), which may contribute to the tin mineralization. The diabase was derived by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle which had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. The change of magmatic sources reflected an increasing extensional tectonic environment, perhaps induced by slab

  18. Characterization of flue gas, fly ash, aerosol and deposit compositions as a function of waste composition and grate operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    The Danish strategy for waste management is still to increase recycling and on the same time to reduce the volume of land-filled waste, in order to avoid loss of resources, and waste incineration is an important part of this strategy. In 2004, 26 % of the total reported Danish waste production...... metals, was then mixed with the reference fuel in the individual test runs. The dedicated waste fractions comprised NaCl (road salt), batteries, automotive shredder waste, CCA (Copper-Chromate-Arsenate)-impregnated wood, PVC plastics, and (leather) shoes. Test runs with varying operational parameters, e...... times increase in concentration in fly ash compared to the reference experiments), and for Hg when firing batteries (10 times increase in concentration in fly ash). These observations were in consistence with an increased concentration of the respective elements in the specific waste fractions...

  19. ∼1400 Ma alkali metasomatic event in the sericite deposits and basal Aravalli volcanic rocks of Udaipur region, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumari, V.M.; Sreenivas, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Gopalan, K.; Roy, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Paleosols are residual soil profiles of the geological past. They throw light on the climatic conditions prevalent during their formation. Constraining their age is of importance for deciphering the paleoclimatic history of a region. A suite of K-rich spilitic volcanic rocks immediately overlying the paleosol near Nagaria have been analysed

  20. Hydrological sensitivity of volcanically disturbed watersheds—a lesson reinforced at Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. J.; Janda, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The climactic June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo devastated many surrounding catchments with thick pyroclastic fall and flow deposits, and subsequent hydrogeomorphic responses were dramatic and persisted for years. But in the 24 hours preceding the climactic eruption there was less devastating eruptive activity that had more subtle, yet significant, impact on catchment hydrology. Stratigraphic relations show damaging lahars swept all major channels east of the volcano, starting late on June 14 and continuing through (and in some instances after) midday on June 15, before the climactic phase of the eruption began and before Typhoon Yunya struck the region. These early lahars were preceded by relatively small explosions and pyroclastic surges that emplaced fine-grained ash in the upper catchments, locally damaged or destroyed vegetation, reduced hillside infiltration capacity, and smoothed surface roughness. Thus the lahars, likely triggered by typical afternoon monsoon storms perhaps enhanced by local thermal influences of fresh volcanic deposits, did not result from extraordinary tropical rainfall or exceptional volcaniclastic deposition. Instead, direct rainfall-runoff volume increased substantially as a consequence of vegetation damage and moderate deposition of fine ash. Rapid runoff from hillsides to channels initiated hillside and bank erosion as well as channel scour, producing debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows. Timing of some lahars varied across catchments as well as downstream within catchments with respect to climactic pumice fall, demonstrating complex interplay among volcanic processes, variations in catchment disturbance, and rainfall timing and intensity. Occurrence of these early lahars supports the hypothesis that eruptions that deposit fine ash in volcanic catchments can instigate major hydrogeomorphic responses even when volcanic disturbances are modest—an effect that can be masked by later eruption impacts.

  1. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  2. Researches Regarding the Adaptation Process of the Species Miscanthus Giganteus under the Conditions of Fly Ash Deposit from Utvin, Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus giganteus is a large, perennial (up to 20 years grass hybrid of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus native to Japan. Is a C4 carbon fixation plant, and thus exhibits greater photosynthetic efficiency and lower water use requirements than other kinds of plants. It has very low nutritional requirements – it has high nitrogen use efficiency and therefore is capable of growing well on barren land without the aid of heavy fertilization. M. giganteus is a sterile hybrid, therefore propagates vegetative through its rhizomes and that it is a completely non-invasive species. In this paper are presented the results of this grass species growing on fly ash deposit Utvin after the first year from the planting. Order to stimulate the process of vegetative from the first year, have used three different fertilizing: with sewage sludge, with cattle manure and mineral supplement such as N.P.K. We have also provided an adequate irrigation during dry periods of the summer. The best germination percentage was obtained in variants fertilized with sewage sludge and manure of cattle. Further the same variations recorded a good growth rate and higher biomass production. However, good production of biomass produced in the first year of all variants show a good adaptability of the species M. giganteus to arid biotope conditions of the fly ash dump.

  3. In search for a compromise between biodiversity conservation and human health protection in restoration of fly ash deposits: effect of anti-dust treatments on five groups of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropek, Robert; Cerna, Ilona; Straka, Jakub; Kocarek, Petr; Malenovsky, Igor; Tichanek, Filip; Sebek, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Recently, fly ash deposits have been revealed as a secondary refuge of critically endangered arthropods specialised on aeolian sands in Central Europe. Simultaneously, these anthropogenic habitats are well known for their negative impact on human health and the surrounding environment. The overwhelming majority of these risks are caused by wind erosion, the substantial decreasing of which is thus necessary. But, any effects of anti-dust treatments on endangered arthropods have never been studied. We surveyed communities of five arthropod groups (wild bees and wasps, leafhoppers, spiders, hoverflies and orthopteroid insects) colonising three fly ash deposits in the western Czech Republic. We focused on two different anti-dust treatments (~70 and 100 % cover of fly ash by barren soil) and their comparison with a control of bare fly ash. Altogether, we recorded 495 species, including 132 nationally threatened species (eight of them were considered to be extinct in the country) and/or 30 species strictly specialised to drift sands. Bees and wasps and leafhoppers contained the overwhelming majority of species of the highest conservation interest; a few other important records were also in spiders and orthopteroids. Total soil cover depleted the unique environment of fly ash and thus destroyed the high conservation potential of the deposits. On the other hand, partial coverage (with ~30 % of bare fly ash) still offered habitats for many of the most threatened species, as we showed by both regression and multivariate analyses, with a decrease of wind erosion. This topic still needs much more research interest, but we consider mosaic-like preservation of smaller spots of fly ash as one of the possible compromises between biodiversity and human health.

  4. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  5. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  6. Lahar—River of volcanic mud and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Vallance, James W.

    2018-05-09

    Lahar, an Indonesian word for volcanic mudflow, is a mixture of water, mud, and volcanic rock flowing swiftly along a channel draining a volcano. Lahars can form during or after eruptions, or even during periods of inactivity. They are among the greatest threats volcanoes pose to people and property. Lahars can occur with little to no warning, and may travel great distances at high speeds, destroying or burying everything in their paths.Lahars form in many ways. They commonly occur when eruptions melt snow and ice on snow-clad volcanoes; when rains fall on steep slopes covered with fresh volcanic ash; when crater lakes, volcano glaciers or lakes dammed by volcanic debris suddenly release water; and when volcanic landslides evolve into flowing debris. Lahars are especially likely to occur at erupting or recently active volcanoes.Because lahars are so hazardous, U.S. Geological Survey scientists pay them close attention. They study lahar deposits and limits of inundation, model flow behavior, develop lahar-hazard maps, and work with community leaders and governmental authorities to help them understand and minimize the risks of devastating lahars.

  7. Atmospheric Despersal and Disposition of Tephra From a Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Keating; W.Statham

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (ASHPLUME) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. The ASHPLUME conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The ASHPLUME mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report will improve and clarify the previous documentation of the ASHPLUME mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model

  8. Atmospheric Dispersal and Dispostion of Tephra From a Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Keating; W.Statham

    2004-02-12

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (ASHPLUME) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. The ASHPLUME conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The ASHPLUME mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report will improve and clarify the previous documentation of the ASHPLUME mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model.

  9. Estimating volume of deposits associated with landslides on volcanic landscapes in the SW flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, Puebla-Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Legorreta Paulín

    2017-03-01

    dangerous situation for more than 360 000 people living on the southern flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, where landslides along the hillslopes and the river system threaten towns like Cordova, Orizaba, Rio Blanco, Nogales and Ciudad Mendoza. Today the most common and dangerous landslides are associated with unconsolidated volcanic deposits and heavy seasonal rains. In this paper, the cause, distribution, and link between landslides and the volcanic landscape relief susceptibility are analyzed. Similarly, the volume of displaced material is estimated in order to characterize the landslide instability in volcanic terrains. The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano is selected to describe and analyze susceptible areas of gravitational processes. The study area allows to show a systematic methodology for landslide mapping and volume calculation in areas with scarce information. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis. In the first stage, background information is collected to provide context and establish a generalized characterization of landslide processes, landsforms and volumes within the study area. Background information includes the following maps: topographic, geologic, land use, climate, slope, slope curvature, contributing area, flow direction, saturation, reclassified hypsomety, reclassified slope, and morphography. By retrieval and on-off switching of the background information in the GIS, a base map is created to assist in the digitizing of landslides. The base map and the theoretical aspects of the geomorphological mapping help to develop a conceptual base of support for mapping landslides. Landslides are digitized directly into a geographic information system (GIS, and in parallel, a spatial geodatabase of landslides attributes (eg. size, volume, activity, landslide type, etc. is constructed. Previous landslide mapping in the study area is verified and new landslides are added to the landslide

  10. Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A.

    2008-10-01

    Archaeological investigations in Ecuador have proposed that there appear to be hiatus or anomalous jumps in the progressive development of pre-Columbian indigenous cultures, based upon the fact that their ceramics and tools demonstrate abrupt advances in their sophistication at several horizons in the soil profile. Because some of these horizons are clearly associated with volcanic ash layers, archaeologists have sought a causal relation with volcanism, that is, the eruptive events or their products severely interfered with the early inhabitants, resulting in their abandonment of certain areas. Geological studies of the young volcanoes in the Ecuadorian Andes carried out during the past two decades now allow us to make a more thorough evaluation of the role of volcanism during the Holocene. This contribution briefly describes the principal Holocene volcanic events and the distribution of the corresponding eruptive products found along the InterAndean Valley, from southern Colombia to central Ecuador. Only those events that were sufficiently large that they could have had a detrimental effect on the valley's early residents are discussed. Dacitic and rhyolitic ash flows, as well as numerous debris flows (lahars) have occurred frequently and their deposits cover many valleys and floodplains, where early inhabitants probably settled. The enormous Chillos Valley lahar, associated with the 4500 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi volcano, buried soils containing ceramics of the early Formative Period. However, the greatest impact upon mankind was probably not these short-lived violent events, but rather the burying of settlements and agricultural fields by ash fallout, the effect of which may have lasted hundreds of years. Ash fall layers are observed in pre-Columbian cultural horizons in the soil profile, occurring in the InterAndean Valley, the lower flanks of the Andes, and along Ecuador's Pacific coast, the oldest corresponding to the 5800 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi. This brief