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Sample records for volcanic arc deposits

  1. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran

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    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  2. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits

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    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  3. Unraveling the diversity in arc volcanic eruption styles: Examples from the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska

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    Larsen, Jessica F.

    2016-11-01

    The magmatic systems feeding arc volcanoes are complex, leading to a rich diversity in eruptive products and eruption styles. This review focuses on examples from the Aleutian subduction zone, encompassed within the state of Alaska, USA because it exhibits a rich diversity in arc structure and tectonics, sediment and volatile influx feeding primary magma generation, crustal magma differentiation processes, with the resulting outcome the production of a complete range in eruption styles from its diverse volcanic centers. Recent and ongoing investigations along the arc reveal controls on magma production that result in diversity of eruptive products, from crystal-rich intermediate andesites to phenocryst-poor, melt-rich silicic and mafic magmas and a spectrum in between. Thus, deep to shallow crustal "processing" of arc magmas likely greatly influences the physical and chemical character of the magmas as they accumulate in the shallow crust, the flow physics of the magmas as they rise in the conduit, and eruption style through differences in degassing kinetics of the bubbly magmas. The broad spectrum of resulting eruption styles thus depends on the bulk magma composition, melt phase composition, and the bubble and crystal content (phenocrysts and/or microlites) of the magma. Those fundamental magma characteristics are in turn largely determined by the crustal differentiation pathway traversed by the magma as a function of tectonic location in the arc, and/or the water content and composition of the primary magmas. The physical and chemical character of the magma, set by the arc differentiation pathway, as it ascends towards eruption determines the kinetic efficiency of degassing versus the increasing internal gas bubble overpressure. The balance between degassing rate and the rate at which gas bubble overpressure builds then determines the conditions of fragmentation, and ultimately eruption intensity.

  4. Rare earth element mobility in arc-type volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschel, E.; Smith, I.E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Some samples from arc-type volcanic suites collected in northern New Zealand and southeastern Papua New Guinea show rare earth element (REE) and Y abundances which are enriched relative to the those typical of their respective associations. This enrichment appears to be the result of an alteration process which selectively mobilises the REE and re-precipitates them as REE-bearing minerals in veins and interstitial patches. The alteration is on a micron scale and is not detected in routine petrographic examination. It is emphasised that the pattern of REE mobility in young, fresh rocks is important to igneous geochemists who use REE abundances to constrain petrogenetic models and may also be important because it indicates the operation of a natural REE enrichment process which could operate in the formation of economic REE deposits. 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs.

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    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido

    2017-11-13

    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  6. Monitoring the Sumatra volcanic arc with InSAR

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    Chaussard, E.; Hong, S.; Amelung, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Sumatra volcanic arc is the result of the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Sunda plate. The arc consists of 35 known volcanic centers, subaerials on the west coast of the Sumatra and Andaman Islands and submarines between these islands. Six active centers are known in the Sumatra volcanic arc. Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Here we present a satellite-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the Sumatra volcanic arc using ALOS data. Spanning the years 2007 to beginning of 2009, our survey reveals the background level of activity of the 35 volcanoes. We processed data from 40 tracks (24 in descending orbit and 16 in ascending orbit) to cover the whole Sumatra arc. In the first results five of these six known active centers show no sign of activity: Dempo, Kaba, Marapi, Talang and Peuet. The remaining active volcano, Mount Kerinci, has an ambiguous signal. We used pair-wise logic and InSAR time series of the available ALOS data to determine if the observed InSAR signal is caused by ground deformation or by atmospheric delays.

  7. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

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    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  8. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

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    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  9. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

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    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  10. Mercury and Iodine systematics of volcanic arc fluids

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    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.; Fehn, U.; Lu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The mantle has low Mercury and Iodine concentrations, but these elements occur in volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids at ppb (Hg) and ppm (Iodine) levels. Possibly, the Hg and Iodine concentrations in volcanic fluids reflect subducted sediment sources in arc magmas. Iodine is a biophilic element, and I129/I values indicate that subducted sediment (especially organic matter) is an important Iodine source for arc magmas. It is uncertain if this is true for Hg as well, although in the surface environment Hg is commonly associated with organic matter. We present 60 new analyses of Hg and I in fluids from volcanoes in Central America, New Zealand, Japan, and the Cascades. A first assessment suggests that Iodine is released to some degree in the early stage of subduction in the forearc, whereas Hg may be released largely below the main volcanic arc. Isotope and trace element signatures of volcanic rocks of the investigated volcanoes show no simple correlation with Hg or Iodine abundances. The acid hot spring fluids of Copahue volcano (Argentina) carried ~ 200 ppt Hg in January 1999, ~80 ppt Hg in March 2008, and 90 ppt Hg in the crater lake in March 1997. The dissolved Hg fluxes from the Copahue hydrothermal system are ~300 gr Hg/year in 1999 and ~130 gr Hg/year in 2008. The bulk hydrothermal Hg flux (particle bound+dissolved) in 2008 was ~ 350 gr Hg/year. The potential Mercury evasion from these hydrothermal spring fluids into the air has not yet been incorporated in these estimates.

  11. Seismic evidence for arc segmentation, active magmatic intrusions and syn-rift fault system in the northern Ryukyu volcanic arc

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    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    Tectonic and volcanic structures of the northern Ryukyu arc are investigated on the basis of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data. The study area forms an active volcanic front in parallel to the non-volcanic island chain in the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate and has been undergoing regional extension on its back-arc side. We carried out a MCS reflection experiment along two across-arc lines, and one of the profiles was laid out across the Tokara Channel, a linear bathymetric depression which demarcates the northern and central Ryukyu arcs. The reflection image reveals that beneath this topographic valley there exists a 3-km-deep sedimentary basin atop the arc crust, suggesting that the arc segment boundary was formed by rapid and focused subsidence of the arc crust driven by the arc-parallel extension. Around the volcanic front, magmatic conduits represented by tubular transparent bodies in the reflection images are well developed within the shallow sediments and some of them are accompanied by small fragments of dipping seismic reflectors indicating intruded sills at their bottoms. The spatial distribution of the conduits may suggest that the arc volcanism has multiple active outlets on the seafloor which bifurcate at crustal depths and/or that the location of the volcanic front has been migrating trenchward over time. Further distant from the volcanic front toward the back-arc (> 30 km away), these volcanic features vanish, and alternatively wide rift basins become predominant where rapid transitions from normal-fault-dominant regions to strike-slip-fault-dominant regions occur. This spatial variation in faulting patterns indicates complex stress regimes associated with arc/back-arc rifting in the northern Okinawa Trough.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Across-arc versus along-arc Sr-Nd-Pb isotope variations in the Ecuadorian volcanic arc

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    Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Samaniego, Pablo; Vlastélic, Ivan; Nauret, François; Gannoun, Adbelmouhcine; Hidalgo, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies of the Ecuadorian arc (1°N-2°S) have revealed across-arc geochemical trends that are consistent with a decrease in mantle melting and slab dehydration away from the trench. The aim of this work is to evaluate how these processes vary along the arc in response to small-scale changes in the age of the subducted plate, subduction angle, and continental crustal basement. We use an extensive database of 1437 samples containing 71 new analyses, of major and trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from Ecuadorian and South Colombian volcanic centers. Large geochemical variations are found to occur along the Ecuadorian arc, in particular along the front arc, which encompasses 99% and 71% of the total variations in 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Quaternary Ecuadorian volcanics, respectively. The front arc volcanoes also show two major latitudinal trends: (1) the southward increase of 207Pb/204Pb and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd reflect more extensive crustal contamination of magma in the southern part (up to 14%); and (2) the increase of 206Pb/204Pb and decrease of Ba/Th away from ˜0.5°S result from the changing nature of metasomatism in the subarc mantle wedge with the aqueous fluid/siliceous slab melt ratio decreasing away from 0.5°S. Subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust in the Northern part of the arc might promote slab melting. Conversely, the subduction of a colder oceanic crust south of the Grijalva Fracture Zone and higher crustal assimilation lead to the reduction of slab contribution in southern part of the arc.

  13. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution

  14. Petrographic and Geochemical Investigation of Andesitic Arc Volcanism: Mount Kerinci, Sunda Arc, Indonesia

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    Tully, M.; Saunders, K.; Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E.; Muir, D. D.; Deegan, F. M.; Budd, D. A.; Astbury, R.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Present knowledge of the chain of dominantly andesitic volcanoes, which span the Sumatran portion of the Sunda Arc is extremely limited. Previous studies have focused on Toba and Krakatau, although over 13 further volcanic edifices are known. Several recent explosive eruptions in Sumatra such as that of Mt. Sinabung, 2014, have highlighted the potential hazard that these volcanoes pose to the local and regional communities. Mount Kerinci, is one of the most active of the volcanoes in this region, yet little is known about the petrogenesis of the magma by which it is fed. Kerinci is located approximately mid-way between Toba in the North and Krakatau in the south. Along arc variations are observed in the major, minor and trace elements of whole rock analyses. However, bulk rock approaches produce an average chemical composition for a sample, potentially masking important chemical signatures. In-situ micro-analytical analysis of individual components of samples such as melt inclusions, crystals and groundmass provides chemical signatures of individual components allowing the evolution of volcanic centres to be deciphered in considerably more detail. Examination of whole rock chemistry indicates its location may be key to unravelling the petrogenesis of the arc as significant chemical changes occur between Kerinci and Kaba, 250 km to the south. Kerinci samples are dominantly porphyritic with large crystals of plagioclase, pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, rare olivine crystals are observed. Plagioclase and pyroxene crystals are chemically zoned and host melt inclusions. Multiple plagioclase populations are observed. A combination of in-situ micro-analysis techniques will be used to characterise the chemical composition of melt inclusions and crystals. These data can be used along with extant geothermobarometric models to help determine the magma source, storage conditions and composition of the evolving melt. Integration of the findings from this study with existing data for

  15. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

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    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  16. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  17. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska

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    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  18. Gas measurements from the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment suggest possible along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry

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    Aiuppa, A.; Robidoux, P.; Tamburello, G.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.; Avard, G.; Bagnato, E.; De Moor, J. M.; Martínez, M.; Muñóz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining accurate estimates of the CO2 output from arc volcanism requires a precise understanding of the potential along-arc variations in volcanic gas chemistry, and ultimately of the magmatic gas signature of each individual arc segment. In an attempt to more fully constrain the magmatic gas signature of the Central America Volcanic Arc (CAVA), we present here the results of a volcanic gas survey performed during March and April 2013 at five degassing volcanoes within the Costa Rica-Nicaragua volcanic segment (CNVS). Observations of the volcanic gas plume made with a multicomponent gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) have allowed characterization of the CO2/SO2-ratio signature of the plumes at Poás (0.30±0.06, mean ± SD), Rincón de la Vieja (27.0±15.3), and Turrialba (2.2±0.8) in Costa Rica, and at Telica (3.0±0.9) and San Cristóbal (4.2±1.3) in Nicaragua (all ratios on molar basis). By scaling these plume compositions to simultaneously measured SO2 fluxes, we estimate that the CO2 outputs at CNVS volcanoes range from low (25.5±11.0 tons/day at Poás) to moderate (918 to 1270 tons/day at Turrialba). These results add a new information to the still fragmentary volcanic CO2 output data set, and allow estimating the total CO2 output from the CNVS at 2835±1364 tons/day. Our novel results, with previously available information about gas emissions in Central America, are suggestive of distinct volcanic gas CO2/ST (= SO2 + H2S)-ratio signature for magmatic volatiles in Nicaragua (∼3) relative to Costa Rica (∼0.5-1.0). We also provide additional evidence for the earlier theory relating the CO2-richer signature of Nicaragua volcanism to increased contributions from slab-derived fluids, relative to more-MORB-like volcanism in Costa Rica. The sizeable along-arc variations in magmatic gas chemistry that the present study has suggested indicate that additional gas observations are urgently needed to more-precisely confine the volcanic CO2 from the CAVA, and from

  19. Comparison of hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with porphyry Cu deposits hosted by granitoids and intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks, Kerman Magmatic Arc, Iran: Application of geological, mineralogical and remote sensing data

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    Yousefi, Seyyed Jabber; Ranjbar, Hojjatollah; Alirezaei, Saeed; Dargahi, Sara; Lentz, David R.

    2018-06-01

    The southern section of the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) of Iran, known as Kerman Magmatic Arc (KMA) or Kerman copper belt, is a major host to porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits, collectively known as PCDs. In this study, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral angle mapper (SAM) method, combined with field data, mineralogical studies, and spectral analysis are used to determine hydrothermal alteration patterns related to PCDs in the KMA. Gossans developed over some of these porphyry type deposits were mapped using Landsat 8 data. In the NKMA gossans are more developed than in the SKMA due to comparatively lower rate of erosion. The hydrothermal alteration pattern mapped by ASTER data were evaluated using mineralogical and spectral data. ASTER data proved to be useful for mapping the hydrothermal alteration in this semi-arid type of climate. Also Landsat 8 was useful for mapping the iron oxide minerals in the gossans that are associated with the porphyry copper deposits. Our multidisciplinary approach indicates that unlike the PCDs in the northern KMA that are associated with distinct and widespread propylitic alteration, those in the granitoid country rocks lack propylitic alteration or the alteration is only weakly and irregularly developed. The porphyry systems in southern KMA are further distinguished by development of quartz-rich phyllic alteration zones in the outer parts of the PCDs that could be mapped using remote sensing data. Consideration of variations in alteration patterns and specific alteration assemblages are critical in regional exploration for PCDs.

  20. Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina

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    Carlos Benedetto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last Conference of the FEALC (Speleological Federation of Latin America and Caribbean Islands which was held in the town of Malargue, Mendoza, in February 1997, two volcanic caves not far from that town were visited and sampled for cave mineral studies. The first cave (Cueva del Tigre opens close to the Llancanelo lake, some 40 kms far from Malargue and it is a classical lava tube. Part of the walls and of the fallen lava blocks are covered by white translucent fibres and grains. The second visited cave is a small tectonic cavity opened on a lava bed some 100 km southward of Malargue. The cave “El Abrigo de el Manzano” is long no more than 10-12 meters with an average width of 3 meters and it hosts several bird nests, the larger of which is characterized by the presence of a relatively thick pale yellow, pale pink flowstone. Small broken or fallen samples of the secondary chemical deposits of both these caves have been collected in order to detect their mineralogical composition. In the present paper the results of the detailed mineralogical analyses carried out on the sampled material are shortly reported. In the Cueva del Tigre lava tube the main detected minerals are Sylvite, Thenardite, Bloedite and Kieserite, all related to the peculiar dry climate of that area. The flowstone of “El Abrigo de el Manzano” consists of a rather complex admixture of several minerals, the large majority of which are phosphates but also sulfates and silicates, not all yet identified. The origin of all these minerals is related to the interaction between bird guano and volcanic rock.

  1. 129I in volcanic fluids: Testing for the presence of marine sediments in the Central American volcanic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Glen; Fehn, Udo

    2000-01-01

    The long half-life and the geochemical behavior of the 129 I system suggest that this cosmogenic radioisotope can contribute significantly to the understanding of processes associated with subduction zones and volcanic arc systems. Because iodine is not incorporated into igneous rocks, the age-signal associated with 129 I permits the determination of the origin of volatiles within arc volcanic systems. We report here results of a study to test the application of 129 I in fluids collected from hotsprings, crater lakes, fumaroles and geothermal wells from the Central American volcanic arc. Both the Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua and the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica show 129 I/I ratios consistent with magmatic contributions from subducted marine pelagic sediments (minimum iodine ages of 25-30 Ma). In addition, several wells provide iodine isotopic ratios indicative of an older end-member, presumably located in the shallow crust (minimum iodine age = 65 Ma)

  2. Volcanic Cyclicities in the Pacific Northwest: Insights from the Marine Tephra Record from IODP Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Jegen, M. D.; Corry-Saavedra, K.; Murayama, M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Kutterolf, S.; Vautravers, M. J.; Wang, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    While the influences of orbital cycles on the ocean-atmosphere system are well documented, it remains largely unknown whether Earth's interior processes are similarly connected to orbital cycles. Recent studies of cyclic deposition in ash fallout from arc volcanism suggest that global climate changes in the form of variable glacial and water load are inversely related to magma production and/or volcanic eruption rate. However, a rigorous test of this hypotheses requires a temporally precise record of past volcanism which spans multiple glacial cycles at high resolution. The marine ash record of explosive volcanism provides such records readily. Here we undertake a detailed chemical study of discrete and disperse tephra deposits in cores from IODP Holes U1437B and U1436A drilled near the Izu Bonin arc in the northwestern Pacific. These locations combine a high background sedimentation rate (>10 m/Ma) of biogenic carbonate and Asian-derived dust with frequent emplacement of tephra fallout from the nearby Izu Bonin and Japan arcs. δ18O analyses record thirteen climatic cycles in the carbonate mud of the uppermost 120 m of Hole U1437B and eleven cycles in the uppermost 70 m of Hole U1436C. Strikingly, the distribution of 134 primary ash layers in Hole U1437B seems to be synchronous with glacial cycles, with a distinct increase in eruption occurrences at either the transitions of glacial/interglacial or at the early interglacials. This is confirmed by first results of a frequency analysis of the ash-time series that indicate a dominance of a 100 ka cycle. The question, which remains to be answered, is whether deglaciation drives volcanism or volcanism drives deglaciation? We also investigate the distribution of `dispersed ash' in this sequence, which is not visible to the naked eye but is volumetrically significant and thus also critical in testing time-cause relationships between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. Major questions we address are: 1) do we see the same

  3. Transition of neogene arc volcanism in central-western Hokkaido, viewed from K-Ar ages, style of volcanic activity, and bulk rock chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Wataru; Iwasaki, Miyuki; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in late Cenozoic volcanism of southwestern Hokkaido at the northern end of NE-Japan arc have been clarified by 261 K-Ar and 76 FT ages including 49 newly determined K-Ar ages, volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry. Arc volcanism characterized by rocks with low-Ti and Nb, and by across-arc increase in K{sub 2}O content in these rocks has continued at least since 12 Ma. Based on volcanic stratigraphy, physical volcanology and whole-rock geochemistry, volcanism after 12 Ma can be subdivided into 4 stages, 12-5, 5-1.7, and 1.7-0 Ma. The volcanism from 12 Ma to 5 Ma extended northward widely compared with distribution of Quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma). This suggests that the arc trench junction between Kuril and NE-Japan arc's trenches was located about 100 km northward from the present position. Since around 5 Ma until 1.7 Ma, different type of volcanism under local extension field, characterized by a group of monogenetic volcanoes of alkali basalt and shield volcanoes of calc-alkaline andesite, had occurred at northern end of the volcanic region (Takikawa-Mashike region). During and after this volcanism, the northern edge of arc volcanism in the area has migrated southward. This suggests that the trench junction has migrated about 100 km southward since {approx}5 Ma. The quaternary arc volcanism (1.7-0 Ma) has been restricted at the southern part of the region. The volcanism since 12 Ma might be influenced by oblique subduction of Pacific plate beneath Kuril arc, resulting in the formation of local back arc basin at the junction and to southward migration of the trench junction. (author)

  4. Geophysical imaging of buried volcanic structures within a continental back-arc basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Stern, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hidden beneath the ~2 km thick low-velocity volcaniclastics on the western margin of the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand, are two structures that represent the early history of volcanic activity in a continental back-arc. These ~20×20 km structures, at Tokoroa and Mangakino, fo...

  5. Depleted arc volcanism in the Alboran Sea and shoshonitic volcanism in Morocco: geochemical and isotopic constraints on Neogene tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. C. O.; Aparicio, A.; El Azzouzi, M.; Hernandez, J.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bourgois, J.; Marriner, G. F.

    2004-12-01

    Samples of volcanic rocks from Alborán Island, the Alboran Sea floor and from the Gourougou volcanic centre in northern Morocco have been analyzed for major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes to test current theories on the tectonic geodynamic evolution of the Alboran Sea. The Alborán Island samples are low-K tholeiitic basaltic andesites whose depleted contents of HFS elements (˜0.5×N-MORB), especially Nb (˜0.2×N-MORB), show marked geochemical parallels with volcanics from immature intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc basins. Several of the submarine samples have similar compositions, one showing low-Ca boninite affinity. 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios fall in the same range as many island-arc and back-arc basin samples, whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (on leached samples) are somewhat more radiogenic. Our data point to active subduction taking place beneath the Alboran region in Miocene times, and imply the presence of an associated back-arc spreading centre. Our sea floor suite includes a few more evolved dacite and rhyolite samples with ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 up to 0.717 that probably represent varying degrees of crustal melting. The shoshonite and high-K basaltic andesite lavas from Gourougou have comparable normalized incompatible-element enrichment diagrams and Ce/Y ratios to shoshonitic volcanics from oceanic island arcs, though they have less pronounced Nb deficits. They are much less LIL- and LREE-enriched than continental arc analogues and post-collisional shoshonites from Tibet. The magmas probably originated by melting in subcontinental lithospheric mantle that had experienced negligible subduction input. Sr-Nd isotope compositions point to significant crustal contamination which appears to account for the small Nb anomalies. The unmistakable supra-subduction zone (SSZ) signature shown by our Alboran basalts and basaltic andesite samples refutes geodynamic models that attribute all Neogene volcanism in the Alboran domain to decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere

  6. Toward Assessing the Causes of Volcanic Diversity in the Cascades Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Kent, A. J.; Abers, G. A.; Pitcher, B.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Schmandt, B.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental unanswered question in subduction system science is the cause of the observed diversity in volcanic arc style at an arc-segment to whole-arc scale. Specifically, we have yet to distinguish the predominant mantle and crustal processes responsible for the diversity of arc volcanic phenomenon, including the presence of central volcanoes vs. dispersed volcanism; episodicity in volcanic fluxes in time and space; variations in magma chemistry; and differences in the extent of magmatic focusing. Here we present a thought experiment using currently available data to estimate the relative role of crustal magmatic processes in producing the observed variations in Cascades arc volcanism. A compilation of available major element compositions of Quaternary arc volcanism and estimates of eruptive volumes are used to examine variations in the composition of arc magmas along strike. We then calculate the Quaternary volcanic heat flux into the crust, assuming steady state, required to produce the observed distribution of compositions via crystallization of mantle-derived primitive magmas vs. crustal melting using experiment constraints on possible liquid lines of descent and crustal melting scenarios. For pure crystallization, heat input into the crust scales with silica content, with dacitic to rhyolite compositions producing significantly greater latent heat relative to basalts to andesites. In contrast, the heat required to melt lower crustal amphibolite decreases with increasing silica and is likely provided by the latent heat of crystallization. Thus we develop maximum and minimum estimates for heat added to the crust at a given SiO2 range. When volumes are considered, we find that the average Quaternary volcanic heat flux at latitudes south of South Sister to be more than twice that to the north. Distributed mafic volcanism produces only a quarter to half the heat flux calculated for the main edifices at a given latitude because of their lesser eruptive volumes

  7. Intra-Arc extension in Central America: Links between plate motions, tectonics, volcanism, and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps Morgan, Jason; Ranero, Cesar; Vannucchi, Paola

    2010-05-01

    This study revisits the kinematics and tectonics of Central America subduction, synthesizing observations of marine bathymetry, high-resolution land topography, current plate motions, and the recent seismotectonic and magmatic history in this region. The inferred tectonic history implies that the Guatemala-El Salvador and Nicaraguan segments of this volcanic arc have been a region of significant arc tectonic extension; extension arising from the interplay between subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate and the ~10-15 mm/yr slower westward drift of the Caribbean plate relative to the North American Plate. The ages of belts of magmatic rocks paralleling both sides of the current Nicaraguan arc are consistent with long-term arc-normal extension in Nicaragua at the rate of ~5-10 mm/yr, in agreement with rates predicted by plate kinematics. Significant arc-normal extension can ‘hide' a very large intrusive arc-magma flux; we suggest that Nicaragua is, in fact, the most magmatically robust section of the Central American arc, and that the volume of intrusive volcanism here has been previously greatly underestimated. Yet, this flux is hidden by the persistent extension and sediment infill of the rifting basin in which the current arc sits. Observed geochemical differences between the Nicaraguan arc and its neighbors which suggest that Nicaragua has a higher rate of arc-magmatism are consistent with this interpretation. Smaller-amplitude, but similar systematic geochemical correlations between arc-chemistry and arc-extension in Guatemala show the same pattern as the even larger variations between the Nicaragua arc and its neighbors. We are also exploring the potential implications of intra-arc extension for deformation processes along the subducting plate boundary and within the forearc ‘microplate'.

  8. Albari granodiorite - a typical calcalkaline diapir of volcanic arc stage from the Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radain, Abdulaziz A.

    Granodiorite rocks of the Arabian Shield are generally considered to be collision-related granitoids. However, there are some granodiorites that were formed during the volcanic arc stage. Major and trace elements studies are carried out on Albari diapiric granodiorite to reveal its tectonic environment. This intrusive rock type is common in the Taif arc province (Mahd adh Dhahab quadrangle) of the Asir microplate near the border of the southeast dipping subduction zone that ended up with arc-arc collision (Asir-Hijaz microplates) along the now known Bir Umq suture zone. The granodiorite exhibits a calcalkaline trend on ternary AFM and K 2ONa 2OCaO diagrams. Tectonic discrimination diagrams using multicationic parameters (R1 = 4Sill(Na+K)2(Fe+Ti); R2 = 6Ca+2Mg+Al), SiO 2-trace elements (Nb, Y, Rb), and Y versus Nb and Rb versus (Y+Nb) indicate a destructive active plate margin or volcanic arc stage tectonic environment. Albari calcalkaline granodiorite might have been derived directly from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust or overlying mantle contaminated with variable amounts of intermediate (quartz diorite, diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) early and late volcanic arc-related plutonic country rocks.

  9. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    New 40Ar/39Ar, major and trace element, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for the c. 24-7 Ma volcanic rocks from the Andean back-arc (35°S – 38°S) in the Mendoza and Neuquén (Argentina) regions shed light on the Miocene evolution of the back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone. Incipient shallowing......-Sr-Pb isotopic compositions. The arc-like component that dominates the geochemistry of the Palaoco rocks is absent in both the Early Miocene and the Pliocene-Pleistocene in the same area. Young volcanic Provinces in the main arc, retro-arc and back-arc are further investigated by U-series analyses which confirm...... the fluid-enriched nature of arc-related rocks (U-excess are found in most rocks) and the more OIB-like nature of the Payún Matrú complex (Th-exsess is observed in all rocks). The fluid addition to the mantle source is modeled revealing timescales of 10 – 100 ka for the fluid enrichment. For the back...

  10. Seismic activity around and under Krakatau volcano, Sunda Arc: constraints to the source region of island arc volcanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2002), s. 545-565 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/97/0898; GA AV ČR IAA3012002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : Krakatau * Sunda Strait seismicity * island arc volcanism * subduction * Wadati-Benioff zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2002

  11. Early Depositional History of the Eocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, R.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the International Ocean Discovery Program cored an Eocene section at Site U1438 in the Philippine Sea that provides insight into the early history of the Izu-Bonin arc. Subduction here is hypothesized to have initiated spontaneously, leaving a characteristic depositional sequence of post-subduction-initiation localized extension and volcanism. We conducted detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of the cores of the lowermost 100m of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks (Unit IV) directly overlying subduction initiation igneous basement, to identify depositional facies and trends. We subdivided Unit IV into three subunits based on lithologic characteristics. Transitions between the subunits are relatively abrupt, occurring within the length of a single core. The lowermost subunit (IVA) consists of 4 meters of laminated pelagic claystone with thin beds of graded volcaniclastic siltstone, and fine-grained tuff laminae composed of plagioclase feldspar and green-brown amphibole. The middle subunit (IVB) comprises 51 meters of texturally variable, thick-bedded, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits. These are composed of volcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate containing glassy and tachylitic volcanic grains as well as sedimentary lithic fragments, along with traces of shallow-water carbonate bioclasts. Subunit IVB sediments are poorer in feldspar than IVA and contain only trace amphibole. They show variable grain rounding and an upsection increase in vitric components. Tachylite grains range from sub-angular to well rounded throughout, and other volcanic grain types show upward increases in angularity and vesicularity. The abrupt transition from pelagic sediments in subunit IVA to shallow-water-sourced gravity flows in subunit IVB suggests a rapid emergence of shallow-water to subaerial volcanic center early in the arc's development. The upper part of subunit IVB also contains igneous intrusions, providing possible evidence for more proximal

  12. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma composition and mineralogy will directly relate to the increased dissolved element concentration of exposed waters. The measured effects on aqueous solutions will aid in evaluation of impacts to marine and freshwater systems exposed to volcanic deposits.

  13. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica

    2014-05-01

    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  14. Spatial distribution of helium isotopes in volcanic gases and thermal waters along the Vanuatu (New Hebrides) volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Fourré, E.; Bani, P.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Gauthier, P. J.; Parello, F.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    We report the first helium isotope survey of volcanic gases, hot springs and some olivine phenocrysts along the Vanuatu island arc, from Tanna in the south to Vanua Lava in the north. Low CO2 content and low 3He/4He ratios in thermal fluids of Epi (4.0 ± 0.1 Ra), Efate (4.5 ± 0.1 Ra) and Pentecost (5.3 ± 0.5 Ra) islands coherently indicate reduced mantle gas leakage and crustal contamination by radiogenic helium on these extinct volcanic systems of the former (Pliocene) arc. Instead, presently active Vanuatu volcanoes display 3He/4He and C/3He ratios typical of subduction-related volcanic arcs: 3He/4He ratios range from 6.4 ± 0.5 Ra in southernmost Tanna and 7.23 ± 0.09 Ra in northernmost Vanua Lava to typical MORB values in the central islands of Gaua (7.68 ± 0.06 Ra), Ambrym (7.6 ± 0.8 Ra) and Ambae (7 ± 2 Ra in groundwaters, 7.9 ± 1.4 Ra in olivine phenocrysts, and 8.0 ± 0.1 Ra in summit fumaroles of Aoba volcano). On Ambrym, however, we discover that hydrothermal manifestations separated by only 10-15 km on both sides of a major E-W transverse fault zone crossing the island are fed by two distinct helium sources, with different 3He/4He signatures: while fluids in southwest Ambrym (Baiap and Sesivi areas) have typical arc ratios (7.6 ± 0.8 Ra), fluids on the northwest coast (Buama Bay area) display both higher 3He/4He ratios (9.8 ± 0.2 Ra in waters to 10.21 ± 0.08 Ra in bubbling gases) and lower C/3He ratios that evidence a hotspot influence. We thus infer that the influx of Indian MORB mantle beneath the central Vanuatu arc, from which Ambrym magmas originate, also involves a 3He-rich hotspot component, possibly linked to a westward influx of Samoan hotspot material or another yet unknown local source. This duality in magmatic He source at Ambrym fits with the bimodal composition and geochemistry of the erupted basalts, implying two distinct magma sources and feeding systems. More broadly, the wide He isotopic variations detected along the Vanuatu

  15. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  16. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  17. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  18. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  19. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Danilo M.; Simei, Silvia; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2008-12-01

    Large silicic explosive eruptions are the most catastrophic volcanic events. Yet, the intratelluric mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here we report a field and laboratory study of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT, 161 ka, Aegean Volcanic Arc), which provides an excellent geological example of conduit processes that control magma vesiculation and fragmentation during intermediate- to large-scale caldera-forming eruptions. A prominent feature of the KPT is the occurrence of quite unusual platy-shaped tube pumice clasts in pyroclastic fall and current deposits from the early eruption phases preceding caldera collapse. On macroscopic and SEM observations, flat clast faces are elongated parallel to tube vesicles, while transverse surfaces often occur at ~ 45° to vesicle elongation. This peculiar pumice texture provides evidence of high shear stresses related to strong velocity gradients normal to conduit walls, which induced vesiculation and fragmentation of the ascending magma. Either an increasing mass discharge rate without adequate enlargement of a narrow central feeder conduit or a developing fissure-like feeder system related to incipient caldera collapse provided suitable conditions for the generation of plate tube pumice within magma volumes under high shear during the pre-climactic KPT eruption phases. This mechanism implies that the closer to the conduit walls (where the stronger are the velocity gradients) the larger was the proportion of plate vs. conventional (lensoid) juvenile fragments in the ascending gas-pyroclast mixture. Consequently, plate pumice clasts were mainly entrained in the outer portions of the jet and convecting regions of a sustained, Plinian-type, eruption column, as well as in occasional lateral blast currents generated at the vent. As a whole, plate pumice clasts in the peripheral portions of the column were transported at lower altitudes and deposited by fallout or partial collapse closer to the vent relative to lensoid ones

  20. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  1. DC switch power supply for vacuum-arc coatings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesskij, D.Yu.; Volkov, Yu.Ya.; Vasil'ev, V.V.; Kozhushko, V.V.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    Special DC Switch Power Supply for vacuum-arc deposition was developed and tested in the mode of depositing Al and AlN films. Maximum output power was 6 kW, maximum output current - 120 A, open-circuit voltage - 150 V. The Power Supply allows to adjust and stabilize output current in a wide range. Testing of the Power Supply revealed an advantages over the standard 'Bulat-6' power supply, especially for deposition of non-conductive AlN films.

  2. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  3. Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh

  4. High efficient vacuum arc plant for coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of progressive technical solutions are used in the 'Bulat-9' machine designed for vacuum arc coating deposition. The features of the machine are: a dome shaped working chamber that allows to 'wash' its inner surfaces with hot nitrogen or argon gas; a system of automatic loading/unloading of articles to be treated into the chamber through its bottom; shielding of the inner surfaces of the chamber by heated panels; improved vacuum arc plasma sources including filtered one; four ported power supply for the vacuum arc discharges; LC oscillatory circuits suppressing microarcs on the substrate; the system of automatic control of a working process. The said technical features cause the apparatus originality and novelty preserved up to-day

  5. The geochemical characteristics of basaltic and acidic volcanics around the Myojin depression in the Izu arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Tamaki, K.; Kato, Y.; Machida, S.

    2012-12-01

    Around the Myojin Depression, westside of the Myojin-sho caldera in the Izu arc, seamounts are circular distributed and hydrothermal activity with sulfide deposition are found from the Baiyonneise Caldera, one of seamounts at the northern side. Some knoll chains distribute in the eastside of the Myojin Depression, and connect between these knolls. This circulator distribution of seamounts and connected knoll chains considered to the dykes are similar to the geographical features of the Kuroko Depositions in the Hokuroku Region, Northwest Japan (Tanahashi et al., 2008). Hydrothermal activities are also found from the other rifts (Urabe and Kusakabe 1990). Based on these observations, the cruise KT09-12 by R/V Tansei-Maru, Ocean Research Institute (ORI), University of Tokyo, investigated in the Myojin Rift. During the cruise, basaltic to dacitic volcanic rocks and some acidic plutonic rocks were recovered by dredge system. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these rock samples with sample dredged by the cruise MW9507 by R/V MOANA WAVE, and consider the association with hydrothermal activities and depositions. Dredges during the cruise KT09-12 were obtained at the Daini-Beiyonneise Knoll at the northern side, Daisan-Beiyonneise Knoll at the southern side, and the Dragonborn Hill, small knoll chains, at the southeastern side of the depression. Many volcanic rocks are basalt, and recovered mainly from the Dragonborn Hill. Andesite and dacite was recovered from the Daini- and the Daini-Bayonneise Knoll. Tonalites were recovered from the Daisan-Bayonneise Knoll. Basalts from the Dragonborn Hill show less than 50% of SiO2 and more than 6 wt% and 0.88 wt% of MgO and TiO2 content. Basalts from the rift zone show depleted in the volcanic front (VF) side and enriched in the reararc (RA) side. The Dragonborn Hill is distributed near the VF, and basalts show depleted geochemical characteristics. However, these characteristics are different from the basalts

  6. Transition of magma genesis estimated by change of chemical composition of Izu-bonin arc volcanism associated with spreading of Shikoku Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Ishii, T.

    2006-12-01

    Arc volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara arc is separated into first and latter term at the separate of Shikoku Basin. Middle to late Eocene early arc volcanism formed a vast terrane of boninites and island arc tholeiites that is unlike active arc systems. A following modern-style arc volcanism was active during the Oligocene, along which intense tholeiitic and calc-alkaline volcanism continued until 29Ma, before spreading of the back- arc basin. The recent arc volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara arc have started in the middle Miocene, and it is assumed that arc volcanism were decline during spreading of back-arc basin. In the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, submarine bottom materials were dredged during the KT95-9 and KT97-8 cruise by the R/V Tansei-maru, Ocean Research Institute, university of Tokyo, and basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks were recovered during both cruise except for Komahashi-Daini Seamount where recovered acidic plutonic rocks. Komahashi-Daini Seamount tonalite show 37.5Ma of K-Ar dating, and this age indicates early stage of normal arc volcanism. These volcanic rocks are mainly cpx basalt to andesite. Two pyroxene basalt and andesite are only found from Miyazaki Seamount, northern end of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Volcanic rocks show different characteristics from first term volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara forearc rise and recent arc volcanism. The most characteristic is high content of incompatible elements, that is, these volcanics show two to three times content of incompatible elements to Komahashi-Daini Seamount tonalite and former normal arc volcanism in the Izu outer arc (ODP Leg126), and higher content than recent Izu arc volcanism. This characteristic is similar to some volcanics at the ODP Leg59 Site448 in the central Kyushu- Palau Ridge. Site448 volcanic rocks show 32-33Ma of Ar-Ar ages, which considered beginning of activity of Parece Vela Basin. It is considered that the dredged volcanic rocks are uppermost part of volcanism before spreading of

  7. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Miocene magmatism in the Bodie Hills volcanic field, California and Nevada: A long-lived eruptive center in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascades arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Vikre, Peter; Box, Stephen E.; Moring, Barry C.

    2012-01-01

    throughout the lifespan of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. However, kinematic data for veins and faults in mining districts suggest a change in the stress field from transtensional to extensional approximately coincident with the inferred cessation of subduction.Numerous hydrothermal systems were operative in the Bodie Hills during the Miocene. Several large systems caused alteration of volcaniclastic rocks in areas as large as 30 km2, but these altered rocks are mostly devoid of economic mineral concentrations. More structurally focused hydrothermal systems formed large epithermal Au-Ag vein deposits in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts. Economically important hydrothermal systems are temporally related to intermediate to silicic composition domes.Rock types, major and trace element compositions, petrographic characteristics, and volcanic features of the Bodie Hills volcanic field are similar to those of other large Miocene volcanic fields in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascade arc. Relative to other parts of the ancestral arc, especially north of Lake Tahoe in northeastern California, the scarcity of mafic rocks, relatively K-rich calc-alkaline compositions, and abundance of composite dome fields in the Bodie Hills may reflect thicker crust beneath the southern ancestral arc segment. Thicker crust may have inhibited direct ascent and eruption of mafic, mantle-derived magma, instead stalling its ascent in the lower or middle crust, thereby promoting differentiation to silicic compositions and development of porphyritic textures characteristic of the southern ancestral arc segment.

  9. Magnesium Isotopes as a Tracer of Crustal Materials in Volcanic Arc Magmas in the Northern Cascade Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Brewer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen North Cascade Arc basalts and andesites were analyzed for Mg isotopes to investigate the extent and manner of crustal contributions to this magmatic system. The δ26Mg of these samples vary from within the range of ocean island basalts (the lightest being −0.33 ± 0.07‰ to heavier compositions (as heavy as −0.15 ± 0.06‰. The observed range in chemical and isotopic composition is similar to that of other volcanic arcs that have been assessed to date in the circum-pacific subduction zones and in the Caribbean. The heavy Mg isotope compositions are best explained by assimilation and fractional crystallization within the deep continental crust with a possible minor contribution from the addition of subducting slab-derived fluids to the primitive magma. The bulk mixing of sediment into the primitive magma or mantle source and the partial melting of garnet-rich peridotite are unlikely to have produced the observed range of Mg isotope compositions. The results show that Mg isotopes may be a useful tracer of crustal input into a magma, supplementing traditional methods such as radiogenic isotopic and trace element data, particularly in cases in which a high fraction of crustal material has been added.

  10. 238U-230Th radioactive disequilibria in the volcanic products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi; Sato, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The timescale of magmatic processes of Izu arc volcanoes, Japan, was estimated by the 238 U- 230 Th disequilibria in the volcanic products from the volcanoes. The majority of the 230 Th/ 238 U activity ratios of the products were less than unity, being enriched in 238 U relative to 230 Th. The ( 230 Th/ 232 Th)-( 238 U/ 232 Th)diagram for younger Fuji and Izu-Oshima volcanoes formed a whole rock isochrons, and the ages were 1x10 4 and 2x10 4 years, respectively. The ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) - ( 238 U/ 232 Th) data set for younger Fuji volcano formed a cluster on the diagram, while those of Izu-Oshima formed another cluster apparently apart from each other, suggesting that the concentration of U and Th may possibly be un-uniform in the mantle beneath Izu arc. (author)

  11. Optimal likelihood-based matching of volcanic sources and deposits in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Emily; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In monogenetic volcanic fields, where each eruption forms a new volcano, focusing and migration of activity over time is a very real possibility. In order for hazard estimates to reflect future, rather than past, behavior, it is vital to assemble as much reliable age data as possible on past eruptions. Multiple swamp/lake records have been extracted from the Auckland Volcanic Field, underlying the 1.4 million-population city of Auckland. We examine here the problem of matching these dated deposits to the volcanoes that produced them. The simplest issue is separation in time, which is handled by simulating prior volcano age sequences from direct dates where known, thinned via ordering constraints between the volcanoes. The subproblem of varying deposition thicknesses (which may be zero) at five locations of known distance and azimuth is quantified using a statistical attenuation model for the volcanic ash thickness. These elements are combined with other constraints, from widespread fingerprinted ash layers that separate eruptions and time-censoring of the records, into a likelihood that was optimized via linear programming. A second linear program was used to optimize over the Monte-Carlo simulated set of prior age profiles to determine the best overall match and consequent volcano age assignments. Considering all 20 matches, and the multiple factors of age, direction, and size/distance simultaneously, results in some non-intuitive assignments which would not be produced by single factor analyses. Compared with earlier work, the results provide better age control on a number of smaller centers such as Little Rangitoto, Otuataua, Taylors Hill, Wiri Mountain, Green Hill, Otara Hill, Hampton Park and Mt Cambria. Spatio-temporal hazard estimates are updated on the basis of the new ordering, which suggest that the scale of the 'flare-up' around 30 ka, while still highly significant, was less than previously thought.

  12. Primitive magmas at five Cascade volcanic fields: Melts from hot, heterogeneous sub-arc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Bruggman, P.E.; Christiansen, R.L.; Clynne, M.A.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Hildreth, W.

    1997-01-01

    Major and trace element concentrations, including REE by isotope dilution, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotope ratios have been determined for 38 mafic lavas from the Mount Adams, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic fields, in the Cascade arc, northwestern part of the United States. Many of the samples have a high Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + FeT) > 60] and Ni content (>140 ppm) such that we consider them to be primitive. We recognize three end-member primitive magma groups in the Cascades, characterized mainly by their trace-element and alkali-metal abundances: (1) High-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) has trace element abundances similar to N-MORB, except for slightly elevated LILE, and has Eu/Eu* > 1. (2) Arc basalt and basaltic andesite have notably higher LILE contents, generally have higher SiO2 contents, are more oxidized, and have higher Cr for a given Ni abundance than HAOT. These lavas show relative depletion in HFSE, have lower HREE and higher LREE than HAOT, and have smaller Eu/Eu* (0.94-1.06). (3) Alkali basalt from the Simcoe volcanic field east of Mount Adams represents the third end-member, which contributes an intraplate geochemical signature to magma compositions. Notable geochemical features among the volcanic fields are: (1) Mount Adams rocks are richest in Fe and most incompatible elements including HFSE; (2) the most incompatible-element depleted lavas occur at Medicine Lake; (3) all centers have relatively primitive lavas with high LILE/HFSE ratios but only the Mount Adams, Lassen, and Medicine Lake volcanic fields also have relatively primitive rocks with an intraplate geochemical signature; (4) there is a tendency for increasing 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/204Pb, and ??18O and decreasing 206Pb/204Pb and 143Nd/144Nd from north to south. The three end-member Cascade magma types reflect contributions from three mantle components: depleted sub-arc mantle modestly enriched in LILE during ancient subduction; a modern, hydrous subduction component

  13. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  14. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb discharged 700 kilotons of Br. On average, each of the remaining 21 CAVA eruptions studied have discharged c.100 kilotons of bromine. During the past 200 ka, CAVA volcanoes have emitted a cumulative mass of 3.2 Mt of Br through highly explosive eruptions. There are six periods in the past (c. 2ka, 6ka, 25ka, 40ka, 60ka, 75

  15. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  16. Geochemical differentiation processes for arc magma of the Sengan volcanic cluster, Northeastern Japan, constrained from principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kenta; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2017-10-01

    In this study, with a view of understanding the structure of high-dimensional geochemical data and discussing the chemical processes at work in the evolution of arc magmas, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate the compositional variations of volcanic rocks from the Sengan volcanic cluster of the Northeastern Japan Arc. We analyzed the trace element compositions of various arc volcanic rocks, sampled from 17 different volcanoes in a volcanic cluster. The PCA results demonstrated that the first three principal components accounted for 86% of the geochemical variation in the magma of the Sengan region. Based on the relationships between the principal components and the major elements, the mass-balance relationships with respect to the contributions of minerals, the composition of plagioclase phenocrysts, geothermal gradient, and seismic velocity structure in the crust, the first, the second, and the third principal components appear to represent magma mixing, crystallizations of olivine/pyroxene, and crystallizations of plagioclase, respectively. These represented 59%, 20%, and 6%, respectively, of the variance in the entire compositional range, indicating that magma mixing accounted for the largest variance in the geochemical variation of the arc magma. Our result indicated that crustal processes dominate the geochemical variation of magma in the Sengan volcanic cluster.

  17. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  18. Diagenesis in tephra-rich sediments from the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc: Pore fluid constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Natalie A.; McManus, James; Palmer, Martin R.; Haley, Brian; Manners, Hayley

    2018-05-01

    We present sediment pore fluid and sediment solid phase results obtained during IODP Expedition 340 from seven sites located within the Grenada Basin of the southern Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc region. These sites are generally characterized as being low in organic carbon content and rich in calcium carbonate and volcanogenic material. In addition to the typical reactions related to organic matter diagenesis, pore fluid chemistry indicates that the diagenetic reactions fall within two broad categories; (1) reactions related to chemical exchange with volcanogenic material and (2) reactions related to carbonate dissolution, precipitation, or recrystallization. For locations dominated by reaction with volcanogenic material, these sites exhibit increases in dissolved Ca with coeval decreases in Mg. We interpret this behavior as being driven by sediment-water exchange reactions from the alteration of volcanic material that is dispersed throughout the sediment package, which likely result in formation of Mg-rich secondary authigenic clays. In contrast to this behavior, sediment sequences that exhibit decreases in Ca, Mg, Mn, and Sr with depth suggest that carbonate precipitation is an active diagenetic process affecting solute distributions. The distributions of pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr reflect these competitive diagenetic reactions between volcanic material and carbonate, which are inferred by the major cation distributions. From one site where we have solid phase 87Sr/86Sr (site U1396), the carbonate fraction is found to be generally consistent with the contemporaneous seawater isotope values. However, the 87Sr/86Sr of the non-carbonate fraction ranges from 0.7074 to 0.7052, and these values likely represent a mixture of local arc volcanic sources and trans-Atlantic eolian sources. Even at this site where there is clear evidence for diagenesis of volcanogenic material, carbonate diagenesis appears to buffer pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr from the larger changes that might be

  19. Seismological Imaging of Melt Production Regions Beneath the Backarc Spreading Center and Volcanic Arc, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Douglas; Pozgay, Sara; Barklage, Mitchell; Pyle, Moira; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2010-05-01

    We image the seismic velocity and attenuation structure of the mantle melt production regions associated with the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center and Mariana Volcanic Arc using data from the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The passive component of this experiment consisted of 20 broadband seismographs deployed on the island chain and 58 ocean-bottom seismographs from June, 2003 until April, 2004. We obtained the 3D P and S wave velocity structure of the Mariana mantle wedge from a tomographic inversion of body wave arrivals from local earthquakes as well as P and S arrival times from large teleseismic earthquakes determined by multi-channel cross correlation. We also determine the 2-D attenuation structure of the mantle wedge using attenuation tomography based on local and regional earthquake spectra, and a broader-scale, lower resolution 3-D shear velocity structure from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities using a two plane wave array analysis approach. We observe low velocity, high attenuation anomalies in the upper mantle beneath both the arc and backarc spreading center. These anomalies are separated by a higher velocity, lower attenuation region at shallow depths (< 80 km), implying distinct magma production regions for the arc and backarc in the uppermost mantle. The largest magnitude anomaly beneath the backarc spreading center is found at shallower depth (25-50 km) compared to the arc (50-100 km), consistent with melting depths estimated from the geochemistry of arc and backarc basalts (K. Kelley, pers. communication). The velocity and attenuation signature of the backarc spreading center is narrower than the corresponding anomaly found beneath the East Pacific Rise by the MELT experiment, perhaps implying a component of focused upwelling beneath the spreading center. The strong velocity and attenuation anomaly beneath the spreading center contrasts strongly with preliminary MT inversion results showing no conductivity anomaly in the

  20. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2009), s. 1301-1312 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismicity and tectonics * volcano seismology * subduction zone processes * volcanic arc processes * magma migration and fragmentation * Pacific Ocean Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2009

  1. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.D.; Cunningham, C.G.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Romberger, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO 2 hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 200 0 C (392 0 F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta 34 S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited

  2. Geologic Map of the Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada: Anatomy of Miocene Cascade Arc Magmatism in the Western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Blakely, R. J.; Box, S.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Rytuba, J. J.; Moring, B. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF) is a >700 km2, long-lived (~9 Ma) but episodic, Miocene eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade magmatic arc. A 1:50,000-scale geologic map based on extensive new mapping, combined with 40Ar/39Ar dates, geochemical data, and detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, defines late Miocene magmatic and hydrothermal evolution of the BHVF and contrasts the subduction-related BHVF with the overlying, post-subduction, bimodal Plio-Pleistocene Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF). Important features of the BHVF include: Eruptions occurred during 3 major eruptive stages: dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~14.7 to 12.9 Ma), mixed silicic trachyandesite, dacite, and rhyolite (~11.3 to 9.6 Ma), and dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite domes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Trachyandesitic stratovolcanoes with extensive debris flow aprons form the outer part of BHVF, whereas silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite domes are more centrally located. Geophysical data suggest that many BHVF volcanoes have shallow plutonic roots that extend to depths ≥1-2 km below the surface, and much of the Bodie Hills may be underlain by low density plutons presumably related to BHVF volcanism. BHVF rocks contain ~50 to 78% SiO2 (though few rocks have Bodie Hills at ~10 Ma, but the composition and eruptive style of volcanism continued unchanged for 2 Ma. However, kinematic data for veins and faults in mining districts suggest a change in the stress field from transtensional to extensional approximately coincident with cessation of subduction. The Bodie Hills are flanked to the east, north, and west by sedimentary basins that began to form in the late Miocene (locally >11 Ma). Fine to coarse sedimentary deposits within the BHVF include stream deposits in channels that cut across the hills and were partly filled by ~9.4 Ma Eureka Valley Tuff erupted 20 km to the northwest. Shallow dips and preservation of

  3. Deep long-period earthquakes west of the volcanic arc in Oregon: evidence of serpentine dehydration in the fore-arc mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, John E.; Schmidt, David A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Moran, Seth C.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Houston, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) newly observed in four places in western Oregon. The DLPs are noteworthy for their location within the subduction fore arc: 40–80 km west of the volcanic arc, well above the slab, and near the Moho. These “offset DLPs” occur near the top of the inferred stagnant mantle wedge, which is likely to be serpentinized and cold. The lack of fore-arc DLPs elsewhere along the arc suggests that localized heating may be dehydrating the serpentinized mantle wedge at these latitudes and causing DLPs by dehydration embrittlement. Higher heat flow in this region could be introduced by anomalously hot mantle, associated with the western migration of volcanism across the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, entrained in the corner flow proximal to the mantle wedge. Alternatively, fluids rising from the subducting slab through the mantle wedge may be the source of offset DLPs. As far as we know, these are among the first DLPs to be observed in the fore arc of a subduction-zone system.

  4. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    CERN Document Server

    Klepper, C C; Yadlowsky, E J; Carlson, E P; Keitz, M D; Williams, J M; Zuhr, R A; Poker, D B

    2002-01-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresp...

  5. Principal geological characteristics of the volcanic-type uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiheng

    2009-01-01

    The volcanic-type uranium deposits in China distribute in two gigantic active belts, that is, circum-Pacific belt and latitudinal structure belt crossing Europe-Asia. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur in continental volcanics,which are mainly composed of acid or alkali volcanics. Based on the study of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratio, REE distribution pattern and melt inclusion thermometry of volcanics, it is found that volcanic magma originated mainly from high-temperature melt of sialsphere and they were propably contaiminated partially by mantle materials. The volcanic eruption was controlled by regional fault and formed eruption belt, the beld can be divided into several sub-belt which was comprised by a serial eruption centres. The volcanic-type uranium deposits occur by the side of down-faulted red basin or associated with basic swarm. This means that the uranium mineralization is related to deep tectonics-magmatism. The paper proposes that the moderate erosion of volcanic belt is an important precondition to find uranium deposits. (authors)

  6. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.

    2018-06-01

    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  7. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purandare, Yashodhan, E-mail: Y.Purandare@shu.ac.uk; Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Santana, Antonio [Ionbond AG Olten, Industriestrasse 211, CH-4600 Olten (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  8. Natural tracers for identifying the origin of the thermal fluids emerging along the Aegean Volcanic arc (Greece): Evidence of Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW) participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsika, E.; Poutoukis, D.; Michelot, J. L.; Raco, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc is the result of a lithosphere subduction process during the Quaternary time. Starting from the Soussaki area, from west to east, the arc proceeds through the islands of Egina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, the Columbus Bank, Kos and Nisyros. Volcano-tectonic activities are still pronounced at Santorini and Nisyros in form of seismic activity, craters of hydrothermal explosions, hot fumaroles and thermal springs. A significant number of cold water springs emerge in the vicinity of hot waters on these islands. Chemical and isotopic analyses were applied on water and fumaroles samples collected in different areas of the volcanic arc in order to attempt the assessment of these fluids. Stable isotopes of water and carbon have been used to evaluate the origin of cold and thermal water and CO 2. Chemical solute concentrations and isotopic contents of waters show that the fluids emerging in Egina, Soussaki, Methana and Kos areas represent geothermal systems in their waning stage, while the fluids from Milos, Santorini and Nisyros proceed from active geothermal systems. The δ 2H-δ 18O-Cl - relationships suggest that the parent hydrothermal liquids of Nisyros and Milos are produced through mixing of seawater and Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW), with negligible to nil contribution of local ground waters and with very high participation of the magmatic component, which is close to 70% in both sites. A very high magmatic contribution to the deep geothermal system could occur at Santorini as well, perhaps with a percentage similar to Nisyros and Milos, but it cannot be calculated because of steam condensation heavily affecting the fumarolic fluids of Nea Kameni before the surface discharge. The parent hydrothermal liquid at Methana originates through mixing of local groundwaters, seawater and ATMW, with a magmatic participation close to 19%. All in all, the contribution of ATMW is higher in the central-eastern part of the Aegean volcanic arc than in the

  9. Growth and mass wasting of volcanic centers in the northern South Sandwich arc, South Atlantic, revealed by new multibeam mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Leat, Philip T.; Tate, Alex J.; Tappin, David R.; Day, Simon J.; Owen, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    New multibeam (swath) bathymetric sonar data acquired using an EM120 system on the RRS James Clark Ross, supplemented by sub-bottom profiling, reveals the underwater morphology of a not, vert, similar 12,000 km2 area in the northern part of the mainly submarine South Sandwich volcanic arc. The new data extend between 55° 45′S and 57° 20′S and include Protector Shoal and the areas around Zavodovski, Visokoi and the Candlemas islands groups. Each of these areas is a discrete volcanic center. T...

  10. Influences of arc current on composition and properties of MgO thin films prepared by cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Daoyun; Zheng Changxi; Wang Mingdong; Liu Yi; Chen Dihu; He Zhenhui; Wen Lishi; Cheung, W.Y.

    2010-01-01

    MgO thin films with high optical transmittances (more than 90%) were prepared by cathodic vacuum arc deposition technique. With the increase of arc current from 40 to 80 A, the deposition pressure decreases and the film thickness increases; the atomic ratio of Mg/O in MgO thin films (obtained by RBS) increases from 0.97 to 1.17, giving that deposited at 50 A most close to the stoichiometric composition of the bulk MgO; the grains of MgO thin films grow gradually as shown in SEM images. XRD patterns show that MgO (1 1 0) orientation is predominant for films prepared at the arc currents ranged from 50 to 70 A. The MgO (1 0 0) orientation is much enhanced and comparable to that of MgO (1 1 0) for films prepared at the arc current of 80 A. The secondary electron emission coefficient of MgO thin film increases with arc current ranged from 50 to 70 A.

  11. Properties of DLC coatings deposited by dc and dc with superimposed pulsed vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleyev, V.; Walkowicz, J.; Aksyonov, D.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings deposited in DC and DC with superimposed high current pulse modes of operation vacuum-arc plasma source with the graphite cathode are presented. Imposition the pulses of high current on DC vacuum-arc discharge allows both increase the deposition rate of DLC coating and reduce the residual compressive stress in the coatings what promotes substantial improvement the adhesion to the substrate. Effect of vacuum arc plasma filtration with Venetian blind filter on the deposition rate and tribological characteristics of the coatings analyzed.

  12. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (meta-andesite. This metamorphism forms cleavage plans thanks to a pressure-solution mechanism. Mineralogical transformations associated with these cleavage planes have an impact on petrophysical properties. The solid phase density and porosity decrease. An anisotropy of permeability develops due to cleavage plans. Thermodynamics modelling based on the rock chemical composition and petrography observations emphasizes a steady-state mineral assemblage between 1.5 - 2 kbar and 280 - 320˚ C. This is consistent with an in situ measured volcanic arc conductive geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  13. Subaerial records of large-scale explosive volcanism and tsunami along an oceanic arc, Tonga, SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.; Smith, I. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new chronology of major terrestrial eruptions and tsunami events for the central Tongan Arc. The active Tonga-Kermadec oceanic arc extends 2500 km northward of New Zealand and hosts many tens of submarine volcanoes with around a dozen forming islands. Despite its obious volcanic setting, the impacts of explosive volcanism and volcano-tectonic related tsunami are an often overlooked in archaeological and paleo-botanical histories, mainly due the lack of good Holocene subaerial exposures. The inhabited small uplifted coral platform islands east of the volcanic arc in Tonga collectively cover only gods flying overhead with baskets of ash, and an analysis of the high-level wind distribution patterns, lake and wetland sites were investigated along the Tongan chain. In most cases former lagoon basins lifted above sea-level by a combination of tectonic rise and the lowering of mean sea levels by around 2 m since the Mid-Holocene form closed lake or swampy depressions. Coring reveaed between 6 and 20 mineral layers at each site, withn humic sediment or peat. Over thirty new radiocarbon dates were collected to develop a chronology for the sequences and the mineral layers were examined mineralogically and geochemically. These sites reveal mainly tephra fall layers of particles.

  14. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron

  15. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  16. Metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guihua

    1998-01-01

    A metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits has been established on the basis of analysis of occurrence features and ore-forming mechanism of some continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits in the world. The model proposes that uranium-enriched granite or granitic basement is the foundation, premetallogenic polycyclic and multistage volcanic eruptions are prerequisites, intense tectonic-extensional environment is the key for the ore formation, and relatively enclosed geologic setting is the reliable protection condition of the deposit. By using the model the author explains the occurrence regularities of some rich and large/super large uranium deposits such as Strelichof uranium deposit in Russia, Dornot uranium deposit in Mongolia, Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-REE deposit in Australia, uranium deposit No.460 and Zhoujiashan uranium deposit in China, and then compares the above deposits with a large poor uranium deposit No.661 as well

  17. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  18. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  19. The Chinese North Tianshan Orogen was a rear-arc (or back-arc) environment in the Late Carboniferous: constraint from the volcanic rocks in the Bogda Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Tianshan Orogen is a key area for understanding the Paleozoic tectonics and long-lasting evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, considerable debate persists as to its tectonic setting during the late Paleozoic, with active subduction system and intraplate large igneous provinces as two dominant schools (Ma et al., 1997; Gu et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2004; Han et al., 2010; Shu et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2011; Xia et al., 2012). With aims of providing constraints on this issue, petrology, mineralogy, geochronological and geochemistry for the Late Carboniferous volcanics from the Bogda Mountains have been carried out. We find two suits of high-Al basalt (HAB, 315-319 Ma) and a suit of submarine pillow basalt ( 311 Ma) in this region. Both of the two basalts belong to the tholeiitic magma (the tholeiitic index THI > 1) and contain low pre-eruptive magmatic H2O (coexisted with the Bogda HABs is I-type intermediate ignimbrites and rhyolite lavas. The rhyolites are formed by partial melting of a hydrated and juvenile arc crust and the ignimbrites are affected by magma mingling and feldspar fractionation (Xie et al., 2016c). The two basalts both have the MORB-like Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes and arc-like trace element compositions. We discuss that they may have been generated from a dry and depleted mantle source metasomatized by coexisted felsic volcanics were likely formed in a rear-arc or back-arc environment, probably related to southward subduction of the Paleo-Tianshan Ocean (Xie et al., 2016a, b, c).

  20. Origin of the ca. 50 Ma Linzizong shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the eastern Gangdese arc, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Lin; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Rui; Dai, Jin-Gen; Zheng, Yuan-Chuan; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the Eocene shoshonitic rocks within the upper part of the extensive Linzizong volcanic succession (i.e., the Pana Formation) in the Gangdese arc, southern Tibet remains unclear, inhibiting the detailed investigations on the crust-mantle interaction and mantle dynamics that operate the generation of the coeval magmatic flare-up in the arc. We report mineral composition, zircon U-Pb age and zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Pana Formation volcanic rocks from Pangduo, eastern Gangdese arc in southern Tibet. The Pana volcanic rocks from Pangduo include basalts, basaltic andesites, and dacites. SIMS and LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Pangduo dacites were erupted at 50 ± 1 Ma, representing the volcanic equivalent of the coeval Gangdese Batholith that define a magmatic flare-up at 51 ± 1 Ma. The Pangduo volcanic rocks are exclusively shoshonitic, differing from typical subduction-related calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The basalts have positive whole-rock ƐNd(t) (+1.7) and ƐHf(t) (+3.8) with high Zr abundances (121-169 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (4.3-5.2), most likely derived from the partial melting of an enriched garnet-bearing lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subduction-related components with input from asthenosphere. Compared to the basalts, similar trace elemental patterns and decreased whole-rock ƐNd(t) (-3.5 to -3.3) and ƐHf(t) (-2.5 to -1.6) of the basaltic andesites can be attributed to the input of the ancient basement-derived material of the central Lhasa subterrane into the basaltic magmas. The coherent whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064-0.7069, ƐNd(t) = -6.0 to -5.2, ƐHf(t) = -5.6 to -5.0) and varying zircon ƐHf(t) (-6.0 to +4.1) of the dacites can be interpreted by the partial melting of a hybrid lower crust source (juvenile and ancient lower crust) with incorporation of basement-derived components. Calculations of zircon-Ti temperature and whole

  1. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  2. Formation and uranium explorating prospect of sub-volcanic granitic complex and rich uranium ore deposit in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng

    1997-01-01

    The rich uranium ore deposits are all closely related to tecto-magmatism of late-magmatic cycle whether volcanic types or granitic types in south China. Volcanic type rich uranium deposit has closely relationship with sub-volcanic activity, and granitic type rich uranium deposit is also closely related to mid-fine, unequal particle small massif in late main invasion stage. Based on characteristics of magmatism, we name the rock sub-volcanic granite complex, which is a unique style and closely related to the formation of rich uranium ore deposit

  3. Hydrothermal alteration, fumarolic deposits and fluids from Lastarria Volcanic Complex: A multidisciplinary study

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Felipe; Layana, Susana; Rodríguez-Díaz, Augusto; González, Cristóbal; Cortés, Julio; Inostroza, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study that includes processing of Landsat ETM+ satellite images, chemistry of gas condensed, mineralogy and chemistry of fumarolic deposits, and fluid inclusion data from native sulphur deposits, has been carried out in the Lastarria Volcanic Complex (LVC) with the objective to determine the distribution and characteristics of hydrothermal alteration zones and to establish the relations between gas chemistry and fumarolic deposits. Satellite image processing shows the pres...

  4. The Origin of Silicic Arc Crust - Insights from the Northern Pacific Volcanic Arcs through Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable compositional similarities of andesitic crust at modern convergent margins and the continental crust has long evoked the hypothesis of similar origins. Key to understanding either genesis is understanding the mode of silica enrichment. Silicic crust cannot be directly extracted from the upper mantle. Hence, in modern arcs, numerous studies - observant of the pervasive and irrefutable evidence of melt mixing - proposed that arc andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basaltic melts and fusible silicic material from the overlying crust. Mass balance requires the amount of silicic crust in such hybrid andesites to be on the order to tens of percent, implying that their composition to be perceptibly influenced by the various crustal basements. In order to test this hypothesis, major and trace element compositions of mafic and silicic arc magmas with arc-typical low Ce/PbMexico) were combined with Pb isotope ratios. Pb isotope ratios are considered highly sensitive to crustal contamination, and hence should reflect the variable composition of the oceanic and continental basement on which these arcs are constructed. In particular, in thick-crust continental arcs where the basement is isotopically different from the mantle and crustal assimilation thought to be most prevalent, silicic magmas must be expected to be distinct from those of the associated mafic melts. However, in a given arc, the Pb isotope ratios are constant with increasing melt silica regardless of the nature of the basement. This observation argues against a melt origin of silicic melts from the crustal basement and suggest them to be controlled by the same slab flux as their co-eval mafic counterparts. This inference is validated by the spatial and temporal pattern of arc Pb isotope ratios along the Northern Pacific margins and throughout the 50 million years of Cenozoic evolution of the Izu Bonin Mariana arc/trench system that are can be related to with systematic, `real

  5. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.

    1983-01-01

    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  6. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  7. Glass inclusions in volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin: constraints on magma genesis and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major elemnt compositions of glass inclusions in plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts of basalt and pumice in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin are determined by electron microprobe. The results indicate that basalt and pumice are cognate and respectively represent the proluots at early stages of mgmtism and at late stage of crystal fractionation. The initial magrma in the trough is rich in H2O. The variation of H2O content in magma may play an important role in the magma evolution. Plagioclase is the mineral crystallized throughout the whole magrmatic process and accumulates in the zoned magma chamber. From these features it can he inferred that the initial magma in the Okinawa Trough, whose opening began in recent years, is serious ly affected by fluid or other materials carried by subducting slab and the geocbemical feature of volcanic rocks is in some degree similar to that of lavas in island-arc environments.

  8. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  9. The properties of nanocomposite aluminium-silicon based thin films deposited by filtered arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendavid, A.; Martin, P.J.; Takikawa, H

    2002-12-02

    Thin films of aluminium silicon oxynitride have been deposited on conducting (100) silicon wafers by filtered arc deposition (FAD) under nitrogen and/or oxygen gas flow. The influence of the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio on the crystal structure, optical and mechanical properties has been investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the film structure comprised of an AlN crystallite with amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub x}. The optical properties over the range of 350-800 nm were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry and found to be strongly dependent on N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio. The refractive index values of the films were measured to be in the range of 2.2-1.64 at a wavelength of 670 nm for oxygen flow range of 0-100%. The hardness of the films was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen content in the film. The hardness range of the films was between 10 and 22 GPa and for the stress between 0.3 and 1.2 GPa.

  10. Metallogenetic regularity exploration model and prospecting potential of the mesocenozoic volcanic type uranium deposit in the east of south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng; Li Wenjun

    1995-01-01

    During the Meso-Cenozoic era, the crust in the east of South China experienced an evolutional process of compression-relaxed extension-local disintegration, correspondingly, three periods of volcanic activity were developed, forming initial volcanic cycle, principal volcanic cycle and caldera volcanic cycle. The caldera volcanic cycle was expressed as a 'bimodal type' rock suite, indicating the entering of the region into an evolutional stage of new embryonic refitting. The volcanic type uranium deposit is characterized by ore-formation during caldera volcanic cycle, ore control by the mobile belt of caldera volcanic cycle and double superposition and concentration, and it can be summarized as a new unconformity-related type uranium deposit of caldera volcanic series, which is divided into three morphological types: body type, layer type and vein type and relevant exploration models are proposed. The new unconformity-related type uranium deposits of the caldera volcanic series in the east of South China have a great prospecting potential. The tectonomagmatic complex area of the caldera volcanic cycle developed on the granite basement is the favourable target area in searching for large uranium deposits from now on

  11. Holocene tephra-fall deposits of southern and austral Andes volcanic zones (33-54oS): eruption recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.A.; Polanco, E.; Lara, L; Moreno, H; Stern, C.R

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric 14 C dating is a very useful tool to study the chronostratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 14 C ages are essential parameters for the estimation of the recurrence time of the explosive volcanic activity. The origin, distribution and relative age of mappable Holocene tephra-fall deposits of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and Austral Andes Volcanic Zone (AVZ) from 33 o S-54 o S, were studied and their recurrence period is analysed (au)

  12. A depositional model for spherulitic carbonates associated with alkaline, volcanic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Brasier, Alexander T.; Rogerson, Mike; Reijmer, John J.G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Pedley, Martyn

    2017-01-01

    The South Atlantic Aptian ‘Pre-salt’ reservoirs are formed by a combination of spherulitic carbonates and Mg-rich clays accumulated in volcanic alkaline lake settings with exotic chemistries. So far, outcrop analogues characterised by metre-thick successions deposited in lacustrine scenarios are

  13. Geochronology of the Thompson Creek Mo Deposit: Evidence for the Formation of Arc-related Mo Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C. D.; Coleman, D. S.; Stein, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Thompson Creek Mo deposit in central ID, has been categorized as an arc-related Mo deposit due to the location, grade of Mo, and relative lack of enrichments in F, Rb, and Nb, compared to the Climax-type Mo deposits. Geochronology from this arc-related deposit provides an opportunity to compare and contrast magmatism, and mineralization to that in Climax-type deposits. Distinct pulses of magmatism were required to form the Thompson Creek Mo deposit, which is consistent with recent geochronology from Climax-type deposits. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology from five veins requires at least three pulses of magmatism and mineralization between 89.39 +/- 0.37 and 88.47 +/- 0.16 Ma. Zircon U-Pb ages from these mineralized samples overlap with molybdenite mineralization, but show a much wider range (91.01 +/- 0.37 to 87.27 +/- 0.69). Previous work from Climax-type Mo deposits suggest a correlation between a super eruption, and the subsequent rapid (<1 Ma) onset, and completion of Mo mineralizing intrusions. The longer life (3-4 Ma) for the Thompson Creek Mo deposit suggests that the mineralizing intrusions for arc-related Mo deposits may not need to have as high [Mo] as the Climax-type deposits. This study also finds a shift in the source of magmatism from the pre- to syn-mineralizing intrusions. Zircons from pre-mineralizing intrusions have much higher (15-60 pg) concentrations of radiogenic Pb than zircons from mineralized intrusions, which all have less than 15 pg, though whole rock [U] are similar.

  14. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  15. S-shaped magnetic macroparticle filter for cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new magnetic macroparticle filter design consisting of two 90 o filters forming an S-shape is described. Transport properties of this S-filter are investigated using Langmuir and deposition probes. It is shown that filter efficiency is product of the efficiencies of two 90 o filters and the deposition rate is still acceptably high to perform thin film deposition. Films of amorphous hard carbon have been deposited using a 90 o filter and the S-filter, and macroparticle content of the films are compared

  16. Hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits from the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, A.; Nishimura, A. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    Modern and fossil hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits were discovered from a number of locations in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas during the Hakurei-Maru cruises from 1984 to 1989. This paper describes the occurrence and characteristics of these manganese deposits and their geological significance. It was found that the mineralogical and chemical composition and microstructure of the deposits are typically different from manganese nodules and crusts of hydrogenetic or diagenetic origin. Hardpans, veinlets, sheets, and irregular mass of the hydrothermal manganese deposits often cover a large area of sea bed, which suggests possible high-temperature hydrothermal sulfide deposits in their vicinity. On the other hand, the manganese minerals sometimes occur as substrate of younger hydrogenetic crusts and as nucleus of hydrogenetic nodules, which can provide a geological history of low-temperature hydrothermal activity on the past island arcs. 45 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2018-03-01

    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  18. Statistical analysis of dispersal and deposition patterns of volcanic emissions from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P.; Takemi, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iguchi, Masato; Jenkins, Susanna F.

    2018-04-01

    With the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) in 2010, interest in the transport of volcanic ash after moderate to major eruptions has increased with regards to both the physical and the emergency hazard management aspects. However, there remain significant gaps in the understanding of the long-term behaviour of emissions from volcanoes with long periods of activity. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan) provides us with a rare opportunity to study such activity, due to its eruptive behaviour and dense observation network. In the 6-year period from 2009 to 2015, the volcano was erupting at an almost constant rate introducing approximately 500 kt of ash per month to the atmosphere. The long-term characteristics of the transport and deposition of ash and SO2 in the area surrounding the volcano are studied here using daily surface observations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and SO2 and monthly ashfall values. Results reveal different dispersal patterns for SO2 and volcanic ash, suggesting volcanic emissions' separation in the long-term. Peak SO2 concentrations at different locations on the volcano vary up to 2 orders of magnitude and decrease steeply with distance. Airborne volcanic ash increases SPM concentrations uniformly across the area surrounding the volcano, with distance from the vent having a secondary effect. During the period studied here, the influence of volcanic emissions was identifiable both in SO2 and SPM concentrations which were, at times, over the recommended exposure limits defined by the Japanese government, European Union and the World Health Organisation. Depositional patterns of volcanic ash exhibit elements of seasonality, consistent with previous studies. Climatological and topographic effects are suspected to impact the deposition of volcanic ash away from the vent: for sampling stations located close to complex topographical elements, sharp changes in the deposition patterns were observed, with ash deposits for neighbouring stations as close as

  19. Structural control on arc volcanism: The Caviahue Copahue complex, Central to Patagonian Andes transition (38°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volcanostratigraphy, structure, and tectonic implications of an arc volcanic complex in an oblique subduction setting: the Caviahue caldera Copahue volcano (CAC) of the Andean margin. The CAC is located in a first-order morphotectonic transitional zone, between the low and narrow Patagonian and the high and broad Central Andes. The evolution of the CAC started at approximately 4-3 Ma with the opening of the 20 × 15 km Caviahue pull-apart caldera; Las Mellizas volcano formed inside the caldera and collapsed at approximately 2.6 Ma; and the Copahue volcano evolved in three stages: (1) 1.2-0.7 Ma formed the approximately 1 km thick andesitic edifice, (2) 0.7-0.01 Ma erupted andesitic-dacitic subglacial pillow lavas, and (3) 0.01-0 Ma erupted basaltic-andesites and pyroclastic flows from fissures, aligned cones, and summit craters. Magma ascent has occurred along planes perpendicular to the least principal horizontal stress, whereas hydrothermal activity and hot springs also occur along parallel planes. At a regional scale, Quaternary volcanism concentrates along the NE-trending, 90 km long Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, the longest of the southern volcanic zone, which is here interpreted as an inherited crustal-scale transfer zone from a Miocene rift basin. At a local scale within the CAC, effusions are controlled by local structures that formed at the intersection of regional fault systems. The Central to Patagonian Andes transition occurs at the Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, which decouples active deformation from the intra-arc strike-slip Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone to the south and the backarc Copahue-Antiñir thrust system.

  20. Volcanic flows versus water- and ice-related outburst deposits in eastern Hellas: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.

    2018-06-01

    Hellas Planitia is one of the major topographic sinks on Mars for the deposition of any kind of sediments. We report on our observations of sheet deposits in the eastern part of the basin that are apparently related to the Dao Vallis outflow channel. The deposits have lobate flow fronts and a thickness of a few decameters. Despite their generally smooth surface, some distinctive textures and patterns can be identified, such as longitudinal lineations, distributive channels, and polygons. We compared these deposits to other sheet deposits on Mars and tested three hypotheses of their origin: volcanic flows as well as water- and ice-related mass wastings. Despite some similarities to volcanic sheet flows on Mars, we found several morphological characteristics that are not known for sheet lava flows; for example conically arranged lineations and channel systems very similar to fluvial incisions. We also reject an ice-related formation similar to terrestrial rock-ice avalanches, as there is no sufficient relief energy to explain their extent and location. A water-related origin appears most consistent with our observations, and we favor an emplacement by fluvially-driven mass wasting processes, e.g., debris flows. Assuming a water-related origin, we calculated the amount of water that would be required to deposit such large sedimentary bodies for different flow types. Our calculations show a large range of possible water volumes, from 64 to 2,042 km³, depending on the specific flow mechanism. The close link to Dao Vallis makes these deposits a unique place to study the deposition of outflow channel sediments, as the deposits of other outflow channels on Mars, such as those around Chryse Planitia, are mostly buried by younger sediments and volcanic flows.

  1. Metallogenic characteristics of volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in Yanshan-Liaoning region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; He Yiqiang; Tao Quan; Xia Yuliang; Cui Huanmin; Zhu Deling

    1996-03-01

    Yanshan-Liaoning area is located in the east part of the northern margin of North-China platform. It is a famous metallogenic region of Mesozoic volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in the country. The metallogenesis is controlled by a united Late Mesozoic continental taphrogenic volcano-magmatic activity. The metallogenic epochs are concentrated in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous periods. The metallogenic media are moderate and moderate-low temperature volcanic hydrothermal solutions originated from the mixing of volcano-magmatic water, metamorphic water and atmospheric water. The ore-forming materials are mainly derived from enrichment type upper mantle and lower crust. (8 refs., 5 figs.)

  2. Insights into the Early to Late Oligocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc Magmatic History from Volcanic Minerals and Glass within Volcaniclastic Sediments of IODP Site U1438 and DSDP Site 296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajpati, E.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a remnant of the early Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, separated by arc rifting and seafloor spreading. We examine and compare volcanic materials from two sites where the transition from IBM arc building to rifting is well sampled: DSDP Site 296 on the northern KPR crest, and recent IODP Site U1438 in the adjacent Amami-Sankaku basin to the west. The purpose of the study is to understand the origin and depositional regime of volcaniclastic sediments during the arc rifting stage. Site 1438 sedimentary Unit II and the upper part of Unit III (300 and 453 mbsf) correlate in time with sedimentary Units 1G and 2 of DSDP Site 296 (160 and 300 mbsf). The upper part of Site U1438 Unit III and Site 296 Unit 2 consist of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. These are overlain by late Oligocene nannofossil chalks with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers at Site 296 Unit 1G, and tuffaceous silt, sand, siltstone and sandstone at Site 1438 Unit II. The chemical composition of volcanic glass shards, pyroxenes with melt inclusions and amphiboles separated from volcaniclastic sediments were analyzed by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Glasses are found at Site 296 only, range from medium-K basalt to rhyolite and have trace element patterns typical of arc volcanics. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are found as detrital grains in sediments from both sites. Mg-numbers range from 58 to 94. Interestingly, the alumina content of pyroxene grain populations from both sites increase and then decrease with decreasing Mg-number. This probably reflects control of Al contents in magma and pyroxene by suppressed plagioclase saturation, which apparently was a consistent feature of KPR volcanoes. Melt-inclusions within the pyroxenes are typically small (30-50 microns) and have similar chemical compositions within one grain. The melt inclusions range from basalt to rhyolite with moderate alkali content. Amphibole is more prevalent in late Oligocene

  3. OES control of a low-pressure DC arc at TiN layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, M.A.; Maksimenko, V.N.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of a low-pressure DC arc study as applied for a deposition of TiN wear-resistant coatings in a commercial plant. Plasma parameters of the arc have been measured by optical emission spectroscopy. The plasma emission spectra have been recorded using a grating spectrometer equipped with an on line computer. Changes in the resulting layers due to a difference in working conditions have been determined by metallography and X-ray analysis giving composition, microstructure and thickness of the resulting layers. Using the data, a correlation between emission spectra of the arc and the TiN layer characteristics has been found. The results allow monitoring parameters of the deposition process to obtain necessary quality of the layer and to increase the process efficiency

  4. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive

  5. A New Sulfur and Carbon Degassing Inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The Importance of Accurate Time-Series Data Sets and Possible Tectonic Processes Responsible for Temporal Variations in Arc-Scale Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, J. M.; Kern, C.; Avard, G.; Muller, C.; Aiuppa, A.; Saballos, A.; Ibarra, M.; LaFemina, P.; Protti, M.; Fischer, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015-2016. We report ˜300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ˜500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972-2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015-2016 than in any period since ˜1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time-series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short-lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short-term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  6. A new sulfur and carbon degassing inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The importance of accurate time-series datasets and possible tectonic processes responsible for temporal variations in arc-scale volatile emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Kern, Christoph; Avard, Geoffroy; Muller, Cyril; Aiuppa, Sandro; Saballos, Armando; Ibarra, Martha; LaFemina, Peter; Protti, Mario; Fischer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015–2016. We report ∼300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ∼500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972–2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015–2016 than in any period since ∼1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time‐series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short‐lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short‐term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  7. The crustal thickness and lithospheric structure of active and inactive volcanic arc terrains in Fiji and Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Wiens, D.; Wei, S. S.; Zha, Y.; Julià, J.; Cai, C.; Chen, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the crustal thickness and lithospheric structure beneath active and inactive volcanic arcs in Fiji and Tonga, we analyzed receiver functions from teleseismic P waves as well as Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient noise. The data were recorded by stations from three previous temporary seismic arrays deployed on the islands during 1993-1995, 2001-2002, and 2009-2010. Receiver functions were calculated with an iterative deconvolution in the time domain. We used an H-k stacking method to get preliminary Moho depth estimates under the island arcs, after assuming constant seismic average crustal P velocity. We also determined the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station from a 1-D combined inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves from ambient noise cross correlation at 8s - 20s and teleseismic surface waves at 20s-90s. The joint inversion models reveal that the Moho beneath the main islands of the Fiji plateau is 26-31 km deep, whereas the crust under the outer islands - including the Lau Ridge - is generally thinner, with Moho depths of 21-23.5 km. The thinnest crust (16 km) is found beneath Moala Island located between the Fiji Platform and the Lau Ridge. Crustal thickness beneath several Tonga islands is about 18-20 km. A relatively high velocity lithosphere (Vs of 4.4 - 4.5 km/s) extends to only about 60 km depth beneath the outer Fiji Islands and Lau Ridge, but to depths of 90 km underneath the main islands of the Fiji Plateau. The much thicker crust and lithosphere of the Fiji plateau relative to the Lau Ridge and Tonga Arc reflects its much longer geological history of arc crust building, going back to the early Miocene.

  8. Ultra-small platinum and gold nanoparticles by arc plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Young Eun; Ha, Heonphil; Byun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-small (<2 nm) and bigger platinum and gold nanoparticles were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD). • Size and coverage of deposited nanoparticles were easily controlled with APD parameters. • Crystalline structures of deposited nanoparticles emerged only when the particle size was bigger than ∼2 nm. - Abstract: Ultra-small (<2 nm) nanoparticles of platinum and gold were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD) in a systematic way and the deposition behavior was studied. Nanoparticles were deposited on two dimensional amorphous carbon and amorphous titania thin films and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Deposition behavior of nanoparticles by APD was studied with discharge voltage (V), discharge condenser capacitance (C), and the number of plasma pulse shots (n) as controllable parameters. The average size of intrinsic nanoparticles generated by APD process was as small as 0.9 nm and deposited nanoparticles began to have crystal structures from the particle size of about 2 nm. V was the most sensitive parameter to control the size and coverage of generated nanoparticles compared to C and n. Size of APD deposited nanoparticles was also influenced by the nature of evaporating materials and substrates

  9. Review on geological character and exploration methods of Daqiaowu volcanic-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiangwei

    2009-01-01

    Through a new round of exploration work from 2006 to 2008 on exploration practice and studies, it is suggested that ore host rock in Daqiaowu volcanic rock-type uranium deposit is volcanic breccias which can be classified into two types, one is cryptoexplosion breccias of vent facies,the other is lens-like breccias of crater facies controlled by interlayer structure. Main ore-controlling structure is NW-trending faults, uranium ore bodies in all the mineralized belts of the deposit are mainly NW-trending. The layout of exploration projects in reconnaissance stage should be with flexible principles, so that project arrangement can be adjusted timely with the deepening and changes of geological understanding. (authors)

  10. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  11. Metal-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by filter-arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, K.-W.; Chen, Y.-C.; Lin, T.-N.; Wang, D.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are extensively utilized in the semiconductor, electric and cutting machine industries owing to their high hardness, high elastic modulus, low friction coefficients and high chemical stability. DLC films are prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition (BAD), sputter deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), cathodic arc evaporation (CAE), and filter arc deposition (FAD). The major drawbacks of these methods are the degraded hardness associated with the low sp 3 /sp 2 bonding ratio, the rough surface and poor adhesion caused by the presence of particles. In this study, a self-developed filter arc deposition (FAD) system was employed to prepare metal-containing DLC films with a low particle density. The relationships between the DLC film properties, such as film structure, surface morphology and mechanical behavior, with variation of substrate bias and target current, are examined. Experimental results demonstrate that FAD-DLC films have a lower ratio, suggesting that FAD-DLC films have a greater sp 3 bonding than the CAE-DLC films. FAD-DLC films also exhibit a low friction coefficient of 0.14 and half of the number of surface particles as in the CAE-DLC films. Introducing a CrN interfacial layer between the substrate and the DLC films enables the magnetic field strength of the filter to be controlled to improve the adhesion and effectively eliminate the contaminating particles. Accordingly, the FAD system improves the tribological properties of the DLC films

  12. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which

  13. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  14. Controls on magma permeability in the volcanic conduit during the climactic phase of the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption (Aegean Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Burgisser, A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) was applied to pumices from the largest Quaternary explosive eruption of the active South Aegean Arc (the Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT) in order to better understand magma permeability within volcanic conduits. Two different types of pumices (one with highly elongated bubbles, tube pumice; and the other with near spherical bubbles, frothy pumice) produced synchronously and with identical chemical composition were selected for µCT imaging to obtain porosity, tortuosity, bubble size and throat size distributions. Tortuosity drops on average from 2.2 in frothy pumice to 1.5 in tube pumice. Bubble size and throat size distributions provide estimates for mean bubble size (~93-98 μm) and mean throat size (~23-29 μm). Using a modified Kozeny-Carman equation, variations in porosity, tortuosity, and throat size observed in KPT pumices explain the spread found in laboratory measurements of the Darcian permeability. Measured difference in inertial permeability between tube and frothy pumices can also be partly explained by the same variables but require an additional parameter related to the internal roughness of the porous medium (friction factor f 0 ). Constitutive equations for both types of permeability allow the quantification of laminar and turbulent gas escape during ascent of rhyolitic magma in volcanic conduits.

  15. Copper-Silver Alloy Depositions Using Thermionic Vacuum ARC (TVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akan, T.

    2004-01-01

    TVA is a plasma source generating pure metal vapor plasma and consists of a heated cathode emitting thermo electrons and an anode containing material to be evaporated. We used Cu and Ag pieces as anode materials and produced their alloys by electron bombarding. Cu-Ag alloys in various mass ratios were prepared by using the TVA and the TVA discharges were generated in the vapors of these alloys. The volt-ampere characteristics of the TVA discharges generated in the vapors of these alloys were investigated with respect to the ratio of Ag in the Cu-Ag alloy. Cu-Ag alloy thin films with various mass ratios were deposited onto the glass substrates by using their TVA discharges. The ratios of Cu and Ag in the thin Cu-Ag alloy films were found using scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive xray (SEM-EDX) microanalyses

  16. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  17. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of tin coatings deposited on tool steels using arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, P.; Abbas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapour deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MD's) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters, surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MD's produced during the etching stage, protruded through the thin film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 macro m showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance. (author)

  18. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanta Goswami

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes ... relatively fast accumulation and great variety that .... The areas where fall deposits are better preserved ...... nental margin tectonism; Precamb. Res. ... arcs: An example from the Izu–Bonin Arc; J. Petrol. 43.

  19. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  20. FALL3D: A computational model for transport and deposition of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2009-06-01

    FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic ashes and lapilli. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equation on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order finite differences (FD) explicit scheme. Different parameterizations for the eddy diffusivity tensor and for the particle terminal settling velocities can be used. The code, written in FORTRAN 90, is available in both serial and parallel versions for Windows and Unix/Linux/Mac X operating systems (OS). A series of pre- and post-process utility programs and OS-dependent scripts to launch them are also included in the FALL3D distribution package. Although the model has been designed to forecast volcanic ash concentration in the atmosphere and ash loading at ground, it can also be used to model the transport of any kind of airborne solid particles. The model inputs are meteorological data, topography, grain-size distribution, shape and density of particles, and mass rate of particle injected into the atmosphere. Optionally, FALL3D can be coupled with the output of the meteorological processor CALMET, a diagnostic model which generates 3-D time-dependent zero-divergence wind fields from mesoscale forecasts incorporating local terrain effects. The FALL3D model can be a tool for short-term ash deposition forecasting and for volcanic fallout hazard assessment. As an example, an application to the 22 July 1998 Etna eruption is also presented.

  1. Initial discussion on ore-forming conditions and prospecting direction of volcanic type uranium deposits in the gangdise tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baoguang; Wang Sili; Wang Qin; Sun Yue; Du Xiaolin; Chen Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    The most active volcanic activity in the Gangdise tectonic belt happened in early Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene, and Eocene is the most active period. The distribution of volcanic rock is controlled by latitudinal deep fault and deuteric longitudinal fault. Paleo-volcano was located at these structural compounds frequently. The volcanics which appeared near the merdional large scale pull-apart construction in Neogene is considered as land facies medium-acidic volcanics which brought by various kinds of volcanic basin. A large stream sediment anomaly (>6.8 x 10 -6 ) has been found at Cenozoic volcanics in south of CuoQin basin, and its areas amount to hundreds square kilometers. The uranium content of volcanics in Wuyu basin amounts to 20.0 x 10 -6 at most. It has favorable Ore-forming conditions for forming volcanic type uranium deposit due to the volcanic geologic environment, accompanying mineral, region feature of geochemistry and geophysical, volcanic-tectonic depression and so on. The major prospecting targets are the south of CuoQin basin and the Nanmulin district. (authors)

  2. Characterization of volcanic deposits and geoarchaeological studies from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20066aThe eruption of Tambora volcano on the island of Sumbawa in 1815 is generally considered as the largest and the most violent volcanic event in recorded history. The cataclysmic eruption occurred on 11 April 1815 was initiated by Plinian eruption type on 5 April and killed more than 90,000 people on Sumbawa and nearby Lombok. The type plinian eruptions occurred twice and ejected gray pumice and ash, to form stratified deposits as thick as 40-150 cm on the slopes and mostly distributed over the district west of the volcano. Following this, at about 7 pm, on 11 April the first pyroclastic surge was generated and progressively became greater extending to almost whole direction, mainly to the north, west, and south districts from the eruption center. The deadliest volcanic eruption buried ancient villages by pyroclastic surge and flow deposits in almost intact state, thus preserving important archaeological evidence for the period. High preservation in relatively stable conditions and known date of the eruptions provide approximate dating for the archaeological remains. Archaeological excavations on the site uncovered a variety of remains were relieved by ground penetrating radar (GPR to map structural remains of the ancient villages under the pyroclastic surge and flow deposits. These traverses showed that GPR could define structures as deep as 10 m (velocity 0.090 m/ns and could accurately map the thickness of the stratified volcanic deposits in the Tambora village area.    

  3. Exploring Links Between Global Climate and Explosive Arc Volcanism in Tephra-Rich Quaternary Sediments: A Pilot Study from IODP Expedition 350 Site 1437B, Izu Bonin Rear-Arc Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry-Saavedra, K.; Straub, S. M.; Bolge, L.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Fallout tephra in marine sediment provide an excellent archive of explosive arc volcanism that can be directly related to the other parameters of climate change, such as ice volume data, IRD (ice-rafted debris) input, etc. Current studies are based on 'discrete' tephra beds, which are produced by major eruptions and visible with the naked eye. Yet the more common, but less explosive arc eruptions that are more continuous through time produce 'disperse' tephra, which is concealed by the non-volcanic host sediment and invisible to the eye. The proportion of disperse tephra in marine sediments is known to be significant and may be critical in elucidating potential synchronicity between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. We conducted a pilot study in young sediments of IODP Hole 1437B drilled at 31°47.3911'N and 139°01.5788'E at the rear-arc of the Izu Bonin volcanic arc. By means of δ18O (Vautravers, in revision), eleven climatic cycles are recorded in uppermost 120 meter of carbonate mud that is interspersed by cm-thick tephra fallout layers. We selected six tephra layers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.16 million years in age, and sampled those vertically, starting from carbonate mud below the basal contact throughout the typical gradational top into the carbonate mud above. From each tephra bed, volcanic particles (>125 micrometer) were handpicked. All other samples were powdered and leached in buffered acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to remove the carbonate and authigenous fraction, respectively. Major and trace element abundances (except for SiO2) from all samples were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods. Strong binary mixing trends are revealed between the pure tephra end member, and detrital sediment component. The tephra is derived from the Izu Bonin volcanic front and rear-arc, while the sediment component is presumably transported by ocean surface currents from the East China Sea. Our data show that mixing proportions change systematically with

  4. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  5. Reconnaissance map showing thickness of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the thickness and distribution of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii, as a step toward evaluating their susceptibility to failure during earthquake shaking. On several occasions their instability has resulted in serious damage. For example, the 1868 earthquake (m=7+), following a prolonged rainy period, caused a debris flow of hillside ash deposits that killed 31 people in Wood Valley (Bringham, 1869). The 1973 Honomu earthquake (m=6.2) resulted in more damage from shaking to areas underlain by ash deposits in the older part of Hilo than in other areas, and soil slips in ash, as well as rockfalls, were common along the roads north of town (Nielsen and others, 1977). 

  6. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  7. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the stopping and range of ions in matter code. We find film contamination of the order of 10 -4 -10 -3 , and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long lasting

  8. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-08-13

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  9. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the lassen volcanic center, California: Resolving crustal and mantle contributions to continental Arc magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.; Winer, G.S.; Grice, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports oxygen isotope ratios determined by laser fluorination of mineral separates (mainly plagioclase) from basaltic andesitic to rhyolitic composition volcanic rocks erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), northern California. Plagioclase separates from nearly all rocks have ??18O values (6.1-8.4%) higher than expected for production of the magmas by partial melting of little evolved basaltic lavas erupted in the arc front and back-arc regions of the southernmost Cascades during the late Cenozoic. Most LVC magmas must therefore contain high 18O crustal material. In this regard, the ??18O values of the volcanic rocks show strong spatial patterns, particularly for young rhyodacitic rocks that best represent unmodified partial melts of the continental crust. Rhyodacitic magmas erupted from vents located within 3.5 km of the inferred center of the LVC have consistently lower ??18 O values (average 6.3% ?? 0.1%) at given SiO2 contents relative to rocks erupted from distal vents (>7.0 km; average 7.1% ?? 0.1%). Further, magmas erupted from vents situated at transitional distances have intermediate values and span a larger range (average 6.8% ?? 0.2%). Basaltic andesitic to andesitic composition rocks show similar spatial variations, although as a group the ??18O values of these rocks are more variable and extend to higher values than the rhyodacitic rocks. These features are interpreted to reflect assimilation of heterogeneous lower continental crust by mafic magmas, followed by mixing or mingling with silicic magmas formed by partial melting of initially high 18O continental crust (??? 9.0%) increasingly hybridized by lower ??18O (???6.0%) mantle-derived basaltic magmas toward the center of the system. Mixing calculations using estimated endmember source ??18O values imply that LVC magmas contain on a molar oxygen basis approximately 42 to 4% isotopically heavy continental crust, with proportions declining in a broadly regular fashion toward the

  10. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  11. Across and along arc geochemical variations in altered volcanic rocks: Evidence from mineral chemistry of Jurassic lavas in northern Chile, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, Pablo; Oliveros, Verónica; Ducea, Mihai N.; Hernandez, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Postmagmatic processes mask the original whole-rock chemistry of most Mesozoic igneous rocks from the Andean arc and back-arc units preserved in Chile. Mineral assemblages corresponding to subgreenschist metamorphic facies and/or propylitic hydrothermal alteration are ubiquitous in volcanic and plutonic rocks, suggesting element mobility at macroscopic and microscopic scale. However, fresh primary phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and plagioclase do occur in some of the altered rocks. We use major and trace element chemistry of such mineral phases to infer the geochemical variations of four Jurassic arc and four back-arc units from northern Chile. Clinopyroxene belonging to rocks of the main arc and two units of the bark-arc are augites with low contents of HFSE and REE; they originated from melting of an asthenospheric mantle source. Clinopyroxenes from a third back-arc unit show typical OIB affinities, with high Ti and trace element contents and low Si. Trace elemental variations in clinopyroxenes from these arc and back-arc units suggest that olivine and clinopyroxene were the main fractionating phases during early stages of magma evolution. The last back-arc unit shows a broad spectrum of clinopyroxene compositions that includes depleted arc-like augite, high Al and high Sr-Ca diopside (adakite-like signature). The origin of these lavas is the result of melting of a mixture of depleted mantle plus Sr-rich sediments and subsequent high pressure fractionation of garnet. Thermobarometric calculations suggest that the Jurassic arc and back-arc magmatism had at least one crustal stagnation level where crystallization and fractionation took place, located at ca. ~ 8-15 km. The depth of this stagnation level is consistent with lower-middle crust boundary in extensional settings. Crystallization conditions calculated for high Al diopsides suggest a deeper stagnation level that is not consistent with a thinned back-arc continental crust. Thus minor garnet fractionation

  12. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrology of neogene rocks in the Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon: a record of continental-margin volcanism and its influence on fluvial sedimentation in an arc-adjacent basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Neogene rocks of the Deschutes basin include the middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and Simtustus Formation, and late Miocene to early Pliocene Deschutes Formation. Assignment of Prineville chemical-type flows to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group is based on correlation of these lavas from their type area through the Deschutes basin and onto the Columbia Plateau, where they have been previously mapped as Grande Ronde Basalt. Simtustus Formation is a newly defined unit intercalated with and conformable upon these basalts, and is unconformably overlain by Deschutes Formation. Burial of mature topography by middle Miocene basalts raised local base levels and initiated aggradation by low-gradient streams within the basin represented by the tuffaceous sandstones and mudstones of the Simtustus Formation. These sediments are enriched in pyroclastic constituents relative to contemporaneous Western Cascades volcanics, reflecting preferential incorporation of easily eroded and more widespread pyroclastic debris in distal sedimentary sequences compared to epiclastic contributions from lavas. The abundance of basalts, combined with the paucity of hydrous minerals and FeO and TiO 2 enrichment in intermediate lavas, characterizes early High Cascade volcanics as atypical for convergent-margin arcs. These petrologic characteristics are consistent with high-level fractionation in an extensional regime. Extension culminated in the development of an intra-arc graben, which ended Deschutes Formation deposition by structurally isolating the basin from the High Cascade source area

  13. Effect of deposition strategy on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 superalloy fabricated by pulsed plasma arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, F.J.; Lv, Y.H.; Xu, B.S.; Liu, Y.X.; Shu, F.Y.; He, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PPAD Inconel 625 sample deposited with ICS strategy exhibits improved surface quality. ► ICS sample exhibits finer microstructure and improved mechanical properties. ► Higher level γ′ and γ″ phases are precipitated in the ICS sample. ► STA heat treatment reduced the concentration of Nb element. ► STA heat treatment improved the mechanical properties of PPAD Inconel 625. -- Abstract: Pulsed plasma arc deposition (PPAD), which combines pulsed plasma cladding with rapid prototyping, is a promising technology for manufacturing near net shape components due to its superiority in cost and convenience of processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of interpass cooling strategy (ICS) and continuous deposition strategy (CDS) on microstructure and mechanical properties of the PPAD Inconel 625 non-ferrous alloy. The as-deposited samples in the two conditions were subjected to the post heat treatment: 980 °C solution treatment + direct aging (STA). The microstructures and mechanical properties of the samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-hardness and tensile testers. It was found that the as-deposited microstructure exhibited homogenous cellular dendrite structure, which grew epitaxially along the deposition direction. The as-deposited microstructure of ICS sample revealed smaller dendritic arm spacing, less niobium segregation and discontinuous finer Laves phase in the interdendritic regions compared to the case of continuous deposition strategy (CDS). The ICS sample exhibited better mechanical properties than CDS sample. After STA heat treatment, a large amount of Laves particles in the interdendritic regions were dissolved, resulting in the reduction of Nb segregation and the precipitation of needle-like δ (Ni 3 Nb). The tensile and yield strength of the as-deposited samples were

  14. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from <1 to 3-7 x PM at Site U1440) suggesting a progressive contamination of their source by fluids. This process in turn may have favored melting and efficient melt extraction from the source and thus its extreme depletion. Boninites are depleted in moderately incompatible elements with a decrease in their contents up-section (e.g. Yb = ~6.2 to 2.8 x C1-chondrite at Site U1439). These changes in trace element contents are associated with the development of a positive Zr-Hf anomaly relative to neighboring elements and a strong increase in LILE (e.g., Zr/Sm=~1 to 2.6 x PM and Rb/La=1-2 to 10-18). The progressive upward depletion of boninitic lavas could reveal the incorporation of harzburgitic residues from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  15. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  16. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  17. The metallogenic model of volcanic-hosted large deposit rich in U in the Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhidong

    2001-01-01

    During the evolution of ridge-basin tectonic system occurred in Northeast Asia area, the U-rich fluid was formed with intense tectonic-magmatic activities and the fixed fluid of crust-mantle upwelling, shallow structural coupling and deep or shallow derived heat fluid has been established. Using the geologic theory of deep-shallow structure, the U-deposits in this area have been divided into collapsed-basin type, divergent belt type, fissure type and sub-volcanics type, the favorable region for uranium also has been predicted

  18. FALL3D: A Computational Model for Trans-port and Deposition of Volcanic Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2008-01-01

    FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of 8 volcanic ash. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equa- 9 tion on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order Finite Differences 10 (FD) explicit scheme. Different parameterizations for the eddy diffusivity tensor 11 and for the particle terminal settling velocities can be used. The code, written 12 in FORTRAN 90, is available in both serial and parallel ver...

  19. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  20. Geological interpretation of volcanism and segmentation of the Mariana back-arc spreading center between 12.7°N and 18.3°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa O.; Chadwick, William W.; Hannington, Mark D.; Merle, Susan G.; Resing, Joseph A.; Baker, Edward T.; Butterfield, David A.; Walker, Sharon L.; Augustin, Nico

    2017-06-01

    The relationships between tectonic processes, magmatism, and hydrothermal venting along ˜600 km of the slow-spreading Mariana back-arc between 12.7°N and 18.3°N reveal a number of similarities and differences compared to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Analysis of the volcanic geomorphology and structure highlights the complexity of the back-arc spreading center. Here, ridge segmentation is controlled by large-scale basement structures that appear to predate back-arc rifting. These structures also control the orientation of the chains of cross-arc volcanoes that characterize this region. Segment-scale faulting is oriented perpendicular to the spreading direction, allowing precise spreading directions to be determined. Four morphologically distinct segment types are identified: dominantly magmatic segments (Type I); magmatic segments currently undergoing tectonic extension (Type II); dominantly tectonic segments (Type III); and tectonic segments currently undergoing magmatic extension (Type IV). Variations in axial morphology (including eruption styles, neovolcanic eruption volumes, and faulting) reflect magma supply, which is locally enhanced by cross-arc volcanism associated with N-S compression along the 16.5°N and 17.0°N segments. In contrast, cross-arc seismicity is associated with N-S extension and increased faulting along the 14.5°N segment, with structures that are interpreted to be oceanic core complexes—the first with high-resolution bathymetry described in an active back-arc basin. Hydrothermal venting associated with recent magmatism has been discovered along all segment types.

  1. The effect of deformation after backarc spreading between the rear arc and current volcanic front in Shikoku Basin obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Tamura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed crustal structure information of a back-arc basin must be obtained to elucidate the mechanism of its opening. Especially, the Shikoku Basin, which occupies the northern part of the Philippine Sea Plate between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc, is an important area to understand the evolution of the back-arc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. Especially, the crustal structure oft the east side of Shikoku Basin is complicated by colliding to the Izu Peninsula Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has been carried out many multi-channel seismic reflection surveys since 2004 in Izu-Bonin region. Kodaira et al. (2008) reported the results of a refraction seismic survey along a north-south profile within paleoarc in the rear arc (i.e., the Nishi-shichito ridge) about 150 km west of current volcanic front. According to their results, the variation relationship of crustal thickness between the rear arc and volcanic front is suggested the evidence of rifting from current volcanic arc. There is the en-echelon arrangement is located in the eastern side of Shikoku Basin from current arc to rear arc, and it is known to activate after ceased spreading at 15 Ma (Okino et al., 1994) of Shikoku Basin by geologic sampling of Ishizuka et al. (2003). Our MCS results are also recognized the recent lateral fault zone is located in east side of Shikoku Basin. We carried out high density grid multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using tuned airgun in order to obtain the relationship between the lateral faults and en-echelon arrangement in KR08-04 cruise. We identified the deformation of sediments in Shikoku Basin after activity of Kanbun seamount at 8 Ma in MCS profile. It is estimated to activate a part of the eastern side of Shikoku Basin after construction of en-echelon arrangement and termination of Shikoku Basin spreading. Based on analyses of magnetic and gravity anomalies, Yamazaki and Yuasa (1998

  2. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-12-01

    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl-van der Hilst-Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations-episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci-led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be situated at a

  3. Native gold and gold-rich sulfide deposits in a submarine basaltic caldera, Higashi-Aogashima hydrothermal field, Izu-Ogasawara frontal arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Kokichi; Asada, Akira; Mizuno, Katsunori; Katase, Fuyuki; Lee, Sangkyun; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro

    2018-04-01

    Sulfide deposits with extremely high Au concentrations (up to 275 ppm; avg. 102 ppm, n = 15), high Au/Ag ratios (0.24, n = 15), and low Cu/(Cu + Zn) ratios (0.03, n = 15) were discovered in 2015 in active hydrothermal fields at a water depth of 760 m in a basalt-dominated submarine caldera in the Izu-Ogasawara frontal arc, Japan. Native gold grains occur in massive sulfide fragments, concretions, and metalliferous sediments from a sulfide mound (40 m across and 20 m high) with up to 30-m-high black smoker chimneys. Tiny native gold grains up to 14 μm in diameter are mainly present in sulfide fallouts from chimney orifices and plumes. Larger native gold grains up to 150 μm long occur mostly as discrete particles and/or with amorphous silica and sulfides. The larger gold grains are interpreted to represent direct precipitation from Au-bearing hydrothermal fluids circulating in and/or beneath the unconsolidated sulfide mound deposits. Sulfur isotope compositions from a limited number of sulfide separates (n = 4) range from 4.3 to 5.8‰ δ34S, similar to the quaternary volcanic rocks of the arc. Barite separates have values of 22.2 and 23.1‰, close to modern seawater values, and indicate probable seawater sulfate origin. The Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in bulk samples of sulfide-rich rocks are similar to those of volcanogenic massive sulfides formed in continental crustal environments. The gold is interpreted to have formed by low-temperature hydrothermal activity, perhaps genetically different from systems with documented magmatic contributions or from seafloor hydrothermal systems in other island arc settings. Its presence suggests that basalt-dominated submarine calderas situated on relatively thick continental crust in an intraoceanic arc setting such as the Higashi-Aogashima knoll caldera may be perspective for gold mineralization.

  4. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  5. Bacterial Community Sstructure and Novel Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Sediments from a Seamount in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAN, H.; LIU, J.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, T.; Wu, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Seamounts are unique ecosystems where undersea mountains rise abruptly from the sea floor and interact dynamically with underwater currents, creating peculiar biological habitats with various microbial community structures. Certain bacteria associated with seamounts form conspicuous extracellular iron oxide structures, including encrusted stalks, flattened bifurcating tubes, and filamentous sheaths. To extend knowledge of seamount microorganisms we performed a systematic analysis of the population composition and occurrence of live magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in sediments of a seamount in the Mariana volcanic arc. Proteobacteria dominated at 13 stations, and were the second in abundance to members of the Firmicutes at a deep station on a steep slope facing the Yap-Mariana trench. We found MTB that synthesize intracellular iron-oxide nanocrystals in biogenic sediments at all 14 stations, at seawater depths ranging from 238 to 2023 m. A novel flagellar apparatus, and the most complex yet reported, was observed in magnetotactic cocci; it comprises one or two bundles of 19 flagella arranged in a 3:4:5:4:3 array. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 16 novel species of MTB specific to this seamount. The geographic properties at the various stations on the seamount appear to be important in shaping the microbial community structure.

  6. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Late Devonian arc volcanic rocks in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Qian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Li, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma) volcanic rocks provide important information about the nature of magmatism during the tectonic transition between the Early and Late Paleozoic in the Beishan orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. They are predominantly an andesitic-dacitic-rhyolitic assemblage, characterized by alkali contents ranging from slightly calcic to slightly alkaline. The rhyolitic rocks are generally ferroan, whereas the andesitic rocks are magnesian. These volcanic rocks exhibit similar trace element characteristics to those of continental arcs. Strongly negative εNd(t) values (- 2.8 to - 3.6) and high Sr isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7108) suggest that they are mainly derived from an ancient crust. However, the positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 1.4 to + 16.4) support the role of juvenile components in their genesis, indicating the significant input of new mantle-derived magmas. These characteristics imply a hybrid derivation, from an ancient crustal source with the addition of juvenile materials during magma genesis, or perhaps heterogeneous contamination or hybridization during magma emplacement. Combined with the regional geology, our results indicate that the Late Devonian magmatism resulted from a southward retreat of the subduction zone, which records significant continental crustal growth in a transitional arc or an accretionary arc setting. The distinct geochemical compositions, especially the Nd-Hf isotope decoupling of the Dundunshan volcanic rocks, imply a significant change in the geodynamic setting in the Late Paleozoic.

  7. Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers synthesized by CVD on nickel coatings deposited with a vacuum arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, M. [LP and MC, Dep. de Fisica-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); DQIAQF-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giuliani, L. [INFIP, CONICET, Dep. de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Univ. Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Candal, R.J. [INQUIMAE-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.2, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lamas, D.G. [CINSO, CITEFA, CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (1603) V.Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Caso, A. [LP and MC, Dep. de Fisica-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LP and MC, Dep. de Fisica-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); UAM-CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grondona, D. [INFIP, CONICET, Dep. de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Univ. Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LP and MC, Dep. de Fisica-FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Universitaria Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marquez, A., E-mail: amarquez@df.uba.a [INFIP, CONICET, Dep. de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Cdad. Univ. Pab.1, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-16

    Nanotubes and nanofibers were grown on Ni coatings deposited by plasma generated with a pulsed vacuum arc on silicon wafers using three different bias conditions: at floating potential (approximately +30 V respect to the grounded cathode); at ground potential; and at -60 V. An atomic force microscopy study showed that the Ni film morphology was affected by the bias condition of the substrate. The morphology of carbonaceous species depended on Ni-films characteristics. FE-SEM and TEM analyses have shown that nanofibers growth was favoured on Ni coatings deposited at -60 V whereas nanotubes grew mainly on Ni coatings obtained at floating and ground potentials. Hence, this new method to produce the precursor can be optimized to obtain nanotubes or nanofibers varying the substrate bias for the Ni deposition.

  8. Theory for Deducing Volcanic Activity From Size Distributions in Plinian Pyroclastic Fall Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yu; Toramaru, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    Stratigraphic variation in the grain size distribution (GSD) of plinian pyroclastic fall deposits reflects volcanic activity. To extract information on volcanic activity from the analyses of deposits, we propose a one-dimensional theory that provides a formula connecting the sediment GSD to the source GSD. As the simplest case, we develop a constant-source model (CS model), in which the source GSD and the source height are constant during the duration of release of particles. We assume power laws of particle radii for the terminal fall velocity and the source GSD. The CS model can describe an overall (i.e., entire vertically variable) feature of the GSD structure of the sediment. It is shown that the GSD structure is characterized by three parameters, that is, the duration of supply of particles to the source scaled by the fall time of the largest particle, ts/tM, and the power indices of the terminal fall velocity p and of the source GSD q. We apply the CS model to samples of the Worzel D ash layer and compare the sediment GSD structure calculated by using the CS model to the observed structure. The results show that the CS model reproduces the overall structure of the observed GSD. We estimate the duration of the eruption and the q value of the source GSD. Furthermore, a careful comparison of the observed and calculated GSDs reveals new interpretation of the original sediment GSD structure of the Worzel D ash layer.

  9. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.

    2003-04-01

    Magmatic dykes are essential components of volcanic arcs, following joint systems and fracture zones. This work aims to reconstruct the deformational and intrusive history of the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula by combining structural information with the geochemistry, isotopy and age of the dykes. On the South Shetland Islands volcanic activity began about 130 Ma ago. From Mid to Late Eocene (49-34 Ma) the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America underwent extensional tectonics, which led to sea-floor spreading in the Drake Passage 28 Ma ago. Subsequent slab-rollback caused arc-extension and the opening of the Bransfield Rift as a backarc-basin between 4 and 1.3 Ma ago. Very slow subduction (1mm/a) at the South Shetland trench continues until the present day. Several changes of subduction direction caused crucial variations regarding the tectonic regime in the overlying South Shetland block, being the reason for the shifting strike of the dykes. Several dyke systems were mapped in areas of up to 100000m2, with the outcrop situation being good enough to observe plenty of relative age relationships. ICP-MS geochemical analysis on 132 dykes shows, as expected, that the majority of them correspond to a typical subduction-related calcalcalic suite, ranging from basalts to rhyolites. Nevertheless, some dykes show shoshonitic characteristics and are maybe related to an early stage extensional crustal regime. This is supported by the relative ages observed in the field, indicating, that these dykes belong to the oldest ones outcropping in the investigated area. In one case, the geochemical behaviour of the dyke corresponds clearly to adacitic conditions, being a hint on partially molten subducted oceanic crust. In several areas (e.g. Potter Peninsula, King George Island, and Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island) a strong correlation between chemism and strike of the dykes - and therefore the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion - is observed. Ce

  10. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean–François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey. PMID:26745626

  11. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  12. Behaviour of gas conditions during vacuum arc discharges used for deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzyzewski, J.; Langner, J.; Sadowski, M.; Witkowski, J.; Mirowski, R.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Russo, R.; Tazzari, S.

    2005-01-01

    The vacuum arc, which is one of the oldest techniques used for the deposition of thin films, is now widely used for the Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (PIII and D) in laboratory and industry. Despite of high progress in this field observed during last three decades, involving e.g. magnetic filters for the elimination of micro-droplets, some problems have not been resolved so far. The paper concerns an important problem which is connected with the inclusion of some impurities in the deposited metal film. It was found that appearance of contaminants in the film is induced mainly by water vapour remnants inside the vacuum chamber. The high adsorption of such contaminants by the deposited thin films is observed particularly in so-called getter materials, as niobium and titanium. Such materials can absorb impurities from the surrounding and dissolve them inside the layer. In order to eliminate this problem, in 2000 a new approach was proposed to perform arc discharges at the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. It was demonstrated experimentally that the deposited pure Nb-films have similar properties to the bulk-Nb samples. These results are very promising from the point of the application of such coating processes in super-conducting RF cavities of future charged-particle accelerators. The paper describes different methods used for the reduction of the background pressure in the UHV stand below 10 -10 hPa. The most important methods involve the selection of appropriate materials and the backing of whole vacuum system. In order to reduce the contaminants a laser triggering system has been applied instead of a common system, which used high-voltage discharges along the surface of an insulated trigger electrode. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of different gas conditions during arc discharges at high-vacuum conditions (background pressure in the range of 10 -8 -10 -7 hPa) and at UHV experiments (background pressure within the range of 10 -11

  13. Volcaniclastic and sedimentary deposits in Late Oligocene/Early Miocene Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, northern Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Polona

    2010-05-01

    Late Oligocene/Early Miocene volcanic activity in northern Slovenia is related to post-collisional accommodation of continental Apulian and oceanic European plates (von Blanckenburg and Davis, 1996). It occurred in one of small south-western marginal depressions of the Pannonian basin system, locally termed the Smrekovec Basin (Hanfland et al., 2004). Contemporaneous clastic sedimentation is evidenced by several hundred metres thick succession composed mainly of mudstone, siltstone and sand. Smrekovec Volcanic Complex (SVC) is an eroded and tectonically uplifted remain of a larger submarine stratovolcano edifice, built of lavas, shallow or subsurface intrusive bodies, and pyroclastic, hyaloclastic, syn-eruptively resedimented volcaniclastic and reworked volcaniclastic-sedimentary deposits (Kralj, 1996). The development of lithofacies of syn-eruptively resedimented deposits is controlled by the proximity to the ancient volcano summit and the volcano sloping. Moreover, close to the rising volcano edifice, distinct shallow-water environments with siliciclastic sedimentation developed. Syn-eruptively resedimented deposits are the most widespread and are related to volcaniclastic debris flows and volcaniclastic tubidity flows. Volcaniclastic debris flow deposits are subdivided into lithofacies Bx - polymict volcaniclastic breccia, and Bt - volcaniclastic tuff-breccia. Bx occurs as tabular, up to some ten metres thick bodies with abundant up to 5 dm large angular lava clasts and angular or rounded clasts of fine-grained tuff, and tuffaceous matrix. Bt forms basal, massive layers in fining-upward sequences. The main constituent is tuffaceous matrix; up to 1.5 dm large clasts of lavas and tuffs are subordinate. In a distance up to 2 km from the former volcano summit (proximal area), Bt predominates in the sequence lithofacies composition (~75 %), and attains a thickness of up to 4 m. At a distance of 2-4 km (distal area), a maximum Bt thickness rarely exceeds 5 dm, an

  14. Origins and exploration significance of replacement and vein-type alunite deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field, west central Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alunite in the Marysvale volcanic field forms two (three are described) different types of deposits which contrast in appearance and conditions of origin: 1) Replacement deposits are generally fine-grained and formed by near-surface replacement of intermediate-composition volcanic rocks. The deposits form a bead necklace around a monzonite stock. Each deposit is zoned horizontally from alunitic cores to kaolinitic and propylitic envelopes and zoned vertically from pyrite/propylite upward through alunite/jarosite/hematite to a silica cap. Alunite does not extend below 100 m. Sulphur isotope ratios agree with derivation from underlying Mesozoic evaporites. 2) Natroalunite of 14-m.y. age crosscuts replacement-type alunite deposits. Its S-isotope ratios are comparable with those of pyrite in the volcanics. The Na may be from underlying Mesozoic halites. 3) Veins of coarse-grained alunite of 14-m.y. age filled extension fractures above a postulated stock. S-isotope ratios indicate a probable magmatic source. The contrasting properties of the Marysvale alunite deposits preclude any simple relation to ore deposits, but serve to refine interpretations based on other geological considerations. The replacement deposits are a logical near-surface result of skarn forming processes at depth around the monzonite stock. The vein- type deposits are a logical near-surface result of porphyry metallization in an underlying stock. -G.J.N.

  15. Thick CrN/NbN multilayer coating deposited by cathodic arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano Avelar; Tschiptschin, Andre Paulo; Souza, Roberto Martins, E-mail: antschip@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Nelson Batista de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The production of tribological nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings up to 6 μm thick by Sputtering/HIPIMS has been reported in literature. However, high demanding applications, such as internal combustion engine parts, need thicker coatings (>30 μm). The production of such parts by sputtering would be economically restrictive due to low deposition rates. In this work, nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings were produced in a high-deposition rate, industrial-size, Cathodic Arc Physical Vapor Deposition (ARC-PVD) chamber, containing three cathodes in alternate positions (Cr/ Nb/Cr). Four 30 μm thick NbN/CrN multilayer coatings with different periodicities (20, 10, 7.5 and 4 nm) were produced. The coatings were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The multilayer coating system was composed of alternate cubic rock salt CrN and NbN layers, coherently strained due to lattice mismatch. The film grew with columnar morphology through the entire stratified structure. The periodicities adopted were maintained throughout the entire coating. The 20 nm periodicity coating showed separate NbN and CrN peaks in the XRD patterns, while for the lower periodicity (≤10nm) coatings, just one intermediate lattice (d-spacing) was detected. An almost linear increase of hardness with decreasing bilayer period indicates that interfacial effects can dominate the hardening mechanisms. (author)

  16. Protective coating of inner surface of steel tubes via vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K.; Roos, E.; Lyutovich, A.; Boese, J.; Itskov, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA); Ashurov, Kh.; Mirkarimov, A.; Kazantsev, S.; Kadirov, Kh. [Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Arifov Inst. of Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The Vacuum Arc Deposition (VAD) technique based on sputtering a chosen electrode material and its deposition via plasma allows highly-productive technology for creating a wide class of protecting coatings on complex structures. In this work, VAD was applied as a method for the protection of the inner surface of tubes for power-plant boilers against steam oxidation. For this aim, a source cathode of an alloy with high chromium and nickel content was employed in two different VAD treatment systems: a horizontal vacuum chamber (MPA) and a vertical system where the work-piece of the tubes to be protected served as a vacuum changer (Arifov Institute of Electronics). Surface coating with variation of deposition parameters and layer thickness was performed. Characterisation of coated tubes has shown that the method realised in this work allows attainment of material transfer from the cathode to the inner surface with nearly equal chemical composition. It was demonstrated that the initial martensitic structure of the tubes was kept after the vacuum-arc treatment which can provide for both the high mechanical robustness and the corrosion-resistance of the final material. (orig.)

  17. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  18. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-09-02

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10{sup -4} and 2.3x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates.

  19. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10 -4 and 2.3x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates

  20. Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marshall

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the past 500 years. The eruption had significant climatic impacts, leading to the 1816 year without a summer, and remains a valuable event from which to understand the climatic effects of large stratospheric volcanic sulfur dioxide injections. The eruption also resulted in one of the strongest and most easily identifiable volcanic sulfate signals in polar ice cores, which are widely used to reconstruct the timing and atmospheric sulfate loading of past eruptions. As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP, five state-of-the-art global aerosol models simulated this eruption. We analyse both simulated background (no Tambora and volcanic (with Tambora sulfate deposition to polar regions and compare to ice core records. The models simulate overall similar patterns of background sulfate deposition, although there are differences in regional details and magnitude. However, the volcanic sulfate deposition varies considerably between the models with differences in timing, spatial pattern and magnitude. Mean simulated deposited sulfate on Antarctica ranges from 19 to 264 kg km−2 and on Greenland from 31 to 194 kg km−2, as compared to the mean ice-core-derived estimates of roughly 50 kg km−2 for both Greenland and Antarctica. The ratio of the hemispheric atmospheric sulfate aerosol burden after the eruption to the average ice sheet deposited sulfate varies between models by up to a factor of 15. Sources of this inter-model variability include differences in both the formation and the transport of sulfate aerosol. Our results suggest that deriving relationships between sulfate deposited on ice sheets and atmospheric sulfate burdens from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.

  1. An apparatus for sequential pulsed plasma beam treatment in combination with Arc PVD deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislawski, J.; Werner, Z.; Piekoszewski, J.; Richter, E.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid type of apparatus is described which enables one to form a thin multi-layer film on the surface of any kind of solid substrate. In one process, the surface is treated with a high intensity pulse plasma beam which introduces the chosen kind of atoms into the near-surface layer of the substrate. In the second process, following the first without breaking the vacuum, the coating is formed by arc PVD (physics vapour deposition) process. Two examples of coatings formed on metallic and ceramic substrates are presented. (author)

  2. Sedimentary processes in modern and ancient oceanic arc settings: evidence from the Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of Alaska and the Mariana and Tonga Arcs, western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment deposited around oceanic volcanic ares potentially provides the most complete record of the tectonic and geochemical evolution of active margins. The use of such tectonic and geochemical records requires an accurate understanding of sedimentary dynamics in an arc setting: processes of deposition and reworking that affect the degree to which sediments represent the contemporaneous volcanism at the time of their deposition. We review evidence from the modern Mariana and Tonga arcs and the ancient arc crustal section in the Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of south-central Alaska, and introduce new data from the Mariana Arc, to produce a conceptual model of volcaniclastic sedimentation processes in oceanic arc settings. All three arcs are interpreted to have formed in tectonically erosive margin settings, resulting in long-term extension and subsidence. Debris aprons composed of turbidites and debris flow deposits occur in the immediate vicinity of arc volcanoes, forming relatively continuous mass-wasted volcaniclastic records in abundant accommodation space. There is little erosion or reworking of old volcanic materials near the arc volcanic front. Tectonically generated topography in the forearc effectively blocks sediment flow from the volcanic front to the trench; although some canyons deliver sediment to the trench slope, most volcaniclastic sedimentation is limited to the area immediately around volcanic centers. Arc sedimentary sections in erosive plate margins can provide comprehensive records of volcanism and tectonism spanning arc may be best reconstructed from sediments of the debris aprons for intervals up to ~ 20 My but no longer, because subduction erosion causes migration of the forearc basin crust and its sedimentary cover toward the trench, where there is little volcaniclastic sedimentation and where older sediments are dissected and reworked along the trench slope.

  3. Hydrothermal uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite in the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rasmussen, J.D.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Rowley, P.D.; Romberger, S.B.; Selverstone, J.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium deposits containing molybdenum and fluorite occur in the Central Mining Area, near Marysvale, Utah, and formed in an epithermal vein system that is part of a volcanic/hypabyssal complex. They represent a known, but uncommon, type of deposit; relative to other commonly described volcanic-related uranium deposits, they are young, well-exposed and well-documented. Hydrothermal uranium-bearing quartz and fluorite veins are exposed over a 300 m vertical range in the mines. Molybdenum, as jordisite (amorphous MoS2, together with fluorite and pyrite, increase with depth, and uranium decreases with depth. The veins cut 23-Ma quartz monzonite, 20-Ma granite, and 19-Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed at 19-18 Ma in a 1 km2 area, above a cupola of a composite, recurrent, magma chamber at least 24 ?? 5 km across that fed a sequence of 21- to 14-Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, rhyolite lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Formation of the Central Mining Area began when the intrusion of a rhyolite stock, and related molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich, glassy rhyolite dikes, lifted the fractured roof above the stock. A breccia pipe formed and relieved magmatic pressures, and as blocks of the fractured roof began to settle back in place, flat-lying, concave-downward, 'pull-apart' fractures were formed. Uranium-bearing, quartz and fluorite veins were deposited by a shallow hydrothermal system in the disarticulated carapace. The veins, which filled open spaces along the high-angle fault zones and flat-lying fractures, were deposited within 115 m of the ground surface above the concealed rhyolite stock. Hydrothermal fluids with temperatures near 200??C, ??18OH2O ~ -1.5, ?? -1.5, ??DH2O ~ -130, log fO2 about -47 to -50, and pH about 6 to 7, permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine, molybdenum, potassium, and hydrogen sulfide, and contained uranium as fluoride complexes. The hydrothermal fluids reacted with the wallrock resulting in

  4. Flood, Seismic or Volcanic Deposits? New Insights from X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, M. E.; Moernaut, J.; Vermassen, F.; Llurba, M.; Praet, N.; Strupler, M. M.; Anselmetti, F.; Cnudde, V.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    Event deposits, such as e.g. turbidites incorporated in marine or lacustrine sediment sequences, may be caused by a wide range of possible triggering processes: failure of underwater slopes - either spontaneous or in response to earthquake shaking, hyperpycnal flows and floods, volcanic processes, etc. Determining the exact triggering process remains, however, a major challenge. Especially when studying the event deposits on sediment cores, which typically have diameters of only a few cm, only a small spatial window is available to analyze diagnostic textural and facies characteristics. We have performed X-ray CT scans on sediment cores from Chilean, Alaskan and Swiss lakes. Even when using relatively low-resolution CT scans (0.6 mm voxel size), many sedimentary structures and fabrics that are not visible by eye, are revealed. For example, the CT scans allow to distinguish tephra layers that are deposited by fall-out, from those that reached the basin by river transport or mud flows and from tephra layers that have been reworked and re-deposited by turbidity currents. The 3D data generated by the CT scans also allow to examine relative orientations of sedimentary structures (e.g. convolute lamination) and fabrics (e.g. imbricated mud clasts), which can be used to reconstruct flow directions. Such relative flow directions allow to determine whether a deposit (e.g. a turbidite) had one or several source areas, the latter being typical for seismically triggered turbidites. When the sediment core can be oriented (e.g. using geomagnetic properties), absolute flow directions can be reconstructed. X-ray CT scanning, at different resolution, is thus becoming an increasingly important tool for discriminating the exact origin of EDs, as it can help determining whether e.g. an ash layer was deposited as fall out from an ash cloud or fluvially washed into the lake, or whether a turbidite was triggered by an earthquake or a flood.

  5. Precursory deformation and depths of magma storage revealed by regional InSAR time series surveys: example of the Indonesian and Mexican volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.; Aoki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the threat posed to millions of people living in the vicinity of volcanoes, only a fraction of the worldwide ~800 potentially active arc volcanoes have geodetic monitoring. Indonesian and Mexican volcanoes are sparsely monitored with ground-based methods but especially dangerous, emphasizing the need for remote sensing monitoring. In this study we take advantage of over 1200 ALOS InSAR images to survey the entire west Sunda and Mexican volcanic arcs, covering a total of 500 000 km2. We use 2 years of data to monitor the background activity of the Indonesian arc, and 4 years of data at four volcanic edifices (Sinabung, Kerinci, Merapi, and Agung), as well as 4 years of data to survey the Mexican arc. We derive time-dependent ground deformation data using the Small Baseline technique with DEM error correction. We detect seven volcanoes with significant deformation in the west-Sunda arc: six inflating volcanoes (Sinabung, Kerinci, Slamet, Lawu, Lamongan, and Agung) and one deflating volcano (Anak Krakatau). Three of the six inflating centers erupted during or after the observation period. We detect inflation prior to Sinabung's first Holocene eruption in September 2010, followed by a small deflation of the summit area. A similar signal is observed at Kerinci before and after its April 2009 eruption. We also detect uplift prior to Slamet's eruption in April 2009. Agung, in Bali, whose last eruption was in 1964, has been inflating steadily between mid 2007 and early 2009, followed by a period with little deformation until mid-2011. Inflation not followed by eruption is also observed at Lamongan and Lawu, both historically active centers. The close relation between periods of activity and observed deformation suggests that edifice inflation is of magmatic origin and represents the pressurization of reservoirs caused by ascent of new magma. We model the observed deformation and show that the seven deforming Indonesian volcanoes have shallow magma reservoirs at ~1

  6. Vacuum arc plasma generation and thin film deposition from a TiB{sub 2} cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirkov, Igor, E-mail: igozh@ifm.liu.se; Petruhins, Andrejs; Naslund, Lars-Ake; Rosen, Johanna [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Kolozsvári, Szilard; Polcik, Peter [PLANSEE Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbürgerstraße 23, 86983 Lechbruck am See (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    We have studied the utilization of TiB{sub 2} cathodes for thin film deposition in a DC vacuum arc system. We present a route for attaining a stable, reproducible, and fully ionized plasma flux of Ti and B by removal of the external magnetic field, which leads to dissipation of the vacuum arc discharge and an increased active surface area of the cathode. Applying a magnetic field resulted in instability and cracking, consistent with the previous reports. Plasma analysis shows average energies of 115 and 26 eV, average ion charge states of 2.1 and 1.1 for Ti and B, respectively, and a plasma ion composition of approximately 50% Ti and 50% B. This is consistent with measured resulting film composition from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting a negligible contribution of neutrals and macroparticles to the film growth. Also, despite the observations of macroparticle generation, the film surface is very smooth. These results are of importance for the utilization of cathodic arc as a method for synthesis of metal borides.

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Yeba Formation volcanic rocks in southern Tibet: Initiation of back-arc rifting and crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youqing; Zhao, Zhidan; Niu, Yaoling; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Qing; Hou, Zengqian; Mo, Xuanxue; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the geological history of the Lhasa Terrane prior to the India-Asia collision ( 55 ± 10 Ma) is essential for improved models of syn-collisional and post-collisional processes in the southern Lhasa Terrane. The Miocene ( 18-10 Ma) adakitic magmatism with economically significant porphyry-type mineralization has been interpreted as resulting from partial melting of the Jurassic juvenile crust, but how this juvenile crust was accreted remains poorly known. For this reason, we carried out a detailed study on the volcanic rocks of the Yeba Formation (YF) with the results offering insights into the ways in which the juvenile crust may be accreted in the southern Lhasa Terrane in the Jurassic. The YF volcanic rocks are compositionally bimodal, comprising basalt/basaltic andesite and dacite/rhyolite dated at 183-174 Ma. All these rocks have an arc-like signature with enriched large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti). They also have depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, pointing to significant mantle isotopic contributions. Modeling results of trace elements and isotopes are most consistent with the basalts being derived from a mantle source metasomatized by varying enrichment of subduction components. The silicic volcanic rocks show the characteristics of transitional I-S type granites, and are best interpreted as resulting from re-melting of a mixed source of juvenile amphibole-rich lower crust with reworked crustal materials resembling metagraywackes. Importantly, our results indicate northward Neo-Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane with the YF volcanism being caused by the initiation of back-arc rifting. The back-arc setting is a likely site for juvenile crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane.

  8. CrAlN coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation at different substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.; Gomez, M.A.; Esteve, J.; Montala, F.; Carreras, L.; Grifol, M.; Lousa, A.

    2006-01-01

    CrAlN is a good candidate as an alternative to conventional CrN coatings especially for high temperature oxidation-resistance applications. Different CrAlN coatings were deposited on hardened steel substrates by cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) from chromium-aluminum targets in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at negative substrate bias between - 50 and - 400 V. The negative substrate bias has important effects on the deposition growth rate and crystalline structure. All our coatings presented hardness higher than conventional CrN coatings. The friction coefficient against alumina and tungsten carbide balls was around 0.6. The sliding wear coefficient of the CrAlN coatings was very low while an important wear was observed in the balls before a measurable wear were produced in the coatings. This effect was more pronounced as the negative substrate bias was increased

  9. Deposition of indium tin oxide thin films by cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-H.; Wen, J.-C.; Chen, K.-L.; Chen, S.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP) using sintered oxide target as the source material. In an oxygen atmosphere of 200 deg. C, ITO films with a lowest resistivity of 2.2x10 -4 Ω-cm were obtained at a deposition rate higher than 450 nm/min. The carrier mobility of ITO shows a maximum at some medium pressures. Although morphologically ITO films with a very fine nanometer-sized structure were observed to possess the lowest resistivity, more detailed analyses based on X-ray diffraction are attempted to gain more insight into the factors that govern electron mobility in this investigation

  10. Sustained Water Quality Impacts in Marine Environments Due to Mechanical Milling of Volcanic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cronin, S. J.; Stewart, C.; Back, E.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are known to be a significant geohazard, but post- or inter-eruptive processes (such as lahars, landslides, and debris avalanches) can be equally damaging to local and regional areas by remobilizing deposits. Numerous studies have found that soluble salts bound to ash grain surfaces may be quickly released into exposed waters, often lowering pH and adding trace metals with both beneficial and deleterious effects on marine flora and fauna (e.g., Fe influx initiating blooms of marine phytoplankton). Most of the cation content of pyroclastic deposits is released slowly into the environment through weathering and alteration processes. However, other pathways exist through the physical comminution of pyroclasts in fluvial and marine settings. In this case, mechanical fracturing of pyroclasts during progressive stages of disaggregation will lead to exposure of reactive particle surfaces. This study evaluates the potential, ongoing effects on water quality by experimental, mechanical milling of pyroclasts and the evaluation of released metals into exposed waters using the pyroclastic density current deposits of both the 2010 eruption of Merapi and the 2014 eruption of Kelud (Java, Indonesia), which have a bulk basaltic andesite/andesite composition (60-65 wt% SiO2). The electrical conductivity (EC) of water samples positively correlates with Ca and Sr concentrations in the case of bulk ash, whole, and crushed lapilli, but correlates with Na for the milled samples. Compared to other stages of pyroclast disaggregation, milled lapilli have the greatest effect on the concentration of alkali elements and produce a significant increase in Ca, Na, K, and Si. Mechanical milling of pyroclasts grinds down minerals and glass, resulting in an increased EC, pH, and Na concentration of exposed waters. Similar experiments are currently being conducted using basalt (50 wt% SiO2) and rhyolite (70 wt% SiO2) deposits, and these results will be presented

  11. MAFALDA: An early warning modeling tool to forecast volcanic ash dispersal and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2008-12-01

    Forecasting the dispersal of ash from explosive volcanoes is a scientific challenge to modern volcanology. It also represents a fundamental step in mitigating the potential impact of volcanic ash on urban areas and transport routes near explosive volcanoes. To this end we developed a Web-based early warning modeling tool named MAFALDA (Modeling and Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere) able to quantitatively forecast ash concentrations in the air and on the ground. The main features of MAFALDA are the usage of (1) a dispersal model, named VOL-CALPUFF, that couples the column ascent phase with the ash cloud transport and (2) high-resolution weather forecasting data, the capability to run and merge multiple scenarios, and the Web-based structure of the procedure that makes it suitable as an early warning tool. MAFALDA produces plots for a detailed analysis of ash cloud dynamics and ground deposition, as well as synthetic 2-D maps of areas potentially affected by dangerous concentrations of ash. A first application of MAFALDA to the long-lasting weak plumes produced at Mt. Etna (Italy) is presented. A similar tool can be useful to civil protection authorities and volcanic observatories in reducing the impact of the eruptive events. MAFALDA can be accessed at http://mafalda.pi.ingv.it.

  12. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.R.; Lobanov, N.; Elliman, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Rode, A.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp 3 -like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  13. Structure of MoCN films deposited by cathodic arc evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, A., E-mail: adam.gilewicz@tu.koszalin.pl [Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Technology and Education, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Jedrzejewski, R.; Kochmanska, A.E. [West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, 19 Piastów Ave., 70-313 Szczecin (Poland); Warcholinski, B. [Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Technology and Education, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2015-02-27

    Molybdenum carbonitride (MoCN) coatings were deposited onto HS6-5-2 steel substrate using pure Mo targets in mixed acetylene and nitrogen atmosphere by cathodic arc evaporation. The structural properties of MoCN coatings with different carbon contents (as an effect of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate) were investigated systematically. Phase and chemical composition evolution of the coatings were characterized both by the glancing angle of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectrometry, respectively. These analyses have been supplemented by estimates of grain sizes and stress in the coatings. The XRD results show that the increase in acetylene flow rate causes the formation of molybdenum carbide (MoC) hexagonal phase in the coatings, a reduction of grain size and an increase in internal stress. - Highlights: • MoN and MoCN coatings were deposited by cathodic arc evaporation in nitrogen atmosphere. • MoCN coatings were formed using different acetylene flow rates. • Phase composition evolution was observed. • Crystallite size and stress were calculated.

  14. Review of cathodic arc deposition technology at the start of the new millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D M; Anders, A

    2000-01-01

    The vacuum cathodic arc has been known to provide a means of producing coatings since the second half of the 19th century. This makes it one of the oldest known means for making coatings in a vacuum. In the last century it has been recognized that the copious quantities of ions produced by the process offers certain advantages in terms of coating properties. Specifically, ions can be steered and/or accelerated toward the parts to be coated. This, in turn, can provide enhanced adhesion, film density, and composition stoichiometry in the case of compound coatings. The ions generated by the cathodic arc have high ''natural'' kinetic energy values in the range 20-200 eV, leading to enhanced surface mobility during the deposition process and even ion subplantation. In many cases, dense coatings are achieved even when non-normal arrival angles are involved. The ion energy can further manipulated by the plasma immersion biasing technique. The issue of macroparticle contamination has been addressed by a variety of novel plasma filters. In spite of all of these advantages, this deposition technique has not been widely adopted in the western nations for commercial coating except in the case of enhancing the performance of cutting tools. The purpose of the this review is to explore reasons for this lack of general use of the technology and to point out some encouraging recent developments which may lead to its accelerated adoption for a much wider variety of applications in the near future

  15. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Harrington

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion''. This model report provides direct inputs to

  16. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Harrington

    2004-10-25

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit

  17. The geochemistry of lithium-bearing geothermal water, Taupo Volcanic Zone, and shallow fluid processes in a very active silicic volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A. S.; Hoskin, P. W.; Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.; Boseley, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Li abundances and isotopic systematics of Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal fluids preserves a record of processes occurring within shallow portions of geothermal reservoirs as well as deeper portions of the arc crust. Understanding Li cycling and isotopic fractionation in TVZ geothermal systems contributes to a more refined understanding of physicochemical processes affecting New Zealand's geothermal resources. A comprehensive dataset of 73 samples was compiled, with samples collected from geothermal surface features (springs, spouters, geysers, etc.) and electric-power industry production wells, collectively representing18 geothermal fields across the breadth and width the TVZ. No comparable dataset of fluid analyses exists. Ion chromatography, AAS, and quadrupole ICP-MS analyses were done for Li, Cl-, SiO2, SO42- K, Na, Ca, Mg, B, Sr and Pb concentrations. Lithium abundance in geothermal fluids from the TVZ have a dataset-wide average of 5.9 mg/L and range 4 μg/L to 29 mg/L. The Li abundance and Li/Cl ratios for geothermal water and steam condensates vary systematically as a result of boiling, mixing, and water/rock reaction. Lithium abundance and Li/Cl ratios are, therefore, indicators of shallow (above 2.5 km) and locally variable reservoir processes. δ7Li analysis of 63 samples was performed at the University of Maryland, College Park. Data quality was controlled by measurement of L-SVEC as a calibration standard and by multiple analysis of selected samples. The average δ7Li value for TVZ geothermal fluids is -0.8%. Most δ7Li values for geothermal water fall within a small range of about -3% to+2% indicating similar processes are causing similar isotopic fractionation throughout the region. Considered together, Li aundances and δ7Li values, in combination with numerical models, indicate possible evolution pathways and water/rock reactions in TVZ geothermal systems. Models based on rocks and surface water analysis indicate that Li cycles and

  18. The Lepanto Cu–Au deposit, Philippines: A fossil hyperacidic volcanic lake complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Henley, Richard W.; Lowers, Heather; Pribil, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hyperacidic lakes and associated solfatara in active volcanoes are the expression of magmatic gas expansion from source to surface. Here we show for the first time, that the vein system that comprises the ~ 2 Ma high-sulfidation, Lepanto copper–gold deposit in the Mankayan district (Philippines) was associated with a contemporary hyperacidic volcanic lake complex—possibly the first such lake recognized in the geological record. A 15–20‰ difference in sulfur isotopic composition between barite and sulfides and sulfosalts in the vent fumarole encrustations supports the interpretation that SO2-rich volcanic gas vented into the base of the lake and marginal to it and ties the mineralization directly to magmatic gas expansion, fracture propagation, and mineralization that occurred through a series of decompression steps within the feeder fracture network. These data confirm that crater lake environments such as Kawah Ijen (Java, Indonesia) provide modern day analogs of the Lepanto and other high sulfidation Cu–Au depositing environments.We also provide extensive analysis of sulfosalt–sulfide reactions during vein formation within the hyperacidic lake complex. Pyrite ±  silica deposited first at high temperature followed by enargite that preserves the vapor–solid diffusion of, for example, antimony, tin, and tellurium into the vapor from the crystallizing solid. Subsolidus, intra-crystalline diffusion continued as temperature declined. Pyrite and enargite are replaced by Fe-tennantite in the lodes which initially has low Sb/(Sb + As) atomic ratios around 13.5% close to the ideal tennantite formula, but evolves to higher ratios as crystallization proceeds. Fumarole encrustation clasts and sulfosalts in the lake sediment are more highly evolved with a larger range of trace element substitutions, including antimony. Substitution of especially Zn, Te, Ag, and Sn into tennantite records metal and semi-metal fractionation between the expanding magmatic

  19. Uranium deposits associated to tertiary acid volcanism of the Pena Blanca Sierra (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniel, B.

    1986-12-01

    The uraniferous deposits located in the Sierra de Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) are the consequence of successive events that modified acid volcanic rocks. The devitrification of the Nopal Formation, vitroclastic tuffs, is esential in the cooling history because it releases uranium that becomes available. The uranium present in fluids as uranylcarbonate complexes, precipitate along the lamellea of hematite (exsolutions of the ilmenites). The presence of sulfur causes the destabilization of the ilmenites with uranium oxide (pitchblende - titanium oxide - pyrite), the pseudomorph of magnetites (pitchblende - pyrite) and the transformation of hematite into pyrite. The silice coming from the kaolinization of feldspars recristallizes as microcristalline quartz so that the rock appears compact. Fractures cause the uplifting of the lower unit of Nopal formation. It has been altered to montmorillonite. A carbonatation of this tuff has been observed and these two types of alteration occur after kaolinization. The Escuadra formation overlies the Nopal formation. The deposition takes place on an eroded basement where a soil developed. The two formations will together undergo transformations due to the saturation level and the primary ore will be only oxidized or oxidized, transported and reconcentrated. Late and localized thermal activities have been observed and may be the result of tectonic movements occurring after the supergene modification [fr

  20. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  2. Friction and wear of TiCN coatings deposited by filtered arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.W.; Ng, K.; Samandi, M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of macroparticle-free TiN, TiCN and TiC coatings were deposited on 316 austenitic stainless steel using a titanium target in a filtered arc deposition system and reactive mixtures of CH4 and N2 gases. The microhardness of the coatings were measured by using an Ultra Microhardness Indentation System (UMIS-2000). The wear and friction of the coatings were assessed under controlled test conditions in a pin-on-disc tribometer. The results show a significant increase in microhardness and wear resistance as the CH4 :N2 gas flow rate ratio is increased. At lower load (14N), all coatings exhibited low friction and wear. At higher load (25N), the higher carbon content TiCN and TiC coatings showed a much lower friction and wear compared to TiN and low carbon TiCN. The topographical examination of coatings and worn surfaces established that the self-lubricating effect of the carbonaceous particles condensed from the plasma during the deposition was primarily responsible for the low friction and wear regime. (authors)

  3. Characterization of diamond-like carbon coatings prepared by pulsed bias cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinbao; Chang, J.-J.; Li, M.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.; Li, A.-K.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited on Si(100) and stainless steel substrates by cathodic vacuum arc plasma deposition with pulse voltage. Adherent deposits on silicon can be obtained through applying gradient Ti/TiC/DLC layers. A pulse bias of - 100 V was applied to the substrate in order to obtain a denser structure of DLC coating approximately 1 μm thick. The microstructure and hardness value of DLC films were analyzed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nano-indenter. The experimental results show that the duty cycle strongly influenced the hardness and sp 3 content of the DLC coatings. We observed that when the duty cycle was raised from 2.5% to 12.5%, the hardness increased from 26 GPa to 49 GPa, and the sp 3 fraction of the DLC films measured by XPS increased from 39% to 50.8 % as well. But at constant duty cycle, say 12.5%, the hardness is dropped from 49 to 14 GPa in proportion to the increase of residual gas pressure from 3 x 10 -3 Pa to 1 Pa. As the residual gas pressure increased, collisional phenomenon will decrease the energy of the ions. Ions with low energy make more graphitic carbon links and result in a low hardness value

  4. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon films deposited by filtered carbon vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Fong, Walton; Kulkarni, Ashok; Ryan, Francis W.; Bhatia, C. Singh

    2001-01-01

    Ultrathin ( and lt; 5 nm) hard carbon films are of great interest to the magnetic storage industry as the areal density approaches 100 Gbit/in(sup 2). These films are used as overcoats to protect the magnetic layers on disk media and the active elements of the read-write slider. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films can be produced by filtered cathodic arc deposition, but the films will only be accepted by the storage industry only if the ''macroparticle'' issue has been solved. Better plasma filters have been developed over recent years. Emphasis is put on the promising twist filter system - a compact, open structure that operates with pulsed arcs and high magnetic field. Based on corrosion tests it is shown that the macroparticle reduction by the twist filter is satisfactory for this demanding application, while plasma throughput is very high. Ultrathin hard carbon films have been synthesized using S-filter and twist filter systems. Film properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, wear, and corrosion resistance have been tested

  5. Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

    2013-04-01

    suggest that the outcropping portion of these volcanic bodies represents the lower diatreme zone. The presence of diffuse welding and the globular shapes of some juvenile fragments, together with their vesicularity, suggest that magma fragmentation was mainly driven by magmatic gas exsolution occurring at a deeper level respect to classical, basaltic explosive activity. Textural features, facies association and facies architecture of the studied deposits are suggestive of an important affinity with kimberlitic and other ultramafic diatremes.

  6. Temporal and spatial variations in provenance of Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments: Implications for Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Djuly, T.; de Graaf, S.; Sakes, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) is the last remnant of the Tethys Ocean that has been subducted to the north since the Jurassic. Subduction has led to the formation of multiple island arcs in the EMS region where the Aeolian and Aegean arcs are currently active. The EMS is surrounded by

  7. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean Plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles

    Velocities from 153 continuously-operating GPS sites on the Caribbean, North American, and Pacific plates are combined with 61 newly estimated Pacific-Cocos seafloor spreading rates and additional marine geophysical data to derive a new estimate of present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion. A comparison of the predicted Cocos-Caribbean direction to slip directions of numerous shallow-thrust subduction earthquakes from the Middle America trench between Costa Rica and Guatemala shows the slip directions to be deflected 10° clockwise from the plate convergence direction, supporting the hypothesis that frequent dextral strike-slip earthquakes along the Central American volcanic arc result from partitioning of oblique Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence. Linear velocity analysis for forearc locations in Nicaragua and Guatemala predicts 14±2 mm yr-1 of northwestward trench-parallel slip of the forearc relative to the Caribbean plate, possibly decreasing in magnitude in El Salvador and Guatemala, where extension east of the volcanic arc complicates the tectonic setting.

  8. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2008-07-01

    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges between 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Atlantic Ridge, which was located approximately midway between North and South America until Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment flux was limited. Conversely, toward the west in central Puerto Rico, which was consistently more remote from the subducting ridge, heat flow was relatively low and produced limited crustal melting, while the sediment flux was comparatively elevated.

  9. Interface control of atomic layer deposited oxide coatings by filtered cathodic arc deposited sublayers for improved corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, Emma, E-mail: emma.harkonen@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tervakangas, Sanna; Kolehmainen, Jukka [DIARC-Technology Inc., Espoo (Finland); Díaz, Belén; Światowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7075) – Chimie ParisTech (ENSCP), F-75005 Paris (France); Fenker, Martin [FEM Research Institute, Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwäbisch Gmünd (Germany); Tóth, Lajos; Radnóczi, György [Research Centre for Natural Sciences HAS, (MTA TKK), Budapest (Hungary); Ritala, Mikko [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Sublayers grown with filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) were added under atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide coatings for interface control and improved corrosion protection of low alloy steel. The FCAD sublayer was either Ta:O or Cr:O–Ta:O nanolaminate, and the ALD layer was Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanolaminate, Al{sub x}Ta{sub y}O{sub z} mixture or graded mixture. The total thicknesses of the FCAD/ALD duplex coatings were between 65 and 120 nm. Thorough analysis of the coatings was conducted to gain insight into the influence of the FCAD sublayer on the overall coating performance. Similar characteristics as with single FCAD and ALD coatings on steel were found in the morphology and composition of the duplex coatings. However, the FCAD process allowed better control of the interface with the steel by reducing the native oxide and preventing its regrowth during the initial stages of the ALD process. Residual hydrocarbon impurities were buried in the interface between the FCAD layer and steel. This enabled growth of ALD layers with improved electrochemical sealing properties, inhibiting the development of localized corrosion by pitting during immersion in acidic NaCl and enhancing durability in neutral salt spray testing. - Highlights: • Corrosion protection properties of ALD coatings were improved by FCAD sublayers. • The FCAD sublayer enabled control of the coating-substrate interface. • The duplex coatings offered improved sealing properties and durability in NSS. • The protective properties were maintained during immersion in a corrosive solution. • The improvements were due to a more ideal ALD growth on the homogeneous FCAD oxide.

  10. Structural, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies on Magmatic Dyke Swarms of the South Shetland Islands Volcanic Arc, West Antarctica - Revealing the Geodynamic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Miller, H.

    2003-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2002 areas of up to 100,000 m2 have been mapped at several locations of the South Shetland Islands, mainly on King George and Livingston Islands. A structural analysis of the dykes and the host rocks was undertaken, and about 250 dykes were sampled for geochemical studies. On Livingston Island six different strike directions were identified, yielding a reliable relative time sequence as deduced from field-relationships. Geochemically, these dykes can be separated into five different groups, correlating with the different strike directions, one of those groups comprising two directions. Analysis of the structural data shows, that at least on Livingston Island only minor changes of the tensional situation occurred. Geochemical data reveal that all dykes of the South Shetland Islands belong to a calc-alkaline, arc-related suite, ranging from primitive basalts to highly differentiated rhyolites. Interpretation of Sr isotopic data of the dykes proves difficult, as there are indications for sea-water induced Sr-alteration. Nd isotopic analysis yield better results, revealing a three-stage development from the oldest dykes (ɛ Nd -0.2 to 0.6) on Livingston Island towards a second, younger group (ɛ Nd 2.8 to 4.2, also Livingston), terminating with a third one (ɛ Nd 5.2 to 7.6), which includes the youngest dykes on Livingston and all dykes on King George and also Penguin Island. Either two mantle sources were involved, or the amount of crustal contamination changed considerately with time. It may have been high during initial arc volcanism, because of a still unstretched crust, then decreasing continually with progressing volcanism. In any case, the pattern reflects a chronological sequence corresponding with other authors' hypothesis of a migrating arc volcanism from SW to NE, i.e. from Livingston (older dykes) towards King George Island (younger dykes). Pb isotopic data, plottet together with MORB- and sediment-samples dredged from the Drake Passage

  11. The Isopach Mapping of Volcanic Deposits of Mount Samalas 1257 AD Based on the Values of Resistivity and Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiden Hiden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study had been conducted on the sediment of Mount Samalas’ volcanic eruption in 1257 AD. Using the framework of the reconstruction of the ancient eruption of Mount Samalas, the first step was to map and analyze the deposits of volcanic sediment. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of geomorphology and the distance function to the isopach thickness. The results show that a combination of methods allowed to provide a high resolution map of the distribution of the thickness of the volcanic deposits, both on the slope and in alluvial areas. Geo-electric survey results (both Vertical Electric Sound (VES and 2D mapping show consistent changes in the pattern of contrast resistivity layer interface, for all areas. The pattern changes in a row of the top layer, the high resistivity turned into the low. Furthermore, the second and third layer interface changes from low to the high resistivity. High resistivity on the top layer is interpreted as a layer of unconsolidated volcanic sediment. High resistivity values are range from 736 to 2000 Ohm.m on the top layer in the area of the slopes while in the area of alluvial, the resistivity values range from 20 to 958 Ohm.m. Generally, the volcanic deposits in the area of the slopes have a higher value of isopach (>17 m than in areas of alluvial (<25 m. The geomorphology seemed to have no significant effect on the isopach value, particularly pyroclastic fallout. Such is the case with distance from the source to the site, which is not linear. The value of isopach increases westward from 21 to 31 km, in contrast to the East, which began to occur at a distance of 14 km to 21 km.

  12. Multilayer Ti-Cr-N Coatings Produced by the Vacuum-Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchenko, Yu.V.; Kunchenko, V.V.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Kartmazov, G.N.; Andreev, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A possibility is demonstrated for nanolayer TiN x /CrN x coating formation by the method of vacuum-arc deposition on the substrate, which being rotated around the 'Bulat'-type chamber axis intercepts sequentially the plasma flows generated by three evaporators. The model for calculating the coating deposition rate (thickness) was used to determine the geometrical parameters that provide the formation of layer structures in the nanometer range. The variations of phase-structure characteristics, compression microstresses (σ) microhardness (H v ) of the coating formed have been investigated as functions of nitrogen pressure (P N =0.001...1.0 Pa), bias voltage (U=-100...-300 V) and condensation temperature (T C =330...750 degree C) at focusing magnetic field strength H F =0; 35 and 100 Oe. The mentioned field strengths were responsible for the ion current densities (j∼5,8...10 and ≥15 mA/cm 2 ). A nonmonotonic behaviour of H v as a function of condensation temperature and of vacuum annealing temperature has been established. The maximum H v values (∼35...37 GPa) were observed in the 450...500 degree C range

  13. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na

    2013-08-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results of the plasmon excitation energy shift and through-thickness elemental concentration show a multilayered a-C film structure comprising an interface layer consisting of C, Si, and, possibly, SiC, a buffer layer with continuously increasing sp 3 fraction, a relatively thicker layer (bulk film) of constant sp 3 content, and an ultrathin surface layer rich in sp 2 hybridization. A detailed study of the C K-edge spectrum indicates that the buffer layer between the interface layer and the bulk film is due to the partial backscattering of C+ ions interacting with the heavy atoms of the silicon substrate. The results of this study provide insight into the minimum thickness of a-C films deposited by FCVA under optimum substrate bias conditions. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  14. Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site 1438, Amami Sankaku Basin: Implications for Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey-Vargas, R.; Ishizuka, O.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Bizimis, M.; Savov, I. P.; McCarthy, A. J.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 351 drilled 150 m of volcanic basement overlain by 1461 m of sedimentary material at Site 1438 in the Amami Sankaku basin, just west of the Kyushu Palau Ridge, the locus of IBM arc initiation. Age interpretations based on biostratigraphy (Arculus et al., Nat. Geosci., in-press) determined that the age of the basement section is between 64 and 51 Ma, encompassing the age of the earliest volcanic products of the IBM arc. The Site 1438 volcanic basement consists of multiple flows of aphyric microcrystalline to finely crystalline basalts containing plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare olivine pseudomorphs. New XRF major and ICPMS trace element data confirm findings of shipboard analysis that the basalts are moderately differentiated (6-14 % MgO; Mg# = 51-83; 73-490 ppm Cr and 58-350 ppm Ni) with downcore variations related to flow units. Ti/V and Ti/Sc ratios are 16-27 and 75-152, respectively, with lowest values at the base of the core. One prominent characteristic of the basalts is their depletion of immobile highly incompatible elements compared with MORB. Basalts have MORB-normalized La/Nd of 0.5 to 0.9, and most have Th/La 3 and primitive mantle normalized La/Yb > 1. Our results suggest that mantle melting at the onset of subduction involved exceptionally depleted sources. Enrichment over time may be related to increasing subduction inputs and/or other processes, such as entrainment of fertile asthenosphere during extension of the overriding plate.

  15. Carboniferous volcanic rocks associated with back-arc extension in the western Chinese Tianshan, NW China: Insight from temporal-spatial character, petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenbo; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wan, Bo; Wang, Xiangsong; Bao, Zihe; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    The Yili-Central Tianshan Block, as a Late Paleozoic major continental silver of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, holds a massive volume of Carboniferous volcanic rocks, occurring as subparallel magmatic belts. However, the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these volcanic rocks remain enigmatic. This study compiled isotopic age data for mapping their temporal-spatial character, and conducted petrogenetic study of these magmatic belts, aiming to understand their tectonic implications. Our compiled dataset reveals four magmatic belts in the Yili-Central Tianshan Block, including the Keguqinshan-Tulasu belt and the Awulale belt in the north, and the Wusun Mountain belt and the Haerk-Nalati belt in the south. In addition, our new zircon U-Pb dating results define two significant Early Carboniferous eruptive events (ca. 355-350 Ma and 325 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain belt. Volcanic rocks of the early significant eruptive event (ca. 355-350 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain comprise basalt, trachy-andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite, which are similar to the typical rock assemblage of a continental arc. Their positive εNd(t) values (+0.3 to +1.5) and relatively high Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios suggest the derivation from a mantle source with additions of slab-derived components. The gabbroic dykes and rhyolites of the late volcanic event (ca. 325 Ma) form a bimodal rock association, and they show alkaline features, with relatively low Th/Yb and Th/Nb ratios, and higher positive εNd(t) values (εNd(t) = +3.3-+5.0). It is interpreted that the gabbroic dykes and rhyolites may have been derived from mantle and juvenile crustal sources, respectively. The isotopic and trace elemental variations with time elapse of the Wusun Mountain magmatic belt show an important clue for strengthening depletion of the magma sources. Considering the distinctive temporal-spatial character of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks, two separate subduction systems in the southern and northern margins of

  16. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  17. Deposition and diagenesis of the Hibernia member, Jeanne d'Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, C E

    1987-01-01

    The Jeanne d'Arc Basin was formed during Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous time by two episodes of rifting that caused repeated movement on one set of basin-forming faults. This resulted in up to 14 km of sediments, some of which contain huge reserves of hydrocarbons. The Hibernia member, the subject of this thesis, is a sandstone dominated zone within this basin-fill that contains a high proportion of the discovered hydrocarbons. Deposition of the Hibernia member is a result of two simultaneous and related events during Tithonian to Berriasian time: deep erosion of upthrown sides of the fault blocks, and a global eustatic rise of sea level. The provenance and depositional environment are interpreted from the examination of cores, cuttings, microfossils, and thin sections. The siliciclastics were derived from a southern source of sediments and sedimentary rocks that had an original metamorphic origin. They were deposited in a non-marine to brackish water environment of channels and associated floodplains in an anastomosed fluvial system. Rates of sedimentation and subsidence were high, and coupled with a contemporaneous eustatic sea level rise resulted in rapid aggradation and a thick sequence. The center of the basin currently has the highest geothermal gradient and thinnest oil window. Burial and thermal history curves show that the source rocks reached maturity first at the Ben Nevis well; early-formed hydrocarbons may have been lost during tectonic movements in Albian time. The source rocks underlying the Hibernia field are presently at peak oil-generating capability. Organic acids formed during the maturation of organic matter have produced excellent secondary porosity in the sandstones of the Hibernia field. However, at Ben Nevis, subsequent thermal degradation of carboxylic acids allowed late-stage cementation by ferroan calcite cement, destroying the reservoir porosity. 63 refs., 79 figs., 1 tab

  18. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  19. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC engine". High magmatic fluxes during the flare-up would lead to elevated geothermal gradients and efficient crustal processing leading to a dominantly "crustal" magmatism feeding the

  20. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  1. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

  2. Weld metal microstructures of hardfacing deposits produced by self-shielded flux-cored arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumovic, M.; Monaghan, B.J.; Li, H.; Norrish, J.; Dunne, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The molten pool weld produced during self-shielded flux-cored arc welding (SSFCAW) is protected from gas porosity arising from oxygen and nitrogen by reaction ('killing') of these gases by aluminium. However, residual Al can result in mixed micro-structures of δ-ferrite, martensite and bainite in hardfacing weld metals produced by SSFCAW and therefore, microstructural control can be an issue for hardfacing weld repair. The effect of the residual Al content on weld metal micro-structure has been examined using thermodynamic modeling and dilatometric analysis. It is concluded that the typical Al content of about 1 wt% promotes δ-ferrite formation at the expense of austenite and its martensitic/bainitic product phase(s), thereby compromising the wear resistance of the hardfacing deposit. This paper also demonstrates how the development of a Schaeffler-type diagram for predicting the weld metal micro-structure can provide guidance on weld filler metal design to produce the optimum microstructure for industrial hardfacing applications.

  3. Variable slab and subarc mantle signatures within dying arc setting-clues from the volcanology and geochemistry of Quaternary volcanic rocks from Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, I. P.; Luhr, J.; D'Antonio, M.; Connor, C.; Karakhanian, A.; Ghukasyan, Y.; Djrbashian, R.

    2007-05-01

    Armenian volcanoes occur within the active continental collision zone involving the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The volcanism is hosted by a chain of pull-apart basins, cumulatively forming an arc across Armenia and extending into Turkey and Iran. We collected fresh volcanic rocks from >100 volcanoes in proximity to the large calc-alkaline strato-volcano Mt.Ararat (Turkey) and the sub-alkaline shield-volcano Mt.Aragats (Armenia).The samples are trachybasalt-andesites o dacites (Aragats Volcanic Plateau) and trachybasalts to rhyolites (Arteni Volcanic Complex, Gegham Plateau and Lake Sevan regions).The major and trace element systematics of the Armenian volcanics reveal mixed arc-like and OIB-like signatures may accompany the transition from subduction to collision (Miocene-recent). Relative to N-MORB our samples show enrichments of fluid mobile elements,Th,U,LILE and LREE,and depletions of HREE and Hf, Nb, Ta and Zr.The lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7041 to 0.7051) compared to any known crustal material in the region, the regional mantle 144Nd/143Nd isotope ratios [0.5128-0.5129] and the absence of crustal xenoliths cause us to conclude that crustal assimilation did not play a significant role in the magmagenesis.We will report large mineral chemistry dataset and detailed textural observations revealing no significant mineral zoning.Based on mineral rim and groundmass chemistries and using variety of hygrothermometers, we calculated melt H2O contents ranging from 1.9 to 4.5 wt% and also elevated eruption temperatures [range= 1030- 1060°C].This calculations are in agreement with the generally anhydrous nature of the mineral assemblages [Pl+Opx+Cpx+Ol+TiMt] and with the ionprobe study of volatile contents in olivine hosted melt inclusions [H2O = 0.5-2.8 wt%; CO2 = 10-371 ppm; F= 1865-2905 ppm, S= 225-5122 ppm;Cl= 650-1013 ppm]. Although other mechanisms such as delamination and localized extension related to strike slip faulting might also contribute to magma

  4. Synthesis of aluminum nitride films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition using hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Liru; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is of interest in the industry because of its excellent electronic, optical, acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this work, aluminum nitride films are deposited on silicon wafers (100) by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) using a modified hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc plasma source and with no intentional heating to the substrate. The mixed metal and gaseous plasma is generated by feeding the gas into the arc discharge region. The deposition rate is found to mainly depend on the Al ion flux from the cathodic arc source and is only slightly affected by the N 2 flow rate. The AlN films fabricated by this method exhibit a cubic crystalline microstructure with stable and low internal stress. The surface of the AlN films is quite smooth with the surface roughness on the order of 1/2 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy, homogeneous, and continuous, and the dense granular microstructures give rise to good adhesion with the substrate. The N to Al ratio increases with the bias voltage applied to the substrates. A fairly large amount of O originating from the residual vacuum is found in the samples with low N:Al ratios, but a high bias reduces the oxygen concentration. The compositions, microstructures and crystal states of the deposited films are quite stable and remain unchanged after annealing at 800 deg. C for 1 h. Our hybrid gas-metal source cathodic arc source delivers better AlN thin films than conventional PIIID employing dual plasmas

  5. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  6. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  7. Vacuum arc plasma deposition of thin titanium dioxide films on silicone elastomer as a functional coating for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudot, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.boudot@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boltzmannstraße 15, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Kühn, Marvin; Kühn-Kauffeldt, Marina; Schein, Jochen [Institute for Plasma Technology and Mathematics, University of Federal Armed Forces Munich, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Silicone elastomer is a promising material for medical applications and is widely used for implants with blood and tissue contact. However, its strong hydrophobicity limits adhesion of tissue cells to silicone surfaces, which can impair the healing process. To improve the biological properties of silicone, a triggerless pulsed vacuum cathodic arc plasma deposition technique was applied to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films onto the surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used for coating characterization. Deposited films were about 150 nm thick and exhibited good adhesion to the underlying silicone substrate. Surface wettability and roughness both increased after deposition of the TiO{sub 2} layer. In addition, cell-biological investigations demonstrated that the in-vitro cytocompatibility of TiO{sub 2}-coated samples was greatly improved without impacting silicone's nontoxicity. For validation of use in medical devices, further investigations were conducted and demonstrated stability of surface properties in an aqueous environment for a period of 68 days and the coating's resistance to several sterilization methods. - Highlights: • Vacuum arc plasma was applied to deposit titanium dioxide films onto silicone. • Thickness, roughness and composition of the films were determined. • Cytocompatibility of coated silicone elastomer is greatly improved. • Films have good adhesion to the substrate and are stable, non-toxic and sterilizable.

  8. Carbon deposition using an expanding cascaded arc d.c. plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.J.; Buuron, A.J.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this work a strongly flowing cascaded arc burning on an argon-hydrogen mixture is used to dissociate and ionize hydrocarbons which are injected inside a nozzle which is mounted in the anode of the arc. The thermal plasma (T ˜ 10 000 K, p ˜ 0.5 bar) will then expand supersonically into a vessel

  9. An InSAR survey of the central Andes: Constraints on magma chamber geometry and mass balance in a volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.

    2002-12-01

    The central Andes (14-28o S) has a high density of volcanoes, but a sparse human population, such that the activity of most volcanoes is poorly constrained. We use InSAR to conduct the first systematic observations of deformation at nearly 900 volcanoes (about 50 of which are classified ``potentially active'') during the 1992-2002 time interval. We find volcanic deformation in four locations. Subsidence is seen at Robledo (or Cerro Blanco) caldera, Argentina. We observe inflation at the stratovolcano Uturuncu, Bolivia, near stratovolcano Hualca Hualca, Peru, and in a region not associated with any known edifice on the border between Chile and Argentina that we call ``Lazufre'' because it lies between volcanoes Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre. The deformation pattern can be well explained by a uniform point-source source of inflation or deflation, but we compare these model results with those from a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid to test the robustness of estimated source depth and source strength (inferred here to be volume change). We further explore the sensitivity of these parameters to elastic half-space and layered-space models of crustal structure, and the influence of local topography. Because only one satellite look direction is available for most time periods, a variety of models are consistent with our observations. If we assume that inflation is due solely to magmatic intrusion, we can compare the rate of magma intrusion to volcanic extrusion during the decade for which data is available and the longer-term geologic rate. For the last decade, the ratio of volume intruded to extruded is between about 1-10, which agrees with previous geologic estimates in this and other volcanic arcs. The combined rate of intrusion and extrusion is within an order of magnitude of the inferred geologic rate.

  10. Multi-criteria correlation of tephra deposits to source centres applied in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jenni L.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Leonard, Graham S.; Timm, Christian; McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2017-07-01

    Linking tephras back to their source centre(s) in volcanic fields is crucial not only to reconstruct the eruptive history of the volcanic field but also to understand tephra dispersal patterns and thus the potential hazards posed by a future eruption. Here we present a multi-disciplinary approach to correlate distal basaltic tephra deposits from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) to their source centres using proximal whole-rock geochemical signatures. In order to achieve these correlations, major and trace element tephra-derived glass compositions are compared with published and newly obtained whole-rock geochemical data for the entire field. The results show that incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. (Gd/Yb)N, (La/Yb)N, (Zr/Yb)N) vary widely across the AVF (e.g. (La/Yb)N = 5 to 40) but show a more restricted range within samples from a single volcanic centre (e.g. (La/Yb)N = 5 to 10). These ratios are also the least affected by fractional crystallisation and are therefore the most appropriate geochemical tools for correlation between tephra and whole-rock samples. However, findings for the AVF suggest that each volcanic centre does not have a unique geochemical signature in the field as a whole, thus preventing unambiguous correlation of tephras to source centre using geochemistry alone. A number of additional criteria are therefore combined to further constrain the source centres of the distal tephras including age, eruption scale, and location (of centres, and sites where tephra were sampled). The combination of tephrostratigraphy, 40Ar/39Ar dating and morphostratigraphic constraints allow, for the first time, the relative and absolute ordering of 48 of 53 volcanic centres of the Auckland Volcanic Field to be resolved. Eruption frequencies are shown to vary between 0.13 and 1.5 eruptions/kyr and repose periods between individual eruptions vary from <0.1 to 13 kyr, with 23 of the 48 centres shown to have pre-eruptive repose periods of <1000 years. No spatial

  11. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. δ18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic

  12. Phase formation and microstructure evolution of arc ion deposited Cr2AlC coating after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.J.; Qian, Y.H.; Niu, D.; Zhang, M.M.; Liu, Z.M.; Li, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cr 2 AlC coating was prepared by arc ion plating combined with post annealing. ► The coating deposited by arc ion plating without heating was amorphous. ► Amorphous coating transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC after annealing at 620 °C in Ar. - Abstract: Due to the excellent oxidation and hot corrosion resistance and matched thermal expansion coefficient to normal alloys, Cr 2 AlC has potential applications as high-temperature protective coating. In the present work, the preparation of Cr 2 AlC coating has been achieved through cathodic arc deposition method combined with heat post-treatment. It was found that the coating, deposited from Cr 2 AlC compound target in the unintentional heating condition, was amorphous. After annealing at 620 °C in Ar for 20 h, the amorphous Cr–Al–C coating happened to crystallize and transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC as the major phase. It is obvious that the formation temperature of Cr 2 AlC was decreased from about 1050 °C for sintered bulk to around 620 °C for the as-deposited coating, resulting from the homogeneous mixture of the Cr, Al and C at atomic level in the Cr–Al–C coating. Apart from crystalline Cr 2 AlC, the annealed coating also contained AlCr 2 and little Cr 7 C 3 . AlCr 2 formed due to the loss of C during deposition, and little Cr 7 C 3 always existed in the sintered Cr 2 AlC compound target as impurity phase.

  13. Submarine Landslides and Mass-Transport Deposition in the Nankai fore-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Henry, P.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moe, K.; Moore, G. F.; IODP Expedition 333 Scientists

    2011-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence exist for a range of sediment mass movement processes within the shallow megasplay fault zone (MSFZ) area and the adjacent slope basin in the outer fore-arc of the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. Diagnostic features observed in 3-D reflection seismic data and in cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316 document a complex mass movement history spanning at least ˜2.87 million years. Various modes and scales of sediment remobilization can be related to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred and allow integration of knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of submarine landslides into a holistic reconstruction of the tectonostratigraphic evolution. New data from the most-recent Nankai IODP Expedition 333, which drilled and cored a Pleistocene-to-Holocene succession of the slope-basin seaward of the MSFZ, provides unprecedented details on submarine landslide processes occurring over the last Million year. The slope-basin represents the depocentre for downslope sediment transport and is characterized in 3-D reflection seismic data by several mass-transport deposits (MTDs), including an up to 180 m thick MTD. Here we present D/V Chikyu shipboard results and first post cruise results from Site C0018, including litho- bio- magneto- tephra- and stable isotope-stratigraphy, X-ray computed tomography analysis and physical properties data. Six MTDs were identified from visual core description and X-ray CT-scans. The thickest MTD is also the oldest (emplaced between 0.85 and 1.05 Ma) and it coincides with a lithological transition between a sandy turbidite sequence below, and ash-bearing hemipelagites comprising several MTDs above. Deformation styles within the MTD are heterogeneous: intervals of disturbed sediments are interbedded within intervals inferred to retain original, coherent bedding. In three occurrences the base of the MTD is defined by a shear zone within fine-grained sediments

  14. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David I.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Santosh, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is quite evident that it is not anomalous metal transport, nor unique depositional conditions, nor any single factor at the deposit scale, that dictates whether a mineral deposit becomes a giant or not. A hierarchical approach thus is required to progressively examine controlling parameters at successively decreasing scales in the total mineral system to understand the location of giant gold deposits in non-arc environments. For giant orogenic, intrusion-related gold systems (IRGS) and Carlin-type gold deposits and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, there are common factors among all of these at the lithospheric to crustal scale. All are sited in giant gold provinces controlled by complex fundamental fault or shear zones that follow craton margins or, in the case of most Phanerozoic orogenic giants, define the primary suture zones between tectonic terranes. Giant provinces of IRGS, IOCG, and Carlin-type deposits require melting of metasomatized lithosphere beneath craton margins with ascent of hybrid lamprophyric to granitic magmas and associated heat flux to generate the giant province. The IRGS and IOCG deposits require direct exsolution of volatile-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, whereas the association of such melts with Carlin-type ores is more indirect and enigmatic. Giant orogenic gold provinces show no direct relationship to such magmatism, forming from metamorphic fluids, but show an indirect relationship to lamprophyres that reflect the mantle connectivity of controlling first-order structures.

  15. Effects of filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) conditions on photovoltaic TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Seanphinit, N. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Western Digital Thailand Co. Ltd., Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Ruangkul, W. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Titanium dioxide films were synthesized using the FCVAD technique. • Various FCVAD conditions were tested. • The TiO{sub 2} films were characterized. • The FCVAD condition effects on the film characteristics were studied. • The O{sub 2} pressure had the most important effect on the film quality. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films for photovoltaic applications were synthesized using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique. Various deposition conditions were tested for an optimal film formation. The conditions included the oxygen (O{sub 2}) pressure which was varied from a base pressure 10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4}, 10{sup −3}, 10{sup −2} and 10{sup −1} Torr, sample holder bias varied using 0 or −250 V, deposition time varied from 10, 20 to 30 min, and deposition distance varied from 1 to 3 cm. The deposited films were also annealed and compared with unannealed ones. The films under various conditions were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The film transparency increased and thickness decreased to a nanoscale with increasing of the O{sub 2} pressure. The transparent deposited films contained stoichiometric titanium and oxygen under the medium O{sub 2} pressure. The as-deposited films were TiO{sub 2} containing some rutile but no anatase which needed annealing to form.

  16. Tribological properties of duplex MAO/DLC coatings on magnesium alloy using combined microarc oxidation and filtered cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Wang Peng; Hu Litian; Hao Jingcheng

    2007-01-01

    The combined microarc oxidation (MAO) and filtered cathode arc deposition process was used to deposit duplex MAO/DLC coating on AM60B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition of the resulting duplex coating were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological behaviors of the duplex coating were studied by ball-on-disk friction testing. It is found that the Ti-doped DLC thin film could be successfully deposited onto the polished MAO coating. The duplex MAO/DLC coating exhibits a better tribological property than the DLC or MAO monolayer on Mg alloy substrate, owing to the MAO coating served as an intermediate layer provides improved load support for the soft Mg alloy substrate and the DLC top coating exhibits low friction coefficient

  17. Surface hardening of optic materials by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma of arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, A. S.; Bashkov, V. M.; Belyaeva, A. O.; Stepanov, R.; Mironov, Y. M.; Galinovsky, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    This article considers the issue of strengthening of optic materials used in the IR spectrum by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma arc discharge. The report shows results of tests of bare and strengthened optical materials such as BaF2, MgF2, Si, Ge, including the testing of their strength and spectral characteristics. Results for the determination of optical constants for the DLC coatings deposited on substrates of Ge and Si, by using separated plasma, are also presented. Investigations showed that surface hardening of optical materials operable in the IR range, by the deposition of diamond like carbon coating onto their surface, according to this technology, considerably improves operational properties and preserves or improves their optic properties.

  18. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  19. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  20. Mio Pliocene volcaniclastic deposits in the Famatina Ranges, southern Central Andes: A case of volcanic controls on sedimentation in broken foreland basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2006-04-01

    A well-constrained record of Miocene-Pliocene explosive volcanism is preserved within the broken foreland of Western Argentina along the Famatina Ranges. This paper focuses on the volcaniclastic record known as the Río Blanco member of the El Durazno Formation. Three facies can be recognized in the study area: (1) massive tuffs; (2) volcaniclastic conglomerates and (3) pumiceous sandstones. These facies are interpreted as primary pyroclastic flow deposits (ignimbrites) and reworked volcanogenic deposits within interacting volcanic-fluvial depositional systems. Alternation between ignimbrites and volcanogenic sandstones and conglomerates suggest a recurrent pattern of sedimentation related to recurrent volcanic activity. Considering the facies mosaic and relative thicknesses of facies, short periods of syn-eruption sedimentation (volcaniclastic deposits) seem to have been separated by longer inter-eruption periods, where normal stream-flow processes were dominant. The volcaniclastic component decreases up-section, suggesting a gradual reduction in volcanic activity. The mean sedimentation rate of the Río Blanco member is higher (0.44 mm/year) than those obtained for the underlying and overlying units. This increase cannot be fully explained by foreland basement deformation and tectonic loading. Hence, we propose subsidence associated with volcanic activity as the causal mechanism. Volcanism would have triggered additional accommodation space through coeval pyroclastic deposition, modification of the stream equilibrium profile, flexural loading of volcanoes, and thermal processes. These mechanisms may have favored the preservation of volcaniclastic beds in the high-gradient foreland system of Famatina during the Mio-Pliocene. Thus, the Río Blanco member records the response of fluvial systems to large, volcanism-induced sediment loads.

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy Fabricated by Pulsed Plasma Arc Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fujia; Lv, Yaohui; Liu, Yuxin; Xu, Binshi; He, Peng

    Pulsed plasma arc deposition (PPAD) was successfully used to fabricate the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625 samples. The effects of three heat treatment technologies on microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited material were investigated. It was found that the as-deposited structure exhibited homogenous cellular dendrite structure, which grew epitaxially along the deposition direction. Moreover, some intermetallic phases including Laves phase and MC carbides were precipitated in the interdendritic region as a result of Nb segregation. Compared with the as-deposited microstructure, the direct aged (DA) microstructure changed little except the precipitation of hardening phases γ' and γ" (Ni3Nb), which enhanced the hardness and tensile strength. But the plastic property was inferior due to the existence of brittle Laves phase. After solution and aging heat treatment (STA), a large amount of Laves particles in the interdendritic regions were dissolved, resulting in the reduction of Nb segregation and the precipitation of needle-like δ (Ni3Nb) in the interdendritic regions and grain boundaries. The hardness and tensile strength were improved without sacrificing the ductility. By homogenization and STA heat treatment (HSTA), Laves particles were dissolved into the matrix completely and resulted in recrystallized large grains with bands of annealing twins. The primary MC particles and remaining phase still appeared in the matrix and grain boundaries. Compared with the as-deposited sample, the mechanical properties decreased severely as a result of the grain growth coarsening. The failure modes of all the tensile specimens were analyzed with fractography.

  2. Compositional Variations of Paleogene and Neogene Tephra From the Northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepley, F. J., III; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A primary objective of IODP Expedition 351 was to evaluate arc initiation processes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) volcanic arc and its compositional evolution through time. To this end, a single thick section of sediment overlying oceanic crust was cored in the Amami Sankaku Basin where a complete sediment record of arc inception and evolution is preserved. This sediment record includes ash and pyroclasts, deposited in fore-arc, arc, and back-arc settings, likely associated with both the ~49-25 Ma emergent IBM volcanic arc and the evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu volcanic arc. Our goal was to assess the major element evolution of the nascent and evolving IBM system using the temporally constrained record of the early and developing system. In all, more than 100 ash and tuff layers, and pyroclastic fragments were selected from temporally resolved portions of the core, and from representative fractions of the overall core ("core catcher"). The samples were prepared to determine major and minor element compositions via electron microprobe analyses. This ash and pyroclast record will allow us to 1) resolve the Paleogene evolutionary history of the northern IBM arc in greater detail; 2) determine compositional variations of this portion of the IBM arc through time; 3) compare the acquired data to an extensive whole rock and tephra dataset from other segments of the IBM arc; 4) test hypotheses of northern IBM arc evolution and the involvement of different source reservoirs; and 5) mark important stratigraphic markers associated with the Neogene volcanic history of the adjacent evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu arc.

  3. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  4. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q Current injected was

  5. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island...... basalt (La/Nb = 0·8–1·5, La/Ba = 0·05–0·08). The Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic to trachytic rocks range between 0·703813 and 0·703841 (87Sr/86Sr) and 0·512743 and 0·512834 (143Nd/144Nd). Mass-balance and Rayleigh fractionation models support the proposed origin of the trachytes...... that the basaltic lavas originated in the asthenospheric mantle, probably within the spinel stability field and beneath an attenuated continental lithosphere in the back-arc area. The lack of a slab-fluid signature in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field rocks, along with unpublished and published geophysical results...

  6. Influence of bias voltage on properties of AlCrN coatings prepared by cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomello, F.; Sanchette, F.; Schuster, F.; Tabarant, M.; Billard, A.

    2013-01-01

    AlCrN coatings were prepared by vacuum cathodic arc deposition. This low-temperature technique has been chosen due to its versatility, allowing the industrial up-scaling. In this study, the attention was focused on the correlation of the bias voltage with the resulting mechanical-tribological properties. For this purpose, the bias voltage was varied from 0 to -150 V. Indeed, the variation of grain sizes from 24 to 16 nm as well as the residual stresses from -0.68 to -8.94 GPa lead to obtain different mechanical-tribological properties. In this context, the sample deposited at -100 V exhibited an enhanced hardness (50 ± 2 GPa) and an acceptable wear resistance. (authors)

  7. Improving the conductance of ZnO thin film doping with Ti by using a cathodic vacuum arc deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Sen; Lin, Bor-Tsuen; Jean, Ming-Der

    2011-01-01

    The Ti-doped ZnO films compared to un-doped ZnO films were deposited onto Corning XG glass substrates by using a cathodic vacuum arc deposition process in a mixture of oxygen and argon gases. The structural, electrical and optical properties of un-doped and Ti-doped ZnO films have been investigated. When the Ti target power is about 750 W, the incorporation of titanium atoms into zinc oxide films is obviously effective. Additionally, the resistivity of un-doped ZnO films is high and reduces to a value of 3.48 x 10 -3 Ω-cm when Ti is incorporated. The Ti doped in the ZnO films gave rise to the improvement of the conductivity of the films obviously. The Ti-doped ZnO films have > 85% transmittance in a range of 400-700 nm.

  8. Physical-mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N films, deposited from mixed two-component vacuum arc plasma stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, D.S.; Aksenov, I.I.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.; Tolmacheva, G.N.; Yurkov, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-Al-N films were obtained by vacuum arc system equipped with two-channel T-shaped magnetic filter. The films were deposited by mixing of filtered plasma streams from two sources with cathodes made of aluminium and titanium in nitrogen environment. An influence of aluminium concentration and substrate bias on structure, hardness and elastic modulus of deposited films was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and nanoindentation techniques. It was found that coatings with aluminium content in range from 13 to 47 at. % are characterized by cubic nitride based on TiN with NaCl structure. An increase of Al content to 71 at. % leads to the formation of hexagonal AlN-based nitride with wurtzite-like structure. Maximum hardness of 35 GPa is observed in films with 47 at. % aluminium concentration and -100 V substrate bias. Elastic modulus falls off along with increase of Al content and negative substrate bias.

  9. The effect of substrate bias on titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Liang, Hong; Wu, Zhenglong; Wu, Xiangying; Zhang, Huixing

    2013-01-01

    The titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films have been deposited on silicon substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology, the effects of substrate bias on composition, structures and mechanical properties of the films are studied by scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nano-indentation. The results show that the Ti content, deposition rate and hardness at first increase and then decrease with increasing the substrate bias. Maximum hardness of the titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite film is 51 Gpa prepared at −400 V. The hardness enhancement may be attributed to the compressive stress and the fraction of crystalline TiC phase due to ion bombardment

  10. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  11. The Formation of Composite Ti-Al-N Coatings Using Filtered Vacuum Arc Deposition with Separate Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Shulepov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Al-N coatings were deposited on high-speed steel substrates by filtered vacuum arc deposition (FVAD during evaporation of aluminum and titanium cathodes. Distribution of elements, phase composition, and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N coatings were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and nanoindentation, respectively. Additionally, tribological tests and scratch tests of the coatings were performed. The stoichiometry of the coating changes from Ti0.6Al0.4N to Ti0.48Al0.52N with increasing aluminum arc current from 70 A to 90 A, respectively. XRD and TEM showed only face-centered cubic Ti-Al-N phase with preferred orientation of the crystallites in (220 direction with respect to the sample normal and without precipitates of AlN or intermetallics inside the coatings. Incorporation of Al into the TiN lattice caused shifting of the (220 reflex to a higher 2θ angle with increasing Al content. Low content and size of microdroplets were obtained using coaxial plasma filters, which provides good mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. The highest value of microhardness (36 GPa and the best wear-resistance were achieved for the coating with higher Al content, thus for Ti0.48Al0.52N. These coatings exhibit good adhesive properties up to 30 N load in the scratch tests.

  12. Analysis on deep metallogenic trace and simulation experiment in xiangshan large-scale volcanic hydrothermal type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengyi; Liu Zhangyue; Wen Zhijian; Du Letian

    2010-01-01

    Based on series experiments on field geologic analysis, and associated with deep metallogenic trace experiment model transformed from establishment of field deep metallogenic trace model, this paper come to the conclusion that distribution coefficients of U and Th first domestic from the magmatic experiment, and then discuss the geochemical behaviors of U, Th, K during magmatic evolution stage. The experiment shows that close relationship between U and Na during the hydrothermal alteration stage; and relationship between U and K during metallogenic stage, which prove that U and K are incompatible and regularity of variation between K and Na. The conclusion of uranium dissolving ability increased accompany with pressure increasing in basement metamorphic rocks and host rocks, is obtained from this experiment, which indicate a good deep metallogenic prospect. Furthermore, Pb, Sr, Nd, He isotopes show that the volcanic rocks and basement rocks are ore source beds; due to the combined functions of volcanic hydrothermal and mantle ichor, uranium undergo multi-migration and enrichment and finally concentrated to large rich deposit. (authors)

  13. Characterization of herbaspirillum- and limnobacter-related strains isolated from young volcanic deposits in miyake-jima island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongsheng; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nanba, Kenji; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The role of microbes in the early development of ecosystems on new volcanic materials seems to be crucial to primary plant succession but is not well characterized. Here we analyzed the bacterial community colonizing 22-year-old volcanic deposits of the Miyake-jima Island (Japan) using culture-based and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods. The majority of 91 bacterial isolates were placed phylogenetically in two clusters (A and B) of the Betaproteobacteria. Cluster A (82% of isolates) was related to the genus Limnobacter and Cluster B (9%) was affiliated with the Herbaspirillum clade. The clone library analysis supported the predominance of Cluster B rather than Cluster A. Strain KP1-50 of Cluster B was able to grow on a mineral medium under an atmosphere of H(2), O(2), and CO(2) (85:5:10), and characterized by its large-subunit gene of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH). In contrast, strains of Cluster A did not grow chemolithoautotrophically with H(2), O(2), and CO(2) but increased their cell biomass with the addition of thiosulfate to the succinate medium, suggesting the use of thiosulfate as an energy source. From phenotypic characterization, it was suggested that the Cluster A and B strains were novel species in the genus Limnobacter and Herbaspirillum, respectively.

  14. Nanašanje trdih zaščitnih prevlek s katodnim lokom: Cathodic arc plasma deposition of hard protective coatings:

    OpenAIRE

    Panjan, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The cathodic arc evaporation process is based upon the vacuum arc, the physics of which is still under investigation. This method is using almost exclusively for the deposition of wear-resistant coatings onto cutting and forming tools. The method is fast, effective, and relatively cost efficient. This paper reviews the arc evaporation process. Naparevanje s katodnim lokom temelji na plazemskem loku, ki ga prižegmo v vakuumu. Postopek se uporablja skoraj izključno za pripravo trdih zaščitni...

  15. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António

    2018-01-01

    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  16. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  17. Quantification of amyloid deposits and oxygen extraction fraction in the brain with multispectral optoacoustic imaging in arcAβ mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruiqing; Vaas, Markus; Rudin, Markus; Klohs, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and vascular dysfunction are important contributors to the pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the spatio-temporal relationship between an altered oxygen metabolism and Aβ deposition in the brain remains elusive. Here we provide novel in-vivo estimates of brain Aβ load with Aβ-binding probe CRANAD-2 and measures of brain oxygen saturation by using multi-spectral optoacoustic imaging (MSOT) and perfusion imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arcAβ mouse models of AD. We demonstrated a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in the cortical region of the arcAβ mice compared to wildtype littermates at 24 months. In addition, we showed proof-of-concept for the detection of cerebral Aβ deposits in brain from arcAβ mice compared to wild-type littermates.

  18. properties of Cr(C,N) hard coatings deposited in Ar-C2H2-N2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, M.; Cekada, M.; Kek, D.; Panjan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties, microstructure and the average chemical composition of Cr(C,N) hard coatings deposited in Ar-C 2 H 2 -N 2 plasma strongly depends on the partial pressure of the reactive gases (N 2 , C 2 H 2 ) and on the type of the deposition equipment. In this study we report on the properties of Cr(C,N) hard coatings deposited by means of the triode ion plating in the BAI 730 apparatus and those prepared by sputter deposition in Balzers Sputron in the pressure range from 0.12 Pa (pure Ar) up to 0.35 Pa with different ratios (0-100%) between C 2 H 2 and N 2 . At first mechanical properties (microhardness and adhesion) of coatings were analyzed on the common way. Internal stress was measured by the radius of substrate curvature. Chemical composition of coatings was analyzed by means of AES while the Raman and XPS spectroscopy was used to determined the nature of carbon bonding in the Cr(C,N) films. Microstructure was determined by XRD as well as by means of TEM and TED. Chemical state of various elements in the coating has been studied by XPS. The ratio of the carbide bond (C-Cr) against the C-C and C-H bonds was calculated. The existence of the graphite phase in some Cr(C,N) coatings was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (Authors)

  19. Vacuum arc plasma deposition of thin titanium dioxide films on silicone elastomer as a functional coating for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudot, Cécile; Kühn, Marvin; Kühn-Kauffeldt, Marina; Schein, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    Silicone elastomer is a promising material for medical applications and is widely used for implants with blood and tissue contact. However, its strong hydrophobicity limits adhesion of tissue cells to silicone surfaces, which can impair the healing process. To improve the biological properties of silicone, a triggerless pulsed vacuum cathodic arc plasma deposition technique was applied to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films onto the surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used for coating characterization. Deposited films were about 150nm thick and exhibited good adhesion to the underlying silicone substrate. Surface wettability and roughness both increased after deposition of the TiO 2 layer. In addition, cell-biological investigations demonstrated that the in-vitro cytocompatibility of TiO 2 -coated samples was greatly improved without impacting silicone's nontoxicity. For validation of use in medical devices, further investigations were conducted and demonstrated stability of surface properties in an aqueous environment for a period of 68days and the coating's resistance to several sterilization methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Siliceous Hydrothermal Breccias in the Genesis of Volcanic Massive Sulphide Deposits - Ancient and Recent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. A.; Barriga, F. J.; Fouquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Siliceous hydrothermal breccias were sampled in two Mid-Atlantic Ridge active sites: Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen. These hydrothermal fields are located in the border of the Azorean plateau, southwest of the Azores islands where the alteration processes affecting basaltic rocks are prominent (Costa et al., 2003). The hydrothermal breccias are genetically related with the circulation of low temperature hydrothermal fluids in diffuse vents. The groundmass of these breccias precipitates from the fluid and consolidates the clastic fragments mostly composed of basalt. The main sources are the surrounding volcanic hills. Breccias are found near hydrothermal vents and may play an important role in the protection of subseafloor hydrothermal deposits forming an impermeable cap due to the high content in siliceous material. The amorphous silica tends to precipitate when the fluid is conductively cooled as proposed by Fouquet et al. (1998) after Fournier (1983). The process evolves gradually from an initial stage where we have just the fragments and circulating seawater. The ascending hydrothermal fluid mixes with seawater, which favours the precipitation of the sulphide components. Sealing of the initially loose fragments begins, the temperature rises below this crust, and the processes of mixing fluid circulation and conductive cooling are simultaneous. At this stage the fluid becomes oversaturated with respect to amorphous silica. This form of silica can precipitate in the open spaces of the porous sulphides and seal the system. Normally this can happen at low temperatures. At this stage the hydrothermal breccia is formed creating a progressively less permeable, eventually impermeable cap rock at the surface. Once the fluid is trapped under this impermeable layer, conductive cooling is enhanced and mixing with seawater is restricted, making the precipitation of amorphous silica more efficient. Since the first discovery and description of recent mineralized submarine

  1. Crustal Seismicity and Geomorphic Observations of the Chiripa-Haciendas Fault System: The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Western Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Araya, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been shown that contemporary northwest motion of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica reflects a tectonic sliver that includes much of the upper-plate arc, referred to as the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver (GVAS). Here we characterize historical seismicity and geomorphic expressions of faults that define the northeastern margin of the GVAS. Several crustal earthquakes and their aftershocks provide constraints on the geometry and/or kinematics of the fault system. These include the Armenia earthquake of July 12, 2011, the Bijagua earthquake of January 27, 2002, the Tilarán earthquake of April 13, 1973 and two much older events. We summarize these earthquakes in the context of recent fault mapping and focal mechanism solutions, and suggest that most of the deformation can be explained by slip on steeply dipping NW-striking fault planes accommodating dextral slip. Streams that cross the major fault traces we have mapped also show deflections consistent with dextral slip. These include map-view apparent offsets of 6.5 km for the Haciendas River, 1.0 km for the Orosi River and 0.6 km for the Pizote River. Although preservation is poor, we document stream terrace risers that reveal truncations and/or offsets consistent with dextral slip. Additional constraints on the fault system are apparent as it is traced into Lake Nicaragua. Previous workers have shown that earthquake clusters accommodate a combination of dextral slip on NW-strike faults and sinistral slip NE-strike faults, the latter described as part of a system of bookshelf fault blocks. Whether the northeastern margin of the GVAS under Lake Nicaragua is a single fault strand or an array of bookshelf blocks remains an open question. An equally important gap in our understanding is the kinematic link of the fault system to the east where the GVAS originates. Our results set the stage for expanded studies that will be essential to understanding the relative contributions of Cocos Ridge collision and

  2. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  3. Multiple sources of selenium in ancient seafloor hydrothermal systems: Compositional and Se, S, and Pb isotopic evidence from volcanic-hosted and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits of the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Scott, Steven D.; Cousens, Brian; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2013-09-01

    Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide (VSHMS; i.e., hosted by both volcanic and sedimentary rocks) deposits in the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada, provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of seafloor and sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes on the formation of Se-poor (GP4F VHMS deposit; 7 ppm Se average), intermediate (Kudz Ze Kayah—KZK VHMS deposit; 200 ppm Se average), and Se-enriched (Wolverine VSHMS deposit; 1100 ppm Se average) mineralization. All three deposits are hosted by mid-Paleozoic (˜360-346 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks, but only the Wolverine deposit has voluminous coeval carbonaceous argillites (black shales) in the host rock package. Here we report the first application of Se isotope analyses to ancient seafloor mineralization and use these data, in conjunction with Pb and S isotope analyses, to better understand the source(s) and depositional process(es) of Se within VHMS and VSHMS systems. The wide range of δ82Se (-10.2‰ to 1.3‰, relative to NIST 3149), δ34S (+2.0‰ to +12.8‰ CDT), and elevated Se contents (up to 5865 ppm) within the Wolverine deposit contrast with the narrower range of δ82Se (-3.8‰ to -0.5‰), δ34S (9.8‰ to 13.0‰), and lower Se contents (200 ppm average) of the KZK deposit. The Wolverine and KZK deposits have similar sulfide depositional histories (i.e., deposition at the seafloor, with concomitant zone refining). The Se in the KZK deposit is magmatic (leaching or degassing) in origin, whereas the Wolverine deposit requires an additional large isotopically negative Se source (i.e. ˜-15‰ δ82Se). The negative δ82Se values for the Wolverine deposit are at the extreme light end for measured terrestrial samples, and the lightest observed for hypogene sulfide minerals, but are within calculated equilibrium values of δ82Se relative to NIST 3149 (˜30‰ at 25 °C between SeO4 and Se2-). We propose that the most negative Se isotope values at the

  4. Nanodiamond embedded ta-C composite film by pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition from a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ajai; Etula, Jarkko; Ge, Yanling; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Detonation Nanodiamonds (DNDs) are known to have sp3 core, sp2 shell, small size (few nm) and are gaining importance as multi-functional nanoparticles. Diverse methods have been used to form composites, containing detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) embedded in conductive and dielectric matrices for various applications. Here we show a method, wherein DND-ta-C composite film, consisting of DNDs embedded in ta-C matrix have been co-deposited from the same cathode by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis of these films revel the presence of DNDs embedded in the matrix of amorphous carbon. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the presence of DNDs does not adversely affect the sp3 content of DND-ta-C composite film compared to ta-C film of same thickness. Nanoindentation and nanowear tests indicate that DND-ta-C composite films possess improved mechanical properties in comparison to ta-C films of similar thickness.

  5. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  6. Mo-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon deposited by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc with selective pulsed bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Intarasiri, Saweat; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Anders, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were produced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma sources operated in sequentially pulsed mode. Negatively pulsed bias was applied to the substrate when carbon plasma was generated, whereas it was absent when the molybdenum plasma was presented. Film thickness was measured after deposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver pads were used as substrates for the measurement of the sheet resistance. The microstructure and composition of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It was found that the electrical resistivity decreases with an increase of the Mo content, which can be ascribed to an increase of the sp 2 content and an increase of the sp 2 cluster size

  7. Effects of hydrogenation on thermal conductivity of ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon composite films prepared via coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Tabara, Mitsuru; Kawawaki, Shuichi; Kohno, Masamichi; Takahashi, Koji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) composite (UNCD/a-C:H) and UNCD/non-hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were prepared via coaxial arc plasma deposition, and their thermal conductivity and interfacial conductance in grain boundaries were measured using a time-domain thermoreflectance method. The interfacial conductance was estimated to be 1,010 and 4,892 MW/(m2·K) for UNCD/a-C:H and UNCD/a-C films, respectively. The reasons for the hydrogenated film having lower interfacial conductance than the non-hydrogenated film are 1) the reduced number of carriers that contribute to heat transport and 2) the hydrogen atoms, which are preferentially located at the grain boundaries and enhance phonon scattering.

  8. Spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits of 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Patagonia as measured by a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easdale, M. H.; Bruzzone, O.

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash fallout is a recurrent environmental disturbance in forests, arid and semi-arid rangelands of Patagonia, South America. The ash deposits over large areas are responsible for several impacts on ecological processes, agricultural production and health of local communities. Public policy decision making needs monitoring information of the affected areas by ash fallout, in order to better orient social, economic and productive aids. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of volcanic ash deposits from the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in 2011, by identifying a sudden change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) temporal dynamics, defined as a perturbation located in the time series. We applied a sparse-wavelet transform using the Basis Pursuit algorithm to NDVI time series obtained from the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, to identify perturbations at a pixel level. The spatial distribution of the perturbation promoted by ash deposits in Patagonia was successfully identified and characterized by means of a perturbation in NDVI temporal dynamics. Results are encouraging for the future development of a new platform, in combination with data from forecasting models and tracking of ash cloud trajectories and dispersion, to inform stakeholders to mitigate impact of volcanic ash on agricultural production and to orient public intervention strategies after a volcanic eruption followed by ash fallout over a wide region.

  9. Spatial distribution of damage around faults in the Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Utah: A mechanical analog for faulting in pyroclastic deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic ash is thought to comprise a large fraction of the Martian equatorial layered deposits and much new insight into the process of faulting and related fluid flow in these deposits can be gained through the study of analogous terrestrial tuffs. This study identifies a set of fault-related processes that are pertinent to understanding the evolution of fault systems in fine-grained, poorly indurated volcanic ash by investigating exposures of faults in the Miocene-aged Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Utah. The porosity and granularity of the host rock are found to control the style of localized strain that occurs prior to and contemporaneous with faulting. Deformation bands occur in tuff that was porous and granular at the time of deformation, while fractures formed where the tuff lost its porous and granular nature due to silicic alteration. Non-localized deformation of the host rock is also prominent and occurs through compaction of void space, including crushing of pumice clasts. Significant off-fault damage of the host rock, resembling fault pulverization, is recognized adjacent to one analog fault and may reflect the strain rate dependence of the resulting fault zone architecture. These findings provide important new guidelines for future structural analyses and numerical modeling of faulting and subsurface fluid flow through volcanic ash deposits on Mars.

  10. Evidence for Slab Melt Contributions to the Mexican Volcanic Belt and Other Young Hot Slab Arcs from Lu-Hf Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Cai, Y. M.; Langmuir, C. H.; Lagatta, A.; Straub, S. M.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Martin Del Pozzo, A.

    2007-12-01

    Despite major advances in delineating the processes that govern magma generation at convergent margins, the problem persists of distinguishing slab, mantle wedge, and crustal contributions. A corrollary question is whether there is significant melting of subducted ocean crust. Especially in thick crust regions, the importance of crustal versus mantle contributions to lavas represents a long-standing fundamental issue in arc magma geochemistry. We show that frontal arc magmas from the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt (CMVB), including the large andesitic stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, display negligible crustal contamination, and contain substantial contributions from melting of subducted Pacific ocean crust. Despite ca. 50 km thick continental crust, the CMVB erupts near primitive lavas including "high-Nb" alkaline basalts that show negligible "subduction signatures" in their trace element patterns. These "high-Nb" basalts define the regional mantle wedge composition in isotope-trace element space. The "normal" calcalkaline lavas form a negative correlation between Hf isotopes and Lu/Hf. One endmember is like the high Nb basalts representing the regional mantle wedge. The other endmember has higher Hf isotopes (approaching values of Pacific MORB) and very low Lu/Hf of less than 0.04 (e.g. compared to typical values of ca. 0.2 in Pacific MORB). The low Lu/Hf values require low degree partial melting of a source rich in garnet. The high Hf isotopes require a depleted mantle source with isotopes like Pacific MORB. Together the Lu-Hf data indicate a substantial component derived from melting of eclogitic Pacific ocean crust. A key feature of the data is that the stratovolcano lavas showing the largest slab melt signature also show the highest Hf isotope ratios and thus are more "depleted mantle-like" than the regional mantle wedge. Thus, the integrated data allow us to clearly distinguish between mantle and crustal sources in the CMVB and point to

  11. Relationship between uranium-molybdenum, fluorite and gold deposits within provinces of continental volcanicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modnikov, I.S.; Skvortsova, K.V.; Chesnokov, L.V.

    1974-01-01

    The article gives a comparative description of and the age relationships between uranium-molybdenum, gold and fluorite mineralizations in the areas of development of adhesite-diorite and liparite-granite vulcanoplutonic formations, which are most fully and intensively manifest in the intra-anticlinal and median blocks of folded regions in the final stages of geosynclinal development or during the final stages of tectono-magmatic activation. These formations usually fill vulcano-tectonic depression structures - overlaid troughs and inherited delections. The geological and geochemical data are evidence of the close temporal link between the hydrothermal process of ore formation and the type and scale of manifestations of the vulcano-plutonic magmatism that is responsible for the general geochemical features of the ores of deposits of various types. The formation of gold, fluorite and uranium-molybdenum deposits occurred immediately after the completion of effusive and intrusive magmatism during a single metallogenic cycle. The spatial distribution of the ore fields and deposits depends chiefly on the peculiarities of the tectonic make-up of the depression structures, and also on the type and scale of the manifestations of vulcano-plutonic magmatism. (B.Ya.)

  12. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO{sub 2} nano particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Masood [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  13. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO2 nano particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh; Aghakhani, Masood

    2015-01-01

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO 2 nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  14. IODP Expedition 351 Lithostratigraphy: Volcaniclastic Record of Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Li, H.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Tepley, F. J., III; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The destruction of lithospheric plates by subduction is a fundamentally important process leading to arc magmatism and the creation of continental crust, yet subduction initiation and early magmatic arc evolution remain poorly understood. For many arc systems, onset of arc volcanism and early evolution are obscured by metamorphism or the record is deeply buried; however, initial products of arc systems may be preserved in forearc and backarc sedimentary records. IODP Expedition 351 recovered this history from the dispersed ash and pyroclast record in the proximal rear-arc of the northern IBM system west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Drilling at Site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin recovered a thick volcaniclastic record of subduction initiation and the early evolution of the Izu-Bonin Arc. A 160-m thick section of Neogene sediment overlies 1.3 kilometers of Paleogene volcaniclastic rocks with andesitic average composition; this volcaniclastic section was deposited on mafic volcanic basement rocks. The thin upper sediment layer is primarily terrigenous, biogenic and volcaniclastic mud and ooze with interspersed ash layers. The underlying Eocene to Oligocene volcaniclastic rocks are 33% tuffaceous mudstone, 61% tuffaceous sandstone, and 6% conglomerate with volcanic and rare sedimentary clasts commonly up to pebble and rarely to cobble size. The clastic section is characterized by repetitive conglomerate and sandstone-dominated intervals with intervening mudstone-dominated intervals, reflecting waxing and waning of coarse arc-derived sediment inputs through time. Volcanic lithic clasts in sandstones and conglomerates range from basalt to rhyolite in composition and include well-preserved pumice, reflecting a lithologically diverse and compositionally variable arc volcanic source.

  15. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  16. Nanomechanical properties of TiCN and TiCN/Ti coatings on Ti prepared by Filtered Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Hailiang; Kiet Tieu, A.; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Hongtao; Kong, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer TiCN and multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings were deposited on the surface of Ti using the Filtered Arc Deposition System (FADS). Nanoindentation tests were performed on both coatings. The multilayer TiCN/Ti coating exhibited better ductility than the monolayer TiCN coating. The lattice constants of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the fracture behavior of the coatings. Inter-columnar, inclined and lateral cracks were found to be the dominant crack modes in the monolayer TiCN coatings while small bending crack and radial crack were the dominant crack modes in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the indentation process. It was found that the Ti interlayer in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating could efficiently suppress the fracture, which is responsible for the improved ductility of the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating

  17. Osteoblast Adhesion on Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposited Nano-Multilayered TiCrAlSiN Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong Hung [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-03-15

    Adhesion of osteoblast cells to TiCrAlSiN thin films was evaluated in vitro. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films were deposited on glass substrates by cathodic arc deposition. Surface roughness and chemistry of the TiCrAlSiN thin films was characterized by AFM and EPMA, respectively. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films and glass coverslips were cultured with human osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19). The cell cytoskeleton was analyzed by observing the organization of actin stress fibers and microtubules. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and visualization. Focal contact adhesion was studied by observing the vinculin density. The results indicated that the TiCrAlSiN coating significantly influenced the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule organization. Human osteoblasts hFOB attached and proliferated better on TiCrAlSiN thin films with more focal contact adhesions than on Ti thin films or glass surfaces. These results suggest that TiCrAlSiN thin films can be an implantable material where the maximum cell adhesion is required.

  18. Formation of a spatter-rich pyroclastic density current deposit in a Neogene sequence of trachytic-mafic igneous rocks at Mason Spur, Erebus volcanic province, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Smellie, J. L.; Cooper, A. F.; Townsend, D. B.

    2018-01-01

    Erosion has revealed a remarkable section through the heart of a volcanic island, Mason Spur, in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, including an unusually well-exposed section of caldera fill. The near-continuous exposure, 10 km laterally and > 1 km vertically, cuts through Cenozoic alkalic volcanic rocks of the Erebus volcanic province (McMurdo Volcanic Group) and permits the study of an ancient volcanic succession that is rarely available due to subsequent burial or erosion. The caldera filling sequence includes an unusual trachytic spatter-rich lapilli tuff (ignimbrite) facies that is particularly striking because of the presence of abundant black fluidal, dense juvenile spatter clasts of trachytic obsidian up to 2 m long supported in a pale cream-coloured pumiceous lapilli tuff matrix. Field mapping indicates that the deposit is an ignimbrite and, together with petrological considerations, it is suggested that mixing of dense spatter and pumiceous lapilli tuff in the investigated deposit occurred during emplacement, not necessarily in the same vent, with the mixed fragmental material emplaced as a pyroclastic density current. Liquid water was not initially present but a steam phase was probably generated during transport and may represent water ingested during passage of the current as it passed over either wet ground, stream, shallow lake or (possibly) snow. Well-exposed caldera interiors are uncommon and that at Mason Spur is helping understand eruption dynamics associated with a complex large island volcano. The results of our study should help to elucidate interpretations of other, less well exposed, pyroclastic density current deposits elsewhere in Antarctica and globally.

  19. Radioisotope distribution characteristics of the groundwater system in volcanic-type U deposits and isotope-dating estimation of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingguan

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of groundwater sample measurements collected from the uranogenic belt of Mesozoic volcanic rocks in East China, the distribution characteristics of radioisotopes, including the total U content (CΣu), the activity of nuclides (Aui) or their activity ratio (ARu) and the relationship among the three ((Aui,ARu)=f(CΣu)), have been studied. Also, it is performed for radioactive water halos in the area to be divided into four various mineralization tendencies: (1) the convergent tendency of negative correlation, which has the genetic relationship with the primary U accumulation in volcanic rocks; (2) the scattered tendency of positive correlation, which is intimately related to epigenetic U mineralization in the supergene zone of volcanic rocks or in the sandstones; (3) the both positive and negative multiple-correlative tendency, which indicates that the primary volcanic-type U deposit has been leached and destroyed, and the secondary U enrichment has occurred within the supergene zone; (4) non-correlative tendency, which mainly results from increasing dispersion U. For the above recognitions, an evolution model for radioactive water halos related to this type of U deposit has been derived, and an attempt to estimate the radioisotopic age of the groundwater system also has been made. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  20. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how subduction zones initiate and continental crust forms in intraoceanic arcs requires knowledge of the inception and evolution of a representative intraoceanic arc, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system. This can be obtained by exploring regions adjacent to an arc, where unequivocal pre-arc crust overlain by undisturbed arc-derived materials exists. IODP Exp. 351 (June-July 2014) specifically targeted evidence for the earliest evolution of the IBM system following inception. Site U1438 (4711 m water depth) is located in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB), west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a paleo-IBM arc. Primary objectives of Exp. 351 were: 1) determine the nature of the crust and mantle pre-existing the IBM arc; 2) identify and model the process of subduction initiation and initial arc crust formation; 3) determine the compositional evolution of the IBM arc during the Paleogene; 4) establish geophysical properties of the ASB. Seismic reflection profiles indicate a ~1.3 km thick sediment layer overlying ~5.5 km thick igneous crust, presumed to be oceanic. This igneous crust seemed likely to be the basement of the IBM arc. Four holes were cored at Site U1438 spanning the entire sediment section and into basement. The cored interval comprises 5 units: uppermost Unit I is hemipelagic sediment with intercalated ash layers, presumably recording explosive volcanism mainly from the Ryukyu and Kyushu arcs; Units II and III host a series of volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits, likely recording the magmatic history of the IBM Arc from arc initiation until 25 Ma; Siliceous pelagic sediment (Unit IV) underlies these deposits with minimal coarse-grained sediment input and may pre-date arc initiation. Sediment-basement contact occurs at 1461 mbsf. A basaltic lava flow section dominantly composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare chilled margins continues to the bottom of the Site (1611 mbsf). The expedition successfully recovered pre-IBM Arc

  1. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  2. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Zircons from the IODP Site U1437 in the Rear of the Izu-Bonin Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Schmitt, A. K.; Busby, C. J.; Brown, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Zircons recovered from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 350 Site U1437 (31°47.390'N, 139°01.580'E) in the Izu-Bonin arc were analyzed by SIMS to constrain their age (U/Pb geochronology) and geochemistry (trace elements, δ18O); LA-ICP-MS ɛHf analyses are pending. Seven intervals were dated successfully: six tuffs and lapilli-tuffs between 680.99 and 1722.46 m below sea floor (mbsf) and a single peperitic rhyolitic intrusion at 1388.86 - 1390.07 mbsf. Thirty-two intervals which underwent mineral separation lacked zircon, or yielded zircon much older than age expectations for U1437. Geochronology results from separated zircons confirm and extend the shipboard age model to 1360.77 mbsf where Late Miocene (Tortonian) submarine volcanic rocks (11.3 ±0.7 Ma; n = 17) were sampled. In-situ measurement of zircons associated with magnetite crystals in the rhyolite intrusion yield an age of 13.6 ±1.7 Ma (n = 9). Zircon U contents are low (typically <300 ppm), with trace element ratios characteristic of oceanic lithosphere and near-mantle δ18O values (4-6 ‰). Individual Miocene zircon crystals are difficult to distinguish by age alone from those in the drilling mud (sepiolite) used during Expedition 350; the sepiolite is quarried by IMV Nevada in the Amargosa Valley. Our analysis of thirty-three zircons from the sepiolite finds that they have a broad and varied age distribution (2 - 2033 Ma) with a prominent peak at 12-14 Ma, bimodal δ18O values (peaks at 5-5.5 and 6.5-7.5 ‰), and dominantly continental trace element signatures. Three zircons from U1437 are tentatively identified as sepiolite-derived, but a single Eocene grain (51.7 ±2.4 Ma) recovered from 1722.46 mbsf has an age unlike those in the sepiolite, and potentially is genuinely xenocrystic. The majority of U1437 zircons thus crystallized from evolved melts lacking continental characteristics, although thermal and compositional conditions conducive for zircon crystallization appear to have

  3. Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, O.S.; Khan, Mohd. Alim; Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M.; Satyanarayana, B.S.; Dixit, P.N.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Khan, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The application of a sufficiently high negative substrate bias, during the growth of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), is usually associated with low sp 3 bonding configuration and stressed films. However, in an effort to understand and utilize the higher pseudo thermo dynamical conditions during the film growth, at high negative substrate bias (- 300 V), reported here is a study on ta-C films grown under different hydrogen and nitrogen concentration. As grown ta-C films were studied under different negative substrate bias conditions. The variation of the sp 3 content and sp 3 /sp 2 ratio in the ta-C films exhibits a trend similar to those reported in literature, with a subtle variation in this report being the substrate bias voltage, which was observed to be around - 200 V, for obtaining the highest sp 3 (80%) bonding and sp 3 /sp 2 (3.95) ratio. The hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films studied, at a bias of - 300 V, show an increase in sp 3 (87-91%) bonding and sp 3 /sp 2 (7-10) ratio in the range of studies reported. The inference is drawn on the basis of the set of data obtained from measurements carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc system. The study indicates the possibility of further tailoring ta-C film properties and also extending capabilities of the cathodic arc system for developing carbon based films for electronics and tribological applications

  4. Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India)], E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Khan, Mohd. Alim [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M. [Surface Physics and Nanostructures Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Satyanarayana, B.S. [MIT Innovation Centre and Electronics and Communication Department, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal-579104 (India); Dixit, P.N. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Bhattacharyya, R. [Emeritus Scientist, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Khan, M.Y. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2008-02-29

    The application of a sufficiently high negative substrate bias, during the growth of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), is usually associated with low sp{sup 3} bonding configuration and stressed films. However, in an effort to understand and utilize the higher pseudo thermo dynamical conditions during the film growth, at high negative substrate bias (- 300 V), reported here is a study on ta-C films grown under different hydrogen and nitrogen concentration. As grown ta-C films were studied under different negative substrate bias conditions. The variation of the sp{sup 3} content and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio in the ta-C films exhibits a trend similar to those reported in literature, with a subtle variation in this report being the substrate bias voltage, which was observed to be around - 200 V, for obtaining the highest sp{sup 3} (80%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (3.95) ratio. The hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films studied, at a bias of - 300 V, show an increase in sp{sup 3} (87-91%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (7-10) ratio in the range of studies reported. The inference is drawn on the basis of the set of data obtained from measurements carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc system. The study indicates the possibility of further tailoring ta-C film properties and also extending capabilities of the cathodic arc system for developing carbon based films for electronics and tribological applications.

  5. Prospecting ideas for mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits in South China. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    2001-01-01

    The Mesozoic uranium ore-formation process in South China resulted from the intense volcanic magmatism, the crust-mantle interaction and the fluidization in Yanshanian period, and there is great prospect for large-scale uranium concentration and ore-formation. Therefore, during the prospecting for Mesozoic granite-type, volcanics-type and exo-contact-type uranium deposits it is necessary to introduce deep-source metallogenic theory, to 'desalt' metallogenic theory of epithermal activation, to fully realize that uranium deposits may be formed not only at shallow depth, but also in conditions of deep-source, great depth and high temperature, as well as in environments of deep-source, shallow depth and median temperature, to give emphasis to the early-stage (130-95 Ma) uranium mineralization, to break the man-made boundary in prospecting for uranium only based on host rock type, to strengthen the research on Cretaceous magmatic system

  6. Numerical Prediction of the Influence of Process Parameters on Large Area Diamond Deposition by DC Arcjet with ARC Roots Rotating and Operating at Gas Recycling Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F. X.; Huang, T. B.; Tang, W. Z.; Song, J. H.; Tong, Y. M.

    A computer model have been set up for simulation of the flow and temperature field, and the radial distribution of atomic hydrogen and active carbonaceous species over a large area substrate surface for a new type dc arc plasma torch with rotating arc roots and operating at gas recycling mode A gas recycling radio of 90% was assumed. In numerical calculation of plasma chemistry, the Thermal-Calc program and a powerful thermodynamic database were employed. Numerical calculations to the computer model were performed using boundary conditions close to the experimental setup for large area diamond films deposition. The results showed that the flow and temperature field over substrate surface of Φ60-100mm were smooth and uniform. Calculations were also made with plasma of the same geometry but no arc roots rotation. It was clearly demonstrated that the design of rotating arc roots was advantageous for high quality uniform deposition of large area diamond films. Theoretical predictions on growth rate and film quality as well as their radial uniformity, and the influence of process parameters on large area diamond deposition were discussed in detail based on the spatial distribution of atomic hydrogen and the carbonaceous species in the plasma over the substrate surface obtained from thermodynamic calculations of plasma chemistry, and were compared with experimental observations.

  7. Electromagnetic signal penetration in a planetary soil simulant: Estimated attenuation rates using GPR and TDR in volcanic deposits on Mount Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Cosciotti, B.; Di Paolo, F.; Arcone, S. A.; Viccaro, M.; Pettinelli, E.

    2017-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a well-established geophysical terrestrial exploration method and has recently become one of the most promising for planetary subsurface exploration. Several future landing vehicles like EXOMARS, 2020 NASA ROVER, and Chang'e-4, to mention a few, will host GPR. A GPR survey has been conducted on volcanic deposits on Mount Etna (Italy), considered a good analogue for Martian and Lunar volcanic terrains, to test a novel methodology for subsoil dielectric properties estimation. The stratigraphy of the volcanic deposits was investigated using 500 MHz and 1 GHz antennas in two different configurations: transverse electric and transverse magnetic. Sloping discontinuities have been used to estimate the loss tangents of the upper layer of such deposits by applying the amplitude-decay and frequency shift methods and approximating the GPR transmitted signal by Gaussian and Ricker wavelets. The loss tangent values, estimated using these two methodologies, were compared and validated with those retrieved from time domain reflectometry measurements acquired along the radar profiles. The results show that the proposed analysis, together with typical GPR methods for the estimation of the real part of permittivity, can be successfully used to characterize the electrical properties of planetary subsurface and to define some constraints on its lithology of the subsurface.

  8. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Correlation and stratigraphic eruption age of the pyroclastic flow deposits and wide spread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Pliocene-Pleistocene strata, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2000-01-01

    Three pyroclastic flow deposits in the Takayama and Omine area, central Honshu, are correlated to the distal widespread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Plio-Pleistocene boundary strata in central Japan. The correlation is based on these stratigraphic relationships, facies, magnetostratigraphy, petrographic properties such as mineral assemblage, refractive index and chemical composition of the volcanic glasses and orthopyroxene. As the result of these correlation, the eruption age of the proximal pyroclastic flow deposits have become clear. And precise correlation between proximal eruption units and distal depositional units is now possible. Ho-Kd 39 Tephra erupted at about 1.76 Ma, forming a co-ignimbrite ash, which deposited in the Kanto sedimentary basin. Eb-Fukuda Tephra erupted at about 1.75 Ma, and distal volcaniclastic deposit sedimented in the Kinki, Niigata and Kanto sedimentary basins. The eruptional and depositional phase are divided into the stage 1, stage 2 (early), stage 2 (late) and stage 3. Stage 1 is phreato-plinian type eruption phase, forming distal ash fall deposit. Stage 2 (early) is plinian pumice fall, intra-plinian pyroclastic flow and plinian pumice fall eruption phase, forming distal ash fall. Stage 2 (late) is final eruptional phase of the biggest pyroclastic flow of the Eb-Fukuda Tephra, forming a co-ignimbrite ash fall. Stage 3 is resedimented stage after the end of the explosive eruption. It is notable that resedimented volcaniclastic deposit reached Osaka sedimentary basin 300 km away from the eruption center. Om-SK110 Tephra erupted at about 1.65 Ma, divided into the stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3. Stage 1 is eruption phase of the plinian pumice fall and first pyroclastic flow. Stage 2 is pauses in eruption activity. Stage 3 is second pyroclastic flow phase, it is inferred that the pyroclastic flow of the stage 3 directly entered the Niigata sedimentary basin and simultaneously formed a co-ignimbrite ash. (author)

  10. Annealing effect of thermal spike in MgO thin film prepared by cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daoyun, E-mail: zhudy@gdut.edu.cn [Experiment Teaching Department, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhao, Shoubai [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510400 (China); Zheng, Changxi; Chen, Dihu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); He, Zhenhui, E-mail: stshzh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2013-12-16

    MgO films were prepared by using pulsed cathodic vacuum arc deposition technique. The substrate bias voltage was in the range of −150 to −750 V. Film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The annealing effect of thermal spike produced by the impacting of energetic ions was analyzed. The calculated results showed that the lifetime of a thermal spike generated by an energetic ion with the energy of 150 eV was less than one picosecond and it was sufficient to allow Mg{sup 2+} or O{sup 2-} to move one bond length to satisfy the intrinsic stress relief in the affected volume. The MgO(200) lattice spacings of the films deposited at different bias voltages were all larger than the ideal value of 2.1056 Å. As the bias amplitude increased the lattice spacing decreased, which indicated that the compressive stress in the film was partially relieved with increasing impacting ion energy. The stress relief also could be reflected from the film orientation with bias voltage. The biaxial elastic modulus for MgO(100), MgO(110) and MgO(111) planes were calculated and they were M{sub (100)} = 199 GPa, M{sub (110)} = 335 GPa and M{sub (111)} = 340 GPa, respectively. The M values indicated that the preferred orientation will be MgO(200) due to the minimum energy configuration when the lattice strain was large. It was confirmed by the XRD results in our experiments. - Highlights: • MgO thin films with preferred orientation were obtained by CVAD technique. • Annealing effect of a thermal spike in MgO film was discussed. • Lattice spacing of MgO film decreased with the increase of bias voltage. • Film preferred orientation changed from (200) to (220) as the bias voltage increased.

  11. Characterization of unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units using matrix properties and depositional history in a complex volcanic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Buesch, David C.; Flint, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the physical and unsaturated hydrologic properties of subsurface materials is necessary to calculate flow and transport for land use practices and to evaluate subsurface processes such as perched water or lateral diversion of water, which are influenced by features such as faults, fractures, and abrupt changes in lithology. Input for numerical flow models typically includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all materials in the unsaturated zone, such as bulk density, porosity, and particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture-retention characteristics, and field water content. We describe an approach for systematically evaluating the site features that contribute to water flow, using physical and hydraulic data collected at the laboratory scale, to provide a representative set of physical and hydraulic parameters for numerically calculating flow of water through the materials at a site. An example case study from analyses done for the heterogeneous, layered, volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain is presented, but the general approach for parameterization could be applied at any site where depositional processes follow deterministic patterns. Hydrogeologic units at this site were defined using (i) a database developed from 5320 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow (deep (500–1000 m) boreholes, (ii) lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (iii) transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (iv) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (v) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. Model parameters developed in this study, and the relation of flow properties to porosity, can be used to produce detailed and accurate

  12. High-Temperature Oxidation and Smelt Deposit Corrosion of Ni-Cr-Ti Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-08-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-sprayed coatings have been extensively applied to mitigate corrosion in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. In a previous article, the effects of key spray parameters on the coating's microstructure and its composition were investigated. Three coating microstructures were selected from that previous study to produce a dense, oxidized coating (coating A), a porous, low oxide content coating (coating B), and an optimized coating (coating C) for corrosion testing. Isothermal oxidation trials were performed in air at 550 and 900 °C for 30 days. Additional trials were performed under industrial smelt deposits at 400 and 800 °C for 30 days. The effect of the variation in coating microstructure on the oxidation and smelt's corrosion response was investigated through the characterization of the surface corrosion products, and the internal coating microstructural developments with time at high temperature. The effect of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the interaction between the coating and substrate was characterized, and the mechanism of interdiffusion was discussed.

  13. Fabrication of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon film by filtered arc deposition as conductive hard-coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Imai, Takahiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yushi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Habuchi, Hitoe; Kiyohara, Shuji; Ito, Mikio; Yick, Sam; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Phil

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, which are amorphous carbon films, have been used as hard-coating films for protecting the surface of mechanical parts. Nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) films are expected as conductive hard-coating materials. N-DLC films are expected in applications such as protective films for contact pins, which are used in the electrical check process of integrated circuit chips. In this study, N-DLC films are prepared using the T-shaped filtered arc deposition (T-FAD) method, and film properties are investigated. Film hardness and film density decreased when the N content increased in the films because the number of graphite structures in the DLC film increased as the N content increased. These trends are similar to the results of a previous study. The electrical resistivity of N-DLC films changed from 0.26 to 8.8 Ω cm with a change in the nanoindentation hardness from 17 to 27 GPa. The N-DLC films fabricated by the T-FAD method showed high mechanical hardness and low electrical resistivity.

  14. Petrography of the Paleogene Volcanic Rocks of the Sierra Maestra, Southeastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a petrographic analysis of over 200 specimens of the Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Sierra Maestra (Southerneastern Cuba), a key structure in the framework of the northern Caribbean plate boundary evolution. The purpose of this study is to understand the eruptive processes and the depositional environments. The volcanic sequence in the lower part of the Sierra Maestra begins with highly porphyritic pillow lavas, topped by massive tuffs and autoclastic flows. The presence of broken phenocrystals, palagonitic glass and hyaloclastites in this section of the sequence suggests that the prevalent mode of eruption was explosive. The absence of welding in the tuffs suggests that the rocks were emplaced in a deep submarine environment. Coherent flows, much less common than the massive tuffs, show evidence of autoclastic fracturing, also indicating low temperature-submarine environments. These observations support the hypothesis that the Sierra Maestra sequence may be neither part of the Great Antilles Arc of the Mesozoic nor any other fully developed volcanic arc, rather a 250 km long, submarine eruptive system of dikes, flows and sills, most likely a back-arc structure. The volcanic rocks of the upper sequence are all very fine grained, reworked volcaniclastic materials, often with the structures of distal turbidities, in mode and texture similar to those drilled on the Cayman Rise. This study suggests that the Sierra Maestra most likely records volcanism of diverse sources: a local older submarine source, and one or more distal younger sources, identifiable with the pan-Caribbean volcanic events of the Tertiary.

  15. Application of sequential fragmentation/transport theory to deposits of 1723 and 1963-65 eruptions of Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica: positive dispersion case and fractal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes, Jose; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of Fragmentation and Sequential Transport (FST) was applied to the granulometric analyzes of the deposits from the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65 of the Volcan Irazu. An appreciable number of cases of positive dispersion was showed, associated in the literature with aggregation processes. A new fractal dimension defined in research has shown to be the product of secondary fragmentation. The application of the new dimension is used in the analyses of the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65. A fractal model of a volcanic activity is formulated for the first time. The Hurst coefficient and the exponent of the law of powers are incorporated. The existence of values of dissidence near zero have been indicators of an effusive process, as would be the lava pools. The results derived from the model were agreed with field observations. (author) [es

  16. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof, E-mail: krzysztof.lukaszkowicz@polsl.pl [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego St. 18A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Sondor, Jozef, E-mail: j.sondor@liss.cz [LISS, a.s., Dopravni 2603, 756 61 Roznov p.R. (Czech Republic); Balin, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.balin@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kubacki, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.kubacki@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of the CrAlSiN + DLC coatings was studied. • The coatings have nanostructural character with fine crystallites. • Their average size grain is less than 10 nm. • The coatings demonstrate friction coefficient within the range 0.05–0.07. • The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate. - Abstract: Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction 〈3 1 1〉 is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  17. Effect of Coating Thickness on the Properties of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A.; Akhter, Parvez; Hamzah, Esah; Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi Hj.; Qazi, Ishtiaq A.

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MDs) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester, and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters: surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion, and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MDs produced during the etching stage, protruded through the TiN film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 μm showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance.

  18. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  19. Deposition of thin layers of boron nitrides and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon assisted by high current direct current arc plasma; Deposition assistee par un plasma a arc a haut courant continu de couches minces de Nitrure de Bore et de Silicium microcristallin hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1999-09-01

    In the frame of this thesis, a high current direct current arc (HCDCA) used for the industrial deposition of diamond, has been adapted to study the deposition of two types of coatings: a) boron nitride, whose cubic phase is similar to diamond, for tribological applications, b) hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon, for applications in the semiconductor fields (flat panel displays, solar cells,...). For the deposition of these coatings, the substrates were placed in the diffusion region of the arc. The substrate heating is mainly due to atomic species recombining on its surface. The deposition temperature, varying from 300 to 900 {sup o}C according to the films deposited, is determined by the substrate position, the arc power and the injected gas fluxes, without the use of any external heating or cooling system. Measurements performed on the arc plasma show that the electronic temperature is around 2 eV (23'000 K) while the gas temperature is lower than 5500 K. Typical electronic densities are in the range of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 1'}3 cm{sup -3}. For the deposition of boron nitride films, different boron precursors were used and a wide parameter range was investigated. The extreme difficulty of synthesising cubic boron nitride films by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) did not allow to stabilize the cubic phase of boron nitride in HCDCA. Coatings resulted in hexagonal or amorphous boron nitride with a chemical composition close to stoichiometric. The presence of hydrogen leads to the deposition of rough and porous films. Negative biasing of the samples, for positive ion bombardment, is commonly used to stabilize the cubic phase. In HCDCA and in our biasing range, only a densification of the films could be observed. A boron nitride deposition plasma study by infrared absorption spectroscopy in a capacitive radio frequency reactor has demonstrated the usefulness of this diagnostic for the understanding of the various chemical reactions which occur in this kind

  20. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical

  1. The 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb dating of young rhyolites in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic complex, Eastern Aegean Arc, Greece: Age discordance due to excess 40Ar in biotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Schoene, B.; Schnyder, C.; Spikings, R.

    2010-08-01

    High-precision dating of Quaternary silicic magmas in the active Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (Aegean Arc, Greece) by both 40Ar/39Ar on biotite and U/Pb on zircon reveals a complex geochronological story. U/Pb ID-TIMS multi and single-grain zircon analyses from 3 different units (Agios Mammas and Zini domes, Kefalos Serie pyroclasts) range in age from 0.3 to 0.5 to 10-20 Ma. The youngest dates provide the maximum eruption age, while the oldest zircons indicate inheritance from local continental crust (Miocene and older). Step-heating 40Ar/39Ar experiments on 1-3 crystals of fresh biotite yielded highly disturbed Ar-release patterns with plateau ages typically older than most U/Pb ages. These old plateau ages are probably not a consequence of inheritance from xenocrystic biotites because Ar diffuses extremely fast at magmatic temperatures and ratios are reset within a few days. On the basis of (1) elevated and/or imprecise 40Ar/36Ar ratios, (2) shapes of the Ar release spectra, and (3) a high mantle 3He flux in the Kos-Nisyros area, we suggest that biotite crystals retained some mantle 40Ar that led to the observed, anomalously old ages. In contrast, sanidine crystals from the only sanidine-bearing unit in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (the caldera-forming Kos Plateau Tuff) do not appear to store any excess 40Ar relative to atmospheric composition. The eastern edge of the Aegean Arc is tectonically complex, undergoing rapid extension and located close to a major structural boundary. In such regions, which are characterized by high fluxes of mantle volatiles, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on biotite can lead to erroneous results due to the presence of excess 40Ar and should be checked either against 40Ar/39Ar sanidine or U/Pb zircon ages.

  2. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex from the giant Yanbei tin deposit, South China: Implication for multiple magma sources, tin mineralization, and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Lai, Pan-Chen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The giant Yanbei tin ore deposit is the largest porphyry-type tin deposit in South China. The orebodies are hosted by the granite porphyry in the central part of the Yanbei volcanic basin in southern Jiangxi Province. The Yanbei volcanic-intrusive complex mainly consists of dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic rocks, granite, granite porphyry and diabase dikes. In previous papers, the granite porphyry was considered as subvolcanic rocks, which came from the same single magma chamber with the volcanic rocks. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of different magmatic units in the Yanbei complex are reported. Geochronologic results show that various magmatic units have different formation ages. The dacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 143 ± 1 Ma, and the granite porphyry has the emplacement age of 138 ± 1 Ma. Diabase dikes which represented the final stage of magmatism, yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 128 ± 1 Ma. Distinctive whole rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that these magmatic units were derived from different magma sources. The volcanic rocks were mainly derived from the partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks without additions of mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry has an A-type geochemical affinity, and was derived from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal source with involvement of a subordinate mantle-derived magma. The granite porphyry is also a typical stanniferous granite with high F (4070-6090 ppm) and Sn (7-39 ppm) contents. It underwent strongly crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and accessory minerals (like apatite, Fe-Ti oxides), which may contribute to the tin mineralization. The diabase was derived by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle which had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. The change of magmatic sources reflected an increasing extensional tectonic environment, perhaps induced by slab

  3. Laser surface melting of 10 wt% Mo alloyed hardfacing Stellite 12 plasma transferred arc deposits: Structural evolution and high temperature wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilawary, Shaikh Asad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Amir; Afzal, Muhammad; Atar, Erdem; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2018-05-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) process has been applied on the plasma transferred arc (PTA) deposited Stellite 12 and 10 wt% Mo alloyed Stellite 12 in this study. Following the LSM process, structural and mechanical property comparison of the LSM'ed surfaces has been made. Hardness of the LSM'ed surfaces was measured as 549 HV and 623 HV for the Stellite 12 and Stellite 12 + 10 wt% Mo deposits, respectively. Despite their different hardness and structural features, the LSM'ed surfaces exhibited similar tribological performance at room temperature (RT), where fatigue wear mechanism operates. However, the wear at 500 °C promotes tribo-oxide layer formation whose composition depended on the alloying with Mo. Thus, addition of 10 wt% Mo into Stellite 12 PTA deposit has remarkably enhanced the high temperature wear performance of the LSM'ed surface as a result of participation of complex oxide (CoMoO4) in tribo-oxide layer.

  4. ∼1400 Ma alkali metasomatic event in the sericite deposits and basal Aravalli volcanic rocks of Udaipur region, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumari, V.M.; Sreenivas, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Gopalan, K.; Roy, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Paleosols are residual soil profiles of the geological past. They throw light on the climatic conditions prevalent during their formation. Constraining their age is of importance for deciphering the paleoclimatic history of a region. A suite of K-rich spilitic volcanic rocks immediately overlying the paleosol near Nagaria have been analysed

  5. Nitrogen doping for adhesion improvement of DLC film deposited on Si substrate by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Saenphinit, N. [Western Digital Company, Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used in many applications due to their attractive combination of properties including chemical inertness, corrosion protection, biocompatibility, high hardness, and low wear rates. However, they still have some limitations such as high internal stresses and low toughness which lead to poor adhesion of films. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped DLC (N-DLC) offers the possibility of overcoming these limitations. In this study, DLC films, namely tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogen doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:N) were deposited on single crystalline Si wafer substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. Film characterizations were carried out by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), triboindenter tester and nano-scratch tester. Measurement results showed that intentionally doping with nitrogen reduced the carbon sp{sup 3} content and increased the surface roughness in comparison with that of pure ta-C films. The hardness measurement confirmed the Raman and AFM analyses that adding nitrogen in ta-C films decreased the hardness, especially with high nitrogen content. However, the nano-scratch test revealed the increasing of the critical load with nitrogen. This work, then, extended its scope to investigate the properties of double-layer ta-C films which were composed of ta-C:N interlayer of various thickness around 10–30 nm and ta-C top-layer with thickness of around 80 nm. Microstructure characterization demonstrated that a ta-C:N interlayer gradually decreased the sp{sup 3} fraction in the films and increased film roughness whenever the ta-C:N interlayer thickness increased. In this structure, the tribological property in terms of adhesion to the Si substrate was significantly improved by about 20–90%, but the mechanical property in terms of hardness was gradually degraded by about 2–10%, compared to pure ta-C film, when the ta

  6. Petrography and geochemistry of achnelithic tephra from Las Herrerías Volcano (Calatrava volcanic field, Spain): Formation of nephelinitic achneliths and post-depositional glass alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Arostegui, J.; Errandonea-Martin, J.; Gil-Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a petrographic and geochemical study carried out on a layer of achnelithic tephra outcropping at the base of the volcanic cone of Las Herrerías (Miocene-Quaternary volcanic region of Campo de Calatrava, Spain). The tephra, with a composition of nephelinite and ash (Pele's tears), achnelith fragments and rare welded achneliths. The achneliths at Las Herrerías were generated in a gas-rich fire fountain that fragmented the magma into micro- to nanometre particles. The low viscosity of the nephelinitic blebs (< 1235 Pa.s) inside the hottest (ca. 900 °C), inner zone of the fountain allowed the development of the characteristic fluidal shapes of these pyroclasts and their welding above the glass transition temperature (533-669 °C). The sideromelane glass of the achneliths, also nephelinitic in composition, is variably altered to palagonite. The palagonitization was isovolumetric and took place in a near closed system at the achnelith scale. Palagonitization involved depletion in the concentration (g/cm3) of all major elements and notable increase in H2O content. The elements liberated by this process formed smectite with an average structural formula comprised between those of beidellite and nontronite end terms: (Na0.01K0.03Ca0.18) (Mg0.22Fe0.16)2 + (Fe0.48Al1.02)3 + (Ti0.18)4 + (Si3.58Al0.42) O10(OH)2. The degree of palagonitization in each achnelith was likely related to the amount of water incorporated by individual clasts at the moment of their deposition in a volcanic maar lake. Afterwards, there was no more water circulation through the achnelithic tephra, which was sealed from water by overlying hydrovolcanic tuff deposits. It was this isolation that made possible the preservation of glass to the present day.

  7. Temperature dependence of the residual stresses and mechanical properties in TiN/CrN nano-layered coatings processed by cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomello, F.; Arab Pour Yazdi; Sanchette, F.; Schuster, F.; Tabarant, M.; Billard, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-layered TiN-CrN coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc deposition (CAD) on M2 tool steel substrates. The aim of this study was to establish a double-correlation between the influence of the bilayer period and the deposition temperature on the resulting mechanical-tribological properties. The superlattice hardening enhancement was observed in samples deposited at different temperatures - i.e. without additional heating, 300 C and 400 C. Nonetheless, the residual compressive stresses are believed to be the responsible for reducing the hardness enhancement when the deposition temperature was increased. For instance, sample deposited without additional heating presented a hardness of 48.5 ± 1.3 GPa, while by increasing the processing temperature up to 400 C it was reduced down to 31.2 ± 4.1 GPa due to the stress relaxation. Indeed, the sample deposited at low temperature which possesses the thinnest bilayer period (13 nm) exhibited better mechanical properties. On the contrary, the role of the interfaces introduced when the period is decreased seems to rule the wear resistance. (authors)

  8. Immature intra-oceanic arc-type volcanism on the Izanagi Plate revealed by the geochemistry of the Daimaruyama greenstones in the Hiroo Complex, southern Hidaka Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Toru; Nanayama, Futoshi

    2018-03-01

    The Izanagi Plate is assumed to have underlain the western Panthalassa Ocean to the east of Eurasia, and to have been subducting under the Eurasian continent. Although the Izanagi Plate has been lost to subduction, the subduction complexes of the circum-Panthalassa continental margins provide evidence that subduction-related volcanism occurred within the Panthalassa Ocean, and not just along its margins. The Daimaruyama mass is a kilometer-sized allochthonous greenstone body in the Hiroo Complex in the southeastern part of the Nakanogawa Group in the southern Hidaka Belt, northern Japan. The Hiroo Complex is a subduction complex that formed within the Paleo-Kuril arc-trench system at 57-48 Ma. The Daimaruyama greenstones consist mainly of coarse volcaniclastic rocks with lesser amount of lava. Red bedded chert, red shale, and micritic limestone are also observed as blocks associated with the greenstones. The presence of Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) radiolaria in red bedded cherts within the greenstones indicates that the Daimaruyama greenstones formed after this time. An integrated major and trace element geochemical dataset for whole-rocks and clinopyroxenes of the greenstones indicates a calc-alkaline magmatic trend with low TiO2 contents and increases in SiO2 and decreases in FeO* with increasing differentiation. Negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, and Ti in normal mid-ocean-ridge basalt type normalized patterns are interpreted as "arc-signatures". Using "rhyolite-MELTS", we conducted a numerical simulation of magmatic differentiation under conditions of 1.5 kbar and H2O = 3 wt% to reproduce the liquid line of descent of the Daimaruyama greenstones. Back-calculations of the equilibrium melt compositions from the trace element chemistry of the clinopyroxenes generally agree with the whole-rock rare earth element compositions of the Daimaruyama greenstones, therefore providing support for the conditions used for the rhyolite-MELTS calculations as well as the actual

  9. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. K-U-Th systematics of terrestrial igneous rocks for planetological comparisons: volcanic rocks of the Earth oceanic island arc and Venus surface material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    Principles of the formation o data base for 339 samples of oceanic island arc (OIA) igneous rocks of the Earth available in literature are described as well as of the formation of fresh rock sample, characteristics of this sample, and K-U-Th-systematics of the fresh igneous rocks of Earth OIA. Results of comparison of the Venus measured rocks and Earth OIA rocks by K, U, Th

  11. View of an intact oceanic arc, from surficial to mesozonal levels: Cretaceous Alisitos arc, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Cathy; Fackler Adams, Benjamin; Mattinson, James; Deoreo, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Alisitos arc is an approximately 300 × 30 km oceanic arc terrane that lies in the western wall of the Peninsular Ranges batholith south of the modern Agua Blanca fault zone in Baja California. We have completed detailed mapping and dating of a 50 × 30 km segment of this terrane in the El Rosario to Mission San Fernando areas, as well as reconnaissance mapping and dating in the next 50 × 30 km segment to the north, in the San Quintin area. We recognize two evolutionary phases in this part of the arc terrane: (I) extensional oceanic arc, characterized by intermediate to silicic explosive and effusive volcanism, culminating in caldera-forming silicic ignimbrite eruptions at the onset of arc rifting, and (II) rifted oceanic arc, characterized by mafic effusive and hydroclastic rocks and abundant dike swarms. Two types of units are widespread enough to permit tentative stratigraphic correlation across much of this 100-km-long segment of the arc: a welded dacite ignimbrite (tuff of Aguajito), and a deepwater debris-avalanche deposit. New U-Pb zircon data from the volcanic and plutonic rocks of both phases indicate that the entire 4000-m-thick section accumulated in about 1.5 MY, at 111-110 MY. Southwestern North American sources for two zircon grains with Proterozoic 206Pb / 207Pb ages support the interpretation that the oceanic arc fringed North America rather than representing an exotic terrane. The excellent preservation and exposure of the Alistos arc terrane makes it ideal for three-dimensional study of the structural, stratigraphic and intrusive history of an oceanic arc terrane. The segment mapped and dated in detail has a central major subaerial edifice, flanked by a down-faulted deepwater marine basin to the north, and a volcano-bounded shallow-water marine basin to the south. The rugged down-faulted flank of the edifice produced mass wasting, plumbed large-volume eruptions to the surface, and caused pyroclastic flows to disintegrate into turbulent

  12. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  13. Formation of chemical compounds under vacuum plasma-arc deposition of nickel and its alloy onto piezoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinchenko, V.T.; Lyakhovich, T.K.; Prosina, N.I.; Khromov, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The phase composition of the transition layer appearing during vacuum-arc coating of nickel and nickel alloy with copper on barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate is identified. During vacuum plasma-arc coating of nickel and its alloy at the boundary with barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate the Ni 2 Ti 4 O compound appears which has the crystal lattice type identical with substrate with the parity of lattice parameters. The transition layer contains nickel oxides and NiTiO 3 in the case of barium titanate. When titanate content in substrate increases the zone of reaction diffusion increases in value and becomes more complicate in composition

  14. Structure of MeCrAlY + AlSi coatings deposited by Arc-PVD method on CMSX4 single crystal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Hetmanczyk, M.; Mendala, B.; Saunders, S.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of depositing high temperature resistant coatings on the Ni base superalloys by Arc-PVD method using exothermic reaction processes between Ni and Al with NiAl intermetallic formation are presented in the article. By the diffusion heating at 1050 o C in vacuum, NiAl diffusion coating containing 21% at. Al and 50 μm thick were obtained. In the next stage coatings with more complex chemical composition - MeCrAlY were formed. The MeCrAlY coatings were made from two targets. Good correlation between the chemical composition of the targets and a uniform distribution of elements in the coatings was shown. Then the surface was also covered with aluminium by the Arc-PVD method . In the vacuum chamber of the equipment a synthesis reaction between NiCoCrAlY and Al with the formation of NiAl intermetallics of high Co, Cr, Y content was initiated. The final heat treatment of coatings was conducted in vacuum at 1323 K. Strong segregation of yttrium into the oxide scale in the specimens heated in the air was shown. It was possible to form NiAl and intermetallics phase coatings modified by Co, Cr and Y by the Arc-PVD method. The coatings were formed on a single crystal CMSX-4. The structure, morphology and phase composition of coatings was carried out. (author)

  15. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to their province scale similarities, the different giant gold deposit styles show contrasting critical controls at the district to deposit scale. For orogenic gold deposits, the giants appear to have formed by conjunction of a greater number of parameters to those that control smaller deposits, with resultant geometrical and lithostratigraphic complexity as a guide to their location. There are few giant IRGS due to their inferior fluid-flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hydrocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All unequivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  16. Influence of substrate bias on the structure and properties of (Ti, Al)N films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.H.; Tay, B.K.; Lau, S.P.; Shi, X.

    2001-01-01

    (Ti, Al)N films were deposited by an off-plane, double-bend, filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique in N 2 atmosphere at room temperature. The (Ti, Al)N films deposited are atomically smooth. The influence of substrate negative bias at the wide range (0-1000 V) on the deposition rate, surface morphology, crystal structure, internal stress, and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N films were systematically studied. Increasing substrate bias results in the decrease of deposition rate and the increase of surface roughness monotonically. At the bias of 0 V, (Ti, Al)N films are amorphous, and the internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus for the deposited films are fairly low. With increasing substrate bias to 200 V, single-phase face-centered cubic-type nanocrystalline (Ti, Al)N films can be obtained, and the internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus increase to the maximum of 7 GPa, 28 GPa, and 240 GPa, respectively. Further increase of substrate bias results in the decrease of intensity and the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines, and the gradual decrease of internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus in (Ti, Al)N films

  17. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Ray, D.; Balaram, V.; Prakash, L.S.; Mirza, I.H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Rao, T.G.; Kaisary, S.

    low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field...

  18. Development of data processing system for regional geophysical and geochemical exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits based on ArcGIS Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Hou Huiqun; Hu Shuiqing

    2010-01-01

    According to the data processing need of geophysical and geochemical exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, the function design of the regional geophysical and geochemical data processing system is completed in the paper. The geophysical and geochemical data processing software with powerful functions is also developed based on ArcGIS Engine which remedies the shortage of GIS software for performing the geophysical and geochemical data processing. The development technique route of system software and key techniques are introduced, and the development processes of system software are showed through some development examples. Application practices indicate that the interface of developed system software with friendly interface and utility functions, may quickly perform the data processing of regional geophysical and geochemical exploration and provide the helpful deep information for predicting metallogenic prospective areas of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. The system software is of a great application foreground. (authors)

  19. Evolution of volcaniclastic apron during initiation of Cascade volcanism in southern Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestland, E.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oligocene Colestin Formation consists of volcaniclastic apron sequence that records the initiation of Cascade volcanism in the western Cascade Range of southern Oregon. The formation in the type area is largely confined to an east-west-trending graben approximately 8 km wide. This graben and other smaller grabens within it developed to the west of and perpendicular to the axis of the Oligocene Cascade arc. The apron, which fills and locally overflows the graben, consists of coalesced lobes of volcaniclastic and pyroclastic deposits and lesser amounts of lava flows. Abrupt lateral facies changes on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters were produced by the lobe style of deposition and contemporaneous basin faulting. Interstratified with the discontinuous apron sediments are marker units that consist of pyroclastic flows, paleosols, and lava-flow sequences. In the upper half of the formation, the apron can be subdivided into informal members (lobes and sequences of lobes), which can be mapped according to their composition and stratigraphic position. Each member formed during a distinct interval of volcanism. An epiclastic lobe in the upper part of the formation, containing debris-flow and hyperconcentrated flood-flow deposits, represents a period of effusive or mildly explosive andesitic and basaltic volcanism. This epiclastic lobe pinches out to the south under a member that consists of tuffaceous sandstones and interbedded welded and nonwelded pyroclastic flows. The pulselike style of apron growth was produced by the episodic shifting of volcanism along the arc.

  20. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  1. Estimating volume of deposits associated with landslides on volcanic landscapes in the SW flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, Puebla-Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Legorreta Paulín

    2017-03-01

    dangerous situation for more than 360 000 people living on the southern flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, where landslides along the hillslopes and the river system threaten towns like Cordova, Orizaba, Rio Blanco, Nogales and Ciudad Mendoza. Today the most common and dangerous landslides are associated with unconsolidated volcanic deposits and heavy seasonal rains. In this paper, the cause, distribution, and link between landslides and the volcanic landscape relief susceptibility are analyzed. Similarly, the volume of displaced material is estimated in order to characterize the landslide instability in volcanic terrains. The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano is selected to describe and analyze susceptible areas of gravitational processes. The study area allows to show a systematic methodology for landslide mapping and volume calculation in areas with scarce information. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis. In the first stage, background information is collected to provide context and establish a generalized characterization of landslide processes, landsforms and volumes within the study area. Background information includes the following maps: topographic, geologic, land use, climate, slope, slope curvature, contributing area, flow direction, saturation, reclassified hypsomety, reclassified slope, and morphography. By retrieval and on-off switching of the background information in the GIS, a base map is created to assist in the digitizing of landslides. The base map and the theoretical aspects of the geomorphological mapping help to develop a conceptual base of support for mapping landslides. Landslides are digitized directly into a geographic information system (GIS, and in parallel, a spatial geodatabase of landslides attributes (eg. size, volume, activity, landslide type, etc. is constructed. Previous landslide mapping in the study area is verified and new landslides are added to the landslide

  2. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  3. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Rock, Lake Owyhee, and McDermitt volcanic fields, consisting of regionally extensive ash flow tuffs and associated calderas, developed in NW Nevada and SE Oregon following eruption of the ca. 16.7 Ma Steens flood basalt. The first ash flow, the Tuff of Oregon Canyon, erupted from the McDermitt volcanic field at 16.5Ma. It is chemically zoned from peralkaline rhyolite to dacite with trace element ratios that distinguish it from other ash flow tuffs. The source caldera, based on tuff distribution, thickness, and size of lithic fragments, is in the area in which the McDermitt caldera (16.3 Ma) subsequently formed. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with some but not all of the calderas. The White Horse caldera (15.6 Ma), the youngest caldera in the McDermitt volcanic field has the best geophysical expression, with both aeromagnetic and gravity lows coinciding with the caldera. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity surveys of the McDermitt caldera, combined with geology and radiometric surveys, provides insight into the complexities of caldera collapse, resurgence, post collapse volcanism, and hydrothermal mineralization. The McDermitt caldera is among the most mineralized calderas in the world, whereas other calderas in these three Mid Miocene volcanic fields do not contain important hydrothermal ore deposits, despite having similar age and chemistry. The McDermitt caldera is host to Hg, U, and Li deposits and potentially significant resources of Ga, Sb, and REE. The geophysical data indicate that post-caldera collapse intrusions were important in formation of the hydrothermal systems. An aeromagnetic low along the E caldera margin reflects an intrusion at a depth of 2 km associated with the near-surface McDermitt-hot-spring-type Hg-Sb deposit, and the deeper level, high-sulfidation Ga-REE occurrence. The Li deposits on the W side of the caldera are associated with a series of low amplitude, small diameter aeromagnetic anomalies that form a continuous

  4. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  5. Influence of pulsed substrate bias on the structure and properties of Ti-Al-N films deposited by cathodic vacuum arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.P., E-mail: princeterry@163.com [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao, G.J. [Changchun University of Science and Technology, College of Science, Changchun 130000 (China); Wang, X.Q.; Lv, G.H.; Zhou, L.; Chen, H.; Pang, H.; Yang, S.Z. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Ti-Al-N films were deposited by cathodic vacuum arc (CVA) technique in N{sub 2} atmosphere with different pulsed substrate bias. The influence of pulsed substrate bias (0 to -800 V) on the deposition rate, surface morphology, crystal structure, and mechanical properties of the Ti-Al-N films were systematically investigated. Increasing pulsed bias voltage resulted in the decrease of deposition rate but the increase of surface roughness. It was found that there was a strong correlation between the pulsed bias and film structure. All the films studied in this paper were composed of TiN, AlN, and Ti-Al-N ternary phases. The grains changed from equiaxial to columnar and exhibited preferred orientation when the pulsed bias increased. With the increase of pulsed bias voltage, the atomic ratio of Ti to Al element increased gradually, while the N to (Ti + Al) ratio decreased. The composite films present an enhanced nanohardness compared with binary TiN and ZrN films. The film deposited with pulsed bias of -200 V possessed the maximum scratch critical load and nanohardness. The minimum friction coefficient with pulsed bias of -300 V was obtained.

  6. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  7. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2004-12-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

  8. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  9. A new genetic interpretation for the Caotaobei uranium deposit associated with the shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the Hecaokeng ore field, southern Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Combined with in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS zircon UPb geochronology, published and unpublished literature on the Caotaobei uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi province, China, is re-examined to provide an improved understanding of the origin of the main ore (103 Ma. The Caotaobei deposit lies in the Hecaokeng ore field and is currently one of China's largest, volcanic-related uranium producers. Unlike commonly known volcanogenic uranium deposits throughout the world, it is spatially associated with intermediate lavas with a shoshonitic composition. Uranium mineralization (pitchblende occurs predominantly as veinlets, disseminations, and massive ores, hosted by the cryptoexplosive breccias rimming the Caotaobei crater. Zircons from one latite define four distinct 206Pb/238U age groups at 220–235 Ma (Triassic, 188 Ma (Early Jurassic, 131–137 Ma (Early Cretaceous, and 97–103 Ma (Early-Late Cretaceous transition, hereafter termed mid-Cretaceous. The integrated age (134 ± 2 Ma of Early Cretaceous zircons (group III is interpreted as representing the time of lava emplacement. The age data, together with the re-examination of literature, does not definitively support a volcanogenic origin for the generation of the deposit, which was proposed by the previous workers based mainly on the close spatial relationship and the age similarity between the main ore and volcanic lavas. Drill core and grade-control data reveal that rich concentrations of primary uranium ore are common around the granite porphyry dikes cutting the lavas, and that the cryptoexplosive breccias away from the dikes are barren or unmineralized. These observations indicate that the emplacement of the granite porphyries exerts a fundamental control on ore distribution and thus a genetic link exists between main-stage uranium mineralization and the intrusions of the dikes. Zircon overgrowths of mid-Cretaceous age (99.6

  10. Adhesion Strength of TiN Coatings at Various Ion Etching Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mubarak; Hamzah, Esah; Ali, Nouman

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of ion etching with and without titanium (Ti) and chromium (Cr) on the adhesion strength of TiN coatings deposited on tool steels. From the scratch tester, it was observed that by increasing Ti ion etching showed an increase in adhesion strength of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited with Cr ion etching showed poor adhesion compared with the coatings deposited with Ti ion etching. Scratch test measurements showed that the coating deposited with titanium ion etching for 16 min is the most stable coating and maintained even at the critical load of 66 N. The curve obtained via penetration depth along the scratch trace is linear in the case of HSS, whereas is slightly flexible in the case of D2 tool steel. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared with those on D2 tool steel.

  11. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  12. Effect of ion beam irradiation on the structure of ZnO films deposited by a dc arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Lee, Heon-Ju; Plaksin, Vadim Yu; Ko, Min Gook; Joa, Sang Beom; Yim, Chan Joo

    2008-02-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline ZnO film on a cold substrate was performed by using a plasmatron in rough vacuum condition. Low energy oxygen ion beam generated by a cold cathode ion source was introduced during the deposition process. The change of film property on the ion beam energy was checked. It is shown that irradiation by 200 eV ions improves crystalline structure of the film. Increasing of ion beam energy up to 400 eV leads to the degradation of a crystalline structure and decreases the deposition rate.

  13. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  14. Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposits following the 2006 nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows of Mount Merapi: diversity and floristic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sutomo, Hobbs R, Cramer V (2011 Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposits following the 2006 nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows of Mount Merapi: diversity and floristic variation. Biodiversitas 12: 86-91. Species establishment and composition changes in a substrate with little or no biological legacy is known as primary succession, and volcanoes, erosion, landslides, floodplains and glaciers are some type of disturbances that can create this kind of environment. Mount Merapi with its Merapi-type nuées ardentes or pyroclastic flows provides excellent opportunities to study primary succession. Using chronosequence approach, plant establishment and succession was studied, and thus five areas that were affected by nuées ardentes deposits between 1994 and 2006 were chosen as study sites. Results showed that there was a rapid colonization by vascular plants in primary succession as the sites aged. Imperata cylindrica, Eupatorium riparium, Anaphalis javanica, Athyrium macrocarpum, Brachiaria paspaloides, Dichantium caricosum, Selaginella doederleinii, Eleusine indica, Cyperus flavidus, Calliandra callothyrsus and Acacia decurrens were the species mainly responsible in explaining the differences between sites. Furthermore, the species richness and diversity reach their peak 14 years after disturbance.

  15. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  16. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  17. MeV-ion beam analysis of the interface between filtered cathodic arc-deposited a-carbon and single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamwanna, T.; Pasaja, N.; Yu, L.D.; Vilaithong, T.; Anders, A.; Singkarat, S.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafers by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) plasma source. A negative electrical bias was applied to the silicon substrate in order to control the incident energy of carbon ions. Effects of the electrical bias on the a-C/Si interface characteristics were investigated by using standard Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channeling mode with 2.1-MeV He 2+ ions. The shape of the Si surface peaks of the RBS/channeling spectra reflects the degree of interface disorder due to atomic displacement from the bulk position of the Si crystal. Details of the analysis method developed are described. It was found that the width of the a-C/Si interface increases linearly with the substrate bias voltage but not the thickness of the a-C film.

  18. Analysis of local regions near the interfaces in nanostructured multicomponent cathodic – arc – vapor – deposition (CAVD) coatings (Ti-Zr-Hf-V-Nb)N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Rekhberg, R.; Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Borisyuk, V. N.; Kaverin, M. V.; Belokur, M.A.; Ponomarev, G.; Ojoshi, K.; Takeda, J.; Beresnev, V. M.; Sobol', O. V.

    2013-01-01

    Multicomponent, nanostructure (Ti- Zr-Hf-V-Nb)N coatings derived using cathodic – Arc – Vapor – Deposition method, were characterized by applying SPB, (μ-PIXE), EDS and SEM-analysis), XRD methods, including ''a-sin 2 φ'' procedure. It was found that through the creation of high elastic strains of compression in coating it is possible to a significant extent enhance its oxidation resistance under high-temperature annealing. During the characterization of coatings the elements and defects’ redistribution was discovered, its segregation through thermally-stimulated diffusion and the spinoidal segregation process end, in the neighborhood of the interfaces, around grains and subgrains, without substantial change of the average nanograin dimension. (authors)

  19. Trace elements deposition in the Tierra del Fuego region (south Patagonia) by using lichen transplants after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (north Patagonia) volcanic eruption in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Jasan, Raquel; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Plá, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.

  20. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  1. The South Tibetan Tadpole Zone: Ongoing density sorting at the Moho beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone (and beneath volcanic arcs?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    at less than 700°C (e.g. Jackson 02). We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al 92, 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al 05; Monsalve et al 08) to develop the hypothesis that there is rapid growth of garnet at 80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust, causing increased rock densities. Dense eclogites founder into the mantle, while relatively buoyant lithologies accumulate in thickening lower crust. Mantle return flow plus radioactive heating in thick, felsic crust maintains high temperature, facilitating formation of hybrid magmas and pyroxenites. The crustal volume grows at 760 cubic m/yr/m of strike length. Moho-depth earthquakes may be due to localized deformation and thermal runaway in weak layers and along the margins of dense, foundering diapirs (e.g., Larsen & Yuen 97; Braeck & Podladchikov 07; Kelemen & Hirth 07; Lister et al 08; Kufner et al 16). A similar process may take place at some convergent margins, where forearc crust is thrust beneath hot, magmatic arc crust, leading to extensive, Moho-depth density sorting and hybrid crust-mantle magmatism in Arc Tadpole Zones.

  2. The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1994-01-01

    Magmatic fluids, both vapour and hypersaline liquid, are a primary source of many components in hydrothermal ore deposits formed in volcanic arcs. These components, including metals and their ligands, become concentrated in magmas in various ways from various sources, including subducted oceanic crust. Leaching of rocks also contributes components to the hydrothermal fluid—a process enhanced where acid magmatic vapours are absorbed by deeply circulating meteoric waters. Advances in understanding the hydrothermal systems that formed these ore deposits have come from the study of their active equivalents, represented at the surface by hot springs and volcanic fumaroles.

  3. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  4. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  5. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  6. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  7. Volcanic ash deposition, eelgrass beds, and inshore habitat loss from the 1920s to the 1990s at Chignik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Kinsman, Nicole; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.

    2018-03-01

    We quantified the shallowing of the seafloor in five of six bays examined in the Chignik region of the Alaska Peninsula, confirming National Ocean Service observations that 1990s hydrographic surveys were shallower than previous surveys from the 1920s. Castle Bay, Chignik Lagoon, Hook Bay, Kujulik Bay and Mud Bay lost volume as calculated from Mean Lower Low Water (Chart Datum) to the deepest depths and four of these sites lost volume from Mean High Water to the deepest depths. Calculations relative to each datum were made because tidal datum records exhibited an increase in tidal range in this region from the 1920s to the 1990s. Our analysis showed that Mud Bay is quickly disappearing while Chignik Lagoon is being reduced to narrow channels. Anchorage Bay was the only site that increased in depth over time, perhaps due to erosion. Volcanoes dominate the landscape of the Chignik area. They have blanketed the region in deep ash deposits before the time frame of this study, and some have had smaller ash-producing eruptions during the time frame of this study. Remobilization of land-deposited ash and redeposition in marine areas - in some locations facilitated by extensive eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds (covering 54% of Chignik Lagoon and 68% of Mud Bay in 2010) - is the most likely cause of shallowing in the marine environment. Loss of shallow water marine habitat may alter future abundance and distribution of several fish, invertebrate and avian species.

  8. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus

    2018-01-01

    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  9. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  10. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X.; Li, Xueyuan; Yang, Wenmao; Huang, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress

  11. Influence of N2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of N2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N2 partial pressure.

  12. Influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N_2 vacuum arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N_2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N_2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N_2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N_2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N_2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N_2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N_2 partial pressure.

  13. corrosion and wear resistant ternary Cr-C-N coatings deposited by the ARC PVD process for machining tools and machining parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Zimmermann, H.; Bobzin, K.

    1997-01-01

    With the deposition of PVD hard coatings on the tools applied in machining operations it is possible to achieve significant improvements in the performance and quality of the machining processes. Depending on the machined material and the operating principle, e.g. turning, milling or drilling, not only different machining parameters but also different coating materials are necessary. In interrupted cut machining of tempered steel, for example, the life time of Ti-C-N coated inserts is several times greater than the Ti-C-N coated ones. This is a result of the favourable thermophysical and tribological properties of Ti-N-C. The potential for tool protection by CrN coatings is a result of the high ductility and low internal stress of this coating materials. CrN films can be deposited with greater film thickness, still maintaining very good adhesion. This paper presents the development of new arc PVD coatings in the system Cr-C-N. Owing to the carbon content in the coating an increased hardness and a better wear behavior in comparison to CrN was expected. The effects of various carbon carrier gases on the coating properties were examined. The coating properties were investigated by mechanical tests. X-ray diffraction, SEM analysis and corrosion tests. Some of the coatings were tested in machining tests. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  15. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore-arc

  16. Influence of Electrolyte Chemistry on Morphology and Corrosion Resistance of Micro Arc Oxidation Coatings Deposited on Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Poshal, G.; Sundararajan, G.

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, micro arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were synthesized on magnesium substrate employing 11 different electrolyte compositions containing systematically varied concentrations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). The resultant coatings were subjected to coating thickness measurement, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), image analysis, and three-dimensional (3-D) optical profilometry. The corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated by conducting potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution. The inter-relationships between the electrolyte chemistry and the resulting chemistry and porosity of the coating, on one hand, and with the aqueous corrosion behavior of the coating, on the other, were studied. The changes in pore morphology and pore distribution in the coatings were found to be significantly influenced by the electrolyte composition. The coatings can have either through-thickness pores or pores in the near surface region alone depending on the electrolyte composition. The deleterious role of KOH especially when its concentration is >20 pct of total electrolyte constituents promoting the formation of large and deep pores in the coating was demonstrated. A reasonable correlation indicating the increasing pore volume implying the increased corrosion was noticed.

  17. Achieving high mobility ZnO : Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsberg, R J; Lim, S H N; Wallig, J; Anders, A; Zhu, Y K; Milliron, D J

    2011-01-01

    Achieving a high growth rate is paramount for making large-area transparent conducting oxide coatings at a low cost. Unfortunately, the quality of thin films grown by most techniques degrades as the growth rate increases. Filtered dc cathodic arc is a lesser known technique which produces a stream of highly ionized plasma, in stark contrast to the neutral atoms produced by standard sputter sources. Ions bring a large amount of potential energy to the growing surface which is in the form of heat, not momentum. By minimizing the distance from cathode to substrate, the high ion flux gives a very high effective growth temperature near the film surface without causing damage from bombardment. The high surface temperature is a direct consequence of the high growth rate and allows for high-quality crystal growth. Using this technique, 500-1300 nm thick and highly transparent ZnO : Al films were grown on glass at rates exceeding 250 nm min -1 while maintaining resistivity below 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm with electron mobility as high as 60 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . (fast track communication)

  18. Limnobacter litoralis sp. nov., a thiosulfate-oxidizing, heterotrophic bacterium isolated from a volcanic deposit, and emended description of the genus Limnobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongsheng; Sato, Yoshinori; Fujimura, Reiko; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated KP1-19(T), was isolated from a 22-year-old volcanic deposit at a site lacking vegetation on the island of Miyake, Japan. Strain KP1-19(T) was able to use thiosulfate (optimum concentration 10 mM) as an additional energy source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain KP1-19(T) was closely related to Limnobacter thiooxidans CS-K2(T) within the class Betaproteobacteria (97.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The cellular fatty acid profile was characteristic of the genus Limnobacter: the major fatty acids (>5 %) were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(18 : 1)ω7c and minor amounts of C(10 : 0) 3-OH were also found. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain KP1-19(T) and L. thiooxidans LMG 19593(T) was 18 %. Therefore, strain KP1-19(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Limnobacter litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KP1-19(T) (=LMG 24869(T) =NBRC 105857(T) =CIP 109929(T)).

  19. Geochemical Tracers of Processes Affecting the Formation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Fluids and Deposits in the Manus Back-Arc Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    pp. 184-197. Grassle J. F. (1986) The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Advances in Marine Biology 23, 301-362. Halbach P...Gesellschaft 82, 183-210. Tunnicliffe V. (1991) The biology of hydrothermal vents: Ecology and evolution. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 29...Evidence for Magmatic Contributions to Submarine and Subaerial Gold Mineralization: Conical Seamount and the Ladolam Gold Deposit, Papua New Guinea

  20. The Archaen volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichang'l, D. W.; MacLean, W. H.

    The Migori segment is an 80 by 20 km portion of the Nyanza greenstone belt which forms the northern part of the Archean Tanzanian Craton in western Kenya, northern Tanzania and southeastern Uganda. It consists of two volcanic centres, each with central, proximal and distal volcanic facies, comprising the Migori Group, the Macalder and Lolgorien Subgroups, and eleven volcano-sedimentary formations. The centres are separated by a basin of tuffs and greywacke turbidites. The volcanics are bimodal mafic basalt and dolerite ( Zr/Y = 3.8 - 6.5, La N/Yb N = 1.0 - 2.4) , and felsic calc-alkaline dacite-rhyolite ( Zr/Y = 10 - 21, La N/Yb N = 19 - 42 ) and high-K dacite ( Zr/Y = 9 - 16, La N/Yb N = 21 - 22 ). Felsic units form approximately three-fourths of the volcanic stratigraphy. Basalts, calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites were deposited in a submarine environment, but the voluminous high-K dacites were erupted subaerially. The turbidites contain units of iron-formations. Granitic intrusions are chemically continuous with the high-K dacites. The felsic volcanics are anologous to those found at modern volcanic arc subduction settings involving continental crust. The Macalder ZnCuAuAg volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits is in central facies basalts-greywacke-rhyolite. Gold mineralisation occurs in proximal facies tuffs and iron formation, and in oblique and semi-conformable quartz veins. Greenstones in the Nyanza belt are dominated by calc-alkaline felsic volcanics in constrast to the komatiite-tholeiitic basalt volcanism in the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, and a mixture of the two types in the Zimbabwe Craton.

  1. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  2. Origin Of Black Shale (Marl) Formation Aided By Continuous Volcanism For 10Ma Including Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE2 (93-93.5 Ma) In The Eagle Ford Formation In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Basu, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons, petrography, major and trace elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of whole rock black shales(marls) from volcanic subsurface as well as surface exposure ash beds of the Eagle Ford and Boquillas Formations in South Texas. Zircons from the middle part of the 300ft long Eagle Ford cores yield ages of 93.2±1.66 Ma, 94.13±1.25 Ma and 93.7±1.9 Ma. These ages are consistent with the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) age of deposition in three contiguous cores with spatial separation of 140 miles. An approximate 10Ma duration of deposition of volcanic ash and marl, at a rate of 28ft/Ma for the Eagle Ford is suggested from the 85.76 to 95.5 Ma ages. These ages are from the Eagle Ford ash beds, below the Austin Chalk and above the Buda Limestone and cover the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 at the C-T boundary. Zircons from 7 ash beds in the surface exposures of the Boquillas Formation near Del Rio, yield ages between 84.63 Ma - 90.91 Ma, implying younger than C-T boundary ages for these samples. The mineralogy, major and trace elements of the ash beds suggest their source from nearby arc-derived calc-alkaline volcanism. The ɛHf(T) of the analyzed ash bed zircons yield values between 0 - +8 averaging at +3.5, clearly indicating a mantle component in the host magmas of the zircons. This initial range of ɛHf(T) is similar to arc-volcanism signatures such as the Quaternary andesitic volcanism in Central Mexico. Petrographic analyses of marls away from the visible tuff layer contain phenocrysts of biotite, alkali feldspar and andesitic rock fragments. The whole rock marl with high concentration of some transition metals (V, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mo) and relatively higher MgO and TiO2 contents indicate contemporaneous arc volcanic activity at the time of marl deposition. XRD of subsurface Eagle Ford bulk marl samples from different depths in 4 cores, show volcanogenic clays, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite, dickite and halloysite

  3. Origin of silicic magmas along the Central American volcanic front: Genetic relationship to mafic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas A.; Patino, Lina C.; Eaton, Jonathon K.; Valley, John W.; Rose, William I.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Viray, Ela L.

    2006-09-01

    Silicic pyroclastic flows and related deposits are abundant along the Central American volcanic front. These silicic magmas erupted through both the non-continental Chorotega block to the southeast and the Paleozoic continental Chortis block to the northwest. The along-arc variations of the silicic deposits with respect to diagnostic trace element ratios (Ba/La, U/Th, Ce/Pb), oxygen isotopes, Nd and Sr isotope ratios mimic the along-arc variation in the basaltic and andesitic lavas. This variation in the lavas has been interpreted to indicate relative contributions from the slab and asthenosphere to the basaltic magmas [Carr, M.J., Feigenson, M.D., Bennett, E.A., 1990. Incompatible element and isotopic evidence for tectonic control of source mixing and melt extraction along the Central American arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 369-380.; Patino, L.C., Carr, M.J. and Feigenson, M.D., 2000. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 138 (3), 265-283.]. With respect to along-arc trends in basaltic lavas the largest contribution of slab fluids is in Nicaragua and the smallest input from the slab is in central Costa Rica — similar trends are observed in the silicic pyroclastic deposits. Data from melting experiments of primitive basalts and basaltic andesites demonstrate that it is difficult to produce high K 2O/Na 2O silicic magmas by fractional crystallization or partial melting of low-K 2O/Na 2O sources. However fractional crystallization or partial melting of medium- to high-K basalts can produce these silicic magmas. We interpret that the high-silica magmas associated Central America volcanic front are partial melts of penecontemporaneous, mantle-derived, evolved magmas that have ponded and crystallized in the mid-crust — or are melts extracted from these nearly completely crystallized magmas.

  4. Distribution and mass of tephra-fall deposits from volcanic eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano based on posteruption surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Nishiki, Kuniaki; Geshi, Nobuo; Furukawa, Ryuta; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Teruki; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nanayama, Futoshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Hirota, Akinari; Miwa, Takahiro; Miyabuchi, Yasuo

    2018-04-01

    We estimate the total mass of ash fall deposits for individual eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano, southwest Japan based on distribution maps of the tephra fallout. Five ash-sampling campaigns were performed between 2011 and 2015, during which time Sakurajima continued to emit ash from frequent Vulcanian explosions. During each survey, between 29 and 53 ash samplers were installed in a zone 2.2-43 km downwind of the source crater. Total masses of erupted tephra were estimated using several empirical methods based on the relationship between the area surrounded by a given isopleth and the thickness of ash fall within each isopleth. We obtained 70-40,520 t (4.7 × 10-8-2.7 × 10-5-km3 DRE) as the minimum estimated mass of erupted materials for each eruption period. The minimum erupted mass of tephra produced during the recorded events was calculated as being 890-5140 t (5.9 × 10-7-3.6 × 10-6-km3 DRE). This calculation was based on the total mass of tephra collected during any one eruptive period and the number of eruptions during that period. These values may thus also include the contribution of continuous weak ash emissions before and after prominent eruptions. We analyzed the meteorological effects on ash fall distribution patterns and concluded that the width of distribution area of an ash fall is strongly controlled by the near-ground wind speed. The direction of the isopleth axis for larger masses is affected by the local wind direction at ground level. Furthermore, the wind direction influences the direction of the isopleth axes more at higher altitude. While a second maximum of ash fall can appear, the influence of rain might only affect the finer particles in distal areas.

  5. An evolving magmatic-hydrothermal system in the formation of the Mesozoic Meishan magnetite-apatite deposit in the Ningwu volcanic basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hao; Jiang, Man-Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Xia, Yan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Li, Huan

    2018-06-01

    , which could have generated an iron-rich melt, and is thus inconsistent with an iron-oxide melt origin for the Meishan iron deposit. The δ34S values of pyrite (6.6-15.1‰) and anhydrite (15.6-16.9‰) in the deposit and the occurrence of evaporites under the volcanic rocks likely indicate that the iron ores and alteration rocks of the Meishan deposit were formed by the circulation of fluids of evaporitic origin driven by heat from the hypabyssal gabbro-diorite intrusives. In the late magmatic stage, oxygen fugacity decreased to a reducing range, triggering the reduction of sulfate to reduced sulfur and leading to local gold and pyrite mineralization.

  6. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietubyć, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Smedley, John; Kosińska, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the lead photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. The quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.

  7. The structure and mechanical properties of multilayer nanocrystalline TiN/ZrN coatings obtained by vacuum-arc deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Demchyshyn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates on BK-8 carbide tips substrates (62 HRC were produced by the vacuumarc deposition technique, using Ti and Zr plasma flows in reactive nitrogen gas medium with working pressure of 6.6·10–1 Pa. The TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates consist of TiN and ZrN sublayers, which have a thickness of ~100 nm, controlled by the processing parameters of the used deposition technique. The obtained coatings have hardness of 45 GPa and Young’s modulus of 320 GPa. The obtained results show that mechanical properties of such multilayered composites are considerably improved in comparison to those for the single-component coatings, TiN and ZrN. The dependence of hardness and Young’s modulus of the composites on sublayer thickness within a range of 100 nm was determined. The investigated structure and improved mechanical properties of the TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates would be very good platform for finding their industrial application, such as hard coatings with different purposes.

  8. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 1: association with alkalic magmatism in a continent-island-arc collision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.P.; Chappell, B.W.; McCulloch, M.T.; McDougall, I.

    1991-01-01

    The meso thermal to epithermal Porgera gold deposit is spatially and temporally associated with shallow level (≤ 2 km emplacement depth) stocks and dykes of the Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC). Gold mineralization immediately followed emplacement of the PIC, and is dated between 5 and 6 Ma ago. The Porgera intrusive suite is comprised of fine- to medium-grained, porphyritic to euhedral granular, volatile-rich, sodic alkali basalts/gabbros, hawaiites, and mugearites (TAS chemical classification scheme). The rocks display chemical and isotopic characteristics similar to those of intra plate alkalic basalts, but their unusually high volatile contents result in stabilization of hornblende as a phenocryst and intergranular phase in more evolved rock types. The observed order of cotectic crystallization is olivine - clinopyroxene - hornblende -plagioclase, with ubiquitous spinel (chromite/magnetite) and fluor-apatite. (author)

  9. Characterization and Optimization of Ni-WC Composite Weld Matrix Deposited by Plasma-Transferred Arc Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Ali; Horley, Paul; Merlin, Mattia; Torres-Torres, David; Garagnani, Gian Luca; Praga, Rolando; Vázquez, Felipe J. García; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana

    2017-03-01

    This work is dedicated to optimization of carbide particle system in a weld bead deposited by PTAW technique over D2 tool steel with high chromium content. The paper reports partial melting of the original carbide grains of the Ni-based filling powder, and growing of the secondary carbide phase (Cr, Ni)_3W_3C in the form of dendrites with wide branches that enhanced mechanical properties of the weld. The optimization of bead parameters was made with design of experiment methodology complemented by a complex sample characterization including SEM, EDXS, XRD, and nanoindentation measurements. It was shown that the preheat of the substrate to a moderate temperature 523 K (250° C) establishes linear pattern of metal flow in the weld pool, resulting in the most homogeneous distribution of the primary carbides in the microstructure of weld bead.

  10. The n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coating fabricated on ZK60 magnesium alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation with electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Adding CeO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} nano-particles to modify the properties of n-MAO coating. • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD composite coating was prepared by two-step methods. • The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. - Abstract: A bio-ceramic composite coating was fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The MAO coating as the basal layer was produced in alkaline electrolyte with (n-MAO coating) and without (MAO coating) the addition of CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nano-particles, respectively. A hydroxyapatite (HA) coating as the covering layer was deposited on the n-MAO coating to improve the biological properties of the coating (n-MAO/EPD composite coating). The morphology and phase composition of three treated coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of these coatings was evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The XRD spectra showed that the CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} peaks can be collected in the n-MAO coating, and HA particles exists in the n-MAO/EPD composite coating. The results of corrosion tests indicated that the n-MAO/EPD composite coating owned increased bioactivity and long-term protective ability compared with the MAO coating and the n-MAO coating. Thus Mg alloy coated with the n-MAO/EPD composite coating should be more suited as biodegradable bone implants.

  11. Tribological Behavior of Multilayered WC-Ti1-xAlxN Coatings Deposited by Cathodic Arc Deposition Process on High Speed Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Gu; Hwang, Woon Suk

    2006-01-01

    Recently, much of the current development in surface modification engineering are focused on multilayered coatings. Multilayered coatings have the potential to improve the tribological properties. Four different multilayered coatings were deposited on AISI D2 steel. The prepared samples are designed as WC-Ti 0.6 Al 0.4 N, WC-Ti 0.53 Al 0.47 N, WC-Ti 0.5 Al 0.5 N and WC-Ti 0.43 Al 0.57 N. The multilayered coatings were investigated with respect to coating surface and cross-sectional morphology, roughness, adhesion, hardness, porosity and tribological behavior. Especially, wear tests of four multilayered coatings were preformed by using a ball-on-disc configuration with a linear sliding speed of 0.017 m/sec, 5.38 N load. The tests were carried out at room temperature in air by employing AISI 52100 steel ball (H R = 66) having a diameter of 10 mm. The surface morphology, and topography of the wear scars of samples and balls have been determined by using scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). Results have showed an improved wear resistance of the WC-Ti 1-x 6Al x N coatings with increasing of Al concentration. WC-Ti 0.43 Al 0.57 N coating with the lower surface roughness and porosity with good adhesion enhanced wear resistance

  12. Phase transitions of doped carbon in CrCN coatings with modified mechanical and tribological properties via filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, J.J. [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang, H.Q. [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qin, L.Z., E-mail: qin8394@163.com [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liao, B.; Liang, H. [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, B. [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The CrCN coatings were fabricated onto Si (1 1 1) wafers and SUS304 stainless steel plates using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique under different flow ratios of N{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas mixture. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the coatings were characterized. It was found that the grain size reduce with increasing carbon content, which makes the CrCN coatings refined and smooth. The quasi-one-dimensional carbolite phase was also found in CrN host lattice with C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content ranging from 5% to 20%, and it will be evolved into amorphous carbon and amorphous CN{sub x} phases as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content exceeds 20%. Moreover, we examined the mechanical and tribological properties of the CrCN coatings, and the experimental results confirmed that the friction coefficient of the coatings descend to the lowest value as 0.39 with 30% C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content, due to the graphite (sp{sup 2} C−C) phase embed in CrN host lattice; while the chromium carbon (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}) and diamond (sp{sup 3} C−C) phases may give rise to the increase of the coating hardness with the highest value at 23.97 GPa under 20% C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content.

  13. Effect of negative bias voltage on CrN films deposited by arc ion plating. I. Macroparticles filtration and film-growth characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qimin; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-01-01

    Chromium nitride (CrN) films were deposited on Si wafers by arc ion plating (AIP) at various negative bias voltages and several groups of N 2 /Ar gas flux ratios and chamber gas pressures. The authors systematically investigated the influence of negative bias voltage on the synthesis, composition, microstructure, and properties of the AIP CrN films. In this part (Part I), the investigations were mainly focused on the macroparticle distributions and film-growth characteristics. The results showed that macroparticle densities on the film surfaces decreased greatly by applying negative bias voltage, which can be affected by partial pressure of N 2 and Ar gases. From the statistical analysis of the experimental results, they proposed a new hybrid mechanism of ion bombardment and electrical repulsion. Also, the growth of the AIP CrN films was greatly altered by applying negative bias voltage. By increasing the bias voltage, the film surfaces became much smoother and the films evolved from apparent columnar microstructures to an equiaxed microstructure. The impinging high-energy Cr ions accelerated by negative bias voltages were deemed the inherent reason for the evolution of growth characteristics

  14. Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on Friction Coefficient and Surface Roughness of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steel Using Arc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Esah; Ourdjini, Ali; Ali, Mubarak; Akhter, Parvez; Hj. Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi; Abdul Hamid, Mansor

    In the present study, the effect of various N2 gas flow rates on friction coefficient and surface roughness of TiN-coated D2 tool steel was examined by a commercially available cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD) technique. A Pin-on-Disc test was carried out to study the Coefficient of friction (COF) versus sliding distance. A surface roughness tester measured the surface roughness parameters. The minimum values for the COF and surface roughness were recorded at a N2 gas flow rate of 200 sccm. The increase in the COF and surface roughness at a N2 gas flow rate of 100 sccm was mainly attributed to an increase in both size and number of titanium particles, whereas the increase at 300 sccm was attributed to a larger number of growth defects generated during the coating process. These ideas make it possible to optimize the coating properties as a function of N2 gas flow rate for specific applications, e.g. cutting tools for automobiles, aircraft, and various mechanical parts.

  15. Phase transitions of doped carbon in CrCN coatings with modified mechanical and tribological properties via filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, J.J.; Wang, H.Q.; Qin, L.Z.; Liao, B.; Liang, H.; Li, B.

    2017-01-01

    The CrCN coatings were fabricated onto Si (1 1 1) wafers and SUS304 stainless steel plates using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique under different flow ratios of N_2/C_2H_2 gas mixture. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the coatings were characterized. It was found that the grain size reduce with increasing carbon content, which makes the CrCN coatings refined and smooth. The quasi-one-dimensional carbolite phase was also found in CrN host lattice with C_2H_2 content ranging from 5% to 20%, and it will be evolved into amorphous carbon and amorphous CN_x phases as C_2H_2 content exceeds 20%. Moreover, we examined the mechanical and tribological properties of the CrCN coatings, and the experimental results confirmed that the friction coefficient of the coatings descend to the lowest value as 0.39 with 30% C_2H_2 content, due to the graphite (sp"2 C−C) phase embed in CrN host lattice; while the chromium carbon (Cr_3C_2) and diamond (sp"3 C−C) phases may give rise to the increase of the coating hardness with the highest value at 23.97 GPa under 20% C_2H_2 content.

  16. Phase transitions of doped carbon in CrCN coatings with modified mechanical and tribological properties via filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J. J.; Wang, H. Q.; Qin, L. Z.; Liao, B.; Liang, H.; Li, B.

    2017-04-01

    The CrCN coatings were fabricated onto Si (1 1 1) wafers and SUS304 stainless steel plates using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique under different flow ratios of N2/C2H2 gas mixture. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the coatings were characterized. It was found that the grain size reduce with increasing carbon content, which makes the CrCN coatings refined and smooth. The quasi-one-dimensional carbolite phase was also found in CrN host lattice with C2H2 content ranging from 5% to 20%, and it will be evolved into amorphous carbon and amorphous CNx phases as C2H2 content exceeds 20%. Moreover, we examined the mechanical and tribological properties of the CrCN coatings, and the experimental results confirmed that the friction coefficient of the coatings descend to the lowest value as 0.39 with 30% C2H2 content, due to the graphite (sp2 Csbnd C) phase embed in CrN host lattice; while the chromium carbon (Cr3C2) and diamond (sp3 Csbnd C) phases may give rise to the increase of the coating hardness with the highest value at 23.97 GPa under 20% C2H2 content.

  17. In situ composite coating of titania-hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate by micro-arc oxidation coupled with electrophoretic deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il Song, E-mail: ilsong@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sook Jeong [Neural Injury Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Asan life Science Institute, University, of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Tae Sung [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Ho, E-mail: mh@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} HA/TiO{sub 2} coating were prepared by a MAO and EPD technique. {center_dot} The NaOH electrolyte solution containing HA particles is employed. {center_dot} MAO and EPD treatment enhances the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of titanium. - Abstract: In situ composite coating of hydroxyapatite (HA)/TiO{sub 2} were produced on titanium (Ti) substrate by micro-arc oxidation coupled with electrophoretic deposition (MAO and EPD) technique with different concentrations of HA particles in the 0.2 M NaOH electrolyte solution. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the hybrid coating were effected by HA concentration. The amount of HA particles incorporated into coating layer increased with increasing HA concentration used in the electrolyte solution. The corrosion behavior of the coating layer in simulated body fluids (SBF) was evaluated using a potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion resistance of the coated sample was increased compared to the untreated Ti sample. The in vitro bioactivity assessment showed that the MAO and EPD treated Ti substrate possessed higher apatite-forming ability than the untreated Ti. Moreover, the apatite-forming ability had a positive correlation with HA concentration. In addition, the cell behavior was also examined using cell proliferation assay and alkaline phosphatase ability. The coating formed at HA concentration of 5 g/L exhibited the highest cell ability.

  18. Upper Paleozoic mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Mount Pleasant caldera associated with the Sn-W deposit in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada): Petrogenesis and metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Jutras, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Upper Paleozoic ( 365 Ma) mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Piskahegan Group constitute a subordinate part of the Mount Pleasant caldera, which is associated with a significant polymetallic deposit (tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth zones 33 Mt ore with 0.21% W, 0.1% Mo and 0.08% Bi and tin-indium zones 4.8 Mt with 0.82% Sn and 129 g/t In) in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada). The epicontinental caldera complex formed during the opening of the late Paleozoic Maritimes Basin in the northern Appalachians. The mafic and intermediate rocks make up two compositionally distinct associations. The first association includes evolved rift-related continental tholeiitic basalts, and the second association comprises calc-alkaline andesites, although both associations were emplaced penecontemporaneously. The basalts have low Mg# 0.34-0.40, smooth chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (La/Yb)n 5-6, primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns without noticeable negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and their ɛNd(T) ranges from + 2.5 to + 2.2. The basalts were generated by partial melting of a transition zone between spinel and garnet mantle peridotite at a depth of 70-90 km. The calc-alkaline andesites of the second association have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are more fractionated, with (La/Yb)n 7-8.5, but without significant negative Eu anomalies. Compared to the basaltic rocks, they have lower ɛNd(T) values, ranging from + 0.5 to + 1.9, and their mantle-normalized trace element plots show negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The ɛNd(T) values display negative correlations with indicators of crustal contamination, such as Th/La, Th/Nb and SiO2. The andesitic rocks are interpreted to have formed by assimilation-fractional crystallization processes, which resulted in the contamination of a precursor basaltic magma with crustal material. The parent basaltic magma for both suites underwent a different evolution. The tholeiitic basalts experienced shallow-seated fractional

  19. Large-scale high density 3D AMT for mineral exploration — A case history from volcanic massive sulfide Pb-Zn deposit with 2000 AMT sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Chen, S.; He, L.; Yao, H.; Li, H.; Xi, X.; Zhao, X.

    2017-12-01

    EM method plays a key role in volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit which is with high grade and high economic value. However, the performance of high density 3D AMT in detecting deep concealed VMS targets is not clear. The size of a typical VMS target is less than 100 m x 100 m x 50 m, it's a challenge task to find it with large depth. We carried a test in a VMS Pb-Zn deposit using high density 3D AMT with site spacing as 20 m and profile spacing as 40 - 80 m. About 2000 AMT sites were acquired in an area as 2000 m x 1500 m. Then we used a sever with 8 CPUs (Intel Xeon E7-8880 v3, 2.3 GHz, 144 cores), 2048 GB RAM, and 40 TB disk array to invert above 3D AMT sites using integral equation forward modeling and re-weighted conjugated-gradient inversion. The depth of VMS ore body is about 600 m and the size of the ore body is about 100 x 100 x 20m with dip angle about 45 degree. We finds that it's very hard to recover the location and shape of the ore body by 3D AMT inversion even using the data of all AMT sites and frequencies. However, it's possible to recover the location and shape of the deep concealed ore body if we adjust the inversion parameters carefully. A new set of inversion parameter needs to be find for high density 3D AMT data set and the inversion parameters working good for Dublin Secret Model II (DSM 2) is not suitable for our real data. This problem may be caused by different data density and different number of frequency. We find a set of good inversion parameter by comparing the shape and location of ore body with inversion result and trying different inversion parameters. And the application of new inversion parameter in nearby area with high density AMT sites shows that the inversion result is improved greatly.

  20. Ore-Forming Systems In Volcanogenic-Sedimentary Sequences By The Example Of Base Metal Deposits Of The Caucasus And East Pontic Metallotect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergo KEKELIA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available By the example of Alpine volcanogenic base metal deposits of the central part of the AlpineHimalayan fold belt (East Pontic Metallotect and Caucasus, it has been demonstrated that their hydrothermal systems naturally emerge at various stages of active interaction of microplates-continental fragments of Eurasia and Gondwanaland. During the divergence stage, at the microplates-boundary zones within the marginal sea, hydrothermal-sedimentary Cu and polymetallic deposits have been formed; at the early convergence stage, within the paleo-island-arc systems, epigenetic Cu and in lesser extent, barite-polymetallic (Lesser Caucasus, and later both combined (hydrothermal-sedimentary and stockwork and epigenetic (mainly Cu- and Zn-containing deposits have been originated (East Pontic Metallotect. At the beginning of the collisional stage, in connection with antidrome volcanism within the back-arc volcanic structures, polyformational deposits (barite, barite-polymetallic, Cu, Au have been formed. This tendency persists during the whole collisional stage - in the within-plate and transplate Eocene volcanic depressions - mainly polymetallic deposits have been originated in which the increasing contents of Ag take place in comparison to Au. The authors share the opinion that the primarily- anomalous environments for Cu-Zn deposits can have been "specialized" basic and medium-acidic volcanics whereas for baritic and barite polymetallic deposits grey coloured and evaporitic sequences in the volcano-structure pedestals with buried highly mineralized brines seem to be most favorable.

  1. ALVIN-SeaBeam studies of the Sumisu Rift, Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B.; Brown, G.; Fryer, P.; Gill, J. B.; Hochstaedter, A. G.; Hotta, H.; Langmuir, C. H.; Leinen, M.; Nishimura, A.; Urabe, T.

    1990-10-01

    Bimodal volcanism, normal faulting, rapid sedimentation, and hydrothermal circulation characterize the rifting of the Izu-Bonin arc at 31°N. Analysis of the zigzag pattern, in plan view, of the normal faults that bound Sumisu Rift indicates that the extension direction (080° ± 10°) is orthogonal to the regional trend of the volcanic front. Normal faults divide the rift into an inner rift on the arc side, which is the locus for maximum subsidence and sedimentation, and an outer rift further west. Transfer zones that link opposing master faults and/or rift flank uplifts further subdivide the rift into three segments along strike. Volcanism is concentrated along the ENE-trending transfer zone which separates the northern and central rift segments. The differential motion across the zone is accommodated by interdigitating north-trending normal faults rather than by ENE-trending oblique-slip faults. Volcanism in the outer rift has built 50-700 m high edifices without summit craters whereas in the inner rift it has formed two multi-vent en echelon ridges (the largest is 600 m high and 16 km long). The volcanism is dominantly basaltic, with compositions reflecting mantle sources little influenced by arc components. An elongate rhyolite dome and low-temperature hydrothermal deposits occur at the en echelon step in the larger ridge, which is located at the intersection of the transfer zone with the inner rift. The chimneys, veins, and crusts are composed of silica, barite and iron oxide, and are of similar composition to the ferruginous chert that mantles the Kuroko deposits. A 1.2-km transect of seven ALVIN heat flow measurements at 30°48.5'N showed that the inner-rift-bounding faults may serve as water recharge zones, but that they are not necessarily areas of focussed hydrothermal outflow, which instead occurs through the thick basin sediments. The rift basin and arc margin sediments are probably dominated by permeable rhyolitic pumice and ash erupted from submarine

  2. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Jeremy; Thomson, W.; Howard, B.; Schell, N.; Näslund, Lars-Åke; Rogström, Lina; Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats P.; Ghafoor, Naureen; Odén, Magnus; Nothnagel, E.; Shepard, A.; Greer, J.; Birch, Jens

    2015-01-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (greater than50 keV), high photon flux (greater than10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (less than1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation...

  3. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  4. Modernization of serial facility 'BULAT-6' for synthesis of vacuum-arc coatings by the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition as well as ion hydrogen-free nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Andreev, A.A.; Rudenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The model of laboratory vacuum-arc facility for realization of the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition is worked out by means modernization of serial industrial facility 'BULAT-6'. The facility is suitable for surface modification of instrumental steel items, including the low-alloyed steels with low temperatures of tempering. The low-temperature deposition of coatings on the preliminary nitrided surface of instrument permits obtaining dense coating with minimum maintenance of macroparticles, as well as with coatings superhigh adhesion to the substrate and with superhardness. The coatings possess high property stableness in time.

  5. Tectonostratigraphic reconstruction Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary in the northwestern Andes: from extensional tectonics to arc accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Patino, A. M.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Leon, S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Valencia, V.; Parra, M.; Hincapie, S.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margins characterized by continuous convergence experienced overimposed tectonic configurations that allowed the formation of volcanic arcs, back arc basins, transtensional divergent tectonics or the accretion of exotic volcanic terranes. Such record, particularly the extensional phases, can be partially destroyed and obscure by multiple deformational events, the accretion of exotic terranes and strike slip fragmentation along the margin. The tectonic evolution of the northern Andes during the Mesozoic is the result of post Pangea extension followed by the installation of a long-lived Jurassic volcanic arc (209 - 136 ma) that apparently stops between 136 Ma and 110 Ma. The Quebradagrande Complex has been define as a single Lower Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary unit exposed in the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes that growth after the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic hiatus. The origin of this unit have been related either to an oceanic volcanic arc or a marginal basin environment. The existence of such contrasting models reflect the regional perspective followed in published studies and the paucity of detail analysis of the volcano-sedimentary sequences.We integrate multiple approaches including structural mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry, U-Pb provenance and geochronology to improve the understanding of this unit and track the earlier phases of accumulation that are mask on the overimposed tectonic history. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of different volcano-sedimentary units that accumulated between 100 Ma and 82 Ma.The older Lower Cretaceous sequences was deposited over Triassic metamorphic continental crust and include a upward basin deepening record characterized by thick fan delta conglomerates, followed by distal turbidites and a syn-sedimentary volcanic record at 100 ma. The other sequence include a 85 - 82 Ma fringing arc that was also formed close to the continental margin or

  6. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  7. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  8. Oxidation resistance of TiN, CrN, TiAlN and CrAlN coatings deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chim, Y.C.; Ding, X.Z.; Zeng, X.T.; Zhang, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four kinds of hard coatings, TiN, CrN, TiAlN and CrAlN (with Al/Ti or Al/Cr atomic ratio around 1:1), were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a lateral rotating cathode arc technique. The as-deposited coatings were annealed in ambient atmosphere at different temperatures (500-1000 o C) for 1 h. The evolution of chemical composition, microstructure, and microhardness of these coatings after annealing at different temperatures was systematically analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation experiments. The oxidation behaviour and its influence on overall hardness of these four coatings were compared. It was found that the ternary TiAlN and CrAlN coatings have better oxidation resistance than their binary counterparts, TiN and CrN coatings. The Cr-based coatings (CrN and CrAlN) exhibited evidently better oxidation resistance than the Ti-based coatings (TiN and TiAlN). TiN coating started to oxidize at 500 o C. After annealing at 700 o C no N could be detected by EDX, indicating that the coating was almost fully oxidized. After annealed at 800 o C, the coating completely delaminated from the substrate. TiAlN started to oxidize at 600 o C. It was nearly fully oxidized (with little residual nitrogen detected in the coating by EDX) and partially delaminated at 1000 o C. Both CrN and CrAlN started to oxidize at 700 o C. CrN was almost fully oxidized (with little residual nitrogen detected in the coating by EDX) and partially delaminated at 900 o C. The oxidation rate of the CrAlN coating is quite slow. After annealing at 1000 o C, only about 19 at.% oxygen was detected and the coating showed no delamination. The Ti-based (TiN and TiAlN) coatings were not able to retain their hardness at higher temperatures (≥ 700 o C). On the other hand, the hardness of CrAlN was stable at a high level between 33 and 35 GPa up to an annealing temperature of 800 o C and still kept at a comparative high value of

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitomirsky, V.N.; Kim, S.K.; Burstein, L.; Boxman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings with alternating Zr-O and Al-O layers having a bi-layer period of 6-7 nm and total coating thickness of 1.0-1.2 μm were deposited using a cathodic vacuum arc plasma process on rotating Si substrates. Plasmas generated from two cathodes, Zr and Al, were deposited simultaneously in a mixture of Ar and O 2 background gases. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings, as well as bulk ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 reference samples, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra were analyzed on the surface and after sputtering with a 4 kV Ar + ion gun. High resolution angle resolved spectra were obtained at three take-off angles: 15 o , 45 o and 75 o relative to the sample surface. It was shown that preferential sputtering of oxygen took place during XPS of bulk reference ZrO 2 samples, producing ZrO and free Zr along with ZrO 2 in the XPS spectra. In contrast, no preferential sputtering was observed with Al 2 O 3 reference samples. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings contained a large amount of free metals along with their oxides. Free Zr and Al were observed in the coating spectra both before and after sputtering, and thus cannot be due solely to preferential sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Zr-O/Al-O coatings had a nano-multilayered structure with well distinguished alternating layers. However, both of the alternating layers of the coating contained of a mixture of aluminum and zirconium oxides and free Al and Zr metals. The concentration of Zr and Al changed periodically with distance normal to the coating surface: the Zr maximum coincided with the Al minimum and vice versa. However the concentration of Zr in both alternating layers was significantly larger than that of Al. Despite the large free metal concentration, the Knoop hardness, 21.5 GPa, was relatively high, which might be attributed to super-lattice formation or formation of a metal-oxide nanocomposite within the layers.

  10. ARC Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    coordination on a regular basis. The overall ARC organizational structure is shown below. Organizational Structure Dynamics and Control of Vehicles Human Centered Modeling and Simulation High Performance

  11. Nature's refineries — Metals and metalloids in arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, Byron R.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data for fumaroles and for atmospheric gas and ash plumes from active arc volcanoes provide glimpses of the rates of release of metal and metalloids, such as Tl and Cd, from shallow and mid-crust magmas. Data from copper deposits formed in ancient volcanoes at depths of up to about 1500 m in the fractures below paleo-fumaroles, and at around 2000–4000 m in association with sub-volcanic intrusions (porphyry copper deposits) provide evidence of sub-surface deposition of Cu–Au–Ag–Mo and a range of other minor elements including Te, Se, As and Sb. These deposits, or ‘sinks’, of metals consistently record sustained histories of magmatic gas streaming through volcanic systems interspersed by continuing intrusive and eruptive activity. Here we integrate data from ancient and modern volcanic systems and show that the fluxes of metals and metalloids are controlled by a) the maintenance of fracture permeability in the stressed crust below volcanoes and b) the chemical processes that are triggered as magmatic gas, initially undersaturated with metals and metalloids, expands from lithostatic to very low pressure conditions through fracture arrays. The recognition of gas streaming may also account for the phenomenon of ‘excess degassing’, and defines an integral, but generally understated, component of active volcanic systems – a volcanic gas core – that is likely to be integral to the progression of eruptions to Plinean state.Destabilization of solvated molecular metal and metalloid species in magmatic gas mixtures and changes in their redox state are triggered, as it expands to the surface by abrupt pressure drops, or throttles' in the fracture array that guides expansion to the surface. The electronically harder, low electronegativity metals, such as copper and iron, deposit rapidly in response to expansion followed more slowly by arsenic with antimony as sulfosalts. Heavy, large radius, softer elements such as bismuth, lead, and thallium

  12. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  13. Microstructure and mechanical performance of depositing CuSi3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate by the novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Jian; Feng, Jicai

    2010-01-01

    A novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding (CNC-IAW) with low heat input was successfully applied in depositing CuSi 3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate. The indirect arc was generated between the consumable and non-consumable welding torch. The microstructure of the deposited weld was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dilution ratio of the bead-on-plate weld was controlled no higher than 5% and the deleterious iron picking up was effectively restrained. The deposited metal mainly consisted of ε-Cu solid solution and a small amount of Fe 2 Si phase. In the interfacial zone between the deposited metal and base metal, the thickness of the zone changed from thick to thin and the microstructure changed from complex to simple from the middle to both sides. In the middle of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented three sub-layers consisting of Fe 3 Si (L)/Fe 3 Si (S) + ε-Cu/α-Fe. In the both sides of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented single α-Fe layer. The formation mechanism of the interfacial zone could be successfully explained by the formation of the Fe liquid-solid phase zone adjacent to the Fe base metal and the interfusion between Fe and Si. The average compressive shear strength reached 321 MPa and its fracture morphology mainly belonged to ductile fracture.

  14. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    , Tungurahua in Ecuador, Mt. Etna in Italy, Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea, Mt. Spurr and Mt. St. Helens in the USA, Ruapehu in New Zealand, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Anatahan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (part of the USA). Ten countries - USA, Indonesia, Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, Italy, New Zealand, Philippines, Mexico, Japan, and United Kingdom - have the highest volcanic hazard and/or vulnerability measures for airports. The adverse impacts of volcanic eruptions on airports can be mitigated by preparedness and forewarning. Methods that have been used to forewarn airports of volcanic activity include real-time detection of explosive volcanic activity, forecasts of ash dispersion and deposition, and detection of approaching ash clouds using ground-based Doppler radar. Given the demonstrated vulnerability of airports to disruption from volcanic activity, at-risk airports should develop operational plans for ashfall events, and volcano-monitoring agencies should provide timely forewarning of imminent volcanic-ash hazards directly to airport operators. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  15. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  16. Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A J; Abbott, P M; Albert, P G; Cook, E; Pearce, N J G; Ponomareva, V; Svensson, A; Davies, S M

    2016-07-21

    Widespread ash dispersal poses a significant natural hazard to society, particularly in relation to disruption to aviation. Assessing the extent of the threat of far-travelled ash clouds on flight paths is substantially hindered by an incomplete volcanic history and an underestimation of the potential reach of distant eruptive centres. The risk of extensive ash clouds to aviation is thus poorly quantified. New evidence is presented of explosive Late Pleistocene eruptions in the Pacific Arc, currently undocumented in the proximal geological record, which dispersed ash up to 8000 km from source. Twelve microscopic ash deposits or cryptotephra, invisible to the naked eye, discovered within Greenland ice-cores, and ranging in age between 11.1 and 83.7 ka b2k, are compositionally matched to northern Pacific Arc sources including Japan, Kamchatka, Cascades and Alaska. Only two cryptotephra deposits are correlated to known high-magnitude eruptions (Towada-H, Japan, ca 15 ka BP and Mount St Helens Set M, ca 28 ka BP). For the remaining 10 deposits, there is no evidence of age- and compositionally-equivalent eruptive events in regional volcanic stratigraphies. This highlights the inherent problem of under-reporting eruptions and the dangers of underestimating the long-term risk of widespread ash dispersal for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic flight routes.

  17. Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Manuel; Haase, Karsten M.; Klemd, Reiner; Smith, Daniel J.; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Bach, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Most magmatic-hydrothermal Cu deposits are genetically linked to arc magmas. However, most continental or oceanic arc magmas are barren, and hence new methods have to be developed to distinguish between barren and mineralised arc systems. Source composition, melting conditions, the timing of S saturation and an initial chalcophile element-enrichment represent important parameters that control the potential of a subduction setting to host an economically valuable deposit. Brothers volcano in the Kermadec island arc is one of the best-studied examples of arc-related submarine magmatic-hydrothermal activity. This study, for the first time, compares the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Brothers seafloor massive sulphides and the associated dacitic to rhyolitic lavas that host the hydrothermal system. Incompatible trace element ratios, such as La/Sm and Ce/Pb, indicate that the basaltic melts from L'Esperance volcano may represent a parental analogue to the more evolved Brothers lavas. Copper-rich magmatic sulphides (Cu > 2 wt%) identified in fresh volcanic glass and phenocryst phases, such as clinopyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide suggest that the surrounding lavas that host the Brothers hydrothermal system represent a potential Cu source for the sulphide ores at the seafloor. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that the Brothers melts reached volatile saturation during their evolution. Melt inclusion data and the occurrence of sulphides along vesicle margins indicate that an exsolving volatile phase extracted Cu from the silicate melt and probably contributed it to the overlying hydrothermal system. Hence, the formation of the Cu-rich seafloor massive sulphides (up to 35.6 wt%) is probably due to the contribution of Cu from a bimodal source including wall rock leaching and magmatic degassing, in a mineralisation style that is hybrid between Cyprus-type volcanic-hosted massive sulphide and subaerial epithermal-porphyry deposits.

  18. Rates of volcanic deposition, facies changes and movements in a dynamic basin: the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland, around the C27n-C26r transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. K.; Larsen, L. M.; Riisager, P.

    2002-01-01

    the C27n-C26r transition (estimated duration less than 10 ka and here assumed to be 5 ka) as a c. 170 m thick zone within a succession of thin picritic lava flows. Multimodel photogrammetry combined with chemical and lithological analysis of the volcanic rocks has allowed detailed 3D analysis...

  19. Study on nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films with various Si contents deposited by cathodic vacuum arc ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J. [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Muders, C.M.; Kumar, A. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Jiang, X., E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Pei, Z.L.; Gong, J. [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, C., E-mail: csun@imr.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD peaks show a tendency of decreasing intensity with increasing Si content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films present different microstructure with increasing Si content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films with 6 at.% Si content obtain the highest hardness, elastic modulus and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear rate decreases with an increase in hardness. - Abstract: In this study, nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films were deposited on high speed steel substrates by the vacuum cathode arc ion plating (AIP) technique. By virtue of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the influence of silicon content on the film microstructure and characteristics was investigated systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure as well as cross-section morphologies. With increasing the silicon content, a deterioration of the preferred orientation and a dense globular structure were detected. In the meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation, Rockwell indenter and reciprocating test were also utilized to analyze the hardness, elastic modulus, H{sup 3}/E{sup 2}, friction coefficient, adhesive strength and wear rate of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films. The results showed that an optimal silicon content correlated with the best mechanical and tribological properties of the presented Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films existed. With increasing the silicon content, the hardness, elastic modulus and the ratio H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} first were improved gradually, and then were impaired sharply again. When the silicon content reached to 6 at.%, the film possessed the highest hardness, elastic modulus and ratio H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} of approximately 24 GPa, 218 GPa and 0.31, respectively. Besides, films containing both 6 at.% and 10 at.% Si contents obtained a relatively low friction coefficient and a good adhesive

  20. Mineral potential of Malawai. 3. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks: Karoo and post-Karoo (coal, uranium, industrial minerals and gemstone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report was produced for the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Malawi. It gives information and maps of uranium deposits, coal deposits, coal-bed methane, natural gas and helium potential, limestone deposits and gemstones (blue agate, chalcedony and kimerlites, the primary source of diamonds). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 4 maps, 5 photos.

  1. Volcanism in the Sumisu Rift. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstaedter, A.G.; Gill, J.B.; Morris, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A bimodal suite of volcanic rocks collected from the Sumisu Rift by ALVIN provide present day example of the first magmatic products of arc rifting during the initiation of back-arc spreading. The trace element and isotopic composition of these rocks, which are contemporaneous with island arc tholeiite lavas of the Izu-Ogasawara arc 20 km to the east, differ from those of arc rocks and N-MORB in their relative incorporation of both subduction-related and non-subduction-related components. Subduction-related components, i.e., those that distinguish volcanic arc basalts from N-MORB, are less pronounced in rift lavas than in arc lavas. Alkali and alkaline earth to high field strength element and REE ratios as well as 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are intermediate between those of N-MORB and Izu arc lavas and indicate that Sumisu Rift basalts are similar to BABB erupted in other, more mature back-arc basins. These results show that back-arc basins may begin their magmatic evolution with BABB rather than more arc-like lavas. Evidence of non-subduction related components remains after the effects of subduction related components are removed or accounted for. Compared to the arc, higher HFSE and REE concentrations, contrasting REE patterns, and ≤ε Nd in the rift reflect derivation of rift lavas from more enriched components. Although SR basalt resembles E-MORB in many trace element ratios, it is referred to as BABB because low concentrations of Nb are similar to those in volcanic arcs and H 2 O/REE and H 2 O/K 2 O exceed those of E-MORB. Differences in HREE pattern and ε Nd require that the E-MORB characteristics result from source heterogeneities and not lower degrees of melting. Enriched mantle beneath the rift may reflect enriched blobs entrained in a more depleted matrix, or injection of new, more enriched mantle. High 208 Pb/ 204 Pb and moderate 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with respect to Pacific MORB also reflect ancient mantle enrichment. (orig.)

  2. THE NEOPROTEROZOIC ISLAND-ARC ASSOCIATION OF THE MUKODEK GOLD-ORE FIELD, NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  3. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshimura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  4. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  5. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  6. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  7. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ar Rayn terrane is exposed along the eastern margin of the Arabian shield. The terrane is bounded on the west by the Ad Dawadimi terrane across the Al Amar fault zone (AAF), and is nonconformably overlain on the east by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The terrane is composed of a magmatic arc complex and syn- to post-orogenic intrusions. The layered rocks of the arc, the Al Amar group (>689 Ma to ???625 Ma), consist of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basaltic to rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks with subordinate tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and carbonates, and are divided into an eastern and western sequence. Plutonic rocks of the terrane form three distinct lithogeochemical groups: (1) low-Al trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) of arc affinity (632-616 Ma) in the western part of the terrane, (2) high-Al TTG/adakite of arc affinity (689-617 Ma) in the central and eastern part of the terrane, and (3) syn- to post-orogenic alkali granite (607-583 Ma). West-dipping subduction along a trench east of the terrane is inferred from high-Al TTG/adakite emplaced east of low-Al TTG. The Ar Rayn terrane contains significant resources in epithermal Au-Ag-Zn-Cu-barite, enigmatic stratiform volcanic-hosted Khnaiguiyah-type Zn-Cu-Fe-Mn, and orogenic Au vein deposits, and the potential for significant resources in Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG), and porphyry Cu deposits. Khnaiguiyah-type deposits formed before or during early deformation of the Al Amar group eastern sequence. Epithermal and porphyry deposits formed proximal to volcanic centers in Al Amar group western sequence. IOCG deposits are largely structurally controlled and hosted by group-1 intrusions and Al Amar group volcanic rocks in the western part of the terrane. Orogenic gold veins are largely associated with north-striking faults, particularly in and near the AAF, and are presumably related to amalgamation of the Ar Rayn and Ad Dawadimi terranes. Geologic, structural, and metallogenic

  8. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  9. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  10. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  11. Timing of Late Cretaceous Gulf Coast volcanism and chronostratigraphic constraints on deposition of the Ripley Formation from a newly recognized bentonite bed, Pontotoc County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, E. J.; Gifford, J.; Platt, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ripley Formation is present throughout the Mississippi (MS) Embayment and contains local bentonite lenses related to regional volcanism. The Pontotoc bentonite is such a lens located near the town of Pontotoc, MS, that was strip-mined and has not been accessible since reclamation of the land. Recent investigations in Pontotoc County south of the Pontotoc bentonite site resulted in the discovery of a previously unknown bentonite bed. Litho- and biostratigraphy indicate that the bentonite is younger than known volcanism from MS. The purposes of the present investigation are 1) to test whether the new bentonite bed is correlative to the Pontotoc bentonite & 2) to recover volcanogenic zircons for U-Pb dating to better constrain timing of volcanism and chronostratigraphy of the Ripley Fm. Outcrops in an active sand pit in the field area expose 2.5 m of fine sand, and an upper gradational contact with an overlying 2.5 m of sandy clay, containing the bentonite bed. Two trenches were excavated through the outcrop, and in each trench a stratigraphic section was measured and bulk samples collected for zircons. Sampling began in the lower bounding sand and continued upsection in 1 m intervals, corresponding to the gradational contact with the bentonite, and 2 locations within the bentonite. The Ripley Fm. consists of 73 m of fossiliferous clay, sand, and calcareous sand beds. Recent stratigraphic revisions of the lateral facies in MS recognize a lower transitional clay facies, a limestone, marl, and calcareous sand facies, a sandy upper Ripley facies, and the formally named Chiwapa Sandstone Member. Ammonite biostratigraphy places the contact between the Chiwapa and the overlying Owl Creek/Prairie Bluff at 68.5 Ma. Unlike the mined area north of Pontotoc where the bentonite is within the Chiwapa, the bed here is directly above the Chiwapa section and its upper contact represents the Ripley Fm. / Owl Creek Fm. contact. Where the bentonite is present, it

  12. Volcanic geology and geochemistry of Motuhora (Whale Island), Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.M.; Cole, J.W.; Vroon, P.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Motuhora (Whale Island) lies c. 11 km offshore from Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and comprises tuffaceous marine sediments of the Camp Bay and Motuhora Formations separated by lavas, volcanic breccias, and slope-wash deposits of the Whale Volcanics. Whale Volcanics can be divided into East Dome, Central Dome Complex, and Pa Hill Dome. East Dome is a flow banded, chaotically jointed dacite that is probably extrusive. Central Dome comprises lava flows, and extensive volcanic breccias and tuffs which thicken into a local depression to the north of the central high, suggesting rapid growth and erosion of the dome. Pa Hill Dome is largely intrusive into Camp Bay Formation, although blocks of Pa Hill dacite in an upper slope-wash cobble bed suggest it was partially extrusive. The lavas are porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite with subordinate clinopyroxene and amphibole (particularly in Pa Hill Dome), and rare biotite. Rounded or broken and embayed quartz crystals are found in the Central Dome Complex and Pa Hill domes. Magmatic xenoliths are common in all lavas. Chemically the lavas are medium-K, calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, and show relative LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion typical of arc volcanics. Isotopically, samples tend to have more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd than volcanics from neighbouring White Island. It is likely that Motuhora lavas were formed by a multi-stage process involving partial melting of N-MORB-type mantle that had been fluxed by fluids rich in incompatible elements derived from the dehydrating downgoing slab and followed by crystal fractionation of the magma. As the magma rose through the lower continental crust it was contaminated, probably by Torlesse metasediment. Petrographic textures and mineral chemistry indicate that magma mixing, while in an upper crustal magma chamber, is the norm for Motuhora lavas. (author). 69 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Sedimentary architecture of a Plio-Pleistocene proto-back-arc basin: Wanganui Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Nodder, Scott; Kamp, Peter J. J.

    2005-11-01

    The sedimentary architecture of active margin basins, including back-arc basins, is known only from a few end-members that barely illustrate the natural diversity of such basins. Documenting more of these basins types is the key to refining our understanding of the tectonic evolution of continental margins. This paper documents the sedimentary architecture of an incipient back-arc basin 200 km behind the active Hikurangi subduction margin, North Island, New Zealand. The Wanganui Basin (WB) is a rapidly subsiding, Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary basin located at the southern termination of the extensional back-arc basin of the active Central Volcanic Region (TVZ). The WB is asymmetric with a steep, thrust-faulted, outer (arc-ward) margin and a gentle inner (craton-ward) margin. It contains a 4-km-thick succession of Plio-Pleistocene sediments, mostly lying offshore, composed of shelf platform sediments. It lacks the late molasse-like deposits derived from erosion of a subaerial volcanic arc and basement observed in classical back-arc basins. Detailed seismic stratigraphic interpretations from an extensive offshore seismic reflection data grid show that the sediment fill comprises two basin-scale mega-sequences: (1) a Pliocene (3.8 to 1.35 Ma), sub-parallel, regressive "pre-growth" sequence that overtops the uplifted craton-ward margin above the reverse Taranaki Fault, and (2) a Pleistocene (1.35 Ma to present), divergent, transgressive, "syn-growth" sequence that onlaps: (i) the craton-ward high to the west, and (ii) uplifted basement blocks associated with the high-angle reverse faults of the arc-ward margin to the east. Along strike, the sediments offlap first progressively southward (mega-sequence 1) and then southeastward (mega-sequence 2), with sediment transport funnelled between the craton- and arc-ward highs, towards the Hikurangi Trough through the Cook Strait. The change in offlap direction corresponds to the onset of arc-ward thrust faulting and the rise of

  14. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  15. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-04-01

    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  16. Late Miocene marine tephra beds : recorders of rhyolitic volcanism in North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, P.; Black, T.; Eggins, S.; Westgate, J.

    1998-01-01

    A deep-sea sequence of 72 rhyolitic tephra beds, now exposed at Mahia Peninsula in the Hawke's Bay region of the east coast, North Island, New Zealand, provides a record of Late Miocene volcanism of the Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ): the precursor to large-scale explosive volcanism of the Quaternary Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). The geochemical signature of the glasses in the Miocene tephra has been protected from hydrothermal alteration and prolonged subaerial exposure that have affected proximal CVZ deposits. The tephra beds are primarily eruption-driven sediment gravity flows that have been emplaced into a trench-slope basin, some 300 km from active volcanoes. Their occurrence is consistent with long-distance fluvial transport followed by a point-source discharge into the deep-sea environment, and has no implications for the paleogeographic location of the basins relative to the volcanic arc. The tephra beds are calc-alkaline rhyolites with SiO 2 contents in the range 72-78 wt% (recalculated on a volatile-free basis), and are broadly similar to glassy rocks of the CVZ. Their major oxide, trace element, and REE compositions are indistinguishable from glasses of TVZ rhyolites. The trace element and REE compositional variability in the Late Miocene tephra beds, which were erupted over an estimated duration of c. 0.5-2.4 m.y. is no greater than that of large silicic eruptives of the last 350 ka, and is suggestive of a long-lived source and/or similar magmatic processes. However, the individual tephra beds are products of discrete homogeneous magma batches. New fission track ages of the Miocene tephra beds suggest the main period of volcaniclastic deposition occurred in the interval c. 9-7 Ma. This corresponds well with the initiation of rhyolitic volcanism in the CVZ at c. 10 Ma, and a major period of caldera formation that took place to c. 7 Ma. The ages suggest a sediment accumulation rate of between 0.23 and 1.2 m/ka (av. 0.4 m/ka), and a frequency of eruption of

  17. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Eocene volcanism and the origin of horizon A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Towe, K.M.

    1971-01-01

    A series of closely time-equivalent deposits that correlate with seismic reflector horizon A exists along the coast of eastern North America. These sediments of Late-Early to Early-Middle Eocene age contain an authigenic mineral suite indicative of the alteration of volcanic glass. A volcanic origin for these siliceous deposits onshore is consistent with a volcanic origin for the cherts of horizon A offshore.

  19. Slab dehydration in Cascadia and its relationship to volcanism, seismicity, and non-volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of subduction beneath the Pacific Northwest (Cascadia) are variable along strike, leading to the segmentation of Cascadia into 3 general zones: Klamath, Siletzia, and Wrangelia. These zones show marked differences in tremor density, earthquake density, seismicity rates, and the locus and amount of volcanism in the subduction-related volcanic arc. To better understand what controls these variations, we have constructed a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the upper 80 km along the Cascadia margin from the joint inversion of CCP-derived receiver functions and ambient noise surface wave data using 900 temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. With this model, we can investigate variations in the seismic structure of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and overlying mantle wedge, the character of the crust-mantle transition beneath the volcanic arc, and local to regional variations in crustal structure. From these results, we infer the presence and distribution of fluids released from the subducting slab and how they affect the seismic structure of the overriding lithosphere. In the Klamath and Wrangelia zones, high seismicity rates in the subducting plate and high tremor density correlate with low shear velocities in the overriding plate's forearc and relatively little arc volcanism. While the cause of tremor is debated, intermediate depth earthquakes are generally thought to be due to metamorphic dehydration reactions resulting from the dewatering of the downgoing slab. Thus, the seismic characteristics of these zones combined with rather sparse arc volcanism may indicate that the slab has largely dewatered by the time it reaches sub-arc depths. Some of the water released during earthquakes (and possibly tremor) may percolate into the overriding plate, leading to slow seismic velocities in the forearc. In contrast, Siletzia shows relatively low seismicity rates and tremor density, with relatively higher shear velocities in the forearc

  20. Geochemical and geochronological constrains on the Chiang Khong volcanic rocks (northwestern Thailand) and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Feng, Qinglai; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Monjai, Denchok

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic rocks in northwestern Thailand exposed dominantly in the Chiang Khong area, are commonly considered to be genetically linked to the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The volcanic rocks consist mainly of andesitic to rhyolitic rocks and are traditionally mapped as Permian-Triassic sequences. Our zircon U-Pb geochronological results show that two andesitic samples (TL-1-B and TL-31-B), are representative of the Doi Yao volcanic zone, and give a mean weighted age of 241.2±4.6 Ma and 241.7±2.9 Ma, respectively. The rhyolitic sample (TL-32-B1) from the Doi Khun Ta Khuan volcanic zone erupted at 238.3±3.8 Ma. Such ages indicate that Chiang Khong volcanic rocks erputed during the early Middle Triassic period. Seven samples from the Doi Yao and Doi Khun Ta Khuan zones exhibit an affinity to arc volcanics. Three rhyolitic samples from the Chiang Khong area have a geochemical affinity to both arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks. The Chiang Khong arc volcanic rocks can be geochemically compared with those in the Lampang area in northern Thailand, also consistent with those in Jinghong area of southwestern Yunnan. This indicates that the Chiang Rai arc-volcanic zone might northwardly link to the Lancangjiang volcanic zone in southwestern China.

  1. A decade of volcanic construction and destruction at the summit of NW Rota-1 seamount: 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Susan R.; Chadwick, William W.; Embley, Robert W.; Ferrini, Vicki L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Deardorff, Nicholas D.; Merle, Susan G.; Dziak, Robert P.; Haxel, Joe H.; Matsumoto, Haru

    2017-03-01

    Arc volcanoes are important to our understanding of submarine volcanism because at some sites frequent eruptions cause them to grow and collapse on human timescales. This makes it possible to document volcanic processes. Active submarine eruptions have been observed at the summit of NW Rota-1 in the Mariana Arc. We use remotely operated vehicle videography and repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys to construct geologic maps of the summit of NW Rota-1 in 2009 and 2010 and relate them to the geologic evolution of the summit area over a 10 year period (2004-2014). We find that 2009 and 2010 were characterized by different eruptive styles, which affected the type and distribution of eruptive deposits at the summit. Year 2009 was characterized by ultraslow extrusion and autobrecciation of lava at a single eruptive vent, producing a large cone of blocky lava debris. In 2010, higher-energy explosive eruptions occurred at multiple closely spaced vents, producing a thin blanket of pebble-sized tephra overlying lava flow outcrops. A landslide that occurred between 2009 and 2010 had a major effect on lithofacies distribution by removing the debris cone and other unconsolidated deposits, revealing steep massive flow cliffs. This relatively rapid alternation between construction and destruction forms one end of a seamount growth and mass wasting spectrum. Intraplate seamounts, which tend to grow larger than arc volcanoes, experience collapse events that are orders of magnitude larger and much less frequent than those occurring at subduction zone settings. Our results highlight the interrelated cyclicity of eruptive activity and mass wasting at submarine arc volcanoes.

  2. Seismic velocity variation along the Izu-Bonin arc estaimated from traveltime tomography using OBS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Tamura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Kodaira, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc is an intra-oceanic island arc along the convergent plate boundary between the subducting Pacific and overriding Philippine Sea plates. Recent active seismic studies in the Izu-Bonin arc reveal significant along-arc variations in crustal structure [Kodaira et al., 2007]. The thickness of the arc crust shows a remarkable change between thicker Izu (~30 km) and thinner Bonin (~10 km) arcs. In addition to this, several geological and geophysical contrasts, such as seafloor topography and chemical composition of volcanic rocks, between Izu and Bonin arc have been reported [e.g., Yuasa 1992]. We have conducted earthquake observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to reveal seismic velocity structure of the crust and mantle wedge in the Izu-Bonin arc and to investigate origin of the along-arc structure variations. We deployed 40 short-period OBSs in Izu and Bonin area in 2006 and 2009, respectively. The OBS data were processed with seismic data recorded at routine seismic stations on Hachijo-jima, Aoga-shima, and Chichi-jima operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). More than 5000 earthquakes were observed during about three-months observation period in each experiment. We conducted three-dimensional seismic tomography using manually picked P- and S-wave arrival time data. The obtained image shows a different seismic velocity structures in the mantle beneath the volcanic front between Izu and Bonin arcs. Low P-wave velocity anomalies in the mantle beneath the volcanic front in the Izu arc are limited at depths deeper than those in the Bonin arc. On the other hand, P-wave velocity in the low velocity anomalies beneath volcanic front in the Bonin arc is slower than that in the Izu arc. These large-scale along-arc structure variations in the mantle could relate to the geological and geophysical contrasts between Izu and Bonin arcs.

  3. The Riscos Bayos Ignimbrites of the Caviahue-Copahue volcanic caldera complex, southern Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, A.; Merrill, M.; Demoor, M.; Goss, A.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    The Caviahue-Copahue volcanic complex (38 S, 70 W) is located on the eastern margin of the active arc in the southern Andes, Argentina. Volcán Copahue, an active stratovolcano which hosts an active hydrothermal system, sits on the southwestern rim of the elliptical Caviahue megacaldera (17 x 15 km). The caldera wall sequences are up to 0.6 km thick and consist of lavas with 51 -69 percent SiO2 and 0.2 - 5 percent MgO as well as breccias, dikes, sills, domes and minor ignimbrites. Andesitic lava flows also occur within the caldera, and are overlain by a chaotic complex of silicic lava and intracaldera pyroclastic flow deposits. The eastern wall sequence is capped by several extracaldera ignimbrites (Riscos Bayos formation) of about 50 m maximum thickness which extend 30 km east-southeast of the caldera. Young back-arc alkali basalt scoria cones occur east of the Caviahue-Copahue volcanic complex. The eruption of the Riscos Bayos formation at about 1.1 Ma (12 km cubed) may be related to the Caviahue caldera formation, though the Riscos Bayos account for only about 7 percent of the caldera volume. The Riscos Bayos consists of three lithic-bearing flow units: a grey basal flow, a tan middle flow and a bright-white, highly indurated uppermost flow. The basal unit consists of white and grey pumice fragments, black scoria clasts, black obsidian clasts (which give it the grey color), and accidental volcanic lithics set in a matrix of ash and crystals. The middle unit is composed of large mauve pumice fragments and accidental lithics set in a fine tan ash groundmass. The uppermost unit is composed of small pink and white pumice fragments set in a matrix of fine white ash. These pumices carry quartz and biotite crystals, whereas the lower two units are orthopyroxene-bearing trachy-dacites. The Caviahue-Copahue magmas all bear arc signatures, but possibly some magma mixing between the andesitic arc magmas and basaltic back-arc magmas may have occurred. The evolved top layer

  4. The volcanic rocks construction of the late paleozoic era and uranium mineralization in Beishan area of Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhengchang; Luo Xiaoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Beishan area are the favorable constructions of hydrothermal type and volcanic type deposit. From the distribution of volcanic rocks, the volcanic compositions, the volcanic facies, volcanic eruption method and rhythm, chemical and trace elements compositions, and so on, it discusses the characteristics of the Late Devonian volcanic construction in this area and its relationship with uranium mineralization, analyzes the role of volcanic ore-control mechanism, and summarizes uranium ore forming regularity of volcanic construction in Late Paleozoic. (authors)

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.

    1996-08-01

    Topics included in the papers presented at this conference are: vacuum arc ion source development at GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Germany), ITEP (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russia), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization); triggers for vacuum arc sources; plasma distribution of cathodic arc deposition system; high ion charge states in vacuum arc ion sources; and gas and metal ion sources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Miocene-Pliocene volcanism and tectonics in the Palaoco and Fortunoso volcanic fields, Mendoza Region, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo J.

    2013-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar analyses constrain the formation of the volcanic succession of Sierra de Palaoco in the present back-arc of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), near 36°S, to the Late Miocene and assigns them to the Huincán II Formation. The composition of major and trace elements, Sr, Nd and P...

  7. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  8. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D.; Zhong, Z.C.; Tong, Y.X.; Zheng, Y.F.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO 2 and a few amorphous Fe 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 . The amorphous SiO 2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  9. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [The Institute for Rare Earth Magnetic Materials and Devices, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Tong, Y.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO{sub 2} and a few amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  10. Permo-triassic volcanism in the San Rafael Block (Mendoza province) and its uraniferous potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiman, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Permo-triassic volcanism in the San Rafael Block, Mendoza, Argentina, which forms part of the Choiyoi province and it represents by large volumes of intermediate to silicic ignimbrites with minor sub volcanic bodies of rhyolites, andesites and basandesites. Three different suites can be distinguished: the first one (Lower Section) of Early Permian age, is composed of dacites and rhyolites (SiO 2 up to 71 %) with minor andesites, the second one (Upper Section) of Late Permian-Early Triassic age is made up of rhyolites (SiO 2 up to 77 %) with some basandesites and andesites, and the third one, of Triassic age is composed of rhyolites (SiO 2 > 75 %) and basandecites. These suites are easily distinguished by means of trace element data and are believed to represent the transition between a subduction-related magmatic arc and an extensional tectonic regime. This tectonic setting is similar to the prevalent during the Cenozoic in the Sierra Occidental of Mexico and is favourable for the development of long-lived hydrothermal systems which lead to economic U concentrations (i.e. Sierra de Pena Blanca). In the San Rafael Block, the Dr. Baulies-Los Reyunos U deposit, which is hosted in volcanic sediments, is associated to the first suite (Lower Section). Although minor U concentrations are known, up to date, to be related to the second and third suites, these rocks are fertile and seen to be potential source for the formation of uranium deposits within a volcanic caldera environment. (Author)

  11. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  12. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy

    2012-09-01

    evolution of a volcano. These flows are formed by edifice instability, which could be due to several factors such as the presence of hydrother-mally altered areas, climatic changes, earthquakes, shallow magma intrusions (cryptodomes and/or dykes and/or fault activity beneath or close to the volcano. The final product of this avalanche flow, known as debris avalanche deposit (DAD shows typical hummocky and closed drainage morphologies. More than 14 volcanic centers of the Central Andes have volcanic DAD's, being Tata Sabaya (Bolivia one of them. The collapse that has originated the deposit could have been generated by a combination of magmatic and seismic activity in the volcano. The deposit associated to the partial collapse of Tata Sabaya volcano is distributed on its lower southern flank and partially fills the north-western part of the Salar de Coipasa basin. The deposit covers a minimum area of 230 km² and has an estimated minimum volume of 6±1 km³. The deposit is formed by 6 different types of hummocks, according to their compositions: lavic, pyroclastic, sedimentary, mixed, pyroclastic breccia and basaltic-andesitic hummocks. Based on the predominant hummock type and the spatial distribution, the deposit has been divided into 6 different facies (Toreva Block Facies, Volcanic Hummocks Facies, Central Facies, Sedimentary Hummocks Facies, Mixed Facies and Pyroclastic Breccia Hummocks Facies. Taking into account the facies distribution and their characteristics, we infer the pre-collapse structure of the volcano.

  13. Neogene volcanism in Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Kovacs

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of volcanism developed in Gutâi Mts. (inner volcanic chain of Eastern Carpathians: a felsic, extensional/“back-arc” type and an intermediate, arc type. The felsic volcanism of explosive origin, consisting of caldera-related rhyolitic ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics, had taken place during Early-Middle Badenian and Early Sarmatian. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The geochemical study on the volcanic rocks shows the calc-alkaline character of both felsic and intermediate volcanism and typical subduction zones geochemical signatures for the intermediate one. The felsic volcanism shows affinities with subduction-related rocks as well. The main petrogenetic process in Gutâi Mts. was crustal assimilation, strongly constrained by trace element and isotope geochemistry.

  14. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  15. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  16. Park Volcanics, Murihiku Terrane, New Zealand : petrology, petrochemistry, and tectonic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, D.S.; Cook, N.D.J.; Kawachi, Y.; Johnstone, R.D.; Gibson, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    established forearc basins whereas they are characteristic of back-arc sites. At the time of emplacement of the Park Volcanics, the southern Murihiku sedimentary basin is therefore unlikely to have occupied a forearc setting. The volcanic arc that provided detritus and ash deposits to the basin at that time was probably sited on a strip of largely Proterozoic continental crust detached from the Gondwana mainland by a marginal sea with a subduction zone dipping away from that marginal sea under the volcanic arc, with the Murihiku sedimentary basin towards the rear on the proto-Pacific side. Drumduan Group, with a low-temperature, high-pressure metamorphic overprint, and other largely volcaniclastic terrane fragments in the Median Tectonic Zone of southern New Zealand, may be arc-front remnants of the same arc system. (author). 59 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Geochronology of the Sleeper deposit, Humboldt County, Nevada: epithermal gold-silver mineralization following emplacement of a silicic flow-dome complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Nash, J.T.; Utterback, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The high-grade gold-silver deposits at the Sleeper mine are low sulfidation, quartz-adularia-type epithermal deposits, formed during the final stages of igneous hydrothermal activity of a small middle Miocene silicic flow-dome complex in north-central Nevada. There were multiple pulses of alteration and mineralization but all occurred within a period of less than 2 m.y. Later supergene alteration formed opal and alunite about 5.4 Ma but produced no Au or Ag mineralization other than some remobilization to produce locally rich pockets of secondary Au and Ag enrichment and is unrelated to the older magmatic hydrothermal system. The Sleeper deposit in the northern part of the Great Basin is genetically related to bimodal volcanism that followed a long period of arc-related andesitic volcanism in the same general region. -from Authors

  18. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. L.; Xiao, Q. F.; Mei, D. D.; Zhong, Z. C.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.; Li, L.

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous SiO2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the "coral reef" like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 μm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO2 and a few amorphous Fe2O3 and Nd2O3. The amorphous SiO2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees.

  19. Investigation of the structural, surface, optical and electrical properties of the Indium doped CuxO thin films deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoğlu, Caner; Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, investigation of some physical properties of In-doped CuxO thin films onto amorphous glass substrates were done. The thin films were depsoied by thermionic vacuum arc technique (TVA). TVA technique gives a thin film with lower precursor impurity according to the other chemical and physical depsoition methods. The microstructural properties of the produced thin films was determined by x-ray diffraction device (XRD). The thickness values were measured as to be 30 nm and 60 nm, respectively. The miller indices of the thin films’ crystalline planes were determined as to be Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuInO2 (107) and Cu2O (200), Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuO (\\bar{2} 02), CuInO2 (015) for sample C1 and C2, respectively. The produced In-doped CuO thin films are in polycrystalline structure. The surface properties of produced In doped CuO thin films were determined by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) tools. The optical properties of the In doped CuO thin films were determined by UV–vis spectrophotometer, interferometer, and photoluminescence devices. p-type semiconductor thin film was obtained by TVA depsoition.

  20. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  1. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  2. Origin of the volcanic-hosted Yamansu Fe deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from pyrite Re-Os isotopes, stable isotopes, and in situ magnetite trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Beaudoin, Georges; Gao, Jian-Feng; Qi, Liang; Lyu, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The Yamansu Fe deposit (32 Mt at 51% Fe) in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt of NW China is hosted in early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks and spatially associated with skarn. The paragenetic sequence includes garnet-diopside (I), magnetite (II), hydrous silicate-sulfide (III), and calcite-quartz (IV) stages. Pyrite associated with magnetite has a Re-Os isochron age of 322 ± 7 Ma, which represents the timing of pyrite and, by inference, magnetite mineralization. Pyrite has δ 34SVCDT values of - 2.2 to + 2.9‰, yielding δ 34SH2S values of - 3.1 to 2‰, indicating the derivation of sulfur from a magmatic source. Calcite from stages II and IV has δ 13CVPDB values from - 2.5 to - 1.2‰, and - 1.1 to 1.1‰, and δ 18OVSMOW values from 11.8 to 12.0‰ and - 7.7 to - 5.2‰, respectively. Calculated δ 13C values of fluid CO2 and water δ 18O values indicate that stage II hydrothermal fluids were derived from magmatic rocks and that meteoric water mixed with the hydrothermal fluids in stage IV. Some ores contain magnetite with obvious chemical zoning composed of dark and light domains in BSE images. Dark domains have higher Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, and Ti but lower Fe and Cr contents than light domains. The chemical zoning resulted from a fluctuating fluid composition and/or physicochemical conditions (oscillatory zoning), or dissolution-precipitation (irregular zoning) via infiltration of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids diluted by late meteoric water. Iron was mainly derived from fluids similar to that in skarn deposits.

  3. Investigations Of A Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, T. W. H.; Pigott, J.; Denniss, P.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2003-06-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs are well established as a method for producing thin films for coatings and as a source of metal ions. Research into DC vacuum arcs has been going on for over ten years in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Recently a project was undertaken in the school to design and build a pulsed CVA for use in the investigation of plasma sheaths and plasma immersion ion implantation. Pulsed cathodic vacuum arcs generally have a higher current and plasma density and also provide a more stable and reproducible plasma density than their DC counterparts. Additionally it has been shown that if a high repetition frequency can be established the deposition rate of pulsed arcs is equal to or greater than that of DC arcs with a concomitant reduction in the rate of macro-particle formation. We present here results of our investigations into the building of a center-triggered pulsed cathodic vacuum arc. The design of the power supply and trigger mechanism and the geometry of the anode and cathode are examined. Observations of type I and II arc spots using a CCD camera, and cathode spot velocity dependence on arc current will be presented. The role of retrograde motion in a high current pulsed arc is discussed.

  4. Investigations Of A Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Pigott, J.; Denniss, P.; Mckenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs are well established as a method for producing thin films for coatings and as a source of metal ions. Research into DC vacuum arcs has been going on for over ten years in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Recently a project was undertaken in the school to design and build a pulsed CVA for use in the investigation of plasma sheaths and plasma immersion ion implantation. Pulsed cathodic vacuum arcs generally have a higher current and plasma density and also provide a more stable and reproducible plasma density than their DC counterparts. Additionally it has been shown that if a high repetition frequency can be established the deposition rate of pulsed arcs is equal to or greater than that of DC arcs with a concomitant reduction in the rate of macro-particle formation. We present here results of our investigations into the building of a center-triggered pulsed cathodic vacuum arc. The design of the power supply and trigger mechanism and the geometry of the anode and cathode are examined. Observations of type I and II arc spots using a CCD camera, and cathode spot velocity dependence on arc current will be presented. The role of retrograde motion in a high current pulsed arc is discussed

  5. Magmatically Greedy Reararc Volcanoes of the N. Tofua Segment of the Tonga Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Arculus, R. J.; Lupton, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanism along the northernmost Tofua Arc is enigmatic because edifices of the arc's volcanic front are mostly, magmatically relatively anemic, despite the very high convergence rate of the Pacific Plate with this section of Tonga Arc. However, just westward of the arc front, in terrain generally thought of as part of the adjacent NE Lau Backarc Basin, lie a series of very active volcanoes and volcanic features, including the large submarine caldera Niuatahi (aka volcano 'O'), a large composite dacite lava flow terrain not obviously associated with any particular volcanic edifice, and the Mata volcano group, a series of 9 small elongate volcanoes in an extensional basin at the extreme NE corner of the Lau Basin. These three volcanic terrains do not sit on arc-perpendicular cross chains. Collectively, these volcanic features appear to be receiving a large proportion of the magma flux from the sub-Tonga/Lau mantle wedge, in effect 'stealing' this magma flux from the arc front. A second occurrence of such magma 'capture' from the arc front occurs in an area just to the south, on southernmost portion of the Fonualei Spreading Center. Erupted compositions at these 'magmatically greedy' volcanoes are consistent with high slab-derived fluid input into the wedge (particularly trace element abundances and volatile contents, e.g., see Lupton abstract this session). It is unclear how long-lived a feature this is, but the very presence of such hyperactive and areally-dispersed volcanism behind the arc front implies these volcanoes are not in fact part of any focused spreading/rifting in the Lau Backarc Basin, and should be thought of as 'reararc volcanoes'. Possible tectonic factors contributing to this unusually productive reararc environment are the high rate of convergence, the cold slab, the highly disorganized extension in the adjacent backarc, and the tear in the subducting plate just north of the Tofua Arc.

  6. Cavity-based secondary mineralization in volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: a new type of the polymineral vadose speleothem, or a hydrothermal deposit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dublyansky Yuri V.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary minerals (calcite, chalcedony, quartz, opal, fluorite, heulandite, strontianite residing in open cavities in the Miocenerhyolite tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada have been interpreted by some researchers as "speleothemic" formations, deposited as aresult of downward infiltration of meteoric waters (DOE, 2001, Whelan et al., 2002. The major mineral of the paragenesis, calcite,shows spectacular trend of the textural and crystal morphology change: from anhedral granular occurrences, through (optionalplatelet, bladed and scepter varieties, to euhedral blocky morphologies. The trend is consistent with the overall decrease in thesupesaturation of the mineral forming solution. Stable isotope properties of calcite evolve from 13C-enriched (δ13C = +4 to +9 ‰ PDBat early stages of growth to 13C-depleted (-5 to -10 ‰ at late stages. The non-cyclic character of the isotope record and extremevariations of isotopic values argue against the meteoric origin of mineral forming fluids. The δ13C >4 ‰ PDB require isotope partitioningbetween dissolved CO2 and CH4, which is only possible in reducing anoxic environment, but not in aerated vadose zone.Fluid inclusions studied in calcite, quartz and fluorite revealed that the minerals were deposited from thermal solutions. Thetemperatures were higher at early stages of mineral growth (60 to 85oC and declined with time. Most late-stage calcites containonly all-liquid inclusions, suggesting temperatures less than ca. 35-50oC. Minerals collected close to the major fault show the highesttemperatures. Gases trapped in fluid inclusions are dominated by CO2 and CH4; Raman spectrometry results suggest the presenceof aromatic/cyclic hydrocarbon gases. The gas chemistry, thus, also indicates reduced (anoxic character of the mineral formingfluids.Secondary minerals at Yucca Mountain have likely formed during the short-term invasion(s of the deep-seated aqueous fluidsinto the vadose zone. Following the invasion

  7. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from the magmatism of the Yuhai porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Chen, Huayong; Han, Jinsheng; Chen, Shoubo; Huang, Baoqiang; Li, Chen; Tian, Qinglei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianxin; Chen, Mingxia

    2018-03-01

    The Yuhai intrusions (quartz diorite, granite and pyroxene diorite) are located in the eastern part of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt of the Eastern Tianshan, and associated with the early Paleozoic porphyry Cu mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yielded emplacement ages of 443.5 ± 4.1 Ma for the quartz diorite, 325.4 ± 2.5 Ma for the granite, and 291 ± 3.0 Ma for the pyroxene diorite. These rocks are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline and metaluminous, with A/CNK values ranging from 0.66 to 1.10. The Silurian ore-bearing Yuhai quartz diorite is rich in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., K, Ba, Pb and Sr), and depleted in HREEs and HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta and Ti). These rocks are MgO-rich (1.90-3.80 wt.%; Mg# = 37-72), with high Sr/Y, La/Yb and Ba/Th ratios, positive εNd(t) (6.31-6.84) and εHf(t) (13.26-16.40), low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037-0.7039), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. The data suggest that the quartz diorite was generated by the partial melting of subducted juvenile oceanic slab. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) of the quartz diorite, calculated by zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, is higher than that of the granite and pyroxene diorite, implying that the quartz diorite was more favorable to porphyry Cu mineralization. The Carboniferous Yuhai granite reveals similar geochemical features with the quartz diorite, except for the lower Mg# (27-33), and the more elevated Th/U and Th/La ratios. Furthermore, these rocks also show high εNd(t) (5.2-5.8) and εHf(t) (11.03-14.85) values, and low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7036-0.7037). These features indicate that the parental magma of the granite was probably derived from a juvenile lower crust with no significant mantle component involvement. Different from the Yuhai quartz diorite and granite, the early Permian Yuhai pyroxene diorite contains low SiO2 (50.76-55.74 wt.%) and high MgO (3.96-4.33 wt.%; Mg# = 40-44). The εNd(t), εHf(t) and (87Sr/86Sr)i values of the pyroxene diorite are 5.77-6.42, 7.99-12.10 and 0.7035-0.7040, respectively. The

  8. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  9. Lunar cryptomaria: Physical characteristics, distribution, and implications for ancient volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Cryptomaria, lunar volcanic deposits obscured by crater and basin impact ejecta, can provide important information about the thermal and volcanic history of the Moon. The timing of cryptomare deposition has implications for the duration and flux of mare basalt volcanism. In addition, knowing the distribution of cryptomaria can provide information about mantle convection and lunar magma ocean solidification. Here we use multiple datasets (e.g., M3, LOLA, LROC, Diviner) to undertake a global analysis to identify the general characteristics (e.g., topography, surface roughness, rock abundance, albedo, etc.) of lunar light plains in order to better distinguish between ancient volcanic deposits (cryptomaria) and impact basin and crater ejecta deposits. We find 20 discrete regions of cryptomaria, covering approximately 2% of the Moon, which increase the total area covered by mare volcanism to 18% of the lunar surface. Comparisons of light plains deposits indicate that the two deposit types (volcanic and impact-produced) are best